WorldWideScience

Sample records for based laser spectroscopy

  1. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  2. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  3. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  4. Laser Spectroscopy Based Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The timing was right in the “evolution” of low power tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) to design a spacecraft cabin air monitor around technology being developed at a small company funded by SBIR grants. NASA Centers had been monitoring their progress hoping that certain key gaps in the long term gas monitoring development roadmap could be filled by TDLS. The first iteration of a monitor for multiple gases called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM) which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, as well as temperature and pressure. In January 2013, the ISS Program being particularly interested in ammonia funded a technology demonstration of MGM. The project was a joint effort between Vista Photonics for the sensor, NASA-JSC for project management and laboratory calibration, and Nanoracks for the enclosure and payload certification/integration. Nanoracks was selected in order to use their new experimental infrastructure located in an EXPRESS rack in the JEM. The MGM enclosure has multiple power supply options including 5VDC USB interface to the Nanoracks Frame, 28VDC Express Rack power and internal rechargeable batteries. MGM was calibrated at NASA-JSC in July 2013, delivered to ISS on 37 Soyuz in November 2013 and was installed and activated in February 2014. MGM resided in the Nanoracks Frame making continuous measurements the majority of the time, but also spent a day in Node 3 on battery power, and a month in the US Lab Module on 28VDC power, as part of the demonstration. Data was downloaded via Nanoracks on roughly a weekly basis. Comparisons were made with data from the Major Constituents Analyzer (MCA) which draws and analyzes air from JEM and other modules several times per hour. A crewmember challenged the carbon dioxide channel by breathing into the intake upon startup, and challenged the ammonia channel later using a commercial ammonia inhalant. Many interesting phenomena in the cabin atmosphere were detected during the tech demo

  5. Laser induced incandescence and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseller, Kemal Efe

    In this doctoral dissertation, two laser-based sensors were evaluated for different applications. Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) is a technique which can provide non-intrusive quantitative measurement of soot and it provides a unique diagnostic tool to characterize engine performance. Since LII is linearly proportional to the soot volume fraction, it can provide in situ, real time measurement of soot volume fraction with high temporal and spatial resolution. LII has the capability to characterize soot formation during combustion. The soot volume fraction from both flames and a soot generator was investigated with LII. The effects of experimental parameters, such as laser fluence, gate delay, gate width and various laser beam focusing, on LII signal was studied. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), a diagnostic tool for in situ elemental analysis, has been evaluated for on-line, simultaneous, multi-species impurity monitoring in hydrogen. LIBS spectra with different impurity levels of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen were recorded and the intensity of the spectral lines of Ar, O, N, and H observed were used to form calibration plots for impurities in hydrogen measurements. An ungated detection method for LIBS has been developed and applied to equivalence ratio measurements of CH4/air and biofuel/air. LIBS has also been used to quantitatively analyze the composition of a slurry sample. The quenching effect of water in slurry samples causes low LIBS signal quality with poor sensitivity. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on LIBS spectra of dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection of heavy metal in water based on graphite conch method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhao, Nanjing; Shi, Huan; Liu, Lituo; Ma, Mingjun; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yujun; Liu, Wenqing

    2012-10-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emission characteristics of trace heavy metal lead in water is studied based on graphite conch method, with a 1064nm wavelength Nd: YAG laser as excitation source, the echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector are used for spectral separation and high sensitive detection with high resolution and wide spectral range. The delay time 900ns and gate time 1600ns are determined in the experiment. The calibration curve of Pb is plotted based on the different concentration measurement results, and a limit of detection of 0.0138mg / L is obtained for Pb in water. Graphite conch method effectively overcomes the current problems on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection of heavy metal in water. The detection limits and stability are improved. The reference data is provided for further study on the fast measurement of trace heavy metals in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique.

  7. Vacuum space charge effect in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, J; Hellmann, S; Jozwiak, C.; Smallwood, C. L.; Hussain, Z.; Kaindl, R. A.; Kipp, L.; Rossnagel, K.; Lanzara, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a systematic measurement of the space charge effect observed in the few-ps laser pulse regime in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The broadening and the shift of a gold Fermi edge as a function of spot size, laser power, and emission angle are characterized for pulse lengths of 6 ps and 6 eV photon energy. The results are used as a benchmark for an $N$-body numerical simulation and are compared to different regimes used in photoemission spectroscopy. T...

  8. Vacuum space charge effect in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    We report a systematic measurement of the space charge effect observed in the few-ps laser pulse regime in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The broadening and the shift of a gold Fermi edge as a function of spot size, laser power, and emission angle are characterized for pulse lengths of 6 ps and 6 eV photon energy. The results are used as a benchmark for an N-body numerical simulation and are compared to different regimes used in photoemission spectroscopy. The...

  9. Radiocarbon Dioxide detection based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and a Quantum Cascade Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Genoud, Guillaume; Vainio, Markku; Phillips, Hilary; Dean, Julian; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radiocarbon ($^{14}$C) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardised sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio $^{14}$C/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5 k...

  10. Self-normalizing phase measurement in multimode terahertz spectroscopy based on photomixing of three lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Thirunavukkuarasu, K; Roggenbuck, A; Vidal, E; Schmitz, H; Hemberger, J; Grüninger, M

    2014-01-01

    Photomixing of two near-infrared lasers is well established for continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy. Photomixing of three lasers allows us to measure at three terahertz frequencies simultaneously. Similar to Fourier spectroscopy, the spectral information is contained in an nterferogram, which is equivalent to the waveform in time-domain spectroscopy. We use one fixed terahertz frequency \

  11. Fiber based infrared lasers and their applications in medicine, spectroscopy and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Vinay Varkey

    In my thesis, I have demonstrated the development of fiber based infrared lasers and devices for applications in medicine, spectroscopy and metrology. One of the key accomplishments presented in this thesis for medical applications is the demonstration of a focused infrared laser to perform renal denervation both in vivo and in vitro. Hypertension is a significant health hazard in the US and throughout the world, and the laser based renal denervation procedure may be a potential treatment for resistant hypertension. Compared to current treatment modalities, lasers may be able to perform treatments with lesser collateral tissue damage and quicker treatment times helping to reduce patient discomfort and pain. An additional medical application demonstrated in this thesis is the use of infrared fiber lasers to damage sebaceous glands in human skin as a potential treatment for acne. Another significant work presented in this thesis is a field trial performed at the Wright Patterson Air Force Base using a Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Supercontinuum (SC) laser as an active illumination source for long distance reflectance measurements. In this case, an SC laser developed as part of this thesis is kept on a 12 story tower and propagated through the atmosphere to a target kept 1.6 km away and used to perform spectroscopy measurements. In the future this technology may permit 24/7 surveillance based on looking for the spectral signatures of materials. Beyond applications in defense, this technology may have far reaching commercial applications as well, including areas such as oil and natural resources exploration. Beyond these major contributions to the state-of-the-art, this thesis also describes other significant studies such as power scalability of SWIR SC sources and non-invasive measurement of surface roughness.

  12. An approach of open-path gas sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xia; Wenqing Liu; Yujun Zhang; Ruifeng Kan; Min Wang; Ying He; Yiben Cui; Jun Ruan; Hui Geng

    2008-01-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a new method to detect trace-gas qualitatively or quantificationally based on the scan characteristic of the diode laser to obtain the absorption spectroscopy in the characteristic absorption region. A time-sharing scanning open-path TDLAS system using two near infrared distributed feedback (DFB) tunable diode lasers is designed to detect CH4 and H2S in leakage of natural gas. A low-cost Fresnel lens is used in this system as receiving optics which receives the laser beam reflected by a solid corner cube reflector with a distance of up to about 60 m. High sensitivity is achieved by means of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection. The minimum detection limits of 1.1 ppm·m for CH4 and 15 ppm·m for H2S are demonstrated with a total optical path of 120 m. The simulation monitoring experiment of nature gas leakage was carried out with this system. According to the receiving light efficiency of optical system and detectable minimum light intensity of detection, the detectable optical path of the system can achieve 1 - 2 km. The sensor is suitable for natural gas leakage monitoring application.

  13. A trap-based pulsed positron beam optimised for positronium laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B. S., E-mail: ben.cooper.13@ucl.ac.uk; Alonso, A. M.; Deller, A.; Wall, T. E.; Cassidy, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    We describe a pulsed positron beam that is optimised for positronium (Ps) laser-spectroscopy experiments. The system is based on a two-stage Surko-type buffer gas trap that produces 4 ns wide pulses containing up to 5 × 10{sup 5} positrons at a rate of 0.5-10 Hz. By implanting positrons from the trap into a suitable target material, a dilute positronium gas with an initial density of the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup −3} is created in vacuum. This is then probed with pulsed (ns) laser systems, where various Ps-laser interactions have been observed via changes in Ps annihilation rates using a fast gamma ray detector. We demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus and detection methodology via the observation of Rydberg positronium atoms with principal quantum numbers ranging from 11 to 22 and the Stark broadening of the n = 2 → 11 transition in electric fields.

  14. Sensitive CH4 detection applying quantum cascade laser based optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, N; Macherius, U; Wiese, M; Zimmermann, H; Röpcke, J; van Helden, J H

    2016-03-21

    We report on sensitive detection of atmospheric methane employing quantum cascade laser based optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). An instrument has been built utilizing a continuous-wave distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) with a V-shaped cavity, a common arrangement that reduces feedback to the laser from non-resonant reflections. The spectrometer has a noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2 for a spectral scan of CH4 at 7.39 μm. From an Allan-Werle analysis a detection limit of 39 parts per trillion of CH4 at atmospheric pressure within 50 s acquisition time was found. PMID:27136874

  15. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  16. Femtosecond laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Peter

    2005-01-01

    As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. The field has recently exploded with the announcement of a series of remarkable new developments and advances. This volume surveys this recent growth in eleven chapters written by leading international researchers in the field. It includes sections on femtosecond optical frequency combs, soft x-ray femtosecond laser sources, and attosecond laser sources. In addition, the contributors address real-time spectroscopy of molecular vibrations with sub-5-fs pulses and multidimensional femtosecond coherent spectroscopies for studying molecular and electron dynamics. Novel methods for measuring and characterizing ultrashort laser pulses and ultrashort pulses of light are also described. The topics covered are revolutionizing the field...

  17. Standoff Time-Resolved Laser-Based Spectroscopy Tools for Sample Characterization and Biosignature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Misra, A. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Mars2020 rover will be searching for signs of past habitability and past life on Mars. Additionally, the rover mission will prepare a cache of highly significant samples for a future sample return mission. NASA requires these samples to be well characterized; the instruments on the rover must be capable of fine-scale in situ mineralogical or elemental analysis with emphasis on biosignature detection or characterization. We have been developing multiple standoff laser-based instruments at the University of Hawaii, Manoa that are capable of fine-scale in situ chemical analysis and biosignatures detection. By employing a time-resolved spectroscopy, we can perform elemental analysis with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), mineral and organic analysis with Raman spectroscopy, and biosignature detection with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Each of these techniques share the same optics and detection equipment, allowing us to integrate them into a single, compact instrument. High time-resolution (~100 ns/pulse) is the key to this instrument; with it, the detector only records data when the signal is the brightest. Spectra can be taken during the day, LIBS can be measured without a plasma light background, and the Raman signal can be separated from the mineral fluorescence signal. Since bio-organics have very short fluorescence lifetimes, the new instrument can be used to unambiguously detect bio-organics. The prototype uses a low power (0.5 mJ/pulse) 532 nm laser with a detection limit of drill holes, or outcrops, and then allow the slower but more precise instruments on the rover to characterize the regions of interest. Either of these prototypes would be ideally suited for future NASA missions, including human exploration missions. The next iterations of the instruments will be designed specifically for future astronaut explorers.

  18. Diagnostics of pigmented skin tumors based on laser-induced autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation of cutaneous benign and malignant pigmented lesions by laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are presented. The autofluorescence of human skin was excited by a 337-nm nitrogen laser. A broadband halogen lamp (400-900 nm) was used for diffuse reflectance measurements. A microspectrometer detected in vivo the fluorescence and reflectance signals from human skin. The main spectral features of benign (dermal nevi, compound nevi, dysplastic nevi) and malignant (melanoma) lesions are discussed. The combined usage of the fluorescence and reflectance spectral methods to determine the type of the lesion, which increases the total diagnostic accuracy, is compared with the usage of LIAFS or DRS only. We also applied colorimetric transformation of the reflectance spectra detected and received additional evaluation criteria for determination of type of the lesion under study. Spectra from healthy skin areas near the lesion were detected and changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra were revealed. The influence of the main skin pigments on the detected spectra is discussed and evaluation of possibilities for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions is performed based on their spectral properties. This research shows that the non-invasive and high-sensitive in vivo detection by means of appropriate light sources and detectors should be possible, related to the real-time determination of existing pathological conditions. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  19. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 μm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppm m, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  20. Laser ionization mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardez, Luis J., III; Siekhaus, W. J.

    1989-10-01

    Laser Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (LIMS) is a simple technique with several advantages and disadvantages over standard mass spectroscopy techniques. The LIMS technique uses a laser to vaporize a small portion of a sample. The vapor from the sample consists of a mixture of charged and neutral atoms or fragments. Using electrostatic grids, the ions (positive or negative) are given a known amount of kinetic energy and sent down a time-of-flight tube. The time it takes the ions to travel down the flight tube is recorded. Knowing the ions' energy, the length of the flight tube, and the time it takes the ions to travel that distance, the masses of the ions can be calculated. The instrument used is a LIMA 3 made by Cambridge Mass Spectrometry. It has a Quanta Ray DCR-11 Nd:YAG laser, which was frequency-quadrupled to 266 nm. The laser spot size is typically between 2 and 5 microns in diameter and the pulse width is between 5 and 10 nanoseconds. The energy of the laser is continually variable between 0.1 and 3.0 millijoules. The detector is a 17-stage venetian-blind multiplier made by Thorn EMI. The analysis is carried out under vacuum, usually between 10(exp -8) and 10(exp -9) Torr. The LIMA 3 has several useful features such as: a He-Ne pilot laser used to target the Nd:YAG laser; a microscope (which is used to view the sample through the laser optics); and a precision sample stage for accurate sample alignment.

  1. Continuous wave terahertz wave spectrometer based on diode laser pumping: potential applications in high resolution spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Tadao; Ragam, Srinivasa; Oyama, Yutaka

    2009-11-01

    We constructed a high resolution terahertz (THz) spectroscopic system with an automatic scanning control using a continuous wave (cw) THz wave generator based on difference frequency generation method by excitation of phonon-polariton mode in GaP. The pump and signals lasers were compact, tunable external cavity laser, and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, respectively. The generated THz waves were tuned automatically by changing the temperature of the DFB laser using a system control. We present the water vapor transmission characteristics of the THz wave and also absorption spectrum of a white polyethylene in the frequency range of 1.97-2.45 THz. The spectroscopic measurements performed at an output power level of 2 nW, which was obtained with a 15-mm-long GaP crystal at 2 THz. The advantage of this cw THz spectrometer is wide frequency tuning range (0.7-4.42 THz) with an estimated linewidth of full width at quarter maximum <8 MHz and this system has a potential application in high resolution spectroscopy. PMID:19947715

  2. Fiber-distributed multi-channel open-path H2S sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Chen; Wenqing Liu; Yujun Zhang; Jianguo Liu; Ruifeng Kan; Min Wang; Xi Fang; Yiben Cui

    2007-01-01

    Tunable diode laser based gas detectors are now being used in a wide variety of applications for safety and environmental interest. A fiber-distributed multi-channel open-path H2S sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is developed, the laser used is a telecommunication near infrared distributed feed-back (DFB) tunable diode laser, combining with wavelength modulation specby combining optical fiber technique. An on-board reference cell provides on-line sensor calibration and almost maintenance-free operation. The sensor is suitable for large area field H2S monitoring application.

  3. Laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Nak Bae; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon; Kim, Gi Dong; Choi, Han Woo; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Shim, Sang Kwun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    When the pulsed laser is focused onto a small spot of a solid surface, an optically induced plasma is formed at this surface. This plasma will be formed when the laser power density exceeds the breakdown threshold value of the solid surface. The interaction of high power laser light with a target or solid materials have been an active topic not only in plasma physics but also in the field of analytical chemistry. Recently, LIPS(laser induced plasma spectroscopy) has been applied many kinds of sample analysis including solid, liquid and gas analysis. LIPS has a advantage of the minimal sample preparation required for a solid sample and ability to analyze conducting as well as nonconducting materials, multi-elemental analysis. But this method has a poorer sensitivity than several competing atomic spectroscopic methods and semiquantitative analysis. Numerous factors affect the ablation process, including the laser pulse properties, such as pulse width, spatial and temporal fluctuations of the pulse and laser power fluctuations. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the sample also influence the ablation process. We studied LIPS with Nd:YAG second harmonic 532 nm and the induced plasma temperature was studied by observing the emission intensity of Fe(I) line and the plasma temperature of the different kind of samples were calculated using Boltzmann plotting method under same laser condition. Using the above experimental results, LIPS has been applied for the analysis of the elemental distribution mapping of the polished rock section. For the elemental mapping analysis, XY stage controlled by step motor and PC were used and 5 x 5 mm element image was obtained. For the quantitative analysis, rock standard samples were analyzed and Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Si and Sr calibration curve were obtained. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  4. Dual-Comb Spectroscopy based on Mid-IR Quantum-Cascade-Lasers Frequency-combs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Optical frequency combs act as rulers in the frequency domain and have revolutionised many fields such as high-resolution spectroscopy. To wide their applications, realizing a compact mid-IR spectrometer using frequency combs is of paramount importance, as the fundamental roto-vibrational bands of most light molecules lie on this spectral region. We have recently demonstrated a mid-IR, all-solid-state frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser. Here a compact dual-comb spectrometer is realised. The dual-comb spectrometer covers 60 cm-1 with individual tooth linewidth of 150 kHz by using mid-IR QCL based frequency combs centered at 1430. (author)

  5. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  6. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  7. A versatile interaction chamber for laser-based spectroscopic applications, with the emphasis on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical note describes the interaction chamber developed particularly for the laser spectroscopy technique applications, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Raman Spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Fluorescence. The chamber was designed in order to provide advanced possibilities for the research in mentioned fields and to facilitate routine research procedures. Parameters and the main benefits of the chamber are described, such as the built-in module for automatic 2D chemical mapping and the possibility to set different ambient gas conditions (pressure value and gas type). Together with the chamber description, selected LIBS application examples benefiting from chamber properties are described. - Highlights: • Development of the interaction chamber for LIBS applications • Example of automated chemical mapping of lead in a chalcopyrite sample • Example of LIBS measurement of fluorine in underpressure • Overview of chamber benefits

  8. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh; Thibault Desbois; Daniele Romanini; Detlef Schiel; Olav Werhahn

    2011-01-01

    We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM) method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS), and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are ...

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based detection of lunar soil simulants for moon exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shu; Hongxing Qi; Gang Lü; Demin Ma; Zhiping He; Yongqi Xue

    2007-01-01

    A scientific goal of the moon exploration project is to perform elemental analysis on the moon surface.The assuming of using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for this goal has been put forward.The laser plasma used by LIBS is sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere and the moon has very low ambient gas pressure on the surface, so the study of the LIBS capabilities at the low pressure was carried out.

  10. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  11. Radiocarbon dioxide detection based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, G; Vainio, M; Phillips, H; Dean, J; Merimaa, M

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of radiocarbon (C14) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardized sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio C14/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5  kBq/m(3) in pure CO(2), or 2  Bq/m(3) in air after extraction of the CO(2) from an air sample. The instrument is simple, compact, and robust, making it the ideal tool for on-site measurements. It is aimed for monitoring radioactive gaseous emissions in a nuclear power environment, during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Its high sensitivity also makes it the ideal tool for the detection of leaks in radioactive waste repositories. PMID:25831328

  12. Radiocarbon Dioxide detection based on Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and a Quantum Cascade Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Genoud, Guillaume; Phillips, Hilary; Dean, Julian; Merimaa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radiocarbon ($^{14}$C) in carbon dioxide is demonstrated using mid-infrared spectroscopy and a quantum cascade laser. The measurement is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and a high sensitivity is achieved with a simple setup. The instrument was tested using a standardised sample containing elevated levels of radiocarbon. Radiocarbon dioxide could be detected from samples with an isotopic ratio $^{14}$C/C as low as 50 parts-per-trillion, corresponding to an activity of 5 kBq/m$^3$ in pure CO$_2$, or 2 Bq/m$^3$ in air after extraction of the CO$_2$ from an air sample. The instrument is simple, compact and robust, making it the ideal tool for on-site measurements. It is aimed for monitoring of radioactive gaseous emissions in nuclear power environment, during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Its high sensitivity also makes it the ideal tool for the detection of leaks in radioactive waste repositories.

  13. Molecular recognition using receptor-free nanomechanical infrared spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu; Liu, Xunchen; Van Neste, Charles; Jeon, Sangmin; Thundat, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Speciation of complex mixtures of trace explosives presents a formidable challenge for sensors that rely on chemoselective interfaces due to the unspecific nature of weak intermolecular interactions. Nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides higher selectivity in molecular detection without using chemoselective interfaces by measuring the photothermal effect of adsorbed molecules on a thermally sensitive microcantilever. In addition, unlike conventional IR spectroscopy, the detection sensitivity is drastically enhanced by increasing the IR laser power, since the photothermal signal comes from the absorption of IR photons and nonradiative decay processes. By using a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser for the resonant excitation of molecules, we increased the detection sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to the use of a conventional IR monochromator. Here, we demonstrate the successful speciation and quantification of picogram levels of ternary mixtures of similar explosives (trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)) using nanomechanical IR spectroscopy. PMID:23346368

  14. Molecular recognition using receptor-free nanomechanical infrared spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu; Liu, Xunchen; Van Neste, Charles; Jeon, Sangmin; Thundat, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Speciation of complex mixtures of trace explosives presents a formidable challenge for sensors that rely on chemoselective interfaces due to the unspecific nature of weak intermolecular interactions. Nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides higher selectivity in molecular detection without using chemoselective interfaces by measuring the photothermal effect of adsorbed molecules on a thermally sensitive microcantilever. In addition, unlike conventional IR spectroscopy, the detection sensitivity is drastically enhanced by increasing the IR laser power, since the photothermal signal comes from the absorption of IR photons and nonradiative decay processes. By using a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser for the resonant excitation of molecules, we increased the detection sensitivity by one order of magnitude compared to the use of a conventional IR monochromator. Here, we demonstrate the successful speciation and quantification of picogram levels of ternary mixtures of similar explosives (trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)) using nanomechanical IR spectroscopy. PMID:23346368

  15. Quantitative analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on generalized curves of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. The method (Cσ-LIBS) is based on Cσ graphs, generalized curves of growth which allow including several lines of various elements at different concentrations. A so-called homogeneous double (HD) model of the laser-induced plasma is used, defined by an integration over a single-region of the radiative transfer equation, combined with a separated treatment for neutral atoms (z = 0) and singly-charged ions (z = 1) in Cσ graphs and characteristic parameters. The procedure includes a criterion, based on a model limit, for eliminating data which, due to a high line intensity or concentration, are not well described by the HD model. An initial procedure provides a set of parameters (βA)z, (ηNl)z, Tz and Nez (z = 0, 1) which characterize the plasma and the LIBS system. After characterization, two different analytical procedures, resulting in relative and absolute concentrations, may be applied. To test the method, fused glass samples prepared from certified slags and pure compounds are analyzed. We determine concentrations of Ca, Mn, Mg, V, Ti, Si and Al relative to Fe in three samples prepared from slags, and absolute concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mn in three samples prepared from Fe2O3, CaCO3 and Mn2O3. The accuracy obtained is 3.2% on the average for relative concentrations and 9.2% for absolute concentrations. - Highlights: • Method for quantitative analysis by LIBS, based on Csigma graphs • Conventional calibration is replaced with characterization of the LIBS system. • All elements are determined from measurement of one or two Csigma graphs. • The method is tested with fused glass disks prepared from slags and pure compounds. • Accurate results for relative (3.2%) and absolute concentrations (9.2%)

  16. Frequency-Comb based laser spectroscopy of Halo Nuclei: The nuclear charge radius of 11Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear charge radii of halo isotopes provide a direct proof of the halo structure of neutron rich isotopes. If they are compared to the matter radii from nuclear reactions, a geometrical picture of the two- and three body structures can be extracted. We have determined the nuclear charge radii of 7,9,10,11Be by high-precision laser spectroscopy [1,2] and combination with accurate calculations of the mass-dependent isotope shifts [3,4]. The on-line measurements were performed with collinear laser spectroscopy in the 2s1/2 → 2p1/2 transition on a beam of Be+ ions. Collinear and anti collinear laser beams were used simultaneously and absolute frequency determination was applied using a frequency comb. This yielded an accuracy in the isotope-shift measurements of about 1 MHz. The charge radius of the beryllium was found to decrease from 7Be to 10Be and then increases for the halo nucleus 11Be. We compare our results with predictions of ah initio nuclear structure calculations and the conclusions about the geometric size of the halo will be discussed.(author)

  17. Experiments of glucose solution measurement based on the tunable pulsed laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Zhihua; Huang, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is a hybrid, well-established and promising detection technique that has widely applied into a lot of fields such as bio-medical, material and environment monitoring etc. PAS has high contrast and resolution because of combining the advantages of the pure-optical and the pure-acoustic. In this paper, a photoacoustic experiment of glucose solution induced by 532nm pumped Nd:YAG tunable pulsed laser with repetition rate of 20Hz and pulse width of 10ns is performed. The time-resolved photoacoustic signals of glucose solution induced by pulsed laser in the average time of 512 are obtained. And the photoacoustic experiments of different concentrations of glucose solutions and different wavelengths of pulsed laser are carried out in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that the bipolar sine-wave profiles for the time-resolved photoacoustic signal of glucose solution are in good agreement with the past reported literatures. And the different absorbing coefficients of glucose solution can be gotten according to the slope of the first part of the time-resolved photoacoustic signals. In addition, the different acoustic velocities of glucose solution can also be gotten according to the shift change of the time-resolved photoacoustic peak values. Research results illustrate that the characteristic wavelengths, different optical and acoustic properties of glucose solution can be interpreted by the time-resolved and peak-to-peak photoacoustic signals induced by the pulsed laser.

  18. Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, M. B.; Wainner, R. T.; Green, B. D.; Laderer, M. C.; Allen, M. G.

    2005-11-01

    Trace gas sensing and analysis by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a robust and reliable technology accepted for industrial process monitoring and control, quality assurance, environmental sensing, plant safety, and infrastructure security. Sensors incorporating well-packaged wavelength-stabilized near-infrared (1.2 to 2.0 μm) laser sources sense over a dozen toxic or industrially-important gases. A large emerging application for TDLAS is standoff sensing of gas leaks, e.g. from natural gas pipelines. The Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD), a handheld standoff TDLAS leak survey tool that we developed, is replacing traditional leak detection tools that must be physically immersed within a leak to detect it. Employing a 10 mW 1.6 micron DFB laser, the RMLD illuminates a non-cooperative topographic surface, up to 30 m distant, and analyzes returned scattered light to deduce the presence of excess methane. The eye-safe, battery-powered, 6-pound handheld RMLD enhances walking pipeline survey rates by more than 30%. When combined with a spinning or rastering mirror, the RMLD serves as a platform for mobile leak mapping systems. Also, to enable high-altitude surveying and provide aerial disaster response, we are extending the standoff range to 3000 m by adding an EDFA to the laser transmitter.

  19. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%–20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms

  20. A method for the measurement of in line pistachio aflatoxin concentration based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghaleh, Soodeh Jamali [Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Askari, Hassan Ranjbar; Marashi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Mojtaba, E-mail: m_rahimi@vru.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrampour, Ali Reza [Physics Department of Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Contamination of pistachio nuts with aflatoxin is one of the most significant issues related to pistachio health and expert. A fast pistachio aflatoxin concentration measurement method based on the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is proposed. The proposed method from theoretical and experimental points of view is analyzed. In our experiments XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an Ultra Violet (UV) source (λ=308 nm) and a UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrometer is used for fluorescent emission detection. Our setup is employed to measure the concentration of different type of Aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. Measurements results obtained by the LIFS method are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. Aflatoxins concentrations are in good agreement with those are obtained by the HPLC method. The proposed laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy can be used as an in line aflatoxins concentrations measurement instrument for industrial applications. - Highlights: • XeCl Excimer laser is employed as an UV source for measurement of AFs in pistachio nuts. • Results are compared with those are measured by the standard HPLC method. • LIFS is an online AFs concentration measurement method for industrial applications.

  1. Tunable VUV laser based spectrometer for Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES)

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph; Giesber, Henry G; Egan, John J; Kaminski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable VUV laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3eV and 7eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on KBBF crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 10^14 photons/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the kz dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

  2. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based spectrometer for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Kaminski, Adam [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Giesber, Henry G.; Egan, John J. [Advanced Photonic Crystals LLC, Fort Mill, South Carolina 29708 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3 eV and 7 eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on potassium beryllium fluoroborate crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 10{sup 14} photon/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the k{sub z} dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

  3. Ultrasensitive standoff chemical sensing based on nonlinear multi-photon laser wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marc; Hetu, Marcel; Iwabuchi, Manna; Jimenez, Jorge; Warren, Ashley; Tong, William G.

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear multi-photon laser wave mixing is presented as an ultrasensitive optical detection method for chem/bio agents in thin films and gas- and liquid-phase samples. Laser wave mixing is an unusually sensitive optical absorption-based detection method that offers significant inherent advantages including excellent sensitivity, small sample requirements, short optical path lengths, high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution and standoff remote detection capability. Wave mixing can detect trace amounts of chemicals even when using micrometer-thin samples, and hence, it can be conveniently interfaced to fibers, microarrays, microfluidic systems, lab-on-a-chip, capillary electrophoresis and other capillary- or fiber-based chemical separation systems. The wave-mixing signal is generated instantaneously as the two input laser beams intersect inside the analyte of interest. Laser excitation wavelengths can be tuned to detect multiple chemicals in their native form since wave mixing can detect both fluorescing and non-fluorescing samples at parts-pertrillion or better detection sensitivity levels. The wave-mixing signal is a laser-like coherent beam, and hence, it allows reliable and effective remote sensing of chemicals. Sensitive wave-mixing detectors offer many potential applications including sensitive detection of biomarkers, early detection of diseases, sensitive monitoring of environmental samples, and reliable detection of hazardous chem/bio agents with a standoff detection capability.

  4. Spectroscopy of laser-plasma accelerated electrons: A novel concept based on Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of relativistic electron bunches with large energy dispersion, like the ones usually generated with laser-plasma acceleration processes, is difficult to obtain with conventional methods. A novel spectroscopic concept, based on the analysis of the photons generated by Thomson scattering of a probe laser pulse by the electron bunch, is presented. The feasibility of a single-pulse spectrometer, using an energy-calibrated charge coupled device as detector, is investigated. Numerical simulations performed in conditions typical of a real experiment show the effectiveness and accuracy of the new method

  5. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of (236U)/(238U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10-9 was demonstrated.

  6. Temperature-Corrected Oxygen Detection Based on Multi-Mode Diode Laser Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutao Lou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-corrected oxygen measurements were performed by using multi-mode diode laser correlation spectroscopy at temperatures ranging between 300 and 473 K. The experiments simulate in situ monitoring of oxygen in coal-combustion exhaust gases at the tail of the flue. A linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of −0.999 was found between the evaluated concentration and the gas temperature. Temperature effects were either auto-corrected by keeping the reference gas at the same conditions as the sample gas, or rectified by using a predetermined effective temperature-correction coefficient calibrated for a range of absorption wavelengths. Relative standard deviations of the temperature-corrected oxygen concentrations obtained by different schemes and at various temperatures were estimated, yielding a measurement precision of 0.6%.

  7. Studies on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser atomic spectroscopy is studied both theoretically and experimentally. For Na-like ions, possible electric dipole, quadrupole and magnetic dipole transitions between atomic levels below 4f doublet F (J=7/2) state are investigated, using the recently developed computer programs - MCDF, MJE and MULTPOL. Line strength, oscillator strength and transition probability are calculated. A preliminary results for Hg-RIS experiment are also presented. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, high power dye laser, vacuum system, ionization cell and ion measuring system are constructed, and their characteristics are examined. (Author)

  8. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    We present a system for molecular spectroscopy using a broadband mid-infrared laser with near infrared detection. Difference frequency generation of a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser produced a mid-infrared (MIR) source tunable from 2100-3700 cm^-1 (2.7-4.7 microns) with average power up to 40 mW. The MIR spectrum was upconverted to near-infrared wavelengths for broadband detection using a two-dimensional dispersion imaging technique. Absorption measurements were performed over bandwidths of 240 cm^-1 (7.2 THz) with 0.048 cm^-1 (1.4 GHz) resolution, and absolute frequency scale uncertainty was better than 0.005 cm^-1 (150 MHz). The minimum detectable absorption coefficient per spectral element was determined to be 4.4 x 10^-7 cm^-1 from measurements in low pressure CH_4, leading to a detection limit of 2 parts-per-billion. The spectral range, resolution, and frequency accuracy of this system show promise for determination of trace concentrations in gas mixtures containing both narrow and broad overlapping spectral...

  9. Nuclear Structure by Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report illustrates the contribution of laser spectroscopy to our knowledge about variations of nuclear charge radii in long isotopic and isotonic chains comprising stable and short lived isotopes. The recent results obtained experimentally in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, are presented and discussed. (author). 32 refs.; 9 figs

  10. Remote optical sensing network for gas monitoring based on laser spectroscopy over hybrid TDM/WDM-PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Fang; Plant, Genevieve; Tanaka, Akihiro; Cvijetic, Neda; Tian, Yue; Wysocki, Gerard; Wang, Ting

    2015-09-01

    We propose an optical gas sensing network directly overlaid onto optical access networks, hybrid TDM/WDM-PONs. Centralized remote gas monitoring is demonstrated using three different sensing technologies: Chirp Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS), Direct Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DLAS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLS). DLAS performs fast threshold detection while CLaDS provides quantitative information about the gas. Additionally, TDLS utilizes a cost-effective solution for multiple gases detection. The results confirm that centralized remote gas sensing can be realized in optical communication networks using standard single-mode fiber (SMF), which provides a real time, low cost, and maintenance-free solution.

  11. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    OpenAIRE

    Liangdong Zhu; Weimin Liu; Yanli Wang; Chong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (...

  12. Laser spectroscopy of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of laser radiation to study the sputtering process is of relatively recent origin. Much has been learned from this work about the basic physics of the sputtering process itself through measurements of velocity and excited state distributions of sputtered atoms and the effects of adsorbates on substrate sputtering yields. Furthermore, the identification, characterization, and sensitive detection of sputtered atoms by laser spectroscopy has led to the development of in situ diagnostics for impurity fluxes in the plasma edge regions of tokamaks and of ultrasensitive methods (ppB Fe in Si) for surface analysis with ultralow (picocoulomb) ion fluences. The techniques involved in this work, laser fluorescence and multiphoton resonance ionization spectroscopy, will be described and illustrations given of results achieved up to now. 55 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Stable isotope laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. F.; Yaldaei, Ramil; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor laser technology have produced a reliable lightweight device ideally suited for a spacecraft high resolution molecular spectrometer. Lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDL) emit in several spectral modes, each with a very narrow linewidth of -0.0003/cm. This spectral resolution is much narrower than typical Doppler broadened molecular linewidths in the mid-IR range. Thus it is possible to detect individual rotational lines within the vibrational band and measure their intensity, which can be used to determine gas concentration. The narrow spectral lines of any impurity gas tend to lie between the narrow lines of the gas of interest. This represents a major advantage over the accepted gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) technique for measuring gas concentrations and isotope ratios. The careful and extensive gas purification procedures required to remove impurities for reliable GCMS measurements will not be required for an IR laser gas analysis. The infrared laser gas analysis technique is being developed to measure stable isotopic ratios of gases such as CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH3. This will eventually lead to development of instruments capable of in situ istopic measurements on planets such as Mars. The carbon (C-12, C-13) isotope ratio is indicative of the type of carbon fixation mechanisms (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration) in operation on a planet, while the nitrogen (N-14, N-15) isotope ratio can probably be used to date nitrogen-bearing Martian samples. The absorbance ratio of two adjacent lines of CO2 in the 2300/cm (4.3 micron) region of the spectrum was measured. The precision of the measurement is presently better than 1 percent and significant improvement is anticipated as rapid sweep-integration techniques and computer controlled data acquistion capabilities are incorporated.

  14. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: ► Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. ► LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. ► Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  15. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Giacomo, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R., E-mail: rosalba.gaudiuso@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Santagata, A. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Potenza, Via S. Loja, Zona Ind., 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Capitelli, F. [Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); De Pascale, O. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-04-04

    Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  16. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  17. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS

  18. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Borri, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth force. Further, we briefly review the recent technological progresses in the fields of cold molecules and mid-infrared lasers, which are the tools that mainly set the limits for the resolution that is currently attainable in the measurements.

  19. Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Based Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy for Biogenic Nitric Oxide Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhirkin, Yury A.; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Roller, Chad; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2004-04-01

    Tunable-laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-IR spectral region is a sensitive analytical technique for trace-gas quantification. The detection of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled breath is of particular interest in the diagnosis of lower-airway inflammation associated with a number of lung diseases and illnesses. A gas analyzer based on a continuous-wave mid-IR quantum cascade laser operating at ~5.2 µm and on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) has been developed to measure NO concentrations in human breath. A compact sample cell, 5.3 cm in length and with a volume of less than 80 cm3, that is suitable for on-line and off-line measurements during a single breath cycle, has been designed and tested. A noise-equivalent (signal-to-noise ratio of 1) sensitivity of 10 parts in 10 9 by volume (ppbv) of NO was achieved. The combination of ICOS with wavelength modulation resulted in a 2-ppbv noise-equivalent sensitivity. The total data acquisition and averaging time was 15 s in both cases. The feasibility of detecting NO in expired human breath as a potential noninvasive medical diagnostic tool is discussed.

  20. Detection of explosives and latent fingerprint residues utilizing laser pointer-based Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Itamar; Petrushansky, Alona; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana

    2013-12-01

    A modular, compact Raman spectrometer, based on a green laser pointer, an air cooled intensified charged coupled device and a x, y motorized translation stage was developed and applied for point detection. Its performance was tested for measurements of Raman spectra of liquids, trace amounts of explosives and individual particles, as well as for locating individual particles of interest and for chemical imaging of residues of latent human fingerprints. This system was found to be highly sensitive, identifying masses as low as ~1 ng in short times. The point and real-time detection capabilities of the spectrometer, together with the portability that it offers, make it a potential candidate for replacing existing Raman microscopes and for field applications.

  1. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Molecular Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almon Fisher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS-scale photoacoustic sensor for the detection of trace gases. A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL was used to determine detection limits for acetic acid, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl acetate. The source was continuously tunable from 1015 cm-1 to 1240 cm-1, allowing for the collection of photoacoustic vibrational spectra for these gases. Exceptional agreement between the measured photoacoustic spectra and the infrared spectra for acetic acid, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl acetate was observed. Partial least-squares (PLS regression was used to develop an algorithm for classification of these compounds based solely on photoacoustic spectra.

  2. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Molecular Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthoff, Ellen; Bender, John; Pellegrino, Paul; Fisher, Almon

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-scale photoacoustic sensor for the detection of trace gases. A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to determine detection limits for acetic acid, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl acetate. The source was continuously tunable from 1015 cm−1 to 1240 cm−1, allowing for the collection of photoacoustic vibrational spectra for these gases. Exceptional agreement between the measured photoacoustic spectra and the infrared spectra for acetic acid, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl acetate was observed. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to develop an algorithm for classification of these compounds based solely on photoacoustic spectra. PMID:22294910

  3. Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawek, Johannes P; Moser, Harald; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-03-21

    A compact gas sensor system based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) employing a continuous wave (CW) distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 4.59 µm was developed for detection of carbon disulfide (CS2) in air at trace concentration. The influence of water vapor on monitored QEPAS signal was investigated to enable compensation of this dependence by independent moisture sensing. A 1 σ limit of detection of 28 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) for a 1 s lock-in amplifier time constant was obtained for the CS2 line centered at 2178.69 cm-1 when the gas sample was moisturized with 2.3 vol% H2O. The work reports the suitability of the system for monitoring CS2 with high selectivity and sensitivity, as well as low sample gas volume requirements and fast sensor response for applications such as workplace air and process monitoring at industry. PMID:27136846

  4. Molecular recognition using receptor-free nanomechanical infrared spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu; Liu, Xunchen; Van Neste, Charles; Jeon, Sangmin; Thundat, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Speciation of complex mixtures of trace explosives presents a formidable challenge for sensors that rely on chemoselective interfaces due to the unspecific nature of weak intermolecular interactions. Nanomechanical infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides higher selectivity in molecular detection without using chemoselective interfaces by measuring the photothermal effect of adsorbed molecules on a thermally sensitive microcantilever. In addition, unlike conventional IR spectroscopy, the detection...

  5. A Sulfur Hexafluoride Sensor Using Quantum Cascade and CO2 Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helion Vargas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m2. This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO2 laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC laser, for the detection of SF6. The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO2 laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  6. A Sulfur Hexafluoride Sensor Using Quantum Cascade and CO2 Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m2. This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO2 laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF6. The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO2 laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained. PMID:22163412

  7. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS, and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS, all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  8. Molecular Laser Spectroscopy as a Tool for Gas Analysis Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the traceable infrared laser spectrometric amount fraction measurement (TILSAM) method to perform absolute concentration measurements of molecular species using three laser spectroscopic techniques. We report results performed by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS), and cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), all based on the TILSAM methodology. The measured results of the different spectroscopic techniques are in agreement with respective gravimetric values, showing that the TILSAM method is feasible with all different techniques. We emphasize the data quality objectives given by traceability issues and uncertainty analyses.

  9. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser atomic spectroscopic study on actinium element has been performed in many areas of spectroscopy. The study on characteristic of atomic vapor has been proceeded for copper atom and the spatial density distribution of copper vapor is measured. This experimental data has been compared with the theoretically calculated data. In spectroscopic experiment, the first and second excited states for actinium element are identified and the most efficient ionization scheme for actinium element is identified. In addition, the corrosion problem for filament material due to the heating of the actinium element has been studied. (Author)

  10. Detection of human breath biomarkers by femtosecond laser based absorption spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Lešundák, Adam; Buchta, Zdeněk; Šmíd, Radek; Lazar, Josef

    Elsevier. Vol. 9, Suppl. 1 (2012), S36. ISSN 1572-1000. [Photodiagnostics and Photodynamics Therapy. International Congress. 24.08.2012-29.08.2012, Helsinki] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : photodiagnostics * photodynamics therapy * femtosecond laser * carbon monoxide * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  11. Approach for determination of detonation performance and aluminum percentage of aluminized-based explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Amir Hossein; Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh; Reza Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad; Farhadian, Amir Hossein; Mousavi, Seyyed Jabbar; Mousaviazar, Ali

    2016-04-20

    Energetic materials containing aluminum powder are hazardous compounds, which have wide applications as propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. This work introduces a new method on the basis of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique in air and argon atmospheres to investigate determination of aluminum content and detonation performance of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-based aluminized explosives. Plasma emission of aluminized RDX explosives are recorded where atomic lines of Al, C, H, N, and O, as well as molecular bands of AlO and CN are identified. The formation mechanism of AlO and CN molecular bands is affected by the aluminum percentage and oxygen content present in the composition and plasma. Relative intensity of the Al/O is used to determine detonation velocity and pressure of the RDX/Al samples. The released energy in the laser-induced plasma of aluminized RDX composition is related to the heat of explosion and percentage of aluminum. PMID:27140093

  12. Laser frequency locking based on the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectroscopy of 87Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Hong, Wan; Chang, Liu; Yan-Hui, Wang

    2016-04-01

    We present a practical method to avoid the mis-locking phenomenon in the saturated-absorption-spectrum laser-frequency-locking system and set up a simple theoretical model to explain the abnormal saturated absorption spectrum. The method uses the normal and abnormal saturated absorption spectra of the same transition 52S1/2, F = 2–52P3/2, F‧ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87Rb D2 resonance line. After subtracting these two signals with the help of electronics, we can obtain a spectrum with a single peak to lock the laser. In our experiment, we use the normal and inverse signals of the transitions 52S1/2, F = 2–52P3/2, F‧ = 3 saturated absorption of the 87Rb D2 resonance line to lock a 780-nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. This method improves the long-term locking performance and is suitable for other kinds of diode lasers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174015).

  13. Frequency modulation spectroscopy with a THz quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eichholz, René; Richter, Heiko; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Hey, R.; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, H. -W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a terahertz spectrometer for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy based on a quantum-cascade laser. High-frequency modulation (up to 50 MHz) of the laser driving current produces a simultaneous modulation of the frequency and amplitude of the laser output. The modulation generates sidebands, which are symmetrically positioned with respect to the laser carrier frequency. The molecular transition is probed by scanning the sidebands across it. In this way, the absorption and...

  14. Molecular spectroscopy with a multimode THz quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eichholz, Rene; Richter, Heiko; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, A. D.; Wienold, M; Schrottke, L; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz absorption spectrometer for highresolution molecular spectroscopy is realized. The spectrometer is based on a multimode quantum-cascade laser. The design and performance of the spectrometer are presented. Three aspects are discussed: sensitivity, frequency calibration, and frequency multiplexing.

  15. Thermal Characterization of 1.3μm InAsP/InGaAsP Ridge Waveguide MQW Lasers Based on Spectroscopy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental way to analyze the thermal characterization of semiconductor lasers based on spectroscopy method under pulse driving conditions has been developed. By using this way the thermal characteristics of strain compensated 1.3μm InAsP/InGaAsP ridge waveguide MQW laser diodes have been investigated. Results show that by measuring and analyzing the lasing spectra under appropriate driving parameters and temperature ranges, the thermal resistance of the laser diodes could be deduced easily. A higher thermal resistance of 640K/W has been measured on a narrow ridge laser chip without soldering. Other thermal and spectral properties of the lasers have also been measured and discussed.

  16. Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Molecular Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Almon Fisher; Paul Pellegrino; John Bender; Ellen Holthoff

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-scale photoacoustic sensor for the detection of trace gases. A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to determine detection limits for acetic acid, acetone, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl acetate. The source was continuously tunable from 1015 cm-1 to 1240 cm-1, allowing for the collection of photoacoustic vibrational spectra for these gases. Exceptional agreement between the measured photoacoustic spectra and the infr...

  17. Exhaled breath profiling using broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy in healthy children and children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mastrigt, E; Reyes-Reyes, A; Brand, K; Bhattacharya, N; Urbach, H P; Stubbs, A P; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath analysis is a potential non-invasive tool for diagnosing and monitoring airway diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrochemical sensor arrays are the main techniques to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We developed a broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy technique for VOC detection and identification. The objective of this study was to assess the repeatability of exhaled breath profiling with broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy and to explore the clinical applicability by comparing exhaled breath samples from healthy children with those from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). Healthy children and children with stable asthma or stable CF, aged 6-18 years, were included. Two to four exhaled breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by quantum cascade laser spectroscopy to detect VOCs with an absorption profile in the wavenumber region between 832 and 1262.55 cm(-1). We included 35 healthy children, 39 children with asthma and 15 with CF. Exhaled breath VOC profiles showed poor repeatability (Spearman's rho  =  0.36 to 0.46) and agreement of the complete profiles. However, we were able to discriminate healthy children from children with stable asthma or stable CF and identified VOCs that were responsible for this discrimination. Broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy detected differences in VOC profiles in exhaled breath samples between healthy children and children with asthma or CF. The combination of a relatively easy and fast method and the possibility of molecule identification makes broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy attractive to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of volatiles in exhaled breath. PMID:27058305

  18. A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application based on Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium assumption for the elemental analysis of alexandrite gemstone and copper-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; Santagata, A.; Senesi, G. S.; Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M. R.; Capitelli, F.; De Pascale, O.

    2012-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.

  19. Laser spectroscopy used in nuclear physics; La spectroscopie laser appliquee a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, F

    2001-04-05

    The study of nuclear shapes is a basic topic since it constitutes an excellent ground for testing and validating nuclear models. Measurements of the electron quadrupolar moment, of the nuclear charge radius and of the magnetic dipolar moment shed light on the nuclear deformation. Laser spectroscopy is a specific tool for such measurements, it is based on the interaction of the nucleus with the surrounding electron cloud (hyperfine structure), it is then an external approach of the shape of the nucleus whereas the classical nuclear spectroscopy ({alpha}, {beta} or {gamma}) gives information on the deformation from the inside of the nucleus. The author describes 2 techniques of laser spectroscopy: the colinear spectroscopy directly applied to a beam issued from an isotope separator and the resonant ionization spectroscopy linked with atom desorption that allows the study of particular nuclei. In order to illustrate both methods some effective measurements are presented: - the colinear spectroscopy has allowed the achievement of the complete description of the isomeric state (T = 31 years) of hafnium-178; - The experiment Complis has revealed an unexpected even-odd zigzag effect on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes; and - the comparison of 2 isotopes of gold and platinum with their isomers has shown that the inversion of 2 levels of neutron, that was found out by nuclear spectroscopy, is in fact a consequence of a change in the nuclear shape. (A.C.)

  20. Ultra-Stable Rubidium-Stabilized External-Cavity Diode Laser Based on the Modulation Transfer Spectroscopy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiang-Hui; CHEN Wen-Lan; YI Lin; ZHOU Da-Wei; ZHOU Tong; XIAO Qin; DUAN Jun; ZHOU Xiao-Ji; CHEN Xu-Zong

    2009-01-01

    @@ We construct an ultra-stable external-cavity diode laser via modulation transfer spectroscopy referencing on a hyperfine component of the 87Rb D2 lines at 780 hm. The Doppler-free dispersion-like modulation transfer signal is obtained with high signal-to-noise-ratio. The instability of the laser frequency is measured by beating with an optical frequency comb which is phase-locked to an ultra-stable oven controlled crystal oscillator. The Allan deviation is 3.9×10-13 at 1s averaging time and 9.8×10-14 at 90s averaging time.

  1. Laser photoelectron spectroscopy of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, G.B. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)

    1993-12-01

    During the last year the author has (a) completed a review article that critically contrasts three methods to measure R-H bond energies, (b) finished a spectroscopic study of the phenylnitrene anion, and (c) successfully completed an overhaul of the light source of the photodetachment spectrometer. The new light source is based on an Ar III laser that provides approximately 100 W of 3.531 eV photons.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myakalwar, Ashwin Kumar; Sreedhar, S.; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Rao, S. Venugopal; Kiran, P. Prem; Tewari, Surya P.; Kumar, G. Manoj

    2011-01-01

    We report the effectiveness of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in probing the content of pharmaceutical tablets and also investigate its feasibility for routine classification. This method is particularly beneficial in applications where its exquisite chemical specificity and suitability for remote and on site characterization significantly improves the speed and accuracy of quality control and assurance process. Our experiments reveal that in addition to the presence of carbon, h...

  3. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is based on the absorption of a short pulse of tuned laser light by a group of atoms and the observation of the resulting fluorescence radiation from the excited state. Because the excitation is resonant it is very efficient, and the fluorescence can be many times brighter than the normal spontaneous emission, so low number densities of the selected atoms can be detected and measured. Good spatial resolution can be achieved by using a narrow laser beam. If the laser is sufficiently monochromatic, and it can be tuned over the absorption line profile of the selected atoms, information can also be obtained about the velocities of the atoms from the Doppler effect which can broaden and shift the line. In this report two topics are examined in detail. The first is the effect of high laser irradiance, which can cause 'power broadening' of the apparent absorption line profile. The second is the effect of the high magnetic field in FTU. Detailed calculations are given for LIFS of neutral iron and molybdenum atoms, including the Zeeman effect, and the implementation of LIFS for these atoms on FTU is discussed

  4. A Noninvasive In Vivo Glucose Sensor Based on Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Alexandra; Liakat, Sabbir; Xu, Laura; Gmachl, Claire

    Diabetes affects over 387 million people worldwide; a number which grows every year. The most common method of measuring blood glucose concentration involves a finger prick which for some can be a harrowing process. Therefore, a portable, accurate, noninvasive glucose sensor can significantly improve the quality of life for many of these diabetics who draw blood multiple times a day to monitor their glucose levels. We have implemented a noninvasive, mobile glucose sensor using a mid-infrared (MIR) quantum cascade laser (QCL), integrating sphere, and thermal electrically (TE) cooled detector. The QCL is scanned from 8 - 10 microns wavelength over which are distinct absorption features of glucose molecules with little competition of absorption from other molecules found in the blood and interstitial fluid. The obtained absorption spectra are analyzed using a neural network algorithm which relates the small changes in absorption to the changing glucose concentration. The integrating sphere has increased the signal-to-noise ratio from a previous design, allowing us to use the TE-cooled detector which increases mobility without loss of accuracy.

  5. Overview of applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a method of performing elemental analyses of solids, liquids, and gases using the microplasma produced by a focused laser pulse. Because the microplasma is formed by optical radiation, LIBS has some important advantages compared to conventional laboratory based analytical methods. Three applications are discussed which use the LIBS method. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Diagnostics of nonuniform plasmas for elemental analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: demonstration on carbon-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the plasma produced by the interaction of ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses with a carbon fiber composite tile from the inner wall of a fusion reactor. The experiments are carried out in argon at a pressure of 5*104 Pa. Fast imaging is used to characterize the plume expansion dynamics and excited plasma species are followed by time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy. The measurements show that ionized and highly excited plasma species are located in the front of the expanding plume, whereas neutral atoms and lower excited species dominate in the plasma core. By measuring the excitation temperature of metallic ions and neutral atoms, we evidence the existence of a temperature gradient that appears during the early expansion stage and remains up to delays typically used in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The knowledge of the spatial distribution of the plasma properties is then used to model the plasma emission spectrum. Assuming two plasma zones in local thermodynamic equilibrium of different temperatures and electron densities, we calculate the spectral radiance and compare it to the spatially integrated spectrum recorded with an Echelle spectrometer. From the best agreement between measured and computed spectra we deduce the elemental concentrations of carbon, hydrogen and metal impurities. The validity of the model is critically discussed and the measurement uncertainties are evaluated. The present approach is foreseen to improve the accuracy of analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in many applications, in particular when materials of elements with significantly different ionization potentials are investigated. (authors)

  7. Nuclear properties studied by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of atomic nuclei are determined by means of laser spectroscopy model-independently. Laser-rf techniques enable us to make precision measurement of these moments. The hfs anomaly, i.e., Bohr-Weisskopf effect will be studied systematically at CERN ISOLDE shortly. (author)

  8. Study on laser atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric discharge type atomic vaporizer is developed for the spectroscopic study on actinide elements. Laser induced fluorescence study on actinide elements is performed by using this high temperature type atomizer. For the effective photoionization of elements, copper vapor laser pumped dye laser and electron beam heating type atomic vaporizer are built and their characteristics are measured. In addition, resonance ionization mass spectroscopic analysis for lead sample as well as laser induced fluorescence study on uranium sample in solution phase is made. (Author)

  9. Fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of copper-based-alloys: Generation and elemental analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of nanoparticles ejected during ultra-short (250 fs) laser ablation of certified copper alloys and relative calibration plots of a fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy orthogonal configuration is presented. All work was performed in air at atmospheric pressure using certified copper-based-alloy samples irradiated by a fs laser beam and followed by a delayed perpendicular ns laser pulse. In order to evaluate possible compositional changes of the fs induced nanoparticles, it was necessary to consider, for all samples used, comparable features of the detected species. With this purpose the induced nanoparticles black-body-like emission evolution and their relative temperature decay have been studied. These data were exploited for defining the distance between the target surface and the successive ns laser beam to be used. The consequent calibration plots of minor constituents (i.e. Sn, Pb and Zn) of the certified copper-based-alloy samples have been reported by taking into account self-absorption effects. The resulting linear regression coefficients suggest that the method used, for monitoring and ruling the fs laser induced nanoparticles, could provide a valuable approach for establishing the occurrence of potential compositional changes of the detected species. All experimental data reveal that the fs laser induced nanoparticles can be used for providing a coherent composition of the starting target. In the meantime, the fs–ns double-pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy orthogonal configuration here used can be considered as an efficient technique for compositional determination of the nanoparticles ejected during ultra-short laser ablation processes. - Highlights: • Laser induced NP continuum black-body-like emission was used for T determination. • Invariable composition of generated NPs was assumed in the range of 20 μs. • Fs-ns DP-LIBS was employed for the compositional characterization of NPs. • NPs obtained by fs

  10. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy stratigraphic characterization of multilayered painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, A.; Apostol, I.; Pascu, A.; Iordache, I.; Damian, V.; Pascu, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Laser spectroscopy techniques are modern and competitive methods for elemental analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), due to its advantages as minimally invasive method that provides real time monitoring and selectivity, is a suitable tool to analyze sample composition. Based on the known emission spectra of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Au, Ca, a stratigraphic study regarding the identification of the painting layers content of different mock-up samples was performed. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the painting layers and to analyze their composition. The obtained LIBS spectra were correlated with profilometric measurements.

  11. Laser-Induced Magnetic Dipole Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Christian; Bücker, Dennis; Domingo Köhler, Silvia; Jeschke, Gunnar; Drescher, Malte

    2016-06-16

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of nanometer scale distance distributions have proven highly effective in structural studies. They exploit the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling between spin labels site-specifically attached to macromolecules. The most commonly applied technique is double electron-electron resonance (DEER, also called pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR)). Here we present the new technique of laser-induced magnetic dipole (LaserIMD) spectroscopy based on optical switching of the dipole-dipole coupling. In a proof of concept experiment on a model peptide, we find, already at a low quantum yield of triplet excitation, the same sensitivity for measuring the distance between a porphyrin and a nitroxide label as in a DEER measurement between two nitroxide labels. On the heme protein cytochrome C, we demonstrate that LaserIMD allows for distance measurements between a heme prosthetic group and a nitroxide label, although the heme triplet state is not directly observable by an electron spin echo. PMID:27163749

  12. Terahertz multi-heterodyne spectroscopy using laser frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Hayton, Darren J; Gao, Jian-Rong; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Frequency combs based on terahertz quantum cascade lasers feature broadband coverage and high output powers in a compact package, making them an attractive option for broadband spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate the first multi-heterodyne spectroscopy using two terahertz quantum cascade laser combs. With just 100 $\\mu$s of integration time, we achieve peak signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 60 dB and a spectral coverage greater than 250 GHz centered at 2.8 THz. Even with room-temperature detectors we are able to achieve peak signal-to-noise ratios of 50 dB, and as a proof-of-principle we use these combs to measure the broadband transmission spectrum of etalon samples. Finally, we show that with proper signal processing, it is possible to extend the multi-heterodyne spectroscopy to quantum cascade laser combs operating in pulsed mode, greatly expanding the range of quantum cascade lasers that could be suitable for these techniques.

  13. Field based stable isotope analysis of CO2 by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy at a pilot site for carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, H. J. H.; Van Geldern, R.; Nowak, M. E.; Zimmer, M.; Szizybalski, A.; Myrttinen, A.; Barth, J.

    2014-12-01

    A newly developed and commercially available isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a 10-day field monitoring campaign at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in northern Germany. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10-day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 minutes resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within 2σ analytical precision (high precision and accurate real-time table isotope data directly in the field. The injected CO2 tracer had a distinct δ13C value that was largely different from the reservoir background value. The laser spectroscopy data revealed a prior to this study unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ13C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The new technique might contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  15. Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jágerská, J.; Tuzson, B.; Mangold, M.; Emmenegger, L. [Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Empa, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Jouy, P.; Hugi, A.; Beck, M.; Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 16, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Looser, H. [Institute for Aerosol and Sensor Technology, FHNW, Klosterzelgstrasse 2, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a sequentially operating dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser with electrically separated laser sections, emitting single-mode at 5.25 and 6.25 μm. Based on a single waveguide ridge, this laser represents a considerable asset to optical sensing and trace gas spectroscopy, as it allows probing multiple gas species with spectrally distant absorption features using conventional optical setups without any beam combining optics. The laser capability was demonstrated in simultaneous NO and NO{sub 2} detection, reaching sub-ppb detection limits and selectivity comparable to conventional high-end spectroscopic systems.

  16. Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a sequentially operating dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser with electrically separated laser sections, emitting single-mode at 5.25 and 6.25 μm. Based on a single waveguide ridge, this laser represents a considerable asset to optical sensing and trace gas spectroscopy, as it allows probing multiple gas species with spectrally distant absorption features using conventional optical setups without any beam combining optics. The laser capability was demonstrated in simultaneous NO and NO2 detection, reaching sub-ppb detection limits and selectivity comparable to conventional high-end spectroscopic systems.

  17. Laser spectroscopy of thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal plasma, due to its applications, is a research field of great importance, but reliable diagnostics of such plasma remains a challenging task. Spatially resolved methods, which provide local values of plasma parameters, are crucial for understanding the underlying physics. This can be achieved using pump–probe techniques. Two methods applicable and useful for thermal plasma diagnostics—four-wave mixing and scattering of laser beams—are discussed in this paper. Experimental examples of their application, namely four-wave mixing in argon arc plasma and scattering of laser light by laser-induced plasma, are presented. (paper)

  18. Photon Correlation Spectroscopy for Observing Natural Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2007-01-01

    Natural laser emission may be produced whenever suitable atomic energy levels become overpopulated. Strong evidence for laser emission exists in astronomical sources such as Eta Carinae, and other luminous stars. However, the evidence is indirect in that the laser lines have not yet been spectrally resolved. The lines are theoretically estimated to be extremely narrow, requiring spectral resolutions very much higher (R approx.= 10**8) than possible with ordinary spectroscopy. Such can be attained with photon-correlation spectroscopy on nanosecond timescales, measuring the autocorrelation function of photon arrival times to obtain the coherence time of light, and thus the spectral linewidth. A particular advantage is the insensitivity to spectral, spatial, and temporal shifts of emission-line components due to local velocities and probable variability of 'hot-spots' in the source. A laboratory experiment has been set up, simulating telescopic observations of cosmic laser emission. Numerically simulated observa...

  19. Preferential flow pathways revealed by field based stable isotope analysis of CO2 by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Jost, Hj

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed and commercially available isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a 10-day field monitoring campaign at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in northern Germany. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10-day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 minutes resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within 2σ analytical precision (migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The new technique might contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir.

  20. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  1. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100-200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis

  2. Part-Per-Trillion Level SF6 Detection Using a Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy-Based Sensor with Single-Mode Fiber-Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2012-10-23

    A sensitive spectroscopic sensor based on a hollow-core fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 10.54 µm and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique is reported. The design and realization of mid-infrared fiber and coupler optics has ensured single-mode QCL beam delivery to the QEPAS sensor . The collimation optics was designed to produce a laser beam of significantly reduced beam size and waist so as to prevent illumination of the quartz tuning fork and micro-resonator tubes. SF6 was selected as the target gas. A minimum detection sensitivity of 50 parts per trillion in 1 s was achieved with a QCL power of 18 mW, corresponding to a normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2.7x10-10 W•cm-1/Hz1/2.

  3. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouthier, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  4. Trace element analysis of aqueous samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on pre-concentration of electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Lei, Yu; Yu, Quan; Li, Jianan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is characterized as a powerful tool in in-situ online analysis with its fast and multiple detecting abilities. But in the area of detecting trace sample in aqueous solution of low concentration, the turbulence, scattering, absorbance and cooling effect of liquid medium limits its performance. Traditional method includes liquid jet, liquid-solid transformation and pre-concentration on other medium, yet the procedure of sample preparation is complicated and time consuming. In this work, we propose a new method to achieve pre-concentration, in which filter paper and electro-spray ionization (ESI) are used. In our experiment, we choose MnSO4 as sample. The surface of filter paper is sprayed with MnSO4 aqueous solution of different concentration by an ESI. The pulsed laser is focused on the surface of filter paper and the plasma is formed in the focusing area. Through an optical fiber the spectrum of plasma is detected by a spectrometer. The ESI system, pulses generator system and the UI on PC are home-made. The spectra lines of Mn at 257.6nm, 259.4nm and 260.6nm are analyzed. Results show that the limit of detection at 257.6nm is sub-ppb and the R2 of calibration curve is more than 0.93. Compared with traditional method, like soak and drip processing, our method can increase the concentration of the sample by simply expanding spraying time, achieving a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a lower limit of detection (LOD). In addition, the consumption of sample solution is as low as several hundred μl in each detection.

  5. Laser spectroscopy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the nuclear structure of fission fragments is discussed. They are neutron-rich nuclei the structure of which possesses some peculiarities. Two regions of fission fragments are discussed: near the shell closures N = 50 and N = 82 and at the boundary of the deformation. A view on the optical properties of these elements is presented and different laser spectroscopic methods for their investigation are proposed. (author)

  6. Field-based stable isotope analysis of carbon dioxide by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for carbon capture and storage monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin E; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A C; Jost, Hans-Jürg

    2014-12-16

    A newly developed isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a tracer experiment at the Ketzin pilot site (northern Germany) for CO2 storage. For the experiment, 500 tons of CO2 from a natural CO2 reservoir was injected in supercritical state into the reservoir. The carbon stable isotope value (δ(13)C) of injected CO2 was significantly different from background values. In order to observe the breakthrough of the isotope tracer continuously, the new instruments were connected to a stainless steel riser tube that was installed in an observation well. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10 day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 min resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within analytical precision. This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time stable isotope data directly in the field. The laser spectroscopy data revealed for the first time a prior to this experiment unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ(13)C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The short-term variances as observed in this study might have been missed during previous works that applied laboratory-based IRMS analysis. The new technique could contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long

  7. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm−1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm−1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  8. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  9. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De

    platelet products for long term preservation; (6) LTRS based depolarized Raman spectroscopy was developed and used to do bacterial cell identification of similar species. From these experiments, several new findings and conclusions have been obtained. (1) single spore dynamic germination was measured for the first time. The result showed the time-to-germinate of a single spore was stochastic and could be discrete. (2) the thermal nature of spore killing in solution by microwaves was identified, Spores killed directly by microwaves showed death marker in Raman spectrum; (3) The Ca-DPA inside the spore core of a spore would undergo a structure modification during heat shock, which was related to the spores' state transition from a glass-like to a rubbery-like state, this structure modification during heat shock was reversible; (4) the kinetic molecular processes of E. coli cell lysis by lysozyme and by temperature induction of bacterial phage were recorded for the first time. The different cellular processes of the lysis were revealed based on the two different mechanisms; (5) LTRS technique was successfully applied to characterize human platelet fixation; a major procedure for long term preservation of therapeutic human platelet products; (6) A depolarization laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (DLTRS) technique was developed to enhance the ability to discriminate similar bacterial species.

  10. Molecular oxygen detection using frequency modulation diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Guo; Sachse, Glen

    1990-01-01

    A high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of O2 using two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy with a GaAlAs diode laser is presented. An oxygen sensor based on this technique would be non-intrusive, compact and possess high sensitivity and fast time response.

  11. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. PMID:27343593

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakalwar, Ashwin Kumar; Sreedhar, S; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Venugopal Rao, S; Prem Kiran, P; Tewari, Surya P; Manoj Kumar, G

    2011-12-15

    We report the effectiveness of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in probing the content of pharmaceutical tablets and also investigate its feasibility for routine classification. This method is particularly beneficial in applications where its exquisite chemical specificity and suitability for remote and on site characterization significantly improves the speed and accuracy of quality control and assurance process. Our experiments reveal that in addition to the presence of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, which can be primarily attributed to the active pharmaceutical ingredients, specific inorganic atoms were also present in all the tablets. Initial attempts at classification by a ratiometric approach using oxygen (∼777 nm) to nitrogen (742.36 nm, 744.23 nm and 746.83 nm) compositional values yielded an optimal value at 746.83 nm with the least relative standard deviation but nevertheless failed to provide an acceptable classification. To overcome this bottleneck in the detection process, two chemometric algorithms, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data demonstrating that LIBS has the potential to differentiate and discriminate among pharmaceutical tablets. We report excellent prospective classification accuracy using supervised classification via the SIMCA algorithm, demonstrating its potential for future applications in process analytical technology, especially for fast on-line process control monitoring applications in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22099648

  13. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Xukun Yin; Lei Dong; Huadan Zheng; Xiaoli Liu; Hongpeng Wu; Yanfang Yang; Weiguang Ma; Lei Zhang; Wangbao Yin; Liantuan Xiao; Suotang Jia

    2016-01-01

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can ...

  14. Laser spectroscopy of muonic deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Randolf; Nez, François; Fernandes, Luis M. P.; Amaro, Fernando D.; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M. R.; Covita, Daniel S.; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Diepold, Marc; Giesen, Adolf; Gouvea, Andrea L.; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Knowles, Paul; Kottmann, Franz; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A. M.; Ludhova, Livia; Monteiro, Cristina M. B.; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; dos Santos, Joaquim M. F.; Schaller, Lukas A.; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F. C. A.; Antognini, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    The deuteron is the simplest compound nucleus, composed of one proton and one neutron. Deuteron properties such as the root-mean-square charge radius rd and the polarizability serve as important benchmarks for understanding the nuclear forces and structure. Muonic deuterium μd is the exotic atom formed by a deuteron and a negative muon μ–. We measured three 2S-2P transitions in μd and obtain rd = 2.12562(78) fm, which is 2.7 times more accurate but 7.5σ smaller than the CODATA-2010 value rd = 2.1424(21) fm. The μd value is also 3.5σ smaller than the rd value from electronic deuterium spectroscopy. The smaller rd, when combined with the electronic isotope shift, yields a “small” proton radius rp, similar to the one from muonic hydrogen, amplifying the proton radius puzzle.

  15. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  16. Analysis of algebraic reconstruction technique for accurate imaging of gas temperature and concentration based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Hui, Xia; Rui-Feng, Kan; Jian-Guo, Liu; Zhen-Yu, Xu; Ya-Bai, He

    2016-06-01

    An improved algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) combined with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy(TDLAS) is presented in this paper for determining two-dimensional (2D) distribution of H2O concentration and temperature in a simulated combustion flame. This work aims to simulate the reconstruction of spectroscopic measurements by a multi-view parallel-beam scanning geometry and analyze the effects of projection rays on reconstruction accuracy. It finally proves that reconstruction quality dramatically increases with the number of projection rays increasing until more than 180 for 20 × 20 grid, and after that point, the number of projection rays has little influence on reconstruction accuracy. It is clear that the temperature reconstruction results are more accurate than the water vapor concentration obtained by the traditional concentration calculation method. In the present study an innovative way to reduce the error of concentration reconstruction and improve the reconstruction quality greatly is also proposed, and the capability of this new method is evaluated by using appropriate assessment parameters. By using this new approach, not only the concentration reconstruction accuracy is greatly improved, but also a suitable parallel-beam arrangement is put forward for high reconstruction accuracy and simplicity of experimental validation. Finally, a bimodal structure of the combustion region is assumed to demonstrate the robustness and universality of the proposed method. Numerical investigation indicates that the proposed TDLAS tomographic algorithm is capable of detecting accurate temperature and concentration profiles. This feasible formula for reconstruction research is expected to resolve several key issues in practical combustion devices. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205151), the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant

  17. Advanced instrumentation in laser spectroscopy: from ultras to extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of laser in early sixties of the last century has generated tremendous impetus in the field of fundamental research, which includes branches like optical, atomic, molecular and nuclear physics etc. In effect the age old field of optics is resurrected through this new development. The instrumentation related to laser based diagnostic system has become an inseparable part of many ultra-precision devices like atomic clock, magnetometer etc. Also it has found its application in giant experimental facilities e.g. diagnostic systems associated with accelerator. In this talk I will emphasize on two important applications of laser based instrumentation: (i) precision time and frequency standard and (ii) spectroscopy of exotic nuclei. The first one will include basic outline of laser-atom interaction in coherent media and its manifestation in developing a precision time standard device i.e. a portable atomic clock, based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency. The later part of the talk will focus on the important application of laser in exotic nuclear spectroscopy. Here I will mainly discuss a prospective programme on setting up a laser spectrometer in conjunction with an Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL). (author)

  18. Laser Spectroscopy of Muonic Atoms and Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Randolf; Fernandes, Luis M P; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Amaro, Fernando D; Amaro, Pedro; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M R; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Diepold, Marc; Franke, Beatrice; Galtier, Sandrine; Giesen, Adolf; Gouvea, Andrea L; Götzfried, Johannes; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hildebrandt, Malte; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kirch, Klaus; Knecht, Andreas; Knowles, Paul; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Bigot, Eric-Olivier Le; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A M; Ludhova, Livia; Machado, Jorge; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; Santos, Joaquim M F dos; Santos, José Paulo; Schaller, Lukas A; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Szabo, Csilla I; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Voss, Andreas; Weichelt, Birgit; Antognini, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy of the Lamb shift (2S-2P energy difference) in light muonic atoms or ions, in which one negative muon $\\mu^-$ is bound to a nucleus, has been performed. The measurements yield significantly improved values of the root-mean-square charge radii of the nuclei, owing to the large muon mass, which results in a vastly increased muon wave function overlap with the nucleus. The values of the proton and deuteron radii are 10 and 3 times more accurate than the respective CODATA values, but 7 standard deviations smaller. Data on muonic helium-3 and -4 ions is being analyzed and will give new insights. In future, the (magnetic) Zemach radii of the proton and the helium-3 nuclei will be determined from laser spectroscopy of the 1S hyperfine splittings, and the Lamb shifts of muonic Li, Be and B can be used to improve the respective charge radii.

  19. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in laser gradient field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is capable of probing dynamic processes in living biological systems. From photon fluctuation of fluorescing particles which diffuse through a small detection volume, FCS reveals information on the concentration and the structure of the particles, as well as information on microscopic environment.In this note, we study the radiation forces experienced by Rayleigh particles in a laser field in details, and analyze the effects of gradient field on FCS measurements.

  20. Absorption spectroscopy with quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers operating near lambda=8 micrometers were used for detection and quantification of trace gases in ambient air by means of sensitive absorption spectroscopy. N2O, 12CH4, 13CH4, and different isotopic species of H2O were detected. Also, a highly selective detection of ethanol vapor in air with a sensitivity of 125 parts per billion by volume (ppb) was demonstrated.

  1. Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic detection of short-lived gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm−1 was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm3) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive short-lived species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10−8 cm−1 W/Hz1/2. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10−7 cm−1 (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10−8 cm−1 (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power

  2. Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Hongming [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l' Atmosphère, Université du Littoral Côte d' Opale, 189A, Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Laboratory of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1125, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong, E-mail: chen@univ-littoral.fr [Laboratoire de Physicochimie de l' Atmosphère, Université du Littoral Côte d' Opale, 189A, Av. Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Gao, Xiaoming [Laboratory of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1125, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sigrist, Markus W. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Quantum Electronics, HPT H4.1, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-09

    Spectroscopic detection of short-lived gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm{sup −1} was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm{sup 3}) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive short-lived species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10{sup −7 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.

  3. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xukun Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10 − 8   W ⋅ cm − 1 / Hz 1 / 2 .

  4. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy stratigraphic characterization of multilayered painted surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser spectroscopy techniques are modern and competitive methods for elemental analysis. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), due to its advantages as minimally invasive method that provides real time monitoring and selectivity, is a suitable tool to analyze sample composition. Based on the known emission spectra of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Au, Ca, a stratigraphic study regarding the identification of the painting layers content of different mock-up samples was performed. LIBS was used to monitor the laser induced stepwise selective removal of the painting layers and to analyze their composition. The obtained LIBS spectra were correlated with profilometric measurements. - Highlights: ► LIBS was used to analyze heavy metals in mock-up painting samples. ► LIBS data are correlated with profilometric and optical microscopy measurements. ► Appropriate analysis parameters are provided for some materials used in painting.

  5. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  6. Laser spectroscopy of U and UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the laser isotope speparation method, uranium atoms or molecules, usually UF6, are excited by a laser beam with a wavelength tunability and narrow linewidth, before they are fixed by an appropriate procedure. Therefore it is important to know the basic laser photo-excitation process. From this point of view, spectroscopic studies were performed for uranium atom (U) and molecule (UF6). Highly resolved fluorescence and absorption spectra of U were obtained mainly for the energy level of 16900 cm-1 by vaporizing uranium metal, producing an atomic beam and irradiating it with a narrow bandwidth laser beam. From these spectra, the isotope shift, the hyperfine structure and the photo-absorption cross section were obtained. And using a pulsed laser beam source, lifetimes of excited states of uranium atoms were measured. Vibrational and vibronic states of UF6 were also studied using a solid film of pure UF6 or a mixture of UF6 and buffer gas formed on a cold plate. Using a Raman spectroscopy, it was revealed that a peak of a vibrational spectrum is slightly influenced by the concentration of the buffer gas added in UF6. From the measurement of the absorption and the fluorescence spectrum for the X-A tilde transition, some progressions of the vibrational modes were observed. (author)

  7. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS): specific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, M. S.; Savovic, J.; Stoiljkovic, M.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Momcilovic, M.; Ciganovic, J.; Zivkovic, S.

    2015-12-01

    A short overview of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with emphasis on the new trends is presented. Nowadays, due to unique features of this technique, LIBS has found applications in a great variety of fields. Achievements in the application of LIBS in nuclear area, for hazardous materials detection and in geology were considered. Also, some results recently obtained at VINCA Institute, with LIBS system based on transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser, are presented. Future investigations of LIBS will be oriented toward further improvement of the analytical performance of this technique, as well as on finding new application fields.

  8. Isotope analysis by infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of IR laser spectroscopy as a technique for the measurement of small abundances of stable and radioactive isotopes has been examined. Theoretical considerations and first experimental results with two laser systems are presented: 1) Coincidences between emission lines of a CO2-laser and absorption lines of 13C-subsituted ethylene can be used to determine the 13C-concentration of C2H4. 2) A tunable PbS-diode laser emitting in the 4.3 μm-spectral region of the rotation-vibration bands of CO2 can be used to determine abundances of 12C, 13C, 16O, 17O and 18O in small samples of CO2. With optimized performance, sensitivities up to 10-9-10-10 seem possible, and for higher abundances an accuracy of 10-3. This should allow geophysical isotope studies to be performed and it is hoped that the technique will eventually be applicable to measuring the activity of long-lived radioisotopes. (orig.)

  9. A novel differential velocity modulation laser spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental investigation of a novel differential velocity modulation laser spectroscopy is reported and demonstrated with the spectra of Meinel system. The S/N ratio excesses 500︰1, about 60 times higher than that with the traditional non-differential technique. With this technique, we obtained the high-resolution electronic absorption spectra of (1, 0) vibration-al band of CS+ for the first time. It is confirmed that this technique will be a powerful method and receive wide application in studies of new molecular ions.

  10. Laser spectroscopy on the heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presented report the perspectives of the study of the electric charge and current space distributions in the nuclei by laser spectroscopy methods on the beams of the fast multiple charged ions are discussed. The calculations of both the level energies and widths in the H-like and He-like ions and of the isotopic shifts and hyperfine splitting in the optical spectra of these ions are performed. The project of the experimental set-up for these measurements is considered. (author)

  11. Storage ring and laser nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage-ring technique is complementary to trapping-ion technique. A storage ring for energetic ions will enable us to study exotic phenomena, such as hydrogenic atoms and enhanced β-decay of 'bare nuclei'. A storage ring for low-energy ions is good for precise laser-nuclear spectroscopy. TARN-II is a kind of the former, and it is suggested that an extremely high magnetic field produced by a highly ionized atom gives us insight into nuclear magnetism if hyperfine anomaly is observed for such an atom. (author)

  12. Cavity ringdown spectroscopy with widely tunable swept-frequency lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A novel approach to cavity ringdown (CRD) spectroscopy based on swept-frequency (SF) lasers enables rapid measurement of CRD absorption spectra. Our new SF CRD spectrometer incorporates a miniature widely-tunable continuous-wave SF laser and requires less than 1 s to record wide-ranging absorption spectra with high sensitivity in a single rapid sweep of the laser frequency. The spectrometer has a single-ended transmitter-receiver configuration based on retro-reflected optical-heterodyne detection, and yields a simple, compact, versatile instrument for efficient sensing of gases. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring weak absorption spectra of carbon dioxide gas at 1.5-1.6 μm. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  13. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Scamarcio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, noninvasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selectivedetection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb and sub-ppb range.The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs has given a new aspect toinfrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLsare attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent properties in terms of narrowlinewidth, average power and room temperature operation. In combination with these lasersources, photoacoustic spectroscopy offers the advantage of high sensitivity and selectivity,compact sensor platform, fast time-response and user friendly operation. This paper reportsrecent developments on quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for tracegas detection. In particular, different applications of a photoacoustic trace gas sensoremploying a longitudinal resonant cell with a detection limit on the order of hundred ppb ofozone and ammonia are discussed. We also report two QC laser-based photoacousticsensors for the detection of nitric oxide, for environmental pollution monitoring andmedical diagnostics, and hexamethyldisilazane, for applications in semiconductormanufacturing process.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), a widely used atomic emission spectroscopy technique for elemental analysis of materials. It is based on the use of a high-power, short pulse laser excitation. The book is divided into two main sections: the first one concerning theoretical aspects of the technique, the second one describing the state of the art in applications of the technique in different scientific/technological areas. Numerous examples of state of the art applications provide the readers an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique. The LIBS theoretical aspects are reviewed. The book helps the readers who are less familiar with the technique to understand the basic principles. Numerous examples of state of the art applications give an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique potentiality. These examples of applications may have a strong impact on future industrial utilization. The authors made important contributions to the development of this field.

  15. Laser Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %PS205 %title\\\\ \\\\Following the discovery of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms ($\\overline{p}He^{+} $) at KEK in 1991, systematic studies of their properties were made at LEAR from 1991 to 1996. In the first two years the lifetime of $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ in liquid and gaseous helium at various temperatures and pressures was measured and the effect of foreign gases on the lifetime of these atoms was investigated. Effects were also discovered which gave the antiproton a 14\\% longer lifetime in $^4$He than in $^3$He, and resulted in important differences in the shape of the annihilation time spectra in the two isotopes.\\\\ \\\\Since 1993 laser spectroscopy of the metastable $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atoms became the main focus of PS205. Transitions were stimulated between metastable and non-metastable states of the $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atom by firing a pulsed dye laser beam into the helium target every time an identified metastable atom was present (Figure 1). If the laser frequency matched the transition energy, the...

  16. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  17. Laser sources for precision spectroscopy on atomic strontium

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, N.; Ferrari, G; Prevedelli, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Drullinger, R. E.; Tino, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new laser setup designed for high-precision spectroscopy on laser cooled atomic strontium. The system, which is entirely based on semiconductor laser sources, delivers 200 mW at 461 nm for cooling and trapping atomic strontium from a thermal source, 4 mW at 497 nm for optical pumping from the metastable View the MathML source state, 12 mW at 689 nm on linewidth less than 1 kHz for second-stage cooling of the atomic sample down to the recoil limit, 1.2 W at 922 nm for optical trap...

  18. Real-time control of ultrafast laser micromachining by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features

  19. Real-time control of ultrafast laser micromachining by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tao; Li, Jinggao; Longtin, Jon P

    2004-03-20

    Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features. PMID:15065729

  20. Time-resolved and doppler-reduced laser spectroscopy on atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes have been studied in neutral boron, carbon, silicon and strontium, in singly ionized gadolinium and tantalum and in molecular carbon monoxide and C2. The time-resolved techniques were based either on pulsed lasers or pulse-modulated CW lasers. Several techniques have been utilized for the production of free atoms and ions such as evaporation into an atomic beam, sputtering in hollow cathodes and laser-produced plasmas. Hyperfine interactions in boron, copper and strontium have been examined using quantum beat spectroscopy, saturation spectroscopy and collimated atomic beam spectroscopy. Measurement techniques based on effusive hollow cathodes as well as laser produced plasmas in atomic physics have been developed. Investigations on laser produced plasmas using two colour beam deflection tomography for determination of electron densities have been performed. Finally, new possibilities for view-time-expansion in light-in-flight holography using mode-locked CW lasers have been demonstrated. (au)

  1. Laboratory diode laser spectroscopy in molecular planetary astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy of planetary atmospheres is performed at high spectral resolution comparable to that in the laboratory. This requires that laboratory spectroscopy use the highest resolution and the most accurate techniques. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy can supply many of the spectroscopic parameters needed by astronomers. In particular, line positions, line strengths, and collisional line widths are measured with diode lasers, and these are often among the best values available. Diode laser spectra are complimentary to lower resolution, broader-coverage Fourier transform spectra. Certain procedures must be adopted, however, when using diode lasers, for determining their output characteristics and for calibrating each spectrum against quality references.

  2. Quantitative measurement of Au and Fe in ferromagnetic nanoparticles with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy using a polymer-based gel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical applications of nanomaterials require substantial changes in the research and development stage, such as the introduction of new processes and methods, and adequate modifications of the national and international laws on the medical product registration. To accomplish this, proper parameterizations of nano-scaled products need to be developed and implemented, accompanied by suitable measuring methods. The introduction of metallic particles to medical practices requires the precise, quantitative evaluation of the production process and later quantification and characterization of the nanoparticles in biological matrices for the bioavailability and biodistribution evaluation. In order to address these issues we propose a method for the quantitative analysis of the metallic nanoparticles composition by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Au/Fe ferro-magnetic nanoparticles were used to evaluate the method applicability. Since the powder form of nanoparticles spatters upon laser ablation, first we had to develop fast, convenient and quantitative method for the nano-powdered sample preparation. The proposed method is based on the polymer gelation of nanopowders or their water suspensions. It has been shown that nanopowders compositional changes throughout the production process, along with their final characterization, can be reliable performed with LIBS technique. The quantitative values obtained were successfully correlated with those derived with ICP technique. - Highlights: ► The atomic composition of nanoparticles was analyzed with LIBS. ► The amount of gold on ferromagnetic particles was quantified by the method. ► Gel fixation was used as new way of handling powdered samples. ► LIBS results are comparable with other equivalent methods (ICP). ► There was a difference between measured and assumed nanoparticle composition.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy of neutron deficient Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the ground state properties of neutron-deficient tin isotopes towards the doubly-magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. Nuclear spins, changes in the rms charge radii and electromagnetic moments of $^{101-121}$Sn will be measured by laser spectroscopy using the CRIS experimental beam line. These ground-state properties will help to clarify the evolution of nuclear structure properties approaching the $\\textit{N = Z =}$ 50 shell closures. The tin isotopic chain is currently the frontier for the application of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations. Our knowledge of the nuclear structure of the Sn isotopes will set a benchmark for the advances of many-body methods, and will provide an important test for modern descriptions of the nuclear force.

  4. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshov, M. A.; Kuritsyn, Yu. A.; Romanovskii, Yu. V.

    2015-04-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review.

  5. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Platform Based on GaAs/AlGaAs Thin-Film Waveguides and Quantum Cascade Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Haas, Julian; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Godejohann, Matthias; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The performance and versatility of GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguide technology in combination with quantum cascade lasers for mid-infrared spectroscopy in comparison to conventional FTIR spectroscopy is presented. Infrared radiation is provided by a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectrometer comprising four tunable QCLs providing a wavelength range of 5-11 μm (1925-885 cm(-1)) within a single collimated beam. Epitaxially grown GaAs slab waveguides serve as optical transducer for tailored evanescent field absorption analysis. A modular waveguide mounting accessory specifically designed for on-chip thin-film GaAs waveguides is presented serving as a flexible analytical platform in lieu of conventional attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystals uniquely facilitating macroscopic handling and alignment of such microscopic waveguide structures in real-world application scenarios. PMID:26845392

  6. Standoff Sensing Technology Based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Advanced Targeting, Surveillance and Reconnaissance in Security and Architectural Heritage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gaona Fernández, María Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ability to perform simultaneous, multi-element and real-time analysis without pretreatment and doing from a distance, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in standoff mode is now considered a cutting-edge analytical technology. All these features have allowed its application in various fields such as security, environment, cultural heritage protection and space exploration, among the more outstanding. Nonetheless, the fact of working to long distances involves greater dif...

  7. A sensitive and versatile detector for atmospheric NO2 and NOx based on blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Dubé, William P; Lerner, Brian M; Wagner, Nicholas L; Williams, Eric J; Brown, Steven S

    2009-10-15

    A sensitive, small detector was developed for atmospheric NO2 and NOx concentration measurements. NO2 is directly detected by laser diode based cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) at 404 nm. The sum of NO and NO2 (=NOx) is simultaneously measured in a second cavity by quantitative conversion of ambient NO to NO2 in excess ozone. Interferences due to absorption by other trace gases at 404 nm, such as ozone and water vapor, are either negligible or small and are easily quantified. The limit of detection is 22 pptv (2sigma precision) for NO2 at 1 s time resolution. The conversion efficiency of NO to NO2 is 99% in excess O3. The accuracy of the NO2 measurement is mainly limited by the NO2 absorption cross section to +/-3%. Because of the formation of undetectable higher nitrogen oxides in subsequent reactions of NO2 with ozone in the NOx channel, the (1sigma) accuracy of the NOx measurement is increased to approximately +/-5% depending on the level of NOx. The new instrument was designed to be easily deployed in the field with respect to size, weight and consumables. Measurements were validated against a photolysis/chemiluminescence detector during six days of sampling ambient air with colocated inlets. The data sets for NO2, NO and NOx exhibit high correlation and good agreement within the combined accuracies of both methods. Linear fits for all three species give similar slopes of 0.99 in ambient air. PMID:19921901

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Discrimination between Explosives and Plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to distinguish explosives from plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is discussed. A model for classification with cross-validation theory is built based on the partial least-square discriminant analysis method. Seven types of plastics and one explosive are used as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has the capacity to discriminate explosives from plastics combined with chemometrics methods. The results could be useful for prospective research of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on the differentiation of explosives and other materials. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. A model combining spectrum standardization and dominant factor based partial least square method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative measurement of carbon content in coal is essentially important for coal property analysis. However, quantitative measurement of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) suffered from low measurement accuracy due to measurement uncertainty as well as the matrix effects. In this study, our previously proposed spectrum standardization method and dominant factor based partial least square (PLS) method were combined to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content in coal using LIBS. The combination model utilized the spectrum standardization method to accurately calculate dominant carbon concentration as the dominant factor, and then applied PLS with full spectrum information to correct residual errors. The combination model was applied to measure the carbon content in 24 bituminous coal samples. Results demonstrated that the combination model can further improve measurement accuracy compared with the spectrum standardization model and the dominant factor based PLS model, in which the dominant factor was calculated using traditional univariate method. The coefficient of determination, root-mean-square error of prediction, and average relative error for the combination model were 0.99, 1.63%, and 1.82%, respectively. The values for the spectrum standardization model were 0.90, 2.24%, and 2.75%, respectively, whereas those for the dominant factor based PLS model were 0.99, 2.66%, and 3.64%, respectively. The results indicate that LIBS has great potential to be applied for the coal analysis. - Highlights: • Spectrum standardization method is utilized to establish a more accurate dominant factor model. • PLS algorithm is applied to further compensate for residual errors using the entire spectrum information. • Measurement accuracy is improved

  10. Laser sources for precision spectroscopy on atomic strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, N; Ferrari, G; Prevedelli, M; Sorrentino, F; Drullinger, R E; Tino, G M

    2006-04-01

    We present a new laser setup designed for high-precision spectroscopy on laser cooled atomic strontium. The system, which is entirely based on semiconductor laser sources, delivers 200 mW at 461 nm for cooling and trapping atomic strontium from a thermal source, 4 mW at 497 nm for optical pumping from the metastable P23 state, 12 mW at 689 nm on linewidth less than 1 kHz for second-stage cooling of the atomic sample down to the recoil limit, 1.2 W at 922 nm for optical trapping close to the "magic wavelength" for the 0-1 intercombination line at 689 nm. The 689 nm laser was already employed to perform a frequency measurement of the 0-1 intercombination line with a relative accuracy of 2.3 x 10(-11), and the ensemble of laser sources allowed the loading in a conservative dipole trap of multi-isotopes strontium mixtures. The simple and compact setup developed represents one of the first steps towards the realization of a transportable optical standards referenced to atomic strontium. PMID:16527534

  11. COMPLIS: COllinear spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Pulsed Laser spectroscopy experiment has been installed for the study of hyperfine structure and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes decelerated ion-implantation, element-selective laser ionization, magnetic and time-of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy has been performed on the desorbed atoms in a set-up at ISOLDE-3 but later on high resolution laser collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed ion beam is planned for the Booster ISOLDE set-up. During the first operation time of ISOLDE-3 we restricted our experiments to Doppler-limited resonant ionization laser and $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ nuclear spectroscopy on neutron deficient platinum isotopes of even mass number down to A~=~186 and A~=~179 respectively. These isotopes have been produced by implantation of radioactive Hg and their subsequent $\\beta$-decay.

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopy with quantum cascade distributed-feedback lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme; Nägele, Markus; Sigrist, Markus W

    2008-01-01

    We present photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy measurements of carbon dioxide, methanol, and ammonia. The light source for the excitation was a single-mode quantum cascade distributed-feedback laser, which was operated in pulsed mode at moderate duty cycle and slightly below room temperature. Temperature tuning resulted in a typical wavelength range of 3 cm-1at a linewidth of 0.2 cm-1. The setup was based on a Herriott multipass arrangement around the PA cell; the cell was equipped with a radial ...

  13. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  14. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Diaz, M; Ponce, L; Arronte, M; Flores, T [Laboratorio TecnologIa Laser, CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Ind. Altamira, 89600, TAMPS (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  15. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained

  16. Emission spectroscopy analysis during Nopal cladodes dethorning by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Díaz, M.; Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Flores, T.

    2007-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy of the pulsed laser ablation of spines and glochids from Opuntia (Nopal) cladodes was performed. Nopal cladodes were irradiated with Nd:YAG free-running laser pulses on their body, glochids and spines. Emission spectroscopy analyses in the 350-1000 nm region of the laser induced plasma were made. Plasma plume evolution characterization, theoretical calculations of plasma plume temperature and experiments varying the processing atmosphere showed that the process is dominated by a thermally activated combustion reaction which increases the dethorning process efficiency. Therefore, appropriate laser pulse energy for minimal damage of cladodes body and in the area beneath glochids and spines can be obtained.

  17. Recognition of archaeological materials underwater by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of different materials immersed in seawater has been studied by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The plasma emission was produced by a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser operated at 1064 nm in a dual pulse mode. Different classes of materials potentially found in the undersea archaeological parks, such as iron, copper-based alloys, precious alloys, marble and wood have been examined. Data acquisition and processing were optimized for better signal control and in order to improve the detection threshold. In all the examined cases but wood, qualitative analysis was successful and allowed for the material recognition. The spectral features necessary to clearly distinguish marble materials from calcareous rocks have been also established. It was found that these characteristic spectral intervals could be also used for the recognition of sedimentary layers deposited on the underwater findings. Quantitative chemical analysis was also performed on submerged bronze samples, after generating calibration curves with standards of similar matrix composition

  18. LASER CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY (LCS AND ITS CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karganov Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The method of laser correlation spectroscopy (LCS is based on the analysis of the spectrum of quasielastic light scatter during coherent monochromatic laser irradiation of micro-particles in biological fluids (blood serum, urine, oropharyngeal washout fluid, tear fluid etc.. Spectrum provides information on dynamic processes in the analyzed system: translation motion of scattering particles and their orientation and conformation dynamics. Special procedures of cluster analysis make it possible to find out to which linkage group a particular spectrum belongs. LCS allows evaluation of sub-fractional composition of biological fluids in a wide range of molecular sizes (from 1 to 10,000 nm, which determines principal novelty of this approach in ophthalmology.

  19. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the discrimination of Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, S; Ugena, L; Tornero-Lopéz, J; Martín, H; Molina, M; Camacho, J J; Cáceres, J O

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) for the discrimination of different strains of various species of Candida. This genus of yeast was selected due to its medical relevance as it is commonly found in cases of fungal infection in humans. Twenty one strains belonging to seven species of Candida were included in the study. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was employed as a complementary technique to provide information about elemental composition of Candida cells. The use of LIBS spectra in combination with optimized NN models provided reliable discrimination among the distinct Candida strains with a high spectral correlation index for the samples analyzed, without any false positive or false negative. Therefore, this study indicates that LIBS-NN based methodology has the potential to be used as fast fungal identification or even diagnostic method. PMID:27216662

  20. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  1. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail

  2. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A. K.; Rai, N. K.; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A. K.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Rai, Pramod K.

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail.

  3. Cold Antihydrogen for Precise Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Bachor, P T; Gabrielse, G S; Walz, J; Hessels, E A; Tan, J; Oelert, W; George, M C; Grzonka, D J; Kossick, M; Storry, C H; Sefzick, T

    2002-01-01

    %AD-2 %title\\\\ \\\\The Antihydrogen TRAP Collaboration (ATRAP) seeks to do precise laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen. Comparisons of antihydrogen and hydrogen atoms should provide the most stringent test of CPT invariance involving baryons and leptons. ATRAP is an expansion of the TRAP collaboration that developed the techniques to take CERN antiprotons from an energy of 6 MeV (momentum 100 MeV/c) all the way down to thermal equilibrium at 4 K for storage. This storage energy is lower than realized previously by more than ten orders of magnitude. The TRAP techniques include slowing, capturing, electron cooling and stacking of antiprotons. ATRAP and other collaborations will use antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD). This new facility makes sense for such experiments because we showed that antiprotons can be accumulated in a trap at much lower expense than was required in the earlier CERN AC-AA-LEAR complex. In the closest approach yet to the production of cold antihydrogen, collaboration members wer...

  4. Multichannel fiber-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the rat brain exposed to a laser-induced shock wave: comparison between ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Mai; Kawauchi, Satoko; Okuda, Wataru; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Takemura, Toshiya; Sato, Shunichi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2015-03-01

    Due to considerable increase in the terrorism using explosive devices, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) receives much attention worldwide. However, little is known about the pathology and mechanism of bTBI. In our previous study, we found that cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) occurred in the hemisphere exposed to a laser- induced shock wave (LISW), which was followed by long-lasting hypoxemia-oligemia. However, there is no information on the events occurred in the contralateral hemisphere. In this study, we performed multichannel fiber-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the rat brain exposed to an LISW and compared the results for the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. A pair of optical fibers was put on the both exposed right and left parietal bone; white light was delivered to the brain through source fibers and diffuse reflectance signals were collected with detection fibers for both hemispheres. An LISW was applied to the left (ipsilateral) hemisphere. By analyzing reflectance signals, we evaluated occurrence of CSD, blood volume and oxygen saturation for both hemispheres. In the ipsilateral hemispheres, we observed the occurrence of CSD and long-lasting hypoxemia-oligemia in all rats examined (n=8), as observed in our previous study. In the contralateral hemisphere, on the other hand, no occurrence of CSD was observed, but we observed oligemia in 7 of 8 rats and hypoxemia in 1 of 8 rats, suggesting a mechanism to cause hypoxemia or oligemia or both that is (are) not directly associated with CSD in the contralateral hemisphere.

  5. Open-path quantum cascade laser-based system for simultaneous remote sensing of methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor using chirped-pulse differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Paulo; Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-10-01

    Methane and Nitrous Oxide are long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with significant global warming effects. We report on application of chirped-pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to simultaneous measurements of these trace gases in both open-path fence-line and backscatter systems. The intra-pulse thermal frequency chip in a QCL can be time resolved and calibrated to allow for high resolution differential optical absorption spectroscopy over the spectral window of the chip, which for a DFB-QCL can be reach ~2cm-1 for a 500 nsec pulse. The spectral line-shape of the output from these lasers are highly stable from pulse to pulse over long period of time (> 1 day), and the system does not require frequent calibrations.

  6. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information. PMID:25503003

  7. Compact High Sensitive Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a versatile tool for in situ substance characterization. Existing LIBS instruments are not compact enough for space...

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Discrimination between Explosives and Plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian-Qian; LIU Kai; ZHAO Hua

    2012-01-01

    A method to distinguish explosives from plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is discussed. A model for classification with cross-validation theory is built based on the partial least-square discriminant analysis method. Seven types of plastics and one explosive are used as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has the capacity to discriminate explosives from plastics combined with chemometrics methods. The results could be useful for prospective research of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on the differentiation of explosives and other materials.%A method to distinguish explosives from plastics using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is discussed.A model for classification with cross-validation theory is built based on the partial least-square discriminant analysis method.Seven types of plastics and one explosive are used as samples to test the model.The experimental results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has the capacity to discriminate explosives from plastics combined with chemometrics methods.The results could be useful for prospective research of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on the differentiation of explosives and other materials.

  9. Laser spectroscopy of gas confined in nanoporous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We show that high-resolution laser spectroscopy can probe surface interactions of gas confined in nano-cavities of porous materials. We report on strong line broadening and unfamiliar lineshapes due to tight confinement, as well as signal enhancement due to multiple photon scattering. This new domain of laser spectroscopy constitute a challenge for the theory of collisions and spectroscopic lineshapes, and open for new ways of analyzing porous materials and processes taking place therein.

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for real time and online elemental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, V. N.; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, J P

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser based diagnostics used to study atomic emission from the expanding plasma plume formed during the laser-matter interaction. It provides valuable information about the composition of the target material. LIBS has proved its potential application in the analysis of impurities, pollutants and toxic elements in various types of matrices of different samples (solid, liquid and gases), even those present under difficult and harsh environmental ...

  11. [Joint Analyses of Na2SO4 Solution by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-jia; Lu, Yuan; Liu, Chun-hao; Zheng, Rong-er

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic sensor is becoming an important issue for the deep-sea exploration due to the advantages of multi-specie, multi-phases and stand-off detection. Different approach have been developing in recent years based on LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) and Raman spectroscopy since Raman-LIBS are complementary techniques with the similar components and the capability of molecular and elementary analysis. In this work, we built a LIBS-Raman system and detected Na2SO4 in aqueous solution to evaluate the potential ocean application. With the same laser, spectrometer and detector, a hybrid of Raman and LIBS system was developed to realize the detection of anions and cations in the seawater. The optics was composed by two parts. Raman channel and LIBS channel, and the signal was collected by a Y type optical fiber bundle. The signal from two channels was separated by imaging on different arrays of the CCD detector. The Raman spectra of SO4(2-) and LIBS spectra of Na was successfully detected simultaneously when the pulse energy was above 3.6 mJ. However, due to the strong bremsstrahlung radiation of LIBS, the signal to noise ratio of Raman was significantly decreased as the laser energy increasing. The results manifested the great potential of Raman-LIBS combination for the underwater detection. PMID:27228778

  12. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  13. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy of sputtered uranium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy was used to study the sputtering of 99.8% 238U metal foil when bombarded by normally incident 500 to 3000 eV Ne+, Ar+, Kr+, and O2+. A three-level atom model of the LIF processes is developed to interpret the observed fluorescent emission from the sputtered species. The model shows that close attention must be paid to the conditions under which the experiment is carried out as well as to the details of the collision cascade theory of sputtering. Rigorous analysis shows that when properly applied, LIF can be used to investigate the predictions of sputtering theory as regards energy distributions of sputtered particles and for the determination of sputtering yields. The possibility that thermal emission may occur during sputtering can also be tested using the proposed model. It is shown that the velocity distribution (either the number density or flux density distribution, depending upon the experimental conditions) of the sputtered particles can be determined using the LIF technique and that this information can be used to obtain a description of the basic sputtering mechanisms. These matters are discussed using the U-atom fluorescence measurements as a basis. The relative sputtering yields for various incident ions on uranium were also measured for the first time using the LIF technique. A surprisingly high fraction of the sputtered uranium atoms were found to occupy the low lying metastable energy levels of U(I). The population of the sputtered metastable atoms were found approximately to obey a Boltzman distribution with an effective temperature of 920 +- 1000K. 41 references

  14. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental and hot bands of the vibration--rotation transitions of 6 LiH, 7 LiH, 6 LiD, and 7 LiD were observed by infrared diode laser spectroscopy at Doppler-limited resolution. Lithium hydride molecules were produced by the reaction of the Li vapor with hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Some 40 transitions were observed and, after combined with submillimeter-wave spectra reported by G. M. Plummer et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 81, 4893 (1984)], were analyzed to yield Dunham-type constants with accuracies more than an order of magnitude higher than those published in the literature. It was clearly demonstrated that the Born--Oppenheimer approximation did not hold, and some parameters representing the breakdown were evaluated. The Born--Oppenheimer internuclear distance r/sup BO//sub e/ was derived to be 1.594 914 26 (59) A, where a new value of Planck's constant recommended by CODATA was employed. The relative intensity of absorption lines was measured to determine the ratio of the permanent dipole moment to its first derivative with respect to the internuclear distance: μ/sub e/ [(partialμpartialr)/sub e/ r/sub e/ ] = 1.743(86). The pressure broadening parameter Δν/sub p/ P was determined to be 6.40 (22) MHzTorr by measuring the linewidth dependence on the pressure of hydrogen, which was about four times larger than the value for the dipole--quadrupole interaction estimated by Kiefer and Bushkovitch's theory

  15. Frequency modulation spectroscopy with a terahertz quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eichholz, René; Richter, Heiko; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, H. -W.

    2014-01-01

    Many physical phenomena have characteristic energies, which correspond to terahertz (THz) frequencies. For example, high-resolution spectroscopy allows for the investigation of the structure and the energy levels of molecules and atoms. THz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising radiation sources for such a type of spectroscopy, because they are frequency tunable, and they exhibit mW output powers as well as a narrow line width. So far, absorption spectroscopy with QCLs employed modulati...

  16. Laser spectroscopies for elemental and molecular analysis in art and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Austin; Spoto, Giuseppe; Anglos, Demetrios

    2012-02-01

    Spectroscopic methods using laser sources have significantly improved our capacity to unravel the chemical composition of works of art and archaeological remains. Lasers enhance the performance of spectroscopic techniques which require intense light sources and specific analytical protocols assuring a microanalytical approach for analysis has been established. This review focuses on laser spectroscopic methods used in the field of cultural heritage diagnostics. Emphasis in this work is given to the analytical capabilities of laser-based techniques for elemental and/or molecular analysis and in-situ use, spatial resolution and microanalysis. Analytical methods are classified according to the elemental (LIBS, LA-ICP-MS) and molecular (LIF/LIDAR, time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) information they yield. For non-destructive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF/LIDAR) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, imaging applications are described. The advantages provided by combined complementary techniques including but not limited to LIBS-LIF-Raman and LIBS-XRF are presented, as are recent improvements in terms of chemical imaging. Advances and applications of THz spectroscopy, non-linear spectroscopy and imaging are outlined. Finally, laser spectroscopies are described for investigations of different materials and works of art which include Bronze Age ceramics, Minoan archaeological remains, Ancient Roman buildings, Renaissance wall paintings and sculptures, and manuscripts containing iron gall inks and colorants.

  17. Frequency Comb Assisted Broadband Precision Spectroscopy with Cascaded Diode Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Junqiu; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Kordts, Arne; Kamel, Ayman N; Guo, Hairun; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-01-01

    Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy, employing both the accuracy of an optical frequency comb and the broad wavelength tuning range of a tunable diode laser, has been widely used in many applications. In this letter we present a novel method using cascaded frequency agile diode lasers, which allows extending the measurement bandwidth to 37.4 THz (1355 to 1630 nm) at MHz resolution with scanning speeds above 1 THz/s. It is demonstrated as a useful tool to characterize a broadband spectrum for molecular spectroscopy and in particular it enables to characterize the dispersion of integrated microresonators up to the fourth order.

  18. Quantum interference shifts in laser spectroscopy with elliptical polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro, Pedro; Safari, Laleh; Antognini, Aldo; Indelicato, Paul; Pohl, Randolf; Santos, José Paulo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the quantum interference shifts between energetically close states, where the state structure is observed by laser spectroscopy. We report a compact and analytical expression that models the quantum interference induced shift for any admixture of circular polarization of the incident laser and angle of observation. An experimental scenario free of quantum interference can thus be predicted with this formula. Although, this study is exemplified here for muonic deuterium, it can be applied to any other laser spectroscopy measurement of $ns-n'p$ frequencies of a nonrelativistic atomic system, via a $ns\\rightarrow n'p \\rightarrow n"s $ scheme.

  19. Laser spectroscopy of neutron deficient gold and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for on-line laser spectroscopy of radioactive atoms based on the resonant ionization spectroscopy of laser-desorbed radioactive samples has been devised. An experimental setup has been installed on-line at the ISOCELE mass separator in Orsay (France) and experiments have been performed on the region of transitional nuclei around Z=79. Isotopic shift measurements on four new isotopes 194Au, 196Au, 198Au, 199Au have been performed on gold and results on the neutron deficient isotopes down to 186 Au have been obtained confirming the nuclear ground-state shape transition from oblate to prolate between 187Au and 186Au. The first isotopic shift measurements on radioactive platinum isotopes have been obtained on 186Pt, 188Pt, 189Pt. Indications of a shape transition have been observed between 186Pt and 188Pt. The extracted experimental changes in mean square charge radii δ 2 > A,A' along isotopic chains are compared to self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus BCS calculations

  20. Double-pulse laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LA-LIBS) is an analytical method, which minimizes sample matrix effects typically found in quantitative LIBS-based direct solid analyses. This paper reports the application of double-pulse laser ablation (DP-LA) to improve the analyte response and the achievable precisions of LA-LIBS. Two coaxial laser beams were applied at the ablation site and the analytical signals were then collected from a second free-standing LIBS plasma downstream of the ablation site. Signal improvements of up to one order of magnitude were observed compared to single-pulse LA-LIBS. The effect of the interpulse delay on the observed signal-to-noise ratios was studied and the quantification capabilities of the optimized DP-LA-LIBS setup were investigated for manganese and iron in a broad range of different alloy types. A linear response was observed for manganese across the different matrices, allowing for nonmatrix-matched calibrations. Matrix effects were observed when analyzing aluminum samples, which, however, could be compensated for by applying iron as internal standard. Size distributions of the ablated material and electron density measurements provide additional insight into the double-pulse process, with additional future work suggested. - Highlights: • Double-pulse laser ablation was coupled to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. • Nonmatrix-matched calibration of manganese in various alloys was performed. • Improved sensitivities and precisions compared to single-pulse LA were demonstrated. • Remaining matrix effects and internal standardization are discussed

  1. Laser spectroscopy of trapped thorium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Sancho, Oscar-Andrey; Okhapkin, Maxim; Zimmermann, Kai; Tamm, Christian; Peik, Ekkehard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Taichenachev, Alexey; Yudin, Valeriy [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    In our experiment more than 10{sup 5} {sup 232}Th{sup +} ions are stored in a linear Paul trap after creation by laser ablation from thorium metal. Single-frequency laser excitation in the complex spectrum of Th{sup +} poses the problem that spontaneous decay populates a number of metastable levels that are decoupled from the laser. Helium and Argon buffer gas are used for collisional cooling and quenching of those levels. We observe laser excitation of the strong resonance line at 401.9 nm with an extended-cavity diode laser and laser excitation of several other transitions around 400 nm and 270 nm with harmonics of a pico-second Ti:Sa laser. In a theoretical analysis we approximate the dense electronic level structure of Th{sup +} ions by just four levels: the ground state and an excited state are coupled by the primary laser, one metastable state is depopulated by a repumper laser and one level by collisions only. The model agrees with experimental results for the fluorescence rate as a function of the laser intensities and can be used to deduce populations and quenching rates. First investigations on two-photon excitation of the Th{sup +} electron shell to the energy range 7.8 eV of the nuclear transition of {sup 229}Th are in progress.

  2. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshov, M.A., E-mail: bolshov@isan.troitsk.ru; Kuritsyn, Yu.A.; Romanovskii, Yu.V.

    2015-04-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review. - Highlights: • Overview of modern TDL-based sensors for combustion • TDL systems, methods of absorption detection and algorithms of data processing • Prominent examples of TDLAS diagnostics of the combustion facilities • Extension of the TDLAS on the tomographic imaging of combustion processes.

  3. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review. - Highlights: • Overview of modern TDL-based sensors for combustion • TDL systems, methods of absorption detection and algorithms of data processing • Prominent examples of TDLAS diagnostics of the combustion facilities • Extension of the TDLAS on the tomographic imaging of combustion processes

  4. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes; Diodenlaserbasierte Resonanzionisations-Massenspektrometrie zur Spektroskopie und Ultraspurenanalyse an Uranisotopen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-08-28

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope {sup 236}U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ({sup 236}U)/({sup 238}U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10{sup -9} was demonstrated.

  5. Laser spectroscopy: Assessment of research needs for laser technologies applied to advanced spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is organized as follows. Section 2 summarizes the current program of DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) and provides some remarks on low laser science and technology could beneficially impact most of the research programs. Section 3 provides a brief global perspective on laser technology and attempts to define important trends in the field. Similarly, Section 4 provides a global perspective on laser spectroscopy and addresses important trends. Thus, Section 5 focuses on the trends in laser technology and spectroscopy which could impact the OHER mission in significant ways and contains the basis for recommendations made in the executive summary. For those with limited familiarity with laser technology and laser spectroscopy, reference is made to Appendix 1 for a list of abbreviations and acronyms. Appendix 2 can serve a useful review or tutorial for those who are not deeply involved with laser spectroscopy. Even those familiar with laser spectroscopy and laser technology may find it useful to know precisely what the authors of this document mean by certain specialized terms and expressions. Finally, a note on the style of referencing may be appropriate. Whenever possible a book or review articles is referenced as the preferred citation. However, we frequently found it useful to reference a number of individual papers of recent origin or those which were not conveniently found in the review articles

  6. Discriminating crude oil grades using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussein, A.; Marzouk, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of crude oil using laser-based analytical techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become of great interest to various specialists in different fields such as geology, petro-chemistry and environmental science. In this work, a detailed study is presented wherein the implementation of an efficient and simple LIBS technique to identify the elemental constituents of crude oil and to distinguish between different grades of petroleum crude oil is discussed. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) technique has been used in this work for direct measurements of atomic, ionic and molecular species in dry crude oil samples with API gravities ranging between 18 and 36. The technique was implemented using the first harmonic of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser source. Atomic and molecular emission bands were observed, consisting of characteristic spectral lines of atoms and diatomic molecular bands, namely from C, H, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, AL, Fe, Ti, Mo, C2 and CN. The intensities of high-resolution spectral lines for some atoms and molecules of elements such as Ca, Na, Fe, Mo, C2 and CN were evaluated at different wavelengths along the obtained spectra. The molecular bands and the elemental spectral lines were used to assess the possibility of adopting the LIBS technique in differentiating between crude oil samples with different American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity values. The results indicate the presence of a distinct correlation between the API gravity values of the various oil samples and the spectral line intensities of the elements and some molecular radical constituents. In addition, the possibility of identifying the API gravity values of unknown oil samples is also indicated.

  7. [Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Gas Hydrate Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wu, Neng-you; Lu, Hai-long; Wu, Dai-dai; Su, Qiu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Gas hydrates are important potential energy resources. Microstructural characterization of gas hydrate can provide information to study the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and to support the exploitation and application of gas hydrate technology. This article systemly introduces the basic principle of laser Raman spectroscopy and summarizes its application in gas hydrate studies. Based on Raman results, not only can the information about gas composition and structural type be deduced, but also the occupancies of large and small cages and even hydration number can be calculated from the relative intensities of Raman peaks. By using the in-situ analytical technology, laser Raman specstropy can be applied to characterize the formation and decomposition processes of gas hydrate at microscale, for example the enclathration and leaving of gas molecules into/from its cages, to monitor the changes in gas concentration and gas solubility during hydrate formation and decomposition, and to identify phase changes in the study system. Laser Raman in-situ analytical technology has also been used in determination of hydrate structure and understanding its changing process under the conditions of ultra high pressure. Deep-sea in-situ Raman spectrometer can be employed for the in-situ analysis of the structures of natural gas hydrate and their formation environment. Raman imaging technology can be applied to specify the characteristics of crystallization and gas distribution over hydrate surface. With the development of laser Raman technology and its combination with other instruments, it will become more powerful and play a more significant role in the microscopic study of gas hydrate. PMID:26978895

  8. Laser spectroscopy in an lithium beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The absorption and fluorescence spectra were measured in a collimated and non-collimated atomic lithium beam by means of a diode laser. Spectral lines with a similar linewidth as the lines observed before in a stationary lithium vapor were observed in the non-collimated beam. The spatial structure of the gas region which emits fluorescence permits to observe in situ the hyperfine levels of lithium atoms: each level corresponds to a relatively plane and well defined region. This indicates that the atoms leave the oven following straight lines (otherwise the collisions would produce diffuse regions), which is in correspondence to the high values of the free mean path expected for the gas at this density, and the extension of the shadow left at the condensation plate. In the collimated beam (diameter D=1 mm, and divergence of 90 mrad), the absorption spectra has a width of 450 MHz (12 deg K or less), which permits the measurement of the hyperfine structure. In this case, from the absorption data we obtained ρD=2 x 1014 atoms/m2. The temperature obtained from the Doppler width is consistent with the temperature obtained from the beam geometry. The lithium atom flow was measured with a quartz thickness monitor and based on estimates of the initial oven temperature and density measurements. Fluorescence measurements have better sensitivity ab do not present problems in the base line due to etalon effects. It is possible to observe the detail structure of the side wings in the line spectra

  9. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  10. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  11. Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-yun; ZHANG Wei-jun; WANG Zhen-ya; HAO Li-qing; HUANG Ming-qiang; ZHAO Wen-wu; LONG Bo; Zhao Wei

    2008-01-01

    We develop a system to measure the elemental composition of unprepared samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in our laboratory, which can be used for the determination of elements in solids, liquids and aerosols. A description of the instrumentation, including laser, sample chamber and detection, is followed by a brief discussion. The time-resolved LIBS of aluminum at atmospheric pressure is presented. At the end, the possibilities and later uses of this technique are briefly discussed.

  12. Laser spectroscopy of atomic beams of short-lived nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of performing laser-nuclear-spectroscopic experiments at qualitatively new level aimed to solve the second-glass current problem and to search T-non invariant effects in the beta-decay of atomic nuclei is discussed. The question of the increase in efficiency of the experiments, aimed to study the main characteristics of nuclei, far from the beta-stability, by means of the laser spectroscopy methods is considered. 147 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Progress in precision laser spectroscopy of p-bar-He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass of the antiproton (the antiproton-electron mass ratio mp-bar/me) can be deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of antiprotonic helium, compared to 3-body QED calculations. The most precise spectroscopy measurements have so far been limited by Doppler-broadening at finite temperatures. The status of our ongoing precision measurements is presented, within the framework of the Asacusa experiment at CERN.

  14. Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Rafał; Doty, James H.; Curl, Robert F.; Tittel, Frank K.; Wysocki, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    A transportable prototype Faraday rotation spectroscopic system based on a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide (NO). A broadly tunable laser source allows targeting the optimum Q3/2(3/2) molecular transition at 1875.81 cm−1 of the NO fundamental band. For an active optical path of 44 cm and 1-s lock-in time constant minimum NO detection limits (1σ) of 4.3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and 0.38 ppbv are obtained by using a thermoelectrically cooled mercury–cadmium–telluride photodetector and liquid nitrogen-cooled indium–antimonide photodetector, respectively. Laboratory performance evaluation and results of continuous, unattended monitoring of atmospheric NO concentration levels are reported. PMID:19625625

  15. Remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases by diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Kan, Ruifeng; He, Yabai; He, Ying; Zhang, Yujun; Xie, Pinhua; liu, Wenqing

    2016-04-01

    Gaseous ammonia is the most abundant alkaline trace gas in the atmosphere. In order to study its role in acid deposition and aerosol formation, as well as its influence on the regional air quality and atmospheric visibility, several instruments has been developed based on TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) techniques. In this paper, a long open path TDLAS system and a continuous-wave CRDS (Cavity-Ring down Spectroscopy) system are presented. The long open path system has been developed for NH3 in-situ monitoring by combining wavelength modulation with harmonic detection techniques to obtain the necessary detection sensitivity. The prototype instrument has been used to monitor atmospheric NH3 concentration at an urban site near Beijing National Stadium during Beijing Olympics in 2008, and recently used to measure the fluxes of NH3 from farm fields by flux-gradient method. The detection limit for ammonia is proved approximately 3ppb for a total path length of 456m. The continuous-wave, rapidly swept CRDS system has been developed for localized atmospheric sensing of trace gases at remote sites. Passive open-path optical sensor units could be coupled by optical fiber over distances of >1 km to a single transmitter/receiver console incorporating a photodetector and a swept-frequency diode laser tuned to molecule-specific near-infrared wavelengths. A noise-limited minimum detectable mixing ratio of ~11 ppbv is attained for ammonia at atmospheric pressure. The developed instruments are deployable in agricultural, industrial, and natural atmospheric environments.

  16. Laser sources for precision spectroscopy on atomic strontium

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, G; T.M. Brzozowski; R. DRULLINGER; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Toninelli, C.; Tino, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser Optics 2003: Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Frequency Conversion, edited by Vladimir I. Ustugov abstract: We present a new laser setup suited for high precision spectroscopy on atomic strontium. The source is used for an absolute frequency measurement of the visible 5s21S0-5s5p3P1 intercombination line of strontium which is considered a possible candidate for a future optical frequency standard. The optical frequency is measured with an optical comb generator referenced to the SI t...

  17. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  18. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  19. VUV spectroscopy of ytterbium using laser and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution VUV spectroscopy (λ/Δλ ≅ 105) of Ytterbium I is performed using synchrotron radiation in combination with a 3m spectrograph and a newly developed VUV laser system in combination with a thermionic diode detector offering good linearity. The VUV laser is based on a resonantly enhanced sum-difference scheme in Krypton and provides the most intense tunable VUV light source (bandwidth 6 GHz) available at present. The principal and intercombination series (n=12 to 70) are studied and their relative intensities are given, revealing the strong influence of perturbers. The Zeeman effect in a field of 5.7 Tesla is exploited to extract g-factors. Numerous Rydberg series in the autoionising range (1330 - 1430 A) converging to the 2F7/2, 2D3/2 and 2D5/2 limits are investigated. Multiple q-reversals can be observed. Lu-Fano-Plots and a K-Matrix approach are used to disentangle the strong interactions between the one-electron inner shell excitations of the closed 4f14 subshell and the doubly excited valence shell. (orig.)

  20. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  1. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-08-01

    We use a two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to measure the coupled absorption and emission properties of atomic species in plasmas produced via laser ablation of solid aluminum targets at atmospheric pressure. Emission spectra from the Al I 394.4 nm and Al I 396.15 nm transitions are measured while a frequency-doubled, continuous-wave, Ti:Sapphire laser is tuned across the Al I 396.15 nm transition. The resulting two-dimensional spectra show the energy coupling between the two transitions via increased emission intensity for both transitions during resonant absorption of the continuous-wave laser at one transition. Time-delayed and gated detection of the emission spectrum is used to isolate the resonantly-excited fluorescence emission from the thermally-excited emission from the plasma. In addition, the tunable continuous-wave laser measures the absorption spectrum of the Al transition with ultra-high resolution after the plasma has cooled, resulting in narrower spectral linewidths than observed in emission spectra. Our results highlight that fluorescence spectroscopy employing continuous-wave laser re-excitation after pulsed laser ablation combines benefits of both traditional emission and absorption spectroscopic methods.

  2. Laser frequency stabilization and shifting by using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bing; Wang, Zhao-Ying; Wu, Bin; Xu, Ao-Peng; Wang, Qi-Yu; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    The stabilizing and shifting of laser frequency are very important for the interaction between the laser and atoms. The modulation transfer spectroscopy for the 87Rb atom with D2 line transition F = 2 → F' = 3 is used for stabilizing and shifting the frequency of the external cavity grating feedback diode laser. The resonant phase modulator with electro—optical effect is used to generate frequency sideband to lock the laser frequency. In the locking scheme, circularly polarized pump- and probe-beams are used. By optimizing the temperature of the vapor, the pump- and probe-beam intensity, the laser linewidth of 280 kHz is obtained. Furthermore, the magnetic field generated by a solenoid is added into the system. Therefore the system can achieve the frequency locking at any point in a range of hundreds of megahertz frequency shifting with very low power loss.

  3. Laser frequency stabilization and shifting by using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stabilizing and shifting of laser frequency are very important for the interaction between the laser and atoms. The modulation transfer spectroscopy for the 87Rb atom with D2 line transition F = 2 → F' = 3 is used for stabilizing and shifting the frequency of the external cavity grating feedback diode laser. The resonant phase modulator with electro—optical effect is used to generate frequency sideband to lock the laser frequency. In the locking scheme, circularly polarized pump- and probe-beams are used. By optimizing the temperature of the vapor, the pump- and probe-beam intensity, the laser linewidth of 280 kHz is obtained. Furthermore, the magnetic field generated by a solenoid is added into the system. Therefore the system can achieve the frequency locking at any point in a range of hundreds of megahertz frequency shifting with very low power loss. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Laser schlieren microphone for optoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J G; Diebold, G J

    1982-11-15

    This paper describes a laser schlieren microphone, where a low-power He-Ne laser beam is deflected by a reflecting diaphragm mounted on an optoacoustic Helmholtz resonator. The sinusoidal pressure variations in the resonator distort the surface of the diaphragm so that the reflected laser beam is alternately focused and defocused. The deflection is converted into an amplitude modulation of the beam by an iris located at a distance from the resonator and detected with a photodiode. The light beam can be modulated at a high frequency and the signal from the photodiode processed with a lock-in amplifier so that noise with a power spectral density proportional to the inverse of the frequency is significantly reduced in the final optoacoustic signal. A mathematical description of the laser schlieren microphone is given that shows the system to respond linearly to small signals. An experiment was done to determine the range of linear response of the microphone to large amplitude optoacoustic signals. PMID:20401014

  5. Improving sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using laser plasmas interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, Alexey A.; Golik, Sergey S.; Nagorny, Ivan G.; Bulanov, Alexey V.

    2006-11-01

    Laser plasmas interaction and spectral characteristics of plasma were investigated at a laser breakdown in a normal atmosphere with the purpose of improving laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensitivity. Colliding plasmas interaction was investigated depending on mechanism of absorption wave of laser radiation and distance between foci. Laser supported detonation wave, breakdown wave and fast wave of ionization are absorption wave observed in experiment. It was shown that seed electrons for cascade breakdown in front of fast wave of ionization is occurred due to oxygen molecules photoionization. Molecular emission and collapse of intensity of plasma continuum during the initial moments of laser plasma expansion were registered. The line/continuum ratio was essentially increased in case of laser plasmas interaction. Thus laser plasmas interaction improves sensitivity of LIBS.

  6. Coherent laser spectroscopy of anti pHe+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities of the coherent laser pulse spectroscopy of the anti pHe+ transitions are considered taking the magnetic structure of the energy levels into account. The possibility for the observation of the dynamics of ''intramolecular'' motions is also analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Laser photothermal spectroscopy of light-induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, L A [Institute of Cryptography, Communications and Informatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-31

    Basic methods of laser photothermal spectroscopy, which are used to study photoinduced absorption in various media, are briefly considered. Comparative analysis of these methods is performed and the latest results obtained in this field are discussed. Different schemes and examples of their practical implementation are considered. (review)

  8. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Chlorophyll a Flourescence Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Jens

    trustworthy results of a sufficient quality; something that remains a problem for many in-situ methods. In my PhD, I present my work with two such in-situ methods, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and OJIP transients, the rising part of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from dark-adapted leaves....

  9. Titanium monoxide spectroscopy following laser-induced optical breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates Titanium Monoxide (TiO) in ablation-plasma by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with 1 to 10 TW/cm2 irradiance, pulsed, 13 nanosecond, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The analysis of TiO is based on our first accurate determination of transition line strengths for selected TiO A-X, B-X, and E-X transitions, particularly TiO A-X γ and B-X γ′ bands. Electric dipole line strengths for the A3Φ-X3δ and B3Π-X3δ bands of TiO are computed. The molecular TiO spectra are observed subsequent to laser-induced breakdown (LIB). We discuss analysis of diatomic molecular spectra that may occur simultaneously with spectra originating from atomic species. Gated detection is applied to investigate the development in time of the emission spectra following LIB. Collected emission spectra allow one to infer micro-plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density. Insight into the state of the micro-plasma is gained by comparing measurements with predictions of atomic and molecular spectra. Nonlinear fitting of recorded and computed diatomic spectra provides the basis for molecular diagnostics, while atomic species may overlap and are simultaneously identified. Molecular diagnostic approaches similar to TiO have been performed for diatomic molecules such as AlO, C2, CN, CH, N2, NH, NO and OH.

  10. Absorption spectroscopy of laser excited europium vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption spectra of europium vapour irradiated by intense, monochromatic resonance radiation at the wavelengths of the three principal resonance lines, 4f76s2, 8S(J=7/2)→4f76s6p, y 8P(J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) at 466.2, 462.7 and 459.4 nm respectively, have been photographed at high resolution. Pulsed resonance radiation was obtained from a tunable, narrow-band dye laser pumped by a nitrogen laser: a broad-band dye laser pumped by the same nitrogen laser provided background radiation. Our spectra covered the ranges 380-400 nm, and 410-450 nm, each one showing transitions from a single resonance level to upper levels in the region of either the 4f76s, 7S or the 4f76s, 9S ionization limit of EuII. In the shorter wavelength range the spectra consisted of weak autoionized series converging towards the 7S limit. In the longer wavelength range the three spectra were surprisingly dissimilar. The majority of the upper levels could be arranged into five highly-perturbed series, one corresponding to each of the J values 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2. These series arose from excitation of the 6p electron to high lying d-orbitals. The absorption transitions to the series members are only prominent in regions where the series are strongly perturbed, indicating that most of the line strength is derived from the perturbing levels. Possible origins for the perturbing levels are discussed. Little evidence was found for a series arising from excitation of the 6p electron to high lying s-orbitals. (author)

  11. Visible spectroscopy of laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of work of these studies of material hardening using intense shock wave produced during laser material interaction, the knowledge of thermal coupling requires determination of plasma characteristics. Optical emission spectra (3800-7100 Angstrom ) of 10, 6 μ m TEA pulsed CO2 laser produced plasma on aluminum and carbon targets have been studied. CO2 laser radiation intensities of 108-109 W/cm2 lasting for about 1.6 to 8 μ s induced plasma formation on aluminum and carbon targets situated in vacuum chamber (10- 5 Torr). Spatial and temporal evolution of emission spectra are obtained with a map of different plasma states. Absorption lines, continuum and emission lines were found to predominate successively the spectrum as the target approaches. Two diagnosis systems have been employed: a gated (1 to 10 μs ) image intensified Optical Multichannel analyzer (OMA EGG Model 1460) and two photomultipliers (PM) set to discriminate the plasma lines from the continuum radiation. Moreover, studies have been conducted on high speed interferometry yielding a time resolved map of plasma electron densities. These measurements were made using an IMACON 790 counter camera (104-2.107 frame/s) together with streak photographies of 1ns/mm to 1 μ s/mm. In some cases the authors were able to evaluate plasma temperature from the relative emission intensity ratio of ion states of a same element

  12. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  13. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  14. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  15. Study of gas exchange in insects by sensitive laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.; Wijkamp, I.; Mitrayana, L.

    2006-01-01

    Although quantifying gas exchange in small insect species is of great biological interest, the progress in this field of research is hampered by the inability of most gas detectors to monitor the low emission rates from these insects. Recently, laser based photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) has emerg

  16. Dual-laser absorption spectroscopy of C2H2 at 1.4 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasci, E.; Odintsova, T. A.; Castrillo, A.; De Vizia, M. D.; Merlone, A.; Bertiglia, F.; Moretti, L.; Gianfrani, L.

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (line intensity factor, pressure self-broadening, and shifting coefficients) of C2H2 at 1.4 μ m were accurately measured using a dual-laser approach, based upon the technique of optical phase locking. This generated an absolute frequency scale underneath the absorption spectra. A pair of extended-cavity diode lasers was used. One of them, the probe laser, is forced to maintain a precise frequency offset from a reference laser, which is an optical frequency standard based on noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy. Laser-gas interaction takes place inside an isothermal multipass cell that is stabilized at the temperature of the triple point of water. The fidelity in the observation of the shape associated to the Pe(14) line of the 2 ν3+ν5 band allowed us to measure the spectroscopic parameters, with a global uncertainty for the line strength of 0.22%.

  17. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications; Instruments de mesure multi-polluants par spectroscopie infrarouge bases sur des lasers fibres et par generation de difference de frequences: developpement et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, J

    2006-12-15

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of < 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2} and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 {mu}m), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  18. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  19. A novel laser diode wavelength stabilisation technique for use in high resolution spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Asmari, Abdullah Shah

    2015-01-01

    Tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) based gas sensors are widely used for trace gas detection for their high selectivity and sensitivity. The laser source used in TDLAS requires a narrow line width in the order of 10s of MHz, with a wavelength stability multiple orders lower than the molecular absorption line width, which is, for example, 4.1GHz (38pm) for an air broadened methane line. TDLAS requires the use of a laser diode with a long term wavelength stabili...

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for real time and online elemental analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, V N; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, J P

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser based diagnostics used to study atomic emission from the expanding plasma plume formed during the laser-matter interaction. It provides valuable information about the composition of the target material. LIBS has proved its potential application in the analysis of impurities, pollutants and toxic elements in various types of matrices of different samples (solid, liquid and gases), even those present under difficult and harsh environmental conditions. This article reviews some recent developments in the field, and its wide application in various fields of research and analysis.

  1. Development of Advanced Seed Laser Modules for Lidar and Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rosiewicz, Alex; Coleman, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress made in the development of highly compact, single mode, distributed feedback laser (DFB) seed laser modules for lidar and spectroscopy applications from space based platforms. One of the intended application of this technology is in the NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The DFB laser modules operating at 1571 nm and 1262 nm have advanced current and temperature drivers built into them. A combination of temperature and current tuning allows coarse and fine adjustment of the diode wavelengths.

  2. Infrared laser spectroscopy of molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the first successful observation of the infrared spectrum of a single, collimated (3.6 x 10-4 steradians) beam of carbon monoxide molecules sampled from a supersonic free jet expansion. The principle of the technique is to detect directly the power absorbed from a tunable infrared laser beam by the molecules of a molecular beam, using a microcalorimeter (a cyrogenic bolometer) placed a short distance downstream from the intersection of the two beams. Since infrared fluorescent lifetimes are long, the absorbed power is transferred by the molecules to the bolometer where it is detected as a change in resistance. (Auth.)

  3. Characterization of laser - induced plasmas by atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Pace, Diego M; Bertuccelli, Graciela; D' Angelo, Cristian A, E-mail: ddiaz@exa.unicen.edu.ar, E-mail: gbertucc@exa.unicen.edu.ar, E-mail: cdangelo@exa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisica ' Arroyo Seco' , Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, U.N.C.P.B.A., Campus Universitario, Paraje Arroyo Seco, (B7000GHG) Tandil, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to characterization of plasmas generated in air at atmospheric pressure from a calcium hydroxide sample with a known concentration of Mg by using an infrared Nd:YAG laser. The influence of laser irradiance on plasma morphology and emission intensity was studied. Spatially-integrated intensities of Mg I-II lines along the line-of-sight were measured for different laser energies and delay times. The plasma temperature and the electron density were determined in each case by using and algorithm that calculates the optical thickness of the spectral lines and reproduces their experimental profiles in a framework of an homogeneous plasma in LTE that takes into account the effects of self-absorption. The results obtained showed the usefulness of this approach to provide additional information retrieved from the optical thickness of spectral lines for plasma characterization in LIBS experiments.

  4. Advanced statistical analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data to discriminate sedimentary rocks based on Czerny–Turner and Echelle spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correct identification of rock types is critical for understanding the origins and history of any particular rock body. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has developed into an excellent analytical tool for geological materials research because of its numerous technical advantages compared with traditional methods. The coupling of LIBS with advanced multivariate analysis has received increasing attention because it facilitates the rapid processing of spectral information to differentiate and classify samples. In this study, we collected LIBS datasets for 16 sedimentary rocks from Triassic strata in Sichuan Basin. We compared the performance of two types of spectrometers (Czerny–Turner and Echelle) for classification of rocks using two advanced multivariate statistical techniques, i.e., partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machines (SVMs). Comparable levels of performance were achievable when using the two systems in the best signal reception conditions. Our results also suggest that SVM outperformed PLS-DA in classification performance. Then, we compared the results obtained when using pre-selected wavelength variables and broadband LIBS spectra as variable inputs. They provided approximately equivalent levels of performance. In addition, the rock slab samples were also analyzed directly after being polished. This minimized the analysis time greatly and showed improvement of classification performance compared with the pressed pellets. - Highlights: • SVM and PLS-DA were compared using two spectrometers to classify sedimentary rocks. • SVM combined with LIBS improved the classification accuracy compared with PLS-DA. • Minimal difference using pre-selected and broadband spectra as variable inputs • Improved classification performance achievable using polished rock slab samples

  5. Laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium and pionic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiproton) experiment of CERN has observed two-photon spectroscopy by making non-linear transitions of the antiprotons which have occupied highly excited levels. The metastable antiproton helium atoms are studied by irradiating two laser light photons propagating in the counter direction. As the result, the spectrum of narrow line width was observed by making the Doppler width of the resonant transition to decrease. And the anti-proton helium transition frequency was measured with the accuracy of (2.3∼5) X10-9. The mass ratio of the antiproton and the electron has been decided to be Mp/me =1836.152674(23) from the comparison of quantum electrodynamics calculation and the present experimental result. The pion-Helium experiment instrument has been also constructed at the ring cyclotron of PSI (Paul Sherer Institute) toward the successful laser spectroscopy of this atom. When this atom is observed, the π- mass can be obtained with the accuracy higher than 6∼8 orders of magnitude which may contribute to the direct measurement of the upper limit value of muon neutrino mass in the Particle Data Book Mass although various difficulties may be encountered. This report describes briefly the laser spectroscopy at first and then the recent situation of the experiments. (S. Funahashi)

  6. An experimental setup for high resolution 10.5 eV laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using a time-of-flight electron analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, M H; Götberg, O; Tjernberg, O

    2011-09-01

    We present an experimental setup for laser-based angle-resolved time-of-flight photoemission. Using a picosecond pulsed laser, photons of energy 10.5 eV are generated through higher harmonic generation in xenon. The high repetition rate of the light source, variable between 0.2 and 8 MHz, enables high photoelectron count rates and short acquisition times. By using a time-of-flight analyzer with angle-resolving capabilities, electrons emitted from the sample within a circular cone of up to ±15° can be collected. Hence, simultaneous acquisition of photoemission data for a complete area of the Brillouin zone is possible. The current photon energy enables bulk sensitive measurements, high angular resolution, and the resulting covered momentum space is large enough to enclose the entire Brillouin zone in cuprate high-T(c) superconductors. Fermi edge measurements on polycrystalline Au shows an energy resolution better than 5 meV. Data from a test measurement of the Au(111) surface state are presented along with measurements of the Fermi surface of the high-T(c) superconductor Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + δ) (Bi2212). PMID:21974625

  7. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented

  8. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuri.kudryavtsev@fys.kuleuven.be; Ferrer, R.; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented.

  9. Advances in Spectroscopy for Lasers and Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare; New Development in Optics and Related Fields

    2006-01-01

    This volume presents the Proceedings of "New Development in Optics and Related Fields," held in Erice, Sicily, Italy, from the 6th to the 21st of June, 2005. This meeting was organized by the International School of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy of the "Ettore Majorana" Center for Scientific Culture. The purpose of this Institute was to provide a comprehensive and coherent treatment of the new techniques and contemporary developments in optics and related fields. Several lectures of the course addressed directly the technologies required for the detection and identification of chemical and biological threats; other lectures considered the possible applications of new techniques and materials to the detection and identification of such threats. Each lecturer developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion.

  10. Diatomic Molecular Emission Spectroscopy of Laser-induced Titanium Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research regarding laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of titanium normally focuses on the atomic and ionic Ti spectral transition lines. However, after a characteristic time subsequent to laser ablation, these lines are no longer discernable. During this temporal regime, the diatomic molecular transition lines of titanium monoxide (TiO) are prominent in the laser-induced plasma (LIP) emissions. TiO has long been studied in the contexts of stellar emissions, allowing for some of the molecular transition bands to be accurately computed from theory. In this research, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) of laser-induced plasma (LIP) generated by laser ablation of titanium is performed in order to infer temperature as a function of time subsequent to plasma formation. The emission spectra of the resulting ablation plume is imaged as a function of height above the sample surface. Temperatures are inferred over time delays following plasma formation ranging from 20 μs-200 μs. Computed TiO A3Φ – X3Δ, Δv = 0 transition lines are fit to spectral measurements in order to infer temperature. At tdelay = 20 μs-80 μs, the observed plume contains two luminescent regions each with a distinctly different temperature. As the plume evolves in time, the two regions combine and an overall temperature increase is observed

  11. Compact fibre-based coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering from a single femtosecond fibre-laser oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikas Kumar; Alessio Gambetta; Cristian Manzoni; Roberta Ramponi; Giulio Cerullo; Marco Marangoni

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to CARS spectroscopy by efficiently synthesizing synchronized narrow-bandwidth (less than 10 cm-1) pump and Stokes pulses (frequency difference continuously tunable upto ∼ 3000 cm-1) based on spectral compression together with second harmonic generation (in periodically-poled nonlinear crystals) of femtosecond pulses emitted by a single compact Er-fibre oscillator. For a far better signal to non-resonant background contrast, interferometric CARS (I-CARS) is demonstrated and CARS signal enhancement upto three orders of magnitude is achieved by constructive interference with an auxiliary local oscillator at anti-Stokes field, also synthesized by spectral compression of pulses emitted from the same fibre oscillator.

  12. Plasma temperature clamping in filamentation laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Yeak, J.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-10-19

    Ultrafast laser filament induced breakdown spectroscopy is a very promising method for remote material detection. We present characteristics of plasmas generated in a metal target by laser filaments in air. Our measurements show that the temperature of the ablation plasma is clamped along the filamentation channel due to intensity clamping in a filament. Nevertheless, significant changes in radiation intensity are noticeable, and this is essentially due to variation in the number density of emitting atoms. The present results also partly explains the reason for the occurrence of atomic plume during fs LIBS in air compared to long-pulse ns LIBS.

  13. Infrared laser spectroscopy using a long pathlength absorption cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed two very long pathlength absorption cells to be used in conjunction with diode lasers. They were designed to operate at controlled temperatures with the optical pathlength variable up to approx. 1,5 Km. Not only very low sample pressures are used for studies with such cells but also the spectroscopic sensitivity is enhanced over conventional methods by a factor of 103 to 104. In this paper they present some analytical aspects of the diode laser spectroscopy using the long pathlength absorption cells in the areas of absorption line widths, pressure broadening coefficients, isotope composition measurements and trace impurity analysis

  14. Method for laser spectroscopy of metastable pionic helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PiHe collaboration is currently attempting to carry out laser spectroscopy of metastable pionic helium atoms using the high-intensity π− beam of the ring cyclotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. These atoms are heretofore hypothetical three-body Coulomb systems each composed of a helium nucleus, a π− occupying a Rydberg state, and an electron occupying the 1s ground state. We briefly review the proposed method by which we intend to detect the laser spectroscopic signal. This complements our experiments on metastable antiprotonic helium atoms at CERN

  15. Progress in fieldable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2012-06-01

    In recent years there has been great progress in the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technology field. Significant advances have been made both in fundamental and applied research as well as in data processing/chemometrics. Improvements in components, most notably lasers/optics and spectrometers are enabling the development of new devices that are suitable for field use. These new commercial devices recently released to the marketplace, as well as ones currently under development, are bringing the potential of LIBS for CBRNE threat analysis into real-world applications.

  16. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of nickel isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to measure the nuclear ground-state spins, moments and mean-square charge radii of $^{56-71}$Ni using collinear laser spectroscopy. This will enable direct measurements of isotopes in the region of shell closure $^{56}$Ni, structural change $^{68}$Ni and monopole migration beyond N = 40. Optical spectroscopy serves as a detailed probe not only of the changing single-particle behaviour, but also for the study of collective properties such as size and shape. Measurements of the most neutron-rich isotopes available at ISOLDE will critically test models which seek to extrapolate the data to the doubly magic region of $^{78}$Ni.

  17. A Simple Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) System for Use at Multiple Levels in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David W.; Hayes, Ryan T.; Wong, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    A LIBS (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy) spectrometer constructed by the instructor is reported for use in undergraduate analytical chemistry experiments. The modular spectrometer described here is based on commonly available components including a commercial Nd:YAG laser and a compact UV-vis spectrometer. The modular approach provides a…

  18. Computational Laser Spectroscopy in a Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ben Salah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical spectroscopic study of visible and infrared laser radiation in a biological tissue. We derive a solution of a general two-dimensional time dependent radiative transfer equation in a tissue-like medium. The used model is suitable for many situations especially when the external source is time-dependent or continuous. We use a control volume-discrete ordinate method associated with an implicit three-level second-order time differencing scheme. We consider a very thin rectangular biological-tissue-like medium submitted to a visible or a near infrared light sources. The RTE is solved for a set of different wavelength source. All sources are assumed to be monochromatic and collimated. The energetic fluence rate is computed at a set of detector points on the boundaries. According to the source type, we investigate either the steady-state or transient response of the medium. The used model is validated in the case of a heterogeneous tissue-like medium using referencing experimental results from the literature. Also, the developed model is used to study changes on transmitted light in a rat-liver tissue-like medium. Optical properties depend on the source wavelength and they are taken from the literature. In particular, light-transmission in the medium is studied for continuous wave and for short pulse.

  19. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, E.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  20. Proceedings of the sixth symposium on laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains articles of the 6th symposium on laser spectroscopy and this symposium is held on Nov. 3-4, 1998 by KAERI. Laser spectroscopy is one of the most important areas in optical science and engineering and we discussed about the recently developed subjects in detail during the this symposium. This proceedings is composed of two major parts. One is the invitational lectures and the other is the research papers. This have a very important and very valuable lecture by Dr. William Phillips who is the 1997 Nobel Laureate in Physics. His special lecture was very wonderful and fruitful. And we have a number of invited speakers from several advanced countries. Their talks are the highlights of this symposium. (Cho, G. S.)

  1. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  2. Laser Spark Formamide Decomposition Studied by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 44 (2011), s. 12132-12141. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FT-IR spectroscopy * high-power laser * induced dielectric-breakdown Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2011

  3. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  4. Study on the uptake and distribution of gadolinium based contrast agents in biological samples using laser ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium based contrast agents are used for magnetic resonance imaging. After their excretion by medicated patients they reach surface water passing waste water treatment plants where they are not removed sufficiently. The behavior of the contrast agents in the environment and the interaction with organisms was investigated in this work due to the toxicity of the free Gd3+ ion and the associated risks, such as accumulation in the human food chain. In this work, the two elemental analytical imaging methods laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) have been used to investigate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of Gd-based contrast agents by various biological systems. Both methods were analytically characterized and compared for this application. The detection limits of gadolinium were determined under optimized conditions by LA-ICP-MS and SRXRF. With calibration by remains of dried elemental standard droplets detection limits of 0.78 pg absolute amount of gadolinium (LA-ICP-MS), respectively 89 pg (SRXRF) were reached. Based on filamentous algae as water plants the uptake and the excretion of Gd-based contrast agents were revealed. The dependence on concentration of the contrast agent in the exposition solution and the independence of temporal uptake within one to seven days were studied for duckweed. By LA-ICP-MS gadolinium was quantified in a leaf of cress plant. The verification of the results was performed by SRXRF and ICP-MS after digestion. Furthermore, the uptake and distribution of Gd-based contrast agents in higher organisms (water flea) were observed. The exact location of gadolinium was resolved by three-dimensional μ-computed tomography by the comparison of an exposed with a Gd-free water flea. In all studies, gadolinium was detected in the investigated exposed model organisms. It can be concluded that the contrast agents were taken from the environment.

  5. Laser Materials and Laser Spectroscopy - A Satellite Meeting of IQEC '88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhiming

    1989-03-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Laser Materials * Laser Site Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Ions in Glass * Spectroscopy of Chromium Doped Tunable Laser Materials * Spectroscopic Properties of Nd3+ Ions in LaMgAl11O19 Crystal * Spectral Study and 2.938 μm Laser Emission of Er3+ in the Y3Al5O12 Crystal * Raman-infrared Spectra and Radiationless Relaxation of Laser Crystal NdAl3(BO3)4 * A Study on HB and FLN in BaFCl0.5Br0.5:Sm2+ at 77K * Pair-pumped Upconversion Solid State Lasers * CW Upconversion Laser Action in Neodymium and Erbium doped Solids * Ultra-high Sensitive Upconversion Fluorescence of YbF3 Doped with Trace Tm3+ and Er3+ * The Growth and Properties of NYAB and EYAB Multifunctional Crystal * Study on Fluorescence and Laser Light of Er3+ in Glass * Growth and Properties of Single Crystal Fibers for Laser Materials * A Study on the Quality of Sapphire, Ruby and Ti3+ Doped Sapphire Grown by Temperature Gradient Technique (TGT) and Czochralski Technique (CZ) * The Measurement of Output Property of Ti3+ Al2O3 Laser Crystal * An Xα Study of the Laser Crystal MgF2 : V2+ * Q-switched NAB Laser * Miniature YAG Lasers * Study of High Efficiency {LiF}:{F}^-_2 Color Center Crystals * Study on the Formation Conditions and Optical Properties of (F2+)H Color Center in NaCl:OH- Crystals * Novel Spectroscopic Properties of {LiF}:{F}^+_3 - {F}_2 Mixed Color Centers Laser Crystals * Terraced Substrate Visible GaAlAs Semiconductor Lasers with a Large Optical Cavity * The Temperature Dependence of Gain Spectra, Threshold Current and Auger Recombination in InGaAsP-InP Double Heterojunction Laser diode * Time-resolved Photoluminescence and Energy Transfer of Bound Excitons in GaP:N Crystals * Optical Limiting with Semiconductors * A Critical Review of High-efficiency Crystals for Tunable Lasers * Parametric Scattering in β - BaB2O4 Crystal Induced by Picosecond Pulses * Generation of Picosecond Pulses at 193 nm by Frequency Mixing in β - BaB2O4

  6. Spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: Setting up of high-performance laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; Kamlesh Alti; Rajesh Nayak; Rodney Bernard; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G P Gupta; B M Suri

    2010-12-01

    It is a well-known fact that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has emerged as one of the best analytical techniques for multi-elemental compositional analysis of samples. We report assembling and optimization of LIBS set up using high resolution and broad-range echelle spectrograph coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) to detect and quantify trace elements in environmental and clinical samples. Effects of variations of experimental parameters on spectroscopy signals of copper and brass are reported. Preliminary results of some plasma diagnostic calculations using recorded time-resolved optical emission signals are also reported for brass samples.

  7. Development of a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at an X-ray free-electron laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser has been developed. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated using XFEL-induced and synchrotron-radiation-induced Ti 1s core-level spectroscopy. In order to utilize high-brilliance photon sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), for advanced time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system combined with a high-resolution hemispherical electron energy analyzer has been developed. The system’s design enables it to be controlled by an external trigger signal for single-shot pump–probe-type TR-PES. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated with an offline test, followed by online core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy in ‘single-shot image’, ‘shot-to-shot image (image-to-image storage or block storage)’ and ‘shot-to-shot sweep’ modes at soft X-ray undulator beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. In the offline test the typical repetition rate for image-to-image storage mode has been confirmed to be about 15 Hz using a conventional pulse-generator. The function for correcting the shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations of the exciting photon beam, an important requirement for the TR-PES experiments at FEL sources, has been successfully tested at BL17SU by measuring Au 4f photoelectrons with intentionally controlled photon flux. The system has also been applied to hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) in ‘ordinary sweep’ mode as well as shot-to-shot image mode at the 27 m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and also at the SACLA XFEL facility. The XFEL-induced Ti 1s core-level spectrum of La-doped SrTiO3 is reported as a function of incident power density. The Ti 1s core-level spectrum obtained at low power density is consistent with the spectrum obtained using the synchrotron source. At high power densities the Ti 1s core-level spectra show

  8. Development of a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at an X-ray free-electron laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Masaki, E-mail: oura@spring8.or.jp; Wagai, Tatsuya; Chainani, Ashish [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Miyawaki, Jun [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sato, Hiromi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsunami, Masaharu [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Eguchi, Ritsuko [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kiss, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakatani, Yasuhiro [Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Togashi, Tadashi; Katayama, Tetsuo [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ogawa, Kanade; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shin, Shik [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    A single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an X-ray free-electron laser has been developed. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated using XFEL-induced and synchrotron-radiation-induced Ti 1s core-level spectroscopy. In order to utilize high-brilliance photon sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), for advanced time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system combined with a high-resolution hemispherical electron energy analyzer has been developed. The system’s design enables it to be controlled by an external trigger signal for single-shot pump–probe-type TR-PES. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated with an offline test, followed by online core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy in ‘single-shot image’, ‘shot-to-shot image (image-to-image storage or block storage)’ and ‘shot-to-shot sweep’ modes at soft X-ray undulator beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. In the offline test the typical repetition rate for image-to-image storage mode has been confirmed to be about 15 Hz using a conventional pulse-generator. The function for correcting the shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations of the exciting photon beam, an important requirement for the TR-PES experiments at FEL sources, has been successfully tested at BL17SU by measuring Au 4f photoelectrons with intentionally controlled photon flux. The system has also been applied to hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) in ‘ordinary sweep’ mode as well as shot-to-shot image mode at the 27 m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and also at the SACLA XFEL facility. The XFEL-induced Ti 1s core-level spectrum of La-doped SrTiO{sub 3} is reported as a function of incident power density. The Ti 1s core-level spectrum obtained at low power density is consistent with the spectrum obtained using the synchrotron source. At high power densities the Ti 1s core-level spectra

  9. In situ characterization of few-cycle laser pulses in transient absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Blättermann, Alexander; Kaldun, Andreas; Ding, Thomas; Stooß, Veit; Laux, Martin; Rebholz, Marc; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy has thus far been lacking the capability to simultaneously characterize the intense laser pulses at work within a time-resolved quantum-dynamics experiment. However, precise knowledge of these pulses is key to extracting quantitative information in strong-field highly nonlinear light-matter interactions. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast metrology tool based on the time-delay-dependent phase shift imprinted on a strong-field driven resonance. Since we analyze the signature of the laser pulse interacting with the absorbing spectroscopy target, the laser pulse duration and intensity are determined in situ. As we also show, this approach allows for the quantification of time-dependent bound-state dynamics in one and the same experiment. In the future, such experimental data will facilitate more precise tests of strong-field dynamics theories.

  10. Quantitative analyses of glass via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, C.; Hermann, J.; Mercadier, L.; Loewenthal, L.; Axente, E.; Luculescu, C. R.; Sarnet, T.; Sentis, M.; Viöl, W.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that elemental analysis of glass with a measurement precision of about 10% can be performed via calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Therefore, plasma emission spectra recorded during ultraviolet laser ablation of different glasses are compared to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using an iterative calculation algorithm, we deduce the relative elemental fractions and the plasma properties from the best agreement between measured and computed spectra. The measurement method is validated in two ways. First, the LIBS measurements are performed on fused silica composed of more than 99.9% of SiO2. Second, the oxygen fractions measured for heavy flint and barite crown glasses are compared to the values expected from the glass composing oxides. The measured compositions are furthermore compared with those obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that accurate LIBS analyses require spectra recording with short enough delays between laser pulse and detector gate, when the electron density is larger than 1017 cm- 3. The results show that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on accurate plasma modeling is suitable for elemental analysis of complex materials such as glasses, with an analytical performance comparable or even better than that obtained with standard techniques.

  11. BaH molecular spectroscopy with relevance to laser cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, M. G.; Iwata, G. Z.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a simple experimental apparatus for laser ablation of barium monohydride (BaH) molecules and the study of their rovibrational spectra relevant to direct laser cooling. BaH is a promising candidate for laser cooling and ultracold fragmentation, both of which are precursors to novel experiments in many-body physics and precision measurement. We present a detailed analysis of the properties of ablation plumes that can improve the understanding of surface ablation and deposition technologies. A range of absorption spectroscopy and collisional thermalization regimes has been studied. We directly measured the Franck-Condon factor of the B 2Σ+(v'=0 ) ←X 2Σ+(v''=1 ) cycling transition. Prospects for production of a high luminosity cryogenic BaH beam are outlined.

  12. BaH molecular spectroscopy with relevance to laser cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Tarallo, M G; Zelevinsky, T

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple experimental apparatus for laser ablation of barium monohydride (BaH) molecules and the study of their rovibrational spectra that are relevant to direct laser cooling. We present a detailed analysis of the properties of ablation plumes that can improve the understanding of surface ablation and deposition technologies. A range of absorption spectroscopy and collisional thermalization regimes has been studied. We directly measured the Franck-Condon factor of the $\\mathrm{B}^2\\Sigma^+(v'=0)\\leftarrow\\mathrm{X}^2\\Sigma^+(v"=1)$ transition. Prospects for production of a high luminosity cryogenic BaH beam are outlined. This molecule is a promising candidate for laser cooling and ultracold fragmentation, both of which are precursors to novel experiments in many-body physics and precision measurement.

  13. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  14. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Hadi; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  15. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  16. Laser systems for collinear spectroscopy and the charge radius of 12Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been used to investigate the nuclear charge radii of shortlived medium- and heavy-Z nuclei for more than three decades. But it became only recently be applicable to low-Z nuclei. This region of the nuclear chart attracts attention because so-called ab-initio nuclear models, based on realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, can only be applied to the lightest elements due to the rapidly increasing calculational demands with the number of nucleons. Furthermore, strong clusterization of atomic nuclei occurs and the encountered halo nuclei are presently subject of intense research. The isotopic chain of beryllium exhibits the prime example of a one-neutron halo nucleus, 11Be, and the two- or four-neutron halo nucleus 14Be. 12Be is a key isotope between these two exotic nuclei and particularly interesting because the nuclear shell model predicts a shell closure for the magic neutron number N = 8. In the course of this thesis, several frequency-stabilized laser systems for collinear laser spectroscopy have been developed. At TRIGA-SPEC a frequency-doubled diode laser system with a tapered amplifier and a frequency comb-stabilized titanium-sapphire laser with a frequency doubling stage are now available for the spectroscopy of refractory metals above molybdenum. They have already been used for test-experiments and commissioning of the TRIGA-LASER beamline. Furthermore, frequency-quadrupling of the Ti:Sa laser was demonstrated to expand the emitted wavelengths into the 200 nm region. At ISOLDE/CERN a frequency comb-stabilized and an iodine-stabilized dye laser were installed and applied for laser spectroscopy of 9,10,11,12Be+. The improved laser system and the development of a delayed photon-ion coincidence detection improved the sensitivity of the beryllium spectroscopy by more than two orders of magnitude and, thus, the previous measurements of 7-11Be could be extended for the first time to the short-lived isotope 12Be. In addition, the

  17. Development of pulsed UV lasers and their application in laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of two-photon laser spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics requires tuneable UV-laser spectrometers providing: some mJ pulse energy at ns time scale with spectral quality close to Fourier Transform Limit, good pulse to pulse reproducibility and tuning linearity. We report about two different systems, a first laser specially optimized for the radiation at 243 nm, which is required for the 1S-2S two photon transition of atomic hydrogen, and a second one generating 205 nm suited for the transition 1S - 3S/3D.

  18. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangauer, Andreas, E-mail: hangauer@princeton.edu; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Spinner, Georg [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-04

    Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. By controlling the laser bias nearly single- and dual-sideband CLaDS operation can be realized in an extremely simplified optical setup with no external optical modulators. Capability of direct single-sideband modulation is a unique feature of QCLs that exhibit a low linewidth enhancement factor. The developed analytical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental, directly modulated CLaDS spectra. This method overcomes major technical limitations of mid-infrared CLaDS systems by allowing significantly higher modulation frequencies and eliminating optical fringes introduced by external modulators.

  19. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. By controlling the laser bias nearly single- and dual-sideband CLaDS operation can be realized in an extremely simplified optical setup with no external optical modulators. Capability of direct single-sideband modulation is a unique feature of QCLs that exhibit a low linewidth enhancement factor. The developed analytical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental, directly modulated CLaDS spectra. This method overcomes major technical limitations of mid-infrared CLaDS systems by allowing significantly higher modulation frequencies and eliminating optical fringes introduced by external modulators

  20. Monitoring Air Moisture with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Khélifa, N. -E.; Pinot, P.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of air density and the quantitative estimates of water vapour adsorbed or desorbed by the surface of mass standard, remain the principals sources of uncertainties when weighing mass standard made from stainless steel or super alloy. The classical method, for air density determination, use the so called CIPM-1981/91 formula and the measured air parameters. An other approach is based only on the results of comparisons, realized successively in air and in vacuum, between special ar...

  1. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; He, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Jingbo; Peng, Jiangbo; Sun, Rui; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF) prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation. PMID:27367686

  2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of laser-irradiated cementum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M.; Cecchini, Silvia C. M.; Hennig, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in specular reflectance mode chemical changes of root cement surfaces due to laser radiation were investigated. A total of 18 samples of root cement were analyzed, six served as controls. In this study laser energies were set to those known for removal of calculus or for disinfection of periodontal pockets. Major changes in organic as well as inorganic components of the cementum were observed following Nd:YAG laser irradiation (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 250 μs, free running, pulse repetition rate 20 Hz, fiber diameter 320 μm, contact mode; Iskra Twinlight, Fontona, Slovenia). Er:YAG laser irradiation (wavelength 2.94 μm, pulse duration 250 μs, free running, pulse repetition rate 6 Hz, focus diameter 620 μm, air water cooling 30 ml/min; Iskra Twinlight, Fontona, Slovenia) significantly reduced the Amid bands due to changes in the organic components. After irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 200 ns, q-switched, pulse repetition rate 20 Hz, beam diameter 800 μm, contact mode, water cooling 30 ml/min; laboratory prototype) only minimal reductions in the peak intensity of the Amide-II band were detected.

  3. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Diagnostic of Laser-Induced Optical Breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient laser plasma is generated in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB). Here we report experiments conducted with 10.6-micron CO2 laser radiation, and with 1.064-micron fundamental, 0.532-micron frequency-doubled, 0.355-micron frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation. Characterization of laser induced plasma utilizes laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) techniques. Atomic hydrogen Balmer series emissions show electron number density of 1017 cm-3 measured approximately 10μs and 1μs after optical breakdown for CO2 and Nd:YAG laser radiation, respectively. Recorded molecular recombination emission spectra of CN and C2 Swan bands indicate an equilibrium temperature in excess of 7000 Kelvin, inferred for these diatomic molecules. Reported are also graphite ablation experiments where we use unfocused laser radiation that is favorable for observation of neutral C3 emission due to reduced C3 cation formation. Our analysis is based on computation of diatomic molecular spectra that includes accurate determination of rotational line strengths, or Honl-London factors

  4. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Diagnostic of Laser-Induced Optical Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Parigger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient laser plasma is generated in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB. Here we report experiments conducted with 10.6-micron CO2 laser radiation, and with 1.064-micron fundamental, 0.532-micron frequency-doubled, 0.355-micron frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation. Characterization of laser induced plasma utilizes laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS techniques. Atomic hydrogen Balmer series emissions show electron number density of 1017 cm−3 measured approximately 10 μs and 1 μs after optical breakdown for CO2 and Nd:YAG laser radiation, respectively. Recorded molecular recombination emission spectra of CN and C2 Swan bands indicate an equilibrium temperature in excess of 7000 Kelvin, inferred for these diatomic molecules. Reported are also graphite ablation experiments where we use unfocused laser radiation that is favorable for observation of neutral C3 emission due to reduced C3 cation formation. Our analysis is based on computation of diatomic molecular spectra that includes accurate determination of rotational line strengths, or Hönl-London factors.

  5. Parallel analysis of individual biological cells using multifocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Taylor, Douglas S; Matthews, Dennis L; Chan, James W

    2010-11-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a multifocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (M-LTRS) technique for parallel Raman spectral acquisition of individual biological cells. Using a 785-nm diode laser and a time-sharing laser trapping scheme, multiple laser foci are generated to optically trap single polystyrene beads and suspension cells in a linear pattern. Raman signals from the trapped objects are simultaneously projected through the slit of a spectrometer and spatially resolved on a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector with minimal signal crosstalk between neighboring cells. By improving the rate of single-cell analysis, M-LTRS is expected to be a valuable method for studying single-cell dynamics of cell populations and for the development of high-throughput Raman based cytometers. PMID:21073802

  6. Quantitative analyses of glass via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that elemental analysis of glass with a measurement precision of about 10% can be performed via calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Therefore, plasma emission spectra recorded during ultraviolet laser ablation of different glasses are compared to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using an iterative calculation algorithm, we deduce the relative elemental fractions and the plasma properties from the best agreement between measured and computed spectra. The measurement method is validated in two ways. First, the LIBS measurements are performed on fused silica composed of more than 99.9% of SiO2. Second, the oxygen fractions measured for heavy flint and barite crown glasses are compared to the values expected from the glass composing oxides. The measured compositions are furthermore compared with those obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that accurate LIBS analyses require spectra recording with short enough delays between laser pulse and detector gate, when the electron density is larger than 1017 cm−3. The results show that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on accurate plasma modeling is suitable for elemental analysis of complex materials such as glasses, with an analytical performance comparable or even better than that obtained with standard techniques. - Highlights: • Plasma modeling including the calculation of the plasma pressure • Calibration-free LIBS based on accurate modeling of the plasma emission spectrum • Quantitative LIBS analysis of multicomponent optical glasses including oxygen • Good measurement accuracy obtained only for small delays between laser pulse and detector gate

  7. Quantitative analyses of glass via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard, C. [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Hermann, J., E-mail: Hermann@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [LP3, CNRS – Aix–Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Mercadier, L. [LP3, CNRS – Aix–Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Loewenthal, L. [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Axente, E.; Luculescu, C.R. [Laser–Surface–Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Sarnet, T.; Sentis, M. [LP3, CNRS – Aix–Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Viöl, W. [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate that elemental analysis of glass with a measurement precision of about 10% can be performed via calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Therefore, plasma emission spectra recorded during ultraviolet laser ablation of different glasses are compared to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using an iterative calculation algorithm, we deduce the relative elemental fractions and the plasma properties from the best agreement between measured and computed spectra. The measurement method is validated in two ways. First, the LIBS measurements are performed on fused silica composed of more than 99.9% of SiO{sub 2}. Second, the oxygen fractions measured for heavy flint and barite crown glasses are compared to the values expected from the glass composing oxides. The measured compositions are furthermore compared with those obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that accurate LIBS analyses require spectra recording with short enough delays between laser pulse and detector gate, when the electron density is larger than 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. The results show that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on accurate plasma modeling is suitable for elemental analysis of complex materials such as glasses, with an analytical performance comparable or even better than that obtained with standard techniques. - Highlights: • Plasma modeling including the calculation of the plasma pressure • Calibration-free LIBS based on accurate modeling of the plasma emission spectrum • Quantitative LIBS analysis of multicomponent optical glasses including oxygen • Good measurement accuracy obtained only for small delays between laser pulse and detector gate.

  8. Detection of uranium using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C; Cremers, David A; Radziemski, Leon J; Bostian, Melissa; Navarro-Northrup, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this work is a detailed study of uranium detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to activities associated with environmental surveillance and detecting weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The study was used to assist development of LIBS instruments for standoff detection of bulk radiological and nuclear materials and these materials distributed as contaminants on surfaces. Uranium spectra were analyzed under a variety of different conditions at room pressure, reduced pressures, and in an argon atmosphere. All spectra displayed a high apparent background due to the high density of uranium lines. Time decay curves of selected uranium lines were monitored and compared to other elements in an attempt to maximize detection capabilities for each species in the complicated uranium spectrum. A survey of the LIBS uranium spectra was conducted and relative emission line strengths were determined over the range of 260 to 800 nm. These spectra provide a guide for selection of the strongest LIBS analytical lines for uranium detection in different spectral regions. A detection limit for uranium in soil of 0.26% w/w was obtained at close range and 0.5% w/w was achieved at a distance of 30 m. Surface detection limits were substrate dependent and ranged from 13 to 150 microg/cm2. Double-pulse experiments (both collinear and orthogonal arrangements) were shown to enhance the uranium signal in some cases. Based on the results of this work, a short critique is given of the applicability of LIBS for the detection of uranium residues on surfaces for environmental monitoring and WMD surveillance. PMID:19891832

  9. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Scamarcio; Pietro Mario LugarÃ; Cinzia Di Franco; Angela Elia

    2006-01-01

    Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, non invasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selective detection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb) and sub-ppb range. The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) has given a new aspect to infrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLs are attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent...

  10. High-frequency modulation spectroscopy with a THz quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eichholz, Rene; Richter, Heiko; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, H. -W.

    2013-01-01

    A terahertz absorption spectrometer with a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy is realized. The spectrometer is based on high-frequency (up to 50 MHz) modulation of the QCL frequency. This allows for the determination of the absorption coefficient and dispersion of the absorbing medium along with a very precise measurement of the line shape of the absorption feature. The design and performance of the spectrometer are presented, and its sensitivity and freque...

  11. Diagnostics of laser-induced plasma by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for diagnostics of laser induced plasma (LIP) by optical emission spectroscopy technique is described. LIP was generated by focusing Nd:YAG laser radiation (1.064 nm, 50 mJ, 15 ns pulse duration) on the surface of pellet containing among other elements lithium. Details of the experimental setup and experimental data processing are presented. High speed plasma photography was used to study plasma evolution and decay. From those images optimum time for plasma diagnostics is located. The electron number density, Ne, is determined by fitting profiles of Li I lines while electron temperature, Te, was determined from relative intensities of Li I lines using Boltzmann plot (BP) technique. All spectral line recordings were tested for the presence of self-absorption and then if optically thin, Abel inverted and used for plasma diagnostic purposes

  12. Laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing was applied to investigate the local fields and interactions of paramagnetic ions in oxide glasses. Studies included the site dependence of energy levels, radiative and nonradiative transition probabilities, homogeneous line broadening, and ion--ion energy transfer of rare earth ions. These results and the experimental techniques are reviewed briefly; the use of paramagnetic ions other than the rare earths is also considered. Recently, laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate modifications in the local structure of lithium borate glass caused by compositional changes and phase separation and the site dependence of nonradiative relaxation of paramagnetic ions by multiphonon processes. These results and their implications are discussed. 6 figures

  13. Laser frequency comb techniques for precise astronomical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Michael T; Light, Philip S; Luiten, Andre N; Lawrence, Jon S

    2012-01-01

    Precise astronomical spectroscopic analyses routinely assume that individual pixels in charge-coupled devices (CCDs) have uniform sensitivity to photons. Intra-pixel sensitivity (IPS) variations may already cause small systematic errors in, for example, studies of extra-solar planets via stellar radial velocities and cosmological variability in fundamental constants via quasar spectroscopy, but future experiments requiring velocity precisions approaching ~1 cm/s will be more strongly affected. Laser frequency combs have been shown to provide highly precise wavelength calibration for astronomical spectrographs, but here we show that they can also be used to measure IPS variations in astronomical CCDs in situ. We successfully tested a laser frequency comb system on the Ultra-High Resolution Facility spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. By modelling the 2-dimensional comb signal recorded in a single CCD exposure, we find that the average IPS deviates by <8 per cent if it is assumed to vary symmetri...

  14. On-line laser spectroscopy with thermal atomic beams

    CERN Document Server

    Thibault, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Duong, H T; Guimbal, P; Huber, G; Jacquinot, P; Juncar, P; Klapisch, Robert; Liberman, S; Pesnelle, A; Pillet, P; Pinard, J; Serre, J M; Touchard, F; Vialle, J L

    1981-01-01

    On-line high resolution laser spectroscopy experiments have been performed in which the light from a CW tunable dye laser interacts at right angles with a thermal atomic beam. /sup 76-98/Rb, /sup 118-145 /Cs and /sup 208-213/Fr have been studied using the ionic beam delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator at CERN while /sup 30-31/Na and /sup 38-47/K have been studied by setting the apparatus directly on-line with the PS 20 GeV proton beam. The principle of the method is briefly explained and some results concerning nuclear structure are given. The hyperfine structure, spins and isotope shifts of the alkali isotopes and isomers are measured. (8 refs).

  15. Use of laser diodes in cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, R.N.; Paldus, B.A.; Ma, Y.; Xie, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    We have demonstrated that cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), a highly sensitive absorption technique, is versatile enough to serve as a complete diagnostic for materials process control. In particular, we have used CRDS in the ultraviolet to determine the concentration profile of methyl radicals in a hot-filament diamond reactor; we have applied CRDS in the mid-infrared to detect 50 ppb of methane in a N{sub 2} environment; and, we have extended CRDS so that we can use continuous-wave diode laser sources. Using a laser diode at 810 nm, we were able to achieve a sensitivity of 2 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1}. Thus, CRDS can be used not only as an in situ diagnostic for investigating the chemistry of diamond film deposition, but it can also be used as a gas purity diagnostic for any chemical vapor deposition system.

  16. Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucia, Frank C.; Harmon, Russell S.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Winkel, Raymond J.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2003-10-01

    A number of energetic materials and explosives have been studied by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). They include black powder, neat explosives such as TNT, PETN, HMX, and RDX (in various forms), propellants such as M43 and JA2, and military explosives such as C4 and LX-14. Each of these materials gives a unique spectrum, and generally the spectra are reproducible shot to shot. We observed that the laser-produced microplasma did not initiate any of the energetic materials studied. Extensive studies of black powder and its ingredients by use of a reference spectral library have demonstrated excellent accuracy for unknown identification. Finally, we observed that these nitrogen- and oxygen-rich materials yield LIBS spectra in air that have correspondingly different O:N peak ratios compared with air. This difference can help in the detection and identification of such energetic materials.

  18. Laser Spectroscopy of Muonic Hydrogen and the Puzzling Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Randolf

    2016-09-01

    Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen atoms, μp, has revealed a proton root-mean-square (rms) charge radius rE that is an order of magnitude more accurate than the CODATA world average from elastic electron-proton scattering and precision spectroscopy of regular (electronic) hydrogen. Interestingly, though, the value of rE from μp is 4%, or 7 combined standard deviations smaller than the CODATA value of rE. This discrepancy has been coined "proton radius puzzle". We summarize the experiment and give a brief overview of the theory in muonic hydrogen. Finally we discuss some possible scenarios for the resolution of the "proton radius puzzle".

  19. Single shot depth sensitivity using femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth profiling measurement using multiple pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used to determine the characteristics of buried layers. However for femtosecond pulses the emission spectra does not necessarily reflect the average depth composition for the single shot case and instead has much higher sensitivity for the surface layer of the ablation region. We introduce a concept of “depth sensitivity” to characterize this behavior for single shot LIBS depth profiling. Experiments were carried out using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses irradiating layered targets while monitoring the plasma emission with a spectrometer system. Laser induced plasma formed at the surface layer exhibits a strong LIBS signature while deeper ablated region contributes very little to the emission spectrum. The sensitive depth region, the source of the major part of the emission, is much less than the ablation crater depth and is shown to be of the order of 3 nm in the case of actual crater depths of 100's of nm. A two temperature model has been used to determine the lattice temperature profile versus depth which qualitatively predicts the observed behavior. - Highlights: • Depth dependence of LIBS emission within a single 800 nm femtosecond laser shot. • LIBS emission spectra dominated by only a thin surface layer. • Depth sensitivity, a new concept, is ∼3 nm when actual crater depth ∼100’s of nm. • Qualitative agreement with TTM model of lattice temperature versus depth and time

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  1. Microwave assisted laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljanen, Jan; Sun, Zhiwei; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2016-04-01

    Signal enhancements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using external microwave power are demonstrated in ambient air. Pulsed microwave at 2.45 GHz and of 1 millisecond duration was delivered via a simple near field applicator (NFA), with which an external electric field is generated and coupled into laser induced plasma. The external microwave power can significantly increase the signal lifetime from a few microseconds to hundreds of microseconds, resulting in a great enhancement on LIBS signals with the use of a long integration time. The dependence of signal enhancement on laser energy and microwave power is experimentally assessed. With the assistance of microwave source, a significant enhancement of ~ 100 was achieved at relatively low laser energy that is only slightly above the ablation threshold. A limit of detection (LOD) of 8.1 ppm was estimated for copper detection in Cu/Al2O3 solid samples. This LOD corresponds to a 93-fold improvement compared with conventional single-pulse LIBS. Additionally, in the microwave assisted LIBS, the self-reversal effect was greatly reduced, which is beneficial in measuring elements of high concentration. Temporal measurements have been performed and the results revealed the evolution of the emission process in microwave-enhanced LIBS. The optimal position of the NFA related to the ablation point has also been investigated.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO2: N2: He), O2, N2, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis

  3. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Buchta, Zdeněk; Lešundák, Adam; Randula, A.; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverková, L.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2014, 89411D:1-6. ISSN 1605-7422. [Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells /25./; and Terahertz for Biomedical Applications. San Francisco (US), 02.02.2014-04.02.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : IndoCyanine Green * fluorescence spectroscopy * small intestine * surgery Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  4. Atomic lifetime measurements by beam-gas-dye laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoranzer, H.; Volz, U.

    1993-01-01

    Beam-gas-dye laser spectroscopy as a precise, cascade-free and collision-free method for measuring atomic lifetimes and individual oscillator strengths is described. Its recent application to fine-structure levels of the KrI 5p configuration is reported. The experimental uncertainty is reduced by one order of magnitude, with respect to previous work, down to 0.3% (1σ). The discussion of these results in comparison with experimental and theoretical ones from the literature underlines the precision of the method and its potential to guide future theoretical developments.

  5. Biomedical and environmental applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; K S Choudhari; Suresh D Kulkarni; Rajesh Nayak; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; B M Suri

    2014-02-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, minimal sample preparation, minimal destruction, low cost and versatility of being applied to a wide range of materials. In this paper, we report the preliminary observations we obtained using LIBS for clinical and environmental samples. Elemental analysis has been done qualitatively in human teeth samples which show encouraging results. It has also been demonstrated in this paper that LIBS can be very well utilized in field applications such as plastic waste sorting and recycling.

  6. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applied to plutonium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) system has been developed specifically for the quantitative analysis of gallium in plutonium dioxide in support of the MOX fuel development program. The advantage of this system is no sample preparation and the capability to analyze extremely small samples. Success in this application has prompted an expansion of the technique to other areas, including determination of plutonium isotopic ratios. This paper will present recent results for gallium content in PuO2 after processing via thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR). Data will also be presented for the determination of the plutonium 239/240 isotopic ratio

  7. Infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S.; Brown, E.; Hommerich, Uwe; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Samuels, Alan C.; Snyder, A. Peter

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensing and has significant potential for real time standoff detection and analysis. We have studied LIBS emissions in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region for potential applications in CBE sensing. Detailed MIR-LIBS studies were performed for several energetic materials for the first time. In this study, the IR signature spectral region between 4 - 12 um was mined for the appearance of MIR-LIBS emissions that are directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as partially dissociated and recombination molecular species.

  8. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  9. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  10. Two-step laser ionization schemes for in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy of radioactive isotopesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Yu; Ferrer, R; Huyse, M.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.(KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven, 3001, Belgium); Vermeeren, L.

    2014-01-01

    The in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy technique has been developed at the Leuven isotope separator on-line facility for the production and in-source laser spectroscopy studies of short-lived radioactive isotopes. In this article, results from a study to identify efficient optical schemes for the two-step resonance laser ionization of 18 elements are presented. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  11. Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy for Remote Open-Path Trace-Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Wysocki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a prototype instrument for remote open-path detection of nitrous oxide. The sensor is based on a 4.53 μm quantum cascade laser and uses the chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS technique for molecular concentration measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of open-path laser-based trace-gas detection using a molecular dispersion measurement. The prototype sensor achieves a detection limit down to the single-ppbv level and exhibits excellent stability and robustness. The instrument characterization, field deployment performance, and the advantages of applying dispersion sensing to sensitive trace-gas detection in a remote open-path configuration are presented.

  12. Detection of vibrational-overtone excitation in water via laser-induced grating spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a method, based on the laser-induced grating technique, for studying the spectroscopy of vibrational overtone-excited gas-phase water. Two phase-coherent visible laser beams whose frequencies are in the range of the third overtone of the OH stretch in water are crossed in the gas-phase sample. As the wavelength of these excitation beams is scanned through individual rovibrational OH overtone transitions, vibrational energy is deposited into the water in a spatially sinusoidal pattern. A fixed-frequency 266 nm probe laser beam is diffracted from the resultant transmission diffraction grating in water. We show that under collision-free conditions, probe laser diffraction is observed from the initially excited grating, which is a necessary condition for using this technique to study the absorption spectroscopy of the vibrationally excited molecules. Under multiple collision conditions, a probe laser wavelength-independent refractive index grating is formed within the bulk sample. In addition, we observe temporal oscillations in the grating diffraction efficiency arising from excitation of standing acoustic waves

  13. Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of air-laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Li, Guihua; Yao, Jinping; Zhang, Haisu; Ni, Jielei; Jing, Chenrui; Xie, Hongqiang; Cheng, Ya

    2014-04-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy based on a strong-field-ionization-induced nitrogen laser is employed to investigate the time evolution of the rotational wave packet composed by a coherent superposition of quantum rotational states created in a field-free molecular alignment. We show that this technique uniquely allows real-time observation of the ultrafast dynamics of the molecular rotational wave packet. Our analysis also shows that there exist two channels of generation of the nitrogen laser, shedding light on the population inversion mechanism behind the air laser generated by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  14. Complete Fermi Surface and Surface State in WTe2 Revealed by High-Resolution Laser-Based Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenlu; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Guodong; Mao, Zhiqiang; He, Shaolong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Zhou, Xingjiang

    WTe2, an unique transition metal dichalcogenide, attracts considerable attention recently, which shows an extremely large magnetoresistance (MR) with no saturation under very high field. In this talk, we will present our high resolution laser-ARPES study on WTe2. Our distinctive ARPES system is equipped with the VUV laser and the time-of-flight (TOF) electron energy analyzer, being featured by super-high energy resolution, simultaneous data acquisition for two-dimensional momentum space and much reduced nonlinearity effect. With this advanced apparatus, the very high quality of electronic structure data are obtained for WTe2 which gives a full picture of the Fermi surface. Meanwhile, the obtained systematic temperature dependence of its electronic state leads us to a better understanding on the origin of large magnetoresistance in WTe2.

  15. The effect of the laser wavelength on collinear double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lin, Yanqing; Liu, Jing; Fan, Shuang; Xu, Zhuopin; Huang, Qing; Wu, Yuejin

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 1064 nm were used as two beams of light for collinear double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). By changing the time sequence of two beams of different lasers, we studied the effect of the interval of two pulses of DP-LIBS on spectral signals compared with single pulsed (SP) LIBS.

  16. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R.; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a dio...

  17. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  18. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  19. Evolutions in time and space of laser ablated species by dual-laser photoabsorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ribiere, M.; Méès, Loïc; Allano, D.; Cheron, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric aluminum laser induced plasma is investigated by means of absorption and emission spectroscopies in the near ultraviolet range. The absorbed radiation is produced by a second aluminum laser induced plasma, which is generated at adjustable time delay. The measurements of both ground and resonant state number densities are derived from the fitting of the experimental 308.21 nm (2P1/20−2D3/2) and 396.15 nm (2P3/20−2S1/2) line absorption profiles on the numerical solution of the ra...

  20. Rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for carbon isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of developing a portable system for an in field isotope analysis, we investigate an isotope analysis based on rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy, in which the concentration of a chemical species is derived from its photo absorbance. Such a system can identify the isotopomer and still be constructed as a quite compact system. We have made some basic experimental measurements of the overtone absorption lines of carbon dioxide (12C16O2, 13C16O2) by rapid-swept cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a CW infrared diode laser at 6,200 cm-1 (1.6 μm). The isotopic ratio has been obtained as (1.07±0.13)x10-2, in good agreement with the natural abundance within experimental uncertainty. The detection sensitivity in absorbance has been estimated to be 3x10-8 cm-1. (author)

  1. Stoichiometric analysis of compositionally graded combinatorial amorphous thin film oxides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a recently developed locally destructive elemental analysis technique that can be used to analyze solid, liquid, and gaseous samples. In the system explored here, a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablates a small amount of the sample and spectral emission from the plume is analyzed using a set of synchronized spectrometers. We explore the use of LIBS to map the stoichiometry of compositionally graded amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film libraries. After optimization of the experimental parameters (distance between lens and samples, spot size on the samples, etc.), the LIBS system was calibrated against inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy which resulted in a very consistent LIBS-based elemental analysis. Various parameters that need to be watched closely in order to produce consistent results are discussed. We also compare LIBS and x-ray fluorescence as techniques for the compositional mapping of libraries.

  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, advances in resolution and portability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), can be considered as one of the most dynamic and promising technique in the field of analytical spectroscopy. LIBS has turned into a powerful alternative for a wide front of applications, from the geological exploration to the industrial inspection, including the environmental monitoring, the biomedical analysis, the study of patrimonial works, the safety and defense. The advances in LIBS instrumentation have allowed improving gradually the analysis services and quality, on the basis of a better knowledge of the technology principles. Recently, systems of double pulse have facilitated a better dosing of energy, the improvement of the signal-noise relation and the study of the different process stages. Femtosecond lasers offers the possibility of study in detail the ablation and atomic emission processes. New advances like multi-pulse or multi-wavelength systems -in fact stilling without exploring, must offer new information to advance in this knowledge. Finally, which it does to this technology really attractive, is the aptitude to be employed in field conditions, or for the detection of the elementary composition at long distances. In this presentation there are discussed the designs of portable instrumentation, compact and low cost, which can improve substantially the LIBS possibilities. (Author)

  3. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin; Zheng, Ronger

    2015-08-01

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS-Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches.

  4. Field-based stable isotope analysis of carbon dioxide by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for carbon capture and storage monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Van Geldern, R; M. Nowak; Zimmer, M.; Szizybalski, A.; Myrttinen, A.; Barth, J.; Jost, H.

    2014-01-01

    A newly developed isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a tracer experiment at the Ketzin pilot site (northern Germany) for CO2 storage. For the experiment, 500 tons of CO2 from a natural CO2 reservoir was injected in supercritical state into the reservoir. The carbon stable isotope value (δ13C) of injected CO2 was significantly different from background values. In order to observe the breakthrough of the isotope tracer continuously, the new instruments were...

  5. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products: Infrared Lock-In Thermography, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy/Chemometrics, and Condensed Phase Laser-Based Photoacoustics—Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs.; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-09-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), infrared lock-in thermography (IRLIT), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with chemometrics. Results were verified versus data obtained by traditional VIS spectrophotometry (SP) that served as a reference technique. Unlike SP, the IRLIT, NIRS, and LPAS require a minimum of sample preparation which enables practically direct quantification of the TCC.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy expands into industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents R and D activities in the field of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for industrial applications and shows novel LIBS systems running in routine operation for inline process control tasks. Starting with a comparison of the typical characteristics of LIBS with XRF and spark-discharge optical emission spectrometry, the principal structure of LIBS machines embedded for inline process monitoring will be presented. A systematic requirement analysis for LIBS systems following Ishikawa's scheme was worked out. Stability issues are studied for laser sources and Paschen-Runge spectrometers as key components for industrial LIBS systems. Examples of industrial applications range from handheld LIBS systems using a fiber laser source, via a set of LIBS machines for inline process control tasks, such as scrap analysis, coal analysis, liquid slag analysis and finally monitoring of drill dust. - Highlights: • New applications for LIBS realized within the last five years • Systematic requirement analysis for industrial LIBS systems • First long-term studies of key components • Demonstration of LIBS potential for inline chemical analysis

  7. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy inside liquids: Processes and analytical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, V., E-mail: violeta.lazic@enea.it [ENEA (UTAPRAD-DIM), Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Jovićević, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inside liquids, applied for detection of the elements present in the media itself or in the submerged samples. The processes inherent to the laser induced plasma formation and evolution inside liquids are discussed, including shockwave generation, vapor cavitation, and ablation of solids. Types of the laser excitation considered here are single pulse, dual pulse and multi-pulse. The literature relative to the LIBS measurements and applications inside liquids is reviewed and the most relevant results are summarized. Finally, we discuss the analytical aspects and release some suggestions for improving the LIBS sensitivity and accuracy in liquid environment. - Highlights: • The paper reviews LIBS applications on bulk liquids and on submerged samples, using single, dual and multi pulse excitation. • The fundamentals about plasma in liquids are provided: beam transmission, breakdown, ablation, cavitation, and energy balance • Influence of the bubble’s optical properties on the plasma formation and detection after the second pulse is considered • The results obtained by various research groups and in different experimental conditions are reviewed and summarized • The analytical aspects are discussed, which include the experimental part, signal stability, data processing and calibration.

  8. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy inside liquids: Processes and analytical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) inside liquids, applied for detection of the elements present in the media itself or in the submerged samples. The processes inherent to the laser induced plasma formation and evolution inside liquids are discussed, including shockwave generation, vapor cavitation, and ablation of solids. Types of the laser excitation considered here are single pulse, dual pulse and multi-pulse. The literature relative to the LIBS measurements and applications inside liquids is reviewed and the most relevant results are summarized. Finally, we discuss the analytical aspects and release some suggestions for improving the LIBS sensitivity and accuracy in liquid environment. - Highlights: • The paper reviews LIBS applications on bulk liquids and on submerged samples, using single, dual and multi pulse excitation. • The fundamentals about plasma in liquids are provided: beam transmission, breakdown, ablation, cavitation, and energy balance • Influence of the bubble’s optical properties on the plasma formation and detection after the second pulse is considered • The results obtained by various research groups and in different experimental conditions are reviewed and summarized • The analytical aspects are discussed, which include the experimental part, signal stability, data processing and calibration

  9. Collisional dependence of polarization spectroscopy with a picosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collisional dependence of polarization spectroscopy (PS) with a picosecond-pulse laser is investigated theoretically with a perturbative treatment and experimentally by probing hydroxyl (OH) in a flow cell with a buffer gas of argon. Using a frequency-doubled distributed-feedback dye laser (DFDL), the PS signal strength is monitored as a function of pressure using a nonsaturating pump beam and a saturating pump beam. The collisional dependence of the PS signal is found to decrease significantly with a saturating pump beam. Increasing the flow-cell pressure by a factor of 50 (from 10 torr to 500 torr), the PS signal strength produced with a nonsaturating pump beam decreases by a factor of 18 while that produced with a saturating pump decreases by only a factor of 3. A third-order perturbative (weak-field) approach is used to develop an analytical expression for the PS signal generated by single-mode, exponentially decaying laser pulses. This expression correctly predicts the experimental results acquired with the nonsaturating pump beam. The analytical solution is used to examine the effects of pulse length on the collisional dependence of the weak-field PS signal strength. Results are also presented for a numerical simulation of the time-dependent density matrix equations for the high intensity case. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Germane Plasma Induced by IR CO2 Pulsed Laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santos, M.; Diaz, L.; Camacho, J.J.; Poyato, J.M.; Pola, Josef; Křenek, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2010), s. 811-821. ISSN 0947-8396 Grant ostatní: DGICYT(ES) MEC:CTQ2008-05393; DGICYT(ES) MEC:CTQ2007-60177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : laser breakdown spectroscopy * germane * gas-breadown Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.765, year: 2010

  11. Photoreflectance spectroscopy study of vertical cavity surface emitting laser structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the application of the laser-based electro-absorptive technique of photoreflectance (PR) for the study of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). PR results are shown to reveal the technologically important cavity mode and ground state quantum well exciton structures. AlGaAs/GaAs based quantum well VCSELs were examined with and without top mirror layers as a function of laser pump excitation conditions, with results compared with angle-dependent PR data. Cavity mode and quantum well alignments were also studied with reference to the un-modulated reflectance signal as well as correlated with photoluminescence data. The results demonstrate the importance of PR metrology for state-of-art VCSEL characterisation

  12. Topics in Laser Spectroscopy: A semiconductor diode laser spectrometer for laser spectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, J.; Niemax, K.

    The construction and the use of a single mode semiconductor diode laser spectrometer which can be tuned electronically controlled by temperature as well as by current is presented. The spectroscopic properties of this spectrometer including commercial semiconductor diode lasers of the AlGaAs/GaAs type operating in the wavelength range 735-860 nm are discussed. Examples of the application of diode laser spectrometers in laser spectrochemistry are given.

  13. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, F.; Gugiu, M.; Petrascu, H.; Petrone, C.; Pietreanu, D.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Antici, P.; Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C.; Risca, M.; Toma, M.; Turcu, E.; Ursescu, D.

    2015-02-01

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr3(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  14. Two-dimensional space-resolved emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a method for two-dimensional space-resolved emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasma in water to investigate the spatial distribution of atomic species involved in the plasma. Using this method, the laser ablation plasma produced on a Cu target in 5 mM NaCl aqueous solution was examined. The emission spectrum varied considerably depending on the detecting position. The temperature and the atomic density ratio NNa/NCu at various detecting positions were evaluated by fitting emission spectra to a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann distribution. We are successful in observing even a small difference between the distributions of the plasma parameters along the directions vertical and horizontal to the surface. The present approach gives direct information for sound understanding of the behavior of laser ablation plasma produced on a solid surface in water.

  15. Performance improvements in temperature reconstructions of 2-D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Doo-Won; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Cho, Gyeong-Rae; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Doh, Deog-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Performance improvement was attained in data reconstructions of 2-dimensional tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) algorithm was adopted for data reconstruction. The data obtained in an experiment for the measurement of temperature and concentration fields of gas flows were used. The measurement theory is based upon the Beer-Lambert law, and the measurement system consists of a tunable laser, collimators, detectors, and an analyzer. Methane was used as a fuel for combustion with air in the Bunsen-type burner. The data used for the reconstruction are from the optical signals of 8-laser beams passed on a cross-section of the methane flame. The performances of MART algorithm in data reconstruction were validated and compared with those obtained by Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm.

  16. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like 140Pr58+. The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like 140Pr58+ is lower than the one of helium-like 140Pr57+. The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes 135Pr, 136Pr and 137Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope 140Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of the cadmium isotopes 106-124,126Cd and their long-lived I

  17. [Study on measurement of trace heavy metal Ni in water by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huan; Zhao, Nan-jing; Wang, Chun-long; Lu, Cui-ping; Liu, Li-tuo; Chen, Dong; Ma, Ming-jun; Zhang, Yu-jun; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2012-01-01

    The spectroscopy emission characteristics and the detection limit of trace heavy metal nickel in water was studied based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique, with a 1,064 nm wavelength Nd : YAG laser as excitation source, and the echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector were used for spectral separation and high sensitive detection with high resolution and wide spectral range. A round flat solid state graphite as matrix was used for element enrichment for reducing water splashing, extending the plasma lifetime and improving the detection sensitivity, and the experimental sample was prepared by titrating a fixed volume of nickel nitrate solution of different concentrations on a fixed area of the graphite matrix. The results show that the better detection delay time is about 700 ns, the spectrum intensity raises with the concentration increase, a good linear relationship is presented at low concentration with a correlation coefficient 0.996 1, and the lower limit of detection of nickel in water with 0.28 mg x L(-1) was retrieved. A measurement method for further study of trace heavy metals in water is provided with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. PMID:22497119

  18. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  19. Laser spectroscopy and photochemistry on metal surfaces, pt.1

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, HL

    1995-01-01

    Using lasers to induce and probe surface processes has the advantages of quantum state specificity, species selectivity, surface sensitivity, fast time-resolution, high frequency resolution, and accessibility to full pressure ranges. These advantages make it highly desirable to use light to induce, control, or monitor surface chemical and physical processes. Recent applications of laser based techniques in studying surface processes have stimulated new developments and enabled the understanding of fundamental problems in energy transfer and reactions. This volume will include discussions on sp

  20. Laser spectroscopy and photochemistry on metal surfaces, pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, HL

    1995-01-01

    Using lasers to induce and probe surface processes has the advantages of quantum state specificity, species selectivity, surface sensitivity, fast time-resolution, high frequency resolution, and accessibility to full pressure ranges. These advantages make it highly desirable to use light to induce, control, or monitor surface chemical and physical processes. Recent applications of laser based techniques in studying surface processes have stimulated new developments and enabled the understanding of fundamental problems in energy transfer and reactions. This volume will include discussions on sp

  1. Investigation of titanium nitride coating by broadband laser ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Wei-Min(高伟民); Christ Glorieux; Walter Lauriks; Jan Then

    2002-01-01

    We present a laser ultrasonic method to investigate a titanium nitride (TiN) coating specimen. The techniqueis based on the principle of surface acoustic wave (SAW) dispersion during acoustic propagation on a half-space withthe presence of a thin layer. Due to the high efficiency of laser line-source excitation, we have been able to generateand detect a SAW with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio in a wide frequency band. An inverse fitting algorithm wasemployed to extract simultaneously the thickness and the elastic parameters of the TiN coating from the experimentalSAW velocity dispersion curve.

  2. Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jiří

    The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.

  3. Spherically bent crystal spectroscopy in laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A curved crystal X-ray spectrographs of reflection type spherical geometry was required based on the Johann scheme. Due to their high efficiency and resolution, X-ray spectrographs of focusing spectrograph spatial resolution are suitable for detecting weak X-ray spectra in spectrometers for laser fusion research. Spherically bent mica crystal with a radius of curvature of 380 mm was used in the spectrometer. The Bragg angle of the crystal analyzer was 51 degree. The image plate was employed to obtain high spatial resolution and a narrow spectral band width, with an effective area of 30 mm x 80 mm. The designed optical path of the X-ray spectrometer beam was 980 mm long from the source to the crystal and the detector. The first experiment was carried out at the 20 J energy laser facility of Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics. X-ray spectra in an absolute intensity scale were obtained from Al laser-produced plasmas created by laser energies 6.78 J, with a spectral resolution of 1 000 to 1 500 for the spherically bent mica crystal spectrometers and 50 to 100 for the flat PET crystal at the same condition. These experimental results show that the spectrograph of spherically bent mica crystal is a good tool for diagnosing high-density plasmas with high spectrum resolution. (authors)

  4. Liquid steel analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a nanosecond pulsed laser is focused onto a sample and the intensity exceeds a certain threshold, material is vaporized and a plasma is formed above the sample surface. The laser-light becomes increasingly absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and by photo-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms and molecules. The positive feedback, by which the number of energetic electrons for ionization is increased in an avalanche-like manner under the influence of laser-light, is the so-called optical breakdown. Radiating excited atoms and ions within the expanding plasma plume produce a characteristic optical emission spectrum. A spectroscopic analysis of this optical emission of the laser-induced plasma permits a qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the investigated sample. This technique is therefore often called laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIPS is a fast non-contact technique, by which solid, liquid or gaseous samples can be analyzed with respect to their chemical composition. Hence, it is an appropriate tool for the rapid in-situ analysis of not easily accessible surfaces for process control in industrial environments. In this work, LIPS was studied as a technique to determine the chemical composition of solid and liquid steel. A LIPS set-up was designed and built for the remote and continuous in-situ analysis of the steel melt. Calibration curves were prepared for the LIPS analysis of Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in solid steel using reference samples with known composition. In laboratory experiments an induction furnace was used to melt steel samples in crucibles, which were placed at a working distance of 1.5 m away from the LIPS apparatus. The response of the LIPS system was monitored on-line during the addition of pure elements to the liquid steel bath within certain concentration ranges (Cr: 0.11 - 13.8 wt%, Cu: 0.044 - 0.54 wt%, Mn: 1.38 - 2.5 wt%, Ni: 0.049 - 5.92 wt%). The analysis of an element

  5. Designing the method for optical in vitro monitoring of the cell-mediated scaffold technology for bone regeneration based on laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, P. M.; Maslov, N. A.; Papaeva, E. O.; Tereshchenko, V. P.; Khlestkin, V. K.; Bogachev, S. S.; Proskurina, A. S.; Titov, A. T.; Filipenko, M. L.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kudrov, G. A.; Orishich, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the main unsolved problems in traumatology and orthopedics is reconstruction of critical-sized segmental bone defects. We believe that implementation of noninvasive monitoring of the bioengineering stages for cell-mediated bone scaffold by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) can become a positive aspect in mastering this technique. An electrospun scaffold model (parameters: 10 wt. % polycaprolactone; 5% wt type A gelatin; mean fiber diameter 877.1 ± 169.1, and contact angle 45.3°) seeded with BHK IR cell culture (182 ± 38 cells/mm2) was used to show the principal possibility of differentiating between the scaffold seeded and unseeded with cells. First of all, the fluorescence spectra of the cell-seeded scaffold contain a peak at 305 nm for the excitation range of 230-290 nm, which can be used to differentiate between the samples. An increase in fluorescence intensity of the cell-seeded scaffold in the range of 400- 580 nm upon excitation at 230-340 nm is also noticeable. The wavelength of 250 nm is characterized by high signal intensity and is most suitable for differentiation between the samples.

  6. Pico-second laser spectroscopy and reaction dynamics in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic relaxation of excited singlet states of molecules and ions in liquid solution is investigated using picosecond laser spectroscopy. The more efficient process for the deactivation of the first excited singlet state of pinacyanol is internal conversion S1 → S0 between iso-energetic states. At low viscosity, the rate constant is inversely proportional to the macroscopic viscosity and depends on the relaxation of the angle between the quinoline end groups around the polymethinic chain. Electron photodetachment by 265 nm excitation of the ferrocyanide and phenolate anions and photoionisation of neutral molecules, phenol, indole and tryptophan in polar solvents give rise to the solvated electron formation. The mono-or bi-photonic nature of the ejection process and the solvent relaxation around the excess electron are analyzed. (author)

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive source of the fundamentals, process parameters, instrumental components and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The effect of multiple pulses on material ablation, plasma dynamics and plasma emission is presented. A heuristic plasma modeling allows to simulate complex experimental plasma spectra. These methods and findings form the basis for a variety of applications to perform quantitative multi-element analysis with LIBS. These application potentials of LIBS have really boosted in the last years ranging from bulk analysis of metallic alloys and non-conducting materials, via spatially resolved analysis and depth profiling covering measuring objects in all physical states: gaseous, liquid and solid. Dedicated chapters present LIBS investigations for these tasks with special emphasis on the methodical and instrumental concepts as well as the optimization strategies for a quantitative analysis. Requirements, concepts, design and characteristic features of LI...

  8. Characterization of Phyllosilicates by LIBS and Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Sobron, P.

    2011-12-01

    NIR spectral signatures of phyllosilicates were recognized on Mars with wide distributions from orbit by OMEGA (on Mars Express orbiter) and CRISM (on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) observations. On the ground, geochemical and spectral features related to phyllosilicates were identified in rocks at two locations on Columbia Hill at Gusev crater using the data obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit. Furthermore, Opportunity rover is currently approaching the Cap of York at Endeavour crater on Meridiani Planum, where the signatures of phyllosilicates (and hydrous sulfates) were seen by CRISM. Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Raman spectroscopy will be used for the first time in rover missions in ChemCam on the NASA-MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) and in RLS on the ESA-ExoMars, respectively. As demonstrated by our previous studies, they are very powerful tools for characterizing the geochemistry and mineralogy aspects of the secondary minerals from aqueous alterations, especially hydrous sulfates. This study investigates the potential of LIBS and Raman spectroscopy for identifying and characterizing a variety of phyllosilicates, especially clays. Clay standards from the Clay Mineral Society were used. The LIBS measurements were made in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh) under Mars atmospheric pressure and composition, using 1064 nm as the excitation laser wavelength, same as ChemCam. The Raman measurements were made in ordinary laboratory environment using 532 nm as the excitation wavelength, same as RLS. The LIBS data were processed using custom automated software. We performed quantitative analysis of the spectra in order to evaluate the effectiveness of our method in: (a) discriminating between phyllosilicates and other silicates; (b) classifying different types of phyllosilicates (i.e., serpentine, chlorites, clays); and (c) correlating the LIBS-derived elemental abundances with the real chemical compositions of

  9. Remote sensing of subsurface water temperature by laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D. A.; Caputo, B.; Guagliardo, J. L.; Hoge, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes experimental remote sensing of subsurface water temperature using the Raman spectroscopic technique. By the use of a pulsed laser and range gating detection techniques, Raman scattering is analyzed as a function of depth in a radar-like echo mode, and thus subsurface profiles of temperature and transmission are obtained. Experiments are described in which Raman data using polarization spectroscopy has been obtained from a ship as a function of depth in ocean water near Grand Bahama Island. A spectral temperature accuracy of + or - 1 C has been obtained from this data in the first two optical attenuation lengths. Raman data obtained from ocean water using the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar is also presented.

  10. Measurement of Nuclear Moments and Radii by Collinear Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Geithner, W R; Lievens, P; Kotrotsios, G; Silverans, R; Kappertz, S

    2002-01-01

    %IS304 %title\\\\ \\\\Collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam has proven to be a widely applicable and very efficient tool for measurements of changes in mean square nuclear charge radii, nuclear spins, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Recent developments of extremely sensitive non-optical detection schemes enabled for some elements the extension of the measurements towards the very short-lived isotopes in the far wings of the ISOLDE production curves. The gain in sensitivity opens up new perspectives, particularly for measurements on lighter nuclei whose ground-state properties can be interpreted by large scale microscopic calculations instead of the more phenomenologic models used for heavier nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ For the sequence of argon isotopes $^{32-40}$Ar and $^{46}$Ar isotope shifts and nuclear moments were measured by optical pumping followed by state selective collisional ionization and detection of the $\\beta$-decay. Similarly, the low-background $\\alpha$-detection was used to extend earlie...

  11. 激光拉曼光谱应用于变压器油中溶解气体分析%Analysis of Dissolved Gas in Transformer Oil Based on Laser Raman Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟根; 赵立志; 彭尚怡; 刘军; 周婧婧

    2014-01-01

    变压器油中溶解气体在线监测是实施变压器状态检修的重要手段之一。激光拉曼光谱技术能直接使用单一频率的激光对混合气体进行非接触式的测量,符合在线监测的要求。利用激光拉曼光谱对变压器油中溶解气体进行分析,能克服传统在线监测方法的诸多不足。对激光拉曼光谱在变压器油中溶解气体分析中的应用进行了研究。分析了变压器油中7种主要故障特征气体(H2、CH4、C2H6、C2H4、C2H2、CO、CO2)的拉曼特征频谱,并阐述了基于特征频谱和最小二乘法对7种特征气体进行定性定量分析的方法。利用共聚焦拉曼技术和镀银石英玻璃管制成的气体样品池,构建了激光拉曼光谱气体分析试验平台。结合平台研究了7种故障特征气体的拉曼光谱检测特性,并与实验室气相色谱法的测量结果进行了对比。对比结果表明,激光拉曼光谱能有效地对变压器油中溶解气体进行定量分析,为变压器油中溶解气体的拉曼光谱在线监测奠定了基础。%Dissolved gas-in-oil online monitoring is one of the important means to implement condition-based maintenance for power transformer. Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) can directly perform non-contact measurement to mixed gas by a laser with single frequency, especially being suitable for online monitoring. Using LRS to analyze dissolved gas in transformer oil can overcome the disadvantages of traditional online monitoring methods. In this paper, the application of LRS in the dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA) was studied. The Raman characteristic spectra of seven major fault characteristic gases(H2, CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO, CO2) were analyzed, and the qualitative and quantitative analysis methods for the seven characteristic gases based on the characteristic spectra and the least squares method were elaborated. Laser Raman spectroscopy gas detection test platform was built using

  12. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy under Polar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, J. L.; Hark, R.; Bol'shakov, A.; Plumer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade our research team has evaluated the use of commercial-off-the-shelf laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for chemical analysis of snow and ice samples under polar conditions. One avenue of research explored LIBS suitability as a detector of paleo-climate proxy indicators (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) in ice as it relates to atmospheric circulation. LIBS results revealed detection of peaks for C and N, consistent with the presence of organic material, as well as major ions (Ca, K, Mg, and Na) and trace metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ti). The detection of Ca, K, Mg, and Na confirmed that LIBS has sufficient sensitivity to be used as a tool for characterization of paleo-climate proxy indicators in ice-core samples. Techniques were developed for direct analysis of ice as well as indirect measurements of ice via melting and filtering. Pitfalls and issues of direct ice analysis using several cooling techniques to maintain ice integrity will be discussed. In addition, a new technique, laser ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS) was applied to detection of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in ice as isotopic analysis of ice is the main tool in paleoclimatology and glaciology studies. Our results demonstrated that spectra of hydroxyl isotopologues 16OH, 18OH, and 16OD can be recorded with a compact spectrograph to determine hydrogen and oxygen isotopes simultaneously. Quantitative isotopic calibration for ice analysis can be accomplished using multivariate chemometric regression as previously realized for water vapor. Analysis with LIBS and LAMIS required no special sample preparation and was about ten times faster than analysis using ICP-MS. Combination of the two techniques in one portable instrument for in-field analysis appears possible and would eliminate the logistical and cost issues associated with ice core management.

  13. Laser Ablation Spectroscopy for Impurity Depth Profiling in Hot Wall Materials of Thermonuclear Fisuon reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Jeļena Butikova

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The main motivation of thesis work was showing the efficiency of the laser-induced ablation for analysis of the impurities in plasma facing components. The major tasks of the study are setting up and testing the equipment for laser ablation spectroscopy and developing methodology for impurity depth profiling. The thesis describes the investigation of the plasma facing materials of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) tokamak using laser-induced ablation spectroscopy and profilometry of ablation...

  14. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz; Galiova, M.; Novotny, K.; Cervenka, R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Reale, L. [Faculty of Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67010 L' Aquila (Italy); Novotny, J.; Liska, M.; Samek, O. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, V.; Hrdlicka, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-01-15

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 {mu}m in a up to cm x cm area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  15. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Červenka, R.; Reale, L.; Novotný, J.; Liška, M.; Samek, O.; Kanický, V.; Hrdlička, A.; Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 μm in a up to cm × cm area of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  16. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 μm in a up to cm x cm area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed

  17. Study of vitamin A distribution in rats by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) to investigate intestinal and liver tissues of normal male Wistar rats fed with vitamin A. The special procedure based on intensity spectral functions fitting was developed for the recognition of vitamin A in different tissues. Based on this procedure it is demonstrated that the LIFS can be used to monitor vitamin A deposition and distribution in the body of rat, which is essential for understanding the mechanism of formation of the vitamin A rich droplets, as the mechanism of vitamin A mobilization

  18. Measurement of Moments and Radii of Light Nuclei by Collinear Fast-Beam Laser Spectroscopy and $\\beta$-NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Marinova, K P

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Moments and radii of light unstable isotopes are investigated by applying different high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques based on collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy. A study of nuclear structure in the sd shell is performed on neon isotopes in the extended chain of $^{17-28}$Ne, in particular on the proton-halo candidate $^{17}$Ne. Measurements of hyperfine structure and isotope shift have become possible by introducing an ultra-sensitive non-optical detection method which is based on optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and $\\beta$-activity counting. The small effect of nuclear radii on the optical isotope shifts of light elements requires very accurate measurements. The errors are dominated by uncertainties of the Doppler shifts which are conventionally determined from precisely measured acceleration voltages. These uncertainties are removed by measuring the beam energy with simultaneous excitation of two optical lines in parallel / antiparallel beam configuration. ...

  19. Laser assisted decay spectroscopy at the CRIS beam line at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line has recently been installed at ISOLDE, CERN utilising lasers to combine collinear laser spectroscopy and resonant ionization spectroscopy. The combined technique offers the ability to purify an ion beam that is heavily contaminated with radioactive isobars, including the ground state of an isotope from its isomer, allowing sensitive secondary experiments to be performed. A new programme aiming to use the CRIS technique for the separation of nuclear isomeric states for decay spectroscopy will commence in 2011. A decay spectroscopy station, consisting of a rotating wheel implantation system for alpha decay spectroscopy, and three high purity germanium detectors around the implantation site for gamma-ray detection, has been developed for this purpose. This paper will report the current status of the laser assisted decay spectroscopy set-up for the CRIS beam line.

  20. Electric field measurements in picosecond laser-produced plasma via X-ray spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woolsey, N.C.; Howe, J.; Chambers, D.M.; Courtois, C.; Förster, E.; Gregory, C.D.; Hall, I.M.; Renner, Oldřich; Uschmann, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2007), s. 292-296. ISSN 1574-1818 Grant ostatní: UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council(GB) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser -produced plasma * K-shell spectroscopy * laser -induced satellites Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  1. Construction and commissioning of a collinear laser spectroscopy setup at TRIGA Mainz and laser spectroscopy of magnesium isotopes at ISOLDE (CERN)

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been used as a tool for nuclear physics for more than 30 years. The unique possibility to extract nuclear properties like spins, radii and nuclear moments in a model-independent manner leads to important physics results to test the predictive power of existing nuclear models. rnThis work presents the construction and the commissioning of a new collinear laser spectroscopy experiment TRIGA-LASER as a part of the TRIGA-SPEC facility at the TRIGA research reactor...

  2. Laser Raman Spectroscopy in studies of corrosion and electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS) has become an important tool for the in-situ structural study of electrochemical systems and processes in recent years. Following a brief introduction of the experimental techniques involved in applying LRS to electrochemical systems, we survey the literature for examples of studies in the inhibition of electrode reactions by surface films (e.g., corrosion and passivation phenomena) as well as the acceleration of reactions by electro-sorbates (electrocatalysis). We deal mostly with both normal and resonance Raman effects on fairly thick surface films in contrast to surface-enhanced Raman investigations of monolayer adsorbates, which is covered in another lecture. Laser Raman spectroelectrochemical studies of corrosion and film formation on such metals as Pb, Ag, Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Au, stainless steel, etc. in various solution conditions are discussed. Further extension of the technique to studies in high-temperature and high-pressure aqueous environments is demonstrated. Results of studies of the structure of corrosion inhibitors are also presented. As applications of the LRS technique in the area of electrocatalysis, we cite studies of the structure of transition metal macrocyclic compounds, i.e., phthalocyanines and porphyrins, used for catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction. 104 refs., 20 figs

  3. Laser Spectroscopy Studies in the Neutron-Rich Sn Region

    CERN Multimedia

    Obert, J

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the powerful laser spectroscopy method to determine the magnetic moment $\\mu$ and the variation of the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\,\\langle$r$_{c}^{2}\\,\\rangle$) for ground and long-lived isomeric states of the Sn isotopes from A=125 to the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn isotope and beyond. For these neutron-rich Sn nuclei, numerous $\\delta\\,\\langle$r$^{2}_{c}\\,\\rangle$ curves have already been calculated and the predictions depend upon the effective interactions used. Therefore, a study of the effect of the shell closure N=82 on the $\\delta\\,\\langle$r$^{2}_{c}\\,\\rangle$ values in the Z=50 magic nuclei is of great interest, especially because $^{132}$Sn is located far from the stability valley. It will help to improve the parameters of the effective interactions and make them more suitable to predict the properties of exotic nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced with an uranium carbide target, are ionized using either a hot plasma ion source or the resonant ionization laser ion ...

  4. Fatigue crack localization using laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear features of ultrasonic waves are more sensitive to the presence of a fatigue crack than their linear counterparts are. For this reason, the use of nonlinear ultrasonic techniques to detect a fatigue crack at its early stage has been widely investigated. Of the different proposed techniques, laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) is unique because a pulse laser is used to exert a single broadband input and a noncontact measurement can be performed. Broadband excitation causes a nonlinear source to exhibit modulation at multiple spectral peaks owing to interactions among various input frequency components. A feature called maximum sideband peak count difference (MSPCD), which is extracted from the spectral plot, measures the degree of crack-induced material nonlinearity. First, the ratios of spectral peaks whose amplitudes are above a moving threshold to the total number of peaks are computed for spectral signals obtained from the pristine and the current state of a target structure. Then, the difference of these ratios are computed as a function of the moving threshold. Finally, the MSPCD is defined as the maximum difference between these ratios. The basic premise is that the MSPCD will increase as the nonlinearity of the material increases. This technique has been used successfully for localizing fatigue cracks in metallic plates.

  5. Fatigue crack localization using laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kundu, Tribikram [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear features of ultrasonic waves are more sensitive to the presence of a fatigue crack than their linear counterparts are. For this reason, the use of nonlinear ultrasonic techniques to detect a fatigue crack at its early stage has been widely investigated. Of the different proposed techniques, laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) is unique because a pulse laser is used to exert a single broadband input and a noncontact measurement can be performed. Broadband excitation causes a nonlinear source to exhibit modulation at multiple spectral peaks owing to interactions among various input frequency components. A feature called maximum sideband peak count difference (MSPCD), which is extracted from the spectral plot, measures the degree of crack-induced material nonlinearity. First, the ratios of spectral peaks whose amplitudes are above a moving threshold to the total number of peaks are computed for spectral signals obtained from the pristine and the current state of a target structure. Then, the difference of these ratios are computed as a function of the moving threshold. Finally, the MSPCD is defined as the maximum difference between these ratios. The basic premise is that the MSPCD will increase as the nonlinearity of the material increases. This technique has been used successfully for localizing fatigue cracks in metallic plates.

  6. Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high

  7. Gas analysis of human exhalation by tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Moskalenko, Konstantin L.

    1993-02-01

    Results of the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) to determining the trace gas components of human exhalation are presented. The analyzer is specially developed to measure both carbon oxides (CO and CO2) in expired air. A few results illuminating possible applications of TDLs in high-sensitivity medical diagnostics have been obtained. For nonsmokers, expired concentrations of CO are slightly higher than those in inhaled air. The specific surplus value seems to be independent of the ambient atmospheric CO content. The surplus CO content increases by more than an order of magnitude just after intensive exercises, e.g., jogging. For smokers, the pharmacokinetic of abundant CO removal from the organism could be investigated by this technique, which provides quick and reliable measurements of smoking status. Breath-holding synchronous measurements of CO and CO2 in exhalation demonstrate behavior that is different with breath-holding time. The method seems useful for the investigation of phenomena such as molecular pulmonary diffusion through the alveolar-capillary membrane and an organism's adaptation to oxygen shortage. Prospects for the development and application of diode laser spectroscopy to trace gas analysis in medicine are also discussed.

  8. Detection of explosives with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Hua; Ge, Cong-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Our recent work on the detection of explosives by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is reviewed in this paper. We have studied the physical mechanism of laser-induced plasma of an organic explosive, TNT. The LIBS spectra of TNT under single-photon excitation are simulated using MATLAB. The variations of the atomic emission lines intensities of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen versus the plasma temperature are simulated too. We also investigate the time-resolved LIBS spectra of a common inorganic explosive, black powder, in two kinds of surrounding atmospheres, air and argon, and find that the maximum value of the O atomic emission line SBR of black powder occurs at a gate delay of 596 ns. Another focus of our work is on using chemometic methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish the organic explosives from organic materials such as plastics. A PLS-DA model for classification is built. TNT and seven types of plastics are chosen as samples to test the model. The experimental results demonstrate that LIBS coupled with the chemometric techniques has the capacity to discriminate organic explosive from plastics.

  9. Silver nanoparticle based surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissue under near-infrared laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the use of high spatial resolution silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from rat pancreatic tissue to obtain biochrmical information about the tissue. A high quality SERS signal from a mixture of pancreatic tissues and silver nanoparticles can be obtained within 10 s using a Renishaw micro-Raman system. Prominent SERS bands of pancreatic tissue were assigned to known molecular vibrations, such as the vibrations of DNA bases, RNA bases, proteins and lipids. Different tissue structures of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissues have characteristic features in SERS spectra. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for using SERS imaging to distinguish diabetic and normal pancreatic tissues on frozen sections without using dye labeling of functionalized binding sites. (letter)

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a running Hall Effect Thruster for space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) are promising electric propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites and for interplanetary missions. The main limiting factor of the HET lifetime is the erosion of the annular channel ceramic walls. Erosion monitoring has been performed in the laboratory using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements and data treatment based on the coronal model and the actinometric hypothesis. This study uses laser ablation of the ceramic wall in a running HET in order to introduce controlled amounts of sputtered material in the thruster plasma. The transient laser-induced breakdown plasma expands orthogonally in a steady-state plasma jet created by the HET discharge. The proposed spectroscopic method involves species from both plasmas (B, Xe, Xe+). The optical emission signal is correlated to the ablated volume (measured by profilometry) leading to the first direct validation of the actinometric hypothesis in this frame and opening the road for calibration of in-flight erosion monitoring based on the OES method. - Highlights: ► First laser ablation study in a running Hall Effect Thruster. ► Optical emission spectroscopy used to validate the actinometric hypothesis. ► Opens the way for absolute calibration of in-flight erosion monitoring.

  11. Laser systems for collinear spectroscopy and the charge radius of {sup 12}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, Andreas

    2012-03-30

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been used to investigate the nuclear charge radii of shortlived medium- and heavy-Z nuclei for more than three decades. But it became only recently be applicable to low-Z nuclei. This region of the nuclear chart attracts attention because so-called ab-initio nuclear models, based on realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, can only be applied to the lightest elements due to the rapidly increasing calculational demands with the number of nucleons. Furthermore, strong clusterization of atomic nuclei occurs and the encountered halo nuclei are presently subject of intense research. The isotopic chain of beryllium exhibits the prime example of a one-neutron halo nucleus, {sup 11}Be, and the two- or four-neutron halo nucleus {sup 14}Be. {sup 12}Be is a key isotope between these two exotic nuclei and particularly interesting because the nuclear shell model predicts a shell closure for the magic neutron number N = 8. In the course of this thesis, several frequency-stabilized laser systems for collinear laser spectroscopy have been developed. At TRIGA-SPEC a frequency-doubled diode laser system with a tapered amplifier and a frequency comb-stabilized titanium-sapphire laser with a frequency doubling stage are now available for the spectroscopy of refractory metals above molybdenum. They have already been used for test-experiments and commissioning of the TRIGA-LASER beamline. Furthermore, frequency-quadrupling of the Ti:Sa laser was demonstrated to expand the emitted wavelengths into the 200 nm region. At ISOLDE/CERN a frequency comb-stabilized and an iodine-stabilized dye laser were installed and applied for laser spectroscopy of {sup 9,10,11,12}Be{sup +}. The improved laser system and the development of a delayed photon-ion coincidence detection improved the sensitivity of the beryllium spectroscopy by more than two orders of magnitude and, thus, the previous measurements of {sup 7-11}Be could be extended for the first time to the short

  12. Multicomponent gas analysis using broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Reyes, A.; Hou, Z.; Van Mastrigt, E.; Horsten, R.C.; J. C. De Jongste; Pijnenburg, M. W.; Urbach, H.P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system covering the region between 850 and 1250 cm−1. Its robust multipass cavity ensures a constant interaction length over the entire spectral region. The device enables the detection and identification of numerous molecules present in a complex gas mixture without any pre-treatment in two minutes. We demonstrate that we can detect sub-ppmv concentration of acetone in presence of 2% of water at the same wavenumber region.

  13. Multicomponent gas analysis using broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, A; Hou, Z; van Mastrigt, E; Horsten, R C; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W; Urbach, H P; Bhattacharya, N

    2014-07-28

    We present a broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopic system covering the region between 850 and 1250 cm(-1). Its robust multipass cavity ensures a constant interaction length over the entire spectral region. The device enables the detection and identification of numerous molecules present in a complex gas mixture without any pre-treatment in two minutes. We demonstrate that we can detect sub-ppmv concentration of acetone in presence of 2% of water at the same wavenumber region. PMID:25089450

  14. Local equivalence ratio measurements in turbulent partially premixed flames using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most recently applied laser-based techniques in combustion environment is the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The technique has been extensively and successfully applied to elemental concentration measurements in solids and liquids. The LIBS signal is much weaker in gases and hence more work is required for quantitative measurements in flames. In the present work we used two orthogonal Nd:YAG lasers that operate at the fundamental wavelength with laser pulse energy of about 100 mJ/pulse. A Princeton-Instruments IMAX ICCD camera attached to a PI-Echelle spectrometer was used for signal detection. The lasers are focused using two 5-cm lenses. Several calibration points have been collected in well defined and homogeneous mixtures of air and fuel in order to be used as references for the measurements in turbulent partially premixed flames. This work shows that the application of the LIBS technique in a turbulent combustion environment is feasible and signal is enhanced by applying an orthogonal dual-pulse arrangement for air-fuel.

  15. Compositional Analysis of Aerosols Using Calibration-Free Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhib, Mohamed; Hermann, Jörg; Dutouquet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that the elemental composition of aerosols can be measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) without any preliminary calibration with standard samples. Therefore, a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser beam was focused into a flux of helium charged with alumina aerosols of a few micrometers diameter. The emission spectrum of the laser-generated breakdown plasma was recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector. The spectral features including emission from both the helium carrier gas and the Al2O3 aerosols were analyzed on the base of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium. Thus, Boltzmann equilibrium distributions of population number densities were assumed for all plasma species except of helium atoms and ions. By analyzing spectra recorded for different delays between the laser pulse and the detector gate, it is shown that accurate composition measurements are only possible for delays ≤1 μs, when the electron density is large enough to ensure collisional equilibrium for the aerosol vapor species. The results are consistent with previous studies of calibration-free LIBS measurements of solid alumina and glass and promote compositional analysis of aerosols via laser-induced breakdown in helium. PMID:26974717

  16. Plasma diagnostics from self-absorbed doublet lines in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, C. A.; Garcimuño, M.; Díaz Pace, D. M.; Bertuccelli, G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a generalized approach is developed and applied for plasma characterization and quantitative purposes in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiences by employing a selected pair of spectral lines belonging to the same multiplet. It is based on the comparison between experimental ratios of line parameters and the theoretical calculus obtained under the framework of a homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The applicability of the method was illustrated by using the atomic resonance transitions 279.55-280.27 nm of Mg II, which are usually detected in laser-induced plasma (LIP) during laser ablation of many kinds of targets. The laser induced plasmas were produced using a Nd:YAG laser from a pressed pellet of powdered calcium hydroxide with a concentration of 300 ppm of Mg. The experimental ratios for peak intensities, total intensities and Stark widths were obtained for different time windows and matched to the theoretical calculus. The temperature and the electron density of the plasma, as well as the Mg columnar density (the atom/ion concentration times the length of the plasma along the line-of-sight), were determined. The results were interpreted under the employed approach.

  17. Establishment of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in a vacuum atmosphere for a accuracy improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the fundamentals of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy(LIBS), and it describes the quantitative analysis method in the vacuum condition to obtain a high measurement accuracy. The LIBS system employs the following major components: a pulsed laser, a gas chamber, an emission spectrometer, a detector, and a computer. When the output from a pulsed laser is focused onto a small spot on a sample, an optically induced plasma, called a laser-induced plasma (LIP) is formed at the surface. The LIBS is a laser-based sensitive optical technique used to detect certain atomic and molecular species by monitoring the emission signals from a LIP. This report was described a fundamentals of the LIBS and current states of research. And, It was described a optimization of measurement condition and characteristic analysis of a LIP by measurement of the fundamental metals. The LIBS system shows about a 0.63 ∼ 5.82% measurement errors and calibration curve for the 'Cu, Cr and Ni'. It also shows about a 5% less of a measurement errors and calibration curve for a Nd and Sm. As a result, the LIBS accuracy for a part was little improved than preexistence by the optimized condition

  18. [The error analysis and experimental verification of laser radar spectrum detection and terahertz time domain spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many chemical agent explosives show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons and chemical agent, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to chemical agent explosives. A kind of device on laser radar detecting and real time spectrum measuring was designed which measures the laser spectrum on the bases of Fourier optics and optical signal processing. Wedge interferometer was used as the beam splitter to wipe off the background light and detect the laser and measure the spectrum. The result indicates that 10 ns laser radar pulse can be detected and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. The combination of laser radar spectrum detecting, THz-TDS, modern pattern recognition and signal processing technology is the developing trend of remote detection for chemical agent explosives. PMID:20496663

  19. Laser-based capillary polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, K; Hankins, J; Bornhop, D J

    1999-01-01

    A laser-based capillary polarimeter has been configured to allow for the detection of optically active molecules in capillary tubes with a characteristic inner diameter of 250 microm and a 39-nL (10(-9)) sample volume. The simple optical configuration consists of a HeNe laser, polarizing optic, fused-silica capillary, and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in communication with a laser beam analyzer. The capillary scale polarimeter is based on the interaction between a polarized laser beam and a capillary tube, which results in a 360 degree fan of scattered light. This array of scattered light contains a set of interference fringe, which respond in a reproducible manner to changes in solute optical activity. The polarimetric utility of the instrument will be demonstrated by the analysis of two optically active solutes, R-mandelic acid and D-glucose, in addition to the nonoptically active control, glycerol. The polarimetric response of the system is quantifiable with detection limits facilitating 1.7 x 10(-3) M or 68 x 10(-12) nmol (7 psi 10(-9) g) sensitivity. PMID:11315158

  20. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  1. X-ray laser spectroscopy with an electron beam ion trap at the free electron laser LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a first laser spectroscopy experiment in the keV energy regime, performed at the Free-Electron Laser LCLS at Stanford. An electron beam ion trap was used to provide a target of highly charged O, F and Fe ions. The resonant fluorescence spectra obtained for various transitions were calibrated to simultaneously measured Lyman lines of hydrogenic ions.

  2. Development of a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system for time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at an X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, Masaki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Chainani, Ashish; Miyawaki, Jun; Sato, Hiromi; Matsunami, Masaharu; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Kiss, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nakatani, Yasuhiro; Togashi, Tadashi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Shin, Shik; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize high-brilliance photon sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), for advanced time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system combined with a high-resolution hemispherical electron energy analyzer has been developed. The system's design enables it to be controlled by an external trigger signal for single-shot pump-probe-type TR-PES. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated with an offline test, followed by online core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy in 'single-shot image', 'shot-to-shot image (image-to-image storage or block storage)' and `shot-to-shot sweep' modes at soft X-ray undulator beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. In the offline test the typical repetition rate for image-to-image storage mode has been confirmed to be about 15 Hz using a conventional pulse-generator. The function for correcting the shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations of the exciting photon beam, an important requirement for the TR-PES experiments at FEL sources, has been successfully tested at BL17SU by measuring Au 4f photoelectrons with intentionally controlled photon flux. The system has also been applied to hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) in `ordinary sweep' mode as well as shot-to-shot image mode at the 27 m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and also at the SACLA XFEL facility. The XFEL-induced Ti 1s core-level spectrum of La-doped SrTiO3 is reported as a function of incident power density. The Ti 1s core-level spectrum obtained at low power density is consistent with the spectrum obtained using the synchrotron source. At high power densities the Ti 1s core-level spectra show space-charge effects which are analysed using a known mean-field model for ultrafast electron packet propagation. The results successfully confirm the capability of the present data acquisition system for carrying out the core-level HAXPES studies of condensed matter induced by the XFEL. PMID:24365935

  3. Time-resolved laser spectroscopy in the UV/VUV spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes ranging from 3 to 500 ns were measured on various states of Ag, N, Se, Te and As, by recording the fluorescence light decay after excitation by a laser pulse. Ag was supplied by a collimated atomic beam while Se, Te and As were contained in quartz cells. Pulsed laser radiation, with a wavelength down to 185 nm, was generated by different set-ups, using Nd-YAG pumped dye lasers combined with non-linear crystals and Raman shifting. Short laser pulses were produced by a nitrogen laser or a distributed feedback dye laser. Two-photon processes and stepwise excitation were used to populate high-lying levels. Depletion spectroscopy, quantum-beat spectroscopy and optical double resonance spectroscopy were also performed

  4. Remote laser spectroscopy of oil and gas deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevlakov, A. P.; Bespalov, V. G.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Kascheev, S. V.; Makarov, E. A.; Bogoslovsky, S. A.; Il'inskiy, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We developed a Raman lidar with ultraspectral resolution for automatic airborne monitoring of pipeline leaks and for oil and gas exploration. Test flights indicate that a sensitivity of 6 ppm for methane and 2 ppm for hydrogen sulfide has been reached for leakage detection. The lidar is based on the CARS method with a Ti:Sapphire pump laser and a frequencydoubled YLF:Nd probe beam whose frequency is displaced by a BBO crystal. In ground-based experiments, a detection level of 3 to 10 molecules has been reached.

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy determination of toxic metals in fresh fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, L V; Flores, T; Sosa-Saldaña, M; Alvira, F C; Bilmes, G M

    2016-01-10

    A method based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for monitoring lead and copper accumulation in edible fish, particularly "tilapia del Nilo" (Oreochromis niloticus) is presented. The capability of this analytical method is compared with results obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. Detection limits by LIBS are 25 parts per million (ppm) for Pb and 100 ppm for Cu, values that are below the maximum permissible levels of some international standards. Application of LIBS detection allows the development of portable instruments for contamination control of edible fish. PMID:26835760

  6. Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy -- Laser Spectroscopy in Unconventional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2010-02-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The GASMAS technique combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with optical propagation in diffuse media. Whereas solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures. These are typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. Molecular oxygen and water vapor have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen gas, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the human sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen, while breathing normally through the mouth. A clinical study comprising 40 patients has been concluded.

  7. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS–Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches. - Highlights: • A LIBS–Raman hybrid system was developed. • A seashell has been analyzed for the elementary and molecular distribution with a system. • The shell growth development was studied on the surface and in the depth

  8. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin [Life Science College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: rzheng@ouc.edu.cn [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS–Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches. - Highlights: • A LIBS–Raman hybrid system was developed. • A seashell has been analyzed for the elementary and molecular distribution with a system. • The shell growth development was studied on the surface and in the depth.

  9. Analysis of the Composition of Titanium Oxide Coating by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán, Hugo; Peña, Dario Y.; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, Enrique

    2008-04-01

    Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS or LIBS) is an alternative elemental analysis technology based on the optical emission spectra of the plasma produced by the interaction of high-power laser with gas, solid and liquid. The increasing popularity of this technique is due to the ease of the experimental set-up and to the wide fiexibility in the investigated material that does not need any pre-treatment of the sample before the analysis. In this work, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to determine the composition of titanium oxide film produced by anodized of Ti6Al4V alloy. We have used Ti lines in the spectral region between 470-520 nm to determine temperature of the plasma generated on anodized surface of Ti6Al4V alloy for temperature determination by Boltzmann plot method. In order to measure the content of oxygen and titanium ratio on the surface the alloy, we have used the oxygen lines 777.194, 777.417 and 777.539 nm, and titanium lines 780.597 and 782.491 nm observed in an ambient of argon. We have determined the best conditions of electro-deposition, observing the intensity of the oxygen lines. Finally, we report the possibilities for the determination of the coating chemical composition using LIBS.

  10. Arsenic hydride radicals studied by laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic hydride radicals have been studied by Laser Magnetic Resonance (LMR) spectroscopy. Their spectra have been analysed to give molecular parameters whose interpretation has provided information on the molecular and electronic structure of these species. In LMR spectroscopy an applied magnetic field removes the degeneracy of the MJ levels of a paramagnetic species. Scanning the magnetic field tunes rotational transitions between these levels into resonance with a nearby laser line leading to the observation of absorption signals. Two LMR spectrometers were used in this work: the mid-IR CO LMR spectrometer in Oxford and the far-IR LMR spectrometer at NIST, Boulder. Vibration-rotation transitions in the υ = 1 - 0 band and the υ = 2 - 1 and 3 - 2 hot bands of AsH in its ground electronic state (X3Σ-) have been recorded by MIR LMR. As υ = 2 - 1 and 3 - 2 transitions have been observed for the first time, the vibrational dependences of several parameters have been determined. In particular, the vibrational anharmonicity, wexe, has been measured very accurately; the parameter weye has also been determined. The precision and accuracy of the band origin have been improved and the observation of transitions between different spin-states has allowed a direct determination, therefore more accurate values, of the spin-spin coupling constant λ0 and spin-rotation coupling constant γ0. Pure rotational transitions in the υ = 0 level of AsH in its first excited electronic state (a1Δ) have been recorded by FIR LMR. The rotational constants have been determined much more precisely than previously; hyperfine parameters for 75As and 1H, and the Zeeman parameters, have also been determined. FIR LMR has also been used to record pure rotational transitions in the υ = 0 level of AsH2 in its ground electronic state (X-tilde2 B1). AsH2 is an asymmetric top and a good spread of N and Kc values are involved in the observed transitions, giving an expanded and more reliable set of

  11. Laser-based fiberoptic immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief overview of the development and application of fiber-optic antibody-based fluoroimmunosensors (FIS) for measuring environmental pollutants and related biomarkers of human exposure and health effects. The FIS combines the excellent specificity of the antigen/antibody reaction, the high sensitivity of laser excitation, and the versatility of fiber-optics technology. Various types of FIS devices were also used to detect toxic chemicals (such as benzo-a-pyrene) and related DNA adducts

  12. High-resolution laser spectroscopy with the Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN-ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Kron, T.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Smith, A. J.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN has achieved high-resolution resonance ionisation laser spectroscopy with a full width at half maximum linewidth of 20(1) MHz for 219,221 Fr, and has measured isotopes as short lived as 5 ms with 214 Fr. This development allows for greater precision in the study of hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, as well as a higher selectivity of single-isotope, even single-isomer, beams. These achievements are linked with the development of a new laser laboratory and new data-acquisition systems.

  13. Simultaneous measurement of NO and NO(2) by dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jágerská, Jana; Jouy, Pierre; Tuzson, Béla; Looser, Herbert; Mangold, Markus; Soltic, Patrik; Hugi, Andreas; Brönnimann, Rolf; Faist, Jérôme; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2015-01-26

    The concept of a multi-wavelength quantum cascade laser emitting at two or more spectrally well-separated wavelengths is highly appealing for applied spectroscopy, as it allows detecting several species with compact and cost-efficient optical setups. Here we present a practical realization of such a dual-wavelength setup, which is based on a room-temperature quantum cascade laser emitting single-mode at 1600 cm-1 and 1900 cm-1 and is thus well-suited for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection. Operated in a time-division multiplexed mode, our spectrometer reaches detection limits of 0.5 and 1.5 ppb for NO2 and NO, respectively. The performance of the system is validated against the well-established chemiluminescence detection while measuring the NOx emissions on an automotive test-bench, as well as upon monitoring the pollution at a suburban site. PMID:25835908

  14. Spectral analysis of Qinling Mountain rock using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W. F.; Zhao, X. X.; Zhu, H. Y.; Xie, D. H.; Liu, J.; Jin, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    The composition of Qinling Mountain rock is studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the first time. Elements Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, C, Na, Si, Al, Ti, K and Mn are identified qualitatively. Using an improved iterative Boltzmann plot method, the electron temperature of 16,825 K is inferred with Ca I lines at 422.67, 428.30, 443.49, 445.48, and 585.74 nm, while the ionic temperature of 15,587 K is obtained with Ca II lines at 393.37, 396.85, and 370.60 nm. The electron number density of 1.49 ? 10? cm? is inferred from the Stark broadened profile of Ca I 422.67 nm averaged with 10 single spectra. The laser-induced rock plasma is verified to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium and to be optically thin based on the experimental results.

  15. Hybrid interferometric/dispersive atomic spectroscopy of laser-induced uranium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Phyllis K.; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2016-02-01

    An established optical emission spectroscopy technique, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), holds promise for detection and rapid analysis of elements relevant for nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and nuclear power, including the measurement of isotope ratios. One such important application of LIBS is the measurement of uranium enrichment (235U/238U), which requires high spectral resolution (e.g., 25 pm for the 424.4 nm U II line). High-resolution dispersive spectrometers necessary for such measurements are typically bulky and expensive. We demonstrate the use of an alternative measurement approach, which is based on an inexpensive and compact Fabry-Perot etalon integrated with a low to moderate resolution Czerny-Turner spectrometer, to achieve the resolution needed for isotope selectivity of LIBS of uranium in ambient air. Spectral line widths of ~ 10 pm have been measured at a center wavelength 424.437 nm, clearly discriminating the natural from the highly enriched uranium.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and spectral analysis of improvised explosive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Amy J. R.; Farrington, Michael P.; Sorauf, Kellen; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2014-05-01

    There exists an unmet need in the discovery and identification of certain improvised explosive (IE) materials. IE contain a wide range of materials, many of which are not well classified by available hand-held tools, especially metal powders and food products. Available measurement approaches are based in the identification of specific subgroups such as nitro/nitrate and chlorate/perchlorate, normally with Raman spectroscopy. The presence of metal powders is not detected by these approaches, and further the powders themselves scatter the laser radiation used in the excitation of the spectra, making other components more difficult to discern. Preliminary work with laserinduced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) shows that metal powders are easily detected and identified, and that fuel compounds in flash powder mixtures are easily classified with principal component analysis into those containing oxygen and chlorine or those containing oxygen and nitrogen. Alkali and alkali metal signals are readily used to determine the cation of any salt submitted to analysis.

  17. Laser spectroscopy of multi-level doppler broadened atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doppler broadened atomic vapor system can be easily prepared for spectroscopy study than an atomic beam system can be. Vapor cell and hollow cathode discharge lamps are widely used in the experiment. The possibility for observing the trapped state in a Doppler broadened Λ system was examined and confirmed by our early experiment where counter-propagating laser beams are used. For the measurement of the hyperfine structure constants of high-lying levels of heavy elements, we compared the co-propagating and counter-propagating beams in a Doppler broadened ladder systems. It was shown that the counter-propagating beams give a stronger and narrower signal than that from the co-propagating beams. Our treatment also considers the power broadening of the transition. For some photo-ionization experiments, it is necessary to pump two thermally populated levels simultaneously to the higher level and then to the auto-ionizing levels. A technique is proposed to avoid the trapped state and to increase the ionization efficiency.

  18. Multiphoton Ionization Detection in Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of Isolde Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiments using the multiphoton ionization technique have been continued in the beginning of 1990 with stable beam tests on the modified apparatus and with another radioactive beam time on Yb. Higher laser power and an increased vacuum in the ionization region (see figure) yielded a further gain in sensitivity, mainly due to the better suppression of the background ions produced in rest gas collisions. For even Yb isotopes we have now reached a detection efficiency of $\\epsilon$~=~1~x~10$^{-5}$ ions per incoming atom at a background count rate of 30~ions from a beam of 5~x~10$^9$. This sensitivity was high enough for spectroscopy on $^{157}$Yb, where the typical ISOLDE yield of 5~x~10$^7$Yb ions is covered by an isobaric contamination of more than 10$^{10}$ ions. Measurements have also been performed on $^{175}$Yb. These give the first precise value for the magnetic moment of this isotope, $\\mu$~=~0.766(8)$ mu _{N} $, which agrees rather well with the magnetic moment of the isotone $^{177}$Hf. The isoto...

  19. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnès; Clegg, Samuel M.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Lasue, Jérémie

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches.

  20. Uranium isotope ratio measurements using diode laser optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional methods for measuring isotope ratios are seldom amenable to field use. In particular, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, while a very accurate and precise technique for measuring isotope ratios, requires instrumentation that is typically too cumbersome for field use. As an alternative to the use of conventional mass spectrometers, the authors have been pursuing glow discharge atomization coupled with high resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) for quantification of uranium isotope ratios. This approach has been considered by others, but the authors have focussed on demountable discharge cells for practical ratio measurements. Further, the authors wish to make use of diode lasers for excitation. A field instrument does not require the accuracy and precision of a laboratory mass spectrometer, but must be sensitive to changes in sample isotopic composition, be free from interferences, and have sufficient precision for a decision to be made about the fate of the field sample; i.e., does the sample warrant further laboratory analysis? The technique ideally should require a minimum of sample preparation, and should at the same time be amenable to a variety of sample types. The glow discharge meets these requirements

  1. Laser cooling, trapping, and Rydberg spectroscopy of neutral holmium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, James Allen

    This thesis focuses on progress towards using ensembles of neutral holmium for use in quantum computing operations. We are particularly interested in using a switchable interaction between neutral atoms, the Rydberg blockade, to implement a universal set of quantum gates in a collective encoding scheme that presents many benefits over quantum computing schemes which rely on physically distinct qubits. We show that holmium is uniquely suited for operations in a collective encoding basis because it has 128 ground hyperfine states, the largest number of any stable, neutral atom. Holmium is a rare earth atom that is very poorly described for our purposes as it has never been cooled and trapped, its spectrum is largely unknown, and it presents several unique experimental challenges related to its complicated atomic structure and short wavelength transitions. We demonstrate important progress towards overcoming these challenges. We produce the first laser cooling and trapping of holmium into a MOT. Because we use a broad cooling transition, our cooling technique does not require the use of a Zeeman slower. Using MOT depletion spectroscopy, we provide precise measurements of holmium's Rydberg states and its ionization potential. Our work continues towards cooling holmium into a dipole trap by calculating holmium's AC polarizability and demonstrating the results of early attempts at an optical dipole trap. We provide details of future upgrades to the experimental apparatus and discuss interesting potential for using holmium in quantum computing using single atoms in a magnetically trapped lattice. This thesis shows several promising indicators for continued work in this field.

  2. Lead determination in glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, N. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ncarmona@cenim.csic.es; Oujja, M.; Gaspard, S. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC. Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Heras, M. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, CSIC. Serrano 13, 28001 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC. Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: marta.castillejo@iqfr.csic.es

    2007-02-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to determine the lead content of different types of lead silicate glasses commercially designed as sonorous glass (which contain {approx} 10 wt.% PbO); crystal glass (with at least 24 wt.% PbO) and superior crystal glass (with at least 30 wt.% PbO). Seven different types of glass samples were selected, including historic-original, model and commercially available. The selected samples were artificially weathered under neutral, acid and alkaline attack. Analysis by LIBS was carried out in vacuum under excitation at 266 nm and results were compared with those obtained by conventional techniques used for glass characterization. Composition of the bulk glasses was analyzed by XRF (X-ray fluorescence) and the corroded surfaces were characterized by SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis). A linear correlation was obtained between the intensity of selected Pb lines in the LIB spectra and the PbO content. The effect of corrosion could be characterized by comparing successive LIB spectra recorded on the same area; acid attack resulted in a decrease of PbO, CaO and Na{sub 2}O content in the surface with respect to the bulk of the sample, while minor changes in the composition were noticed under alkaline attack. These results show LIBS as a useful technique to classify the different types of lead glasses by their lead content and to determine and asses the degree and type of corrosion.

  3. Study of Bacterial Samples Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    W, A. Farooq; M, Atif; W, Tawfik; M, S. Alsalhi; Z, A. Alahmed; M, Sarfraz; J, P. Singh

    2014-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied to investigate two different types of bacteria, Escherichia coli (B1) and Micrococcus luteus (B2) deposited on glass slides using Spectrolaser 7000. LIBS spectra were analyzed using spectrolaser software. LIBS spectrum of glass substrate was compared with bacteria spectra. Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, S, Cl, Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, C, H and CN-band appeared in bacterial samples in air. Two carbon lines at 193.02 nm, 247.88 nm and one hydrogen line at 656.28 nm with intensity ratios of 1.9, 1.83 and 1.53 appeared in bacterial samples B1 and B2 respectively. Carbon and hydrogen are the important components of the bio-samples like bacteria and other cancer cells. Investigation on LIBS spectra of the samples in He and Ar atmospheres is also presented. Ni lines appeared only in B2 sample in Ar atmosphere. From the present experimental results we are able to show that LIBS technique has a potential in the identification and discrimination of different types of bacteria.

  4. Mid-infrared emission from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe H; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2007-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful analytical technique for detecting and identifying trace elemental contaminants by monitoring the visible atomic emission from small plasmas. However, mid-infrared (MIR), generally referring to the wavelength range between 2.5 to 25 microm, molecular vibrational and rotational emissions generated by a sample during a LIBS event has not been reported. The LIBS investigations reported in the literature largely involve spectral analysis in the ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) region (less than 1 microm) to probe elemental composition and profiles. Measurements were made to probe the MIR emission from a LIBS event between 3 and 5.75 microm. Oxidation of the sputtered carbon atoms and/or carbon-containing fragments from the sample and atmospheric oxygen produced CO(2) and CO vibrational emission features from 4.2 to 4.8 microm. The LIBS MIR emission has the potential to augment the conventional UV-VIS electronic emission information with that in the MIR region. PMID:17389073

  5. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  6. In-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes: From atomic physics to nuclear structure

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, S

    2014-01-01

    The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source RILIS [1] at the CERN-ISOLDE on-line radioactive ion beam facility is essential for ion beam production for the majority of experiments, but it is also powerful tool for laser spectroscopy of rare isotopes. A series of experiments on in-source laser spectroscopy of polonium isotopes [2, 3] revealed the nuclear ground state properties of 191;211;216;218Po. However, limitations caused by the isobaric background of surface-ionized francium isotopes hindered the study of several neutron rich polonium isotopes. The development of the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST) [4] and finally its integration at ISOLDE has led to a dramatic suppression of surface ions. Meanwhile, the RILIS laser spectroscopy capabilities have advanced tremendously. Widely tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers were installed to complement the established dye laser system. Along with a new data acquisition system [5], this more versatile laser setup enabled rst ever laser spectroscopy of the radioact...

  7. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  8. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.;

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser-machine...

  9. Amplified picosecond diode lasers for diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, R.; Langkopf, M.; Lauritsen, K.; Bulter, A.; Wahl, M.; Wabnitz, H.; Liebert, A.; Moller, M.; Schmitt, T.

    2005-04-01

    Optical techniques based on photon migration are rapidly emerging as a promising alternative and/or augmentation of existing medical imaging modalities. For example, real time studies of hemodynamic changes in brain tissue are possible as a step towards optical functional brain imaging. Time-resolved implementations of these techniques allow for discrimination between scattering and absorption and for depth resolution. They require sub-nanosecond pulsed light sources with high repetition rate and sufficient power for deep enough tissue penetration. Picosecond diode lasers satisfy the clinical demands of economy, compact size, and reliability almost perfectly. Today multi-channel diode laser devices are commercially available and are widely used in diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy, in particular in optical tomography and breast cancer detection. However, the output powers of these devices are just about sufficient for moderate tissue penetration depths. An improvement that does not compromise the advantages of the diode laser sources is amplification of the diode laser output by means of solid state tapered amplifiers. We present an amplified light source for use in NIR diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging, providing pulse widths as short as 100 ps, adjustable repetition rates up to 80 MHz, and peak power levels as high as 7 Watts, corresponding to average power levels exceeding 100 mW. In combination with time-resolved photon counting electronics matching the high throughput demands in conjunction with the new source, state-of-the-art systems for diffuse optical imaging can be built. System design features and possible application examples are presented.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy using tunable diode lasers: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for generating tunable monochromatic infrared radiation are tabulated. Techniques used in tunable semiconductor diode laser spectroscopy are discussed. Spectra of SF6 and OsO4 are discussed, including references to photodissociation and laser isotope separation. 4 figures, 3 tables, 80 references

  11. Techniques for laser spectroscopy of actinide elements: developments in the clean-up process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Configuration of an efficient laser clean-up process requires a large amount of basic atomic data provided by careful high resolution spectroscopic experiments involving one or several lasers, both pulsed and cw. Efforts in developing such sources for high resolution spectroscopy in the context of the clean-up process are discussed

  12. A review of the development of portable laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and its applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakovský, Jozef; Čermák, P.; Musset, O.; Veis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 101, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 269-287. ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11635S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fiber laser * Fieldable LIBS * Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2014

  13. Laser Plasma Plume Kinetic Spectroscopy of the Nitrogen and Carbon Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinger, Zdeněk; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Kubát, Pavel; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2003), s. 426-432. ISSN 0863-1042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : laser ablation * laser plasma * emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.863, year: 2003

  14. Nanoparticle detection in aqueous solutions using Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sovago, M.; Buis, E.-J.; Sandtke, M.

    2013-01-01

    We show the chemical identification and quantification of the concentration and size of nanoparticle (NP) dispersions in aqueous solutions by using a combination of Raman Spectroscopy and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The two spectroscopic techniques are applied to demonstrate the NP

  15. FEASIBILITY STUDY TO DEMONSTRATE APPLICABILITY OF TUNABLE INFRARED LASER EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project involves the real-time measurement of air quality using open-path IR spectroscopy. A prototype open-path tunable laser absorption spectroscopy instrument was designed, built, and successfully operated for several hundred hours between October and December 2000. The...

  16. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches. - Highlights: • We use a novel independent component analysis method to classify LIBS spectra. • We demonstrate the usefulness of ICA. • We report the performances of the ICA classification. • We compare it to other classical classification schemes

  17. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.forni@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Maurice, Sylvestre, E-mail: sylvestre.maurice@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Gasnault, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.gasnault@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Cousin, Agnès, E-mail: acousin@lanl.gov [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Chemical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Chemical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Sirven, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jean-baptiste.sirven@cea.f [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP, 91191 Cedex, Gif sur Yvette (France); Lasue, Jérémie, E-mail: jeremie.lasue@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches. - Highlights: • We use a novel independent component analysis method to classify LIBS spectra. • We demonstrate the usefulness of ICA. • We report the performances of the ICA classification. • We compare it to other classical classification schemes.

  18. Analysis of slags using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghapi, Hervé K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P.; McIntyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.; Nakano, Jinichiro

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of gasification slags was investigated by comparing LIBS results to the results of an ICP-OES analyzer. A small amount of slag sample was placed on a piece of double sided adhesive tape attached to a glass microscope slide and analyzed for Al, Ca, Fe, Si, and V which are major elements found in slags. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) and univariate simple linear regression (SLR) calibration methods indicated that apart from V (accuracy up to + 20%) the accuracy of analysis varies within 0.35-6.5% for SLR and 0.06-10% for PLS-R. A paired-sample t-test within the 95% confidence level yielded p-values greater than 0.05, meaning no appreciable statistical difference was observed between the univariate SLR with internal standardization and the multivariate PLS-R for most of the analytes. From the results obtained in this work, LIBS response varies depending on the element and the technique used for quantitative analysis. Simultaneous use of the univariate calibration curves with internal standard (intensity ratio) and PLS regression in multi-elemental analysis can help reduce the matrix effect of slags associated to their high variation in concentration. Overall, these results demonstrate the capability of LIBS as an alternative technique for analyzing gasification slags. Estimated limits of detection for Al, Ca, Fe, Si and V were 0.167, 0.78, 0.171, 0.243 and 0.01 wt.%, respectively.

  19. Beam-line systems for pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy using SR and laser

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, M; Takahashi, K; Doi, Y I; Fukui, K; Kinoshita, T; Haruyama, Y; Asaka, S; Fujii, Y; Itoh, M

    2001-01-01

    Combined systems for photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (SR) and laser have been constructed at BL5A and BL6A2 in the UVSOR facility, Okazaki. The systems consist of photoelectron spectrometers with high performance, mode-locked lasers, and timing electronic circuits. The laser pulses with repetition frequency of 90 MHz are synchronized with the SR pulses. An upgrade project to install a micro-ESCA at BL6A2, which is now in progress, is also reported.

  20. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Röpcke; Norbert Lang; Marko Hübner; Frank Hempel; Stefan Welzel; Davies, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide ...

  1. Collinear resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of rare francium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Le blanc, F M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2008-01-01

    We propose a programme of collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) of the francium isotopes up to and including $^{201}$Fr and $^{218,219}$Fr. This work aims at answering questions on the ordering of quantum states, and effect of the ($\\pi s_{1/2}^{-1}$)1/2$^{+}$ intruder state, which is currently believed to be the ground state of $^{199}$Fr. This work will also study the edge of the region of reflection asymmetry through measurement of the moments and radii of $^{218,219}$Fr. This proposal forms the first part of a series of experiments that will study nuclei in this region of the nuclear chart. Based on the success of this initial proposal it is the intention of the collaboration to perform high resolution measurements on the isotopes of radium and radon that surround $^{201}$Fr and $^{218}$Fr and thus providing a comprehensive description of the ground state properties of this region of the nuclear chart. Recent in-source spectroscopy measurements of lead, bismuth and polonium have demonstrated a...

  2. Detection of Anomalies in Citrus Leaves Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Morgan, Kelly T

    2015-08-01

    Nutrient assessment and management are important to maintain productivity in citrus orchards. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for rapid and real-time detection of citrus anomalies. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected from citrus leaves with anomalies such as diseases (Huanglongbing, citrus canker) and nutrient deficiencies (iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc), and compared with those of healthy leaves. Baseline correction, wavelet multivariate denoising, and normalization techniques were applied to the LIBS spectra before analysis. After spectral pre-processing, features were extracted using principal component analysis and classified using two models, quadratic discriminant analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM resulted in a high average classification accuracy of 97.5%, with high average canker classification accuracy (96.5%). LIBS peak analysis indicated that high intensities at 229.7, 247.9, 280.3, 393.5, 397.0, and 769.8 nm were observed of 11 peaks found in all the samples. Future studies using controlled experiments with variable nutrient applications are required for quantification of foliar nutrients by using LIBS-based sensing. PMID:26163130

  3. Reduction of power fluctuation of laser light for collinear laser spectroscopy experiments at BECOLA facility at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, Ryan; Barquest, Brad; Bollen, Georg; Miniamisono, Kei; Tarazona, David; Klose, Andrew; Mantica, Paul; Morrissey, Dave; Hughes, Max; Ringle, Ryan; Rodriguez, Alberto; Rossi, Dominic; Ryder, Caleb; Shwarz, Stefan; Sumithrarachchi, Chandana; Geppert, Cristopher

    2013-10-01

    The BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU is designed to determine fundamental properties of the atomic nucleus such as the charge radii, nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments. Commissioning tests of BECOLA have been completed using a stable 39K beam produced from an offline ion source. The 39K beam was then cooled and bunched using a radiofrequency cooler and buncher, propagated collinearly with laser light and resulting fluorescence was detected. The laser light that was co-propagated with the beam was transported to the experimental area from a remote laser room via a single-mode optical fiber. Random rotation of the polarization of the laser light led to a large fluctuation in laser power, and hence a poor signal-to-noise ratio for the fluorescence measurement. A laser power controller was introduced to mitigate the power fluctuations. The performance characteristics of the power-stabilization system as well as the collinear laser spectroscopy of the bunched 39K beam will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Grant PHY-11-02511.

  4. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF₂ microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  5. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Borri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line.

  6. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  7. Excited states in DNA strands investigated by ultrafast laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinquan; Zhang, Yuyuan; Kohler, Bern

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser experiments on carefully selected DNA model compounds probe the effects of base stacking, base pairing, and structural disorder on excited electronic states formed by UV absorption in single and double DNA strands. Direct π-orbital overlap between two stacked bases in a dinucleotide or in a longer single strand creates new excited states that decay orders of magnitude more slowly than the generally subpicosecond excited states of monomeric bases. Half or more of all excited states in single strands decay in this manner. Ultrafast mid-IR transient absorption experiments reveal that the long-lived excited states in a number of model compounds are charge transfer states formed by interbase electron transfer, which subsequently decay by charge recombination. The lifetimes of the charge transfer states are surprisingly independent of how the stacked bases are oriented, but disruption of π-stacking, either by elevating temperature or by adding a denaturing co-solvent, completely eliminates this decay channel. Time-resolved emission measurements support the conclusion that these states are populated very rapidly from initial excitons. These experiments also reveal the existence of populations of emissive excited states that decay on the nanosecond time scale. The quantum yield of these states is very small for UVB/UVC excitation, but increases at UVA wavelengths. In double strands, hydrogen bonding between bases perturbs, but does not quench, the long-lived excited states. Kinetic isotope effects on the excited-state dynamics suggest that intrastrand electron transfer may couple to interstrand proton transfer. By revealing how structure and non-covalent interactions affect excited-state dynamics, on-going experimental and theoretical studies of excited states in DNA strands can advance understanding of fundamental photophysics in other nanoscale systems. PMID:25326834

  8. Linear and nonlinear laser spectroscopy in studies of low-temperature and high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser scattering experiments on plasma provide a substantial amount of information on plasma parameters such as the electron density, the electron temperature and heavy-particle densities and temperatures. Laser spectroscopy can also be a powerful method to study the interaction between plasma constituents and plasma micro-fields by measuring the Stark broadening and shift of spectral lines. The main advantages of laser methods consist in high spatial, temporal as well as spectral resolutions. Moreover, the ability of some laser methods to select only atoms with given velocities results in great reduction or even complete elimination of the Doppler broadening effect. On the other hand, due to the small cross sections for some of these laser scattering processes the experiments require high power pulsed lasers which can result in strong plasma disturbance. It follows that the results need careful approach and often simple, linear extrapolation of final results to the zero laser pulse energies can give misinterpretation of physical phenomena. We will discuss the linear (laser-induced fluorescence, laser Thomson scattering) and nonlinear (phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing) laser spectroscopy methods in terms of their application to study low-temperature (kBTe ∼ 1 eV) and high density (ne > 1022 m-3) arc plasmas. We will discuss their advantages and limitations as for instance their influence on the plasma state. (author)

  9. Application of Graph Theory to unsupervised classification of materials by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, E.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Pagnotta, S.; Palleschi, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for unsupervised classification of materials from the spectra obtained using the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique. The method is based on the calculation of the correlation matrix between the LIBS spectra, which is interpreted as an Adjacency matrix in the framework of Graph theory. A threshold is applied on the edge values, which is determined through maximization of the Modularity of the Graph. The classification of the spectra is done automatically after the calculation of the Modularity parameter. An example of the application of the proposed method is given, based on the study of six bronze standards of known composition. The advantages of the proposed approach with respect to Principal Component Analysis are also discussed.

  10. Suitability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in screening potential additives to mitigate fouling deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Midhun Reddy, V.; Mehta, A.; Vasa, N. J.; Nagarajan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Alkali vapors present in the flue gas generated during coal-based combustion form fouling deposits as they condense. An additive added to coal can trap alkali elements in ash, therefore suppress the growth rate of fouling deposits, and increase thermal efficiency of a coal-fired thermal power plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is proposed and demonstrated to screen potential additives to trap alkali elements in ash. Five additives—namely, kaolinite, alumina, silica, magnesia, and pumice—were analyzed for their effectiveness on four Indian coals for retaining/confining alkali elements in ash during coal combustion. Ratio analysis based on LIBS emission intensity values clearly shows that kaolinite and pumice are promising additives to trap sodium. Similarly, kaolinite, pumice, and silica exhibited good potassium retention.

  11. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified.

  12. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified

  13. Preliminary Experiments to Develop a He-W Calibration Standard Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Guinevere; Andre, Nicolas; Bannister, Mark; Biewer, Theodore; Martin, Madhavi; Meyer, Fred; Wirth, Brian

    2015-11-01

    To address the needs of future fusion reactors, laser based diagnostic techniques for plasma-material interactions (PMI) are being developed at ORNL. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique for measuring elemental surface composition, and is a possible diagnostic for characterizing elemental concentrations in plasma-facing materials. The purpose of the LIBS system described here is to quantify helium (He) concentration in exposed tungsten (W) targets. To accurately quantify He concentration in situ a calibration stranded must be developed, including extensive calibration of the entire LIBS system. To accomplish this, two LIBS setups were explored: ex-situ LIBS and in-situ LIBS. Ex-situ LIBS experiments used W targets exposed to a He + ion beam to determine laser parameters and calibration settings for in-situ experiments. Results will be discussed. In-situ LIBS analysis will be assessed for W targets exposed to He plasma. Preliminary results will be discussed. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  14. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations CCF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations Ccertified were very close

  15. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A.; Belasri, A.

    2015-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C CF-LIBS calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C certified were very close.

  16. Perspectives for neutron and gamma spectroscopy in high power laser driven experiments at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoita, F., E-mail: negoita@nipne.ro; Gugiu, M., E-mail: negoita@nipne.ro; Petrascu, H., E-mail: negoita@nipne.ro; Petrone, C., E-mail: negoita@nipne.ro; Pietreanu, D., E-mail: negoita@nipne.ro [IFIN-HH, Str. Reactorului nr. 30, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fuchs, J.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; Vassura, L. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-EcolePolytechnique-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CENBG, CNRS-IN2P3, Route du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Antici, P. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-EcolePolytechnique-Universite Paris VI, 91128 Palaiseau, France and Univ. Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento SBAI, 00165 Rome (Italy); Balabanski, D.; Balascuta, S.; Cernaianu, M.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Neagu, L.; Petcu, C. [ELI-NP, IFIN-HH, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); and others

    2015-02-24

    The measurement of energy spectra of neutrons and gamma rays emitted by nuclei, together with charge particles spectroscopy, are the main tools for understanding nuclear phenomena occurring also in high power laser driven experiments. However, the large number of particles emitted in a very short time, in particular the strong X-rays flash produced in laser-target interaction, impose adaptation of technique currently used in nuclear physics experiment at accelerator based facilities. These aspects are discussed (Section 1) in the context of proposed studies at high power laser system of ELI-NP. Preliminary results from two experiments performed at Titan (LLNL) and ELFIE (LULI) facilities using plastic scintillators for neutron detection (Section 2) and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators for gamma detection (Section 3) are presented demonstrating the capabilities and the limitations of the employed methods. Possible improvements of these spectroscopic methods and their proposed implementation at ELI-NP will be discussed as well in the last section.

  17. Determination of a brass alloy concentration composition using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achouri, M.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Beldjilali, S. A., E-mail: sidahmed.beldjilali@univ-usto.dz; Belasri, A. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran Mohamed Boudiaf USTO-MB, LPPMCA (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of the characteristics of irradiated metals. In the present work, we have calculated the parameters of the plasma produced from a brass alloy sample under the action of a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The emission lines of copper atoms (Cu I), zinc atoms (Zn I), and lead atoms (Pb I), which are elements of a brass alloy composition, were used to investigate the parameters of the brass plasma. The spectral profiles of Cu, Zn, and Pb lines have been used to extract the electron temperature and density of the brass alloy plasma. The characteristics of Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined quantatively by the calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS) method considering for accurate analysis that the laser-induced ablated plasma is optically thin in local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions and the plasma ablation is stoichiometric. The Boltzmann plot method was used to evaluate the plasma temperature, and the Stark broadened profiles were used to determine the electron density. An algorithm based on the experimentally measured values of the intensity of spectral lines and the basic laws of plasma physics was developed for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the brass sample. The concentrations C{sub CF-LIBS} calculated by CF-LIBS and the certified concentrations C{sub certified} were very close.

  18. Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, M.; Oba, M.; Iimura, H.; Akaoka, K.; Khumaeni, A.; Kato, M.; Wakaida, I.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5-6 J/cm2) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

  19. Spatial characterization of laser induced Yb plasma in argon using optical emission spectroscopy: Pressure effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Laser induced Yb plasma at different pressure of Argon is spatially investigated. • O-TOF profiles and excitation temperature are used to characterize the plasma. • At 100 Pa of argon background gas, shock wave begins to be formed. • Drag force expansion describes the plasma propagation at pressures bigger than 1 Pa. • Two components of velocity distribution of the Yb atoms are estimated. - Abstract: Spatial and temporal behavior of laser induced Ytterbium plasma plume is studied using optical emission spectroscopy technique. A third harmonic Nd:YAG nanosecond laser was used to generate Yb plasma plume at different Argon background pressures (1, 10, 102, 103 and 104 Pa). The plasma dynamics was investigated based on the spatial behavior of the excitation temperature coupled with optical time of flight (O-TOF) profiles of neutral Yb emission line (555.65 nm) along the propagation axe of the plasma plume. Drag force model was appropriate to describe the propagation dynamics at all pressures except of the lowest one (1 Pa) where free expansion model is dominant. The velocity distribution of Yb I atoms were extracted using two terms of Shifted Maxwell–Boltzmann (SMB) distribution. The correlation between the spatial comportment of both excitation temperature and O-TOF profiles is discussed

  20. Time resolving imaging spectroscopy applied to the analysis of plasmas generated by pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvira, F C; Bilmes, G M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC) CC 3, 1897, Gonnet, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ponce, L; Arronte, M, E-mail: fcalvira@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [CICATA-IPN, Unidad Altamira, Altamira 89600, Tamps (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Time resolved imaging spectroscopy were used to study the spatial and temporal evolution of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) plasmas generated in Cu substrates by laser pulses of different duration. Long laser pulses (microsecond) and short laser pulses (nanosecond) as well as multipulse emission were used for excitation. Analysis was made by using an imaging spectrometer with time resolved detection. Results show that the use of long laser excitation pulses produce emission spectra with the same signal to noise ratio, but with lower resolution than those produced with shorter ones. The different species generated in LIBS experiments as neutral or single ionized have a different spatial distribution inside the plasma. We demonstrated that using spatial discrimination procedures is possible to obtain spectra with the same signal to noise ratio than those obtained with a gating detector. In this case an appreciable advantage in cost reduction is obtained by replacing the gating detector by a cheap screen.

  1. Time resolving imaging spectroscopy applied to the analysis of plasmas generated by pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time resolved imaging spectroscopy were used to study the spatial and temporal evolution of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) plasmas generated in Cu substrates by laser pulses of different duration. Long laser pulses (microsecond) and short laser pulses (nanosecond) as well as multipulse emission were used for excitation. Analysis was made by using an imaging spectrometer with time resolved detection. Results show that the use of long laser excitation pulses produce emission spectra with the same signal to noise ratio, but with lower resolution than those produced with shorter ones. The different species generated in LIBS experiments as neutral or single ionized have a different spatial distribution inside the plasma. We demonstrated that using spatial discrimination procedures is possible to obtain spectra with the same signal to noise ratio than those obtained with a gating detector. In this case an appreciable advantage in cost reduction is obtained by replacing the gating detector by a cheap screen.

  2. Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    2004-07-13

    A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

  3. Laser assisted decay spectroscopy at the CRIS beam line at ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new collinear resonant ionization spectroscopy (Cris) experiment at Isolde, Cern uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam for the purpose of ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes and hyperfine structure measurements. The technique also offers the ability to purify an ion beam that is contaminated with radioactive isobars, including the ground state of an isotope from its isomer. A new program using the Cris technique to select only nuclear isomeric states for decay spectroscopy commenced last year. The isomeric ion beam is selected using a resonance within its hyperfine structure and subsequently deflected to a decay spectroscopy station. This consists of a rotating wheel implantation system for alpha and beta decay spectroscopy, and up to three high purity germanium detectors for gamma-ray detection. This paper gives an introduction to the Cris technique, the current status of the laser assisted decay spectroscopy set-up and recent results from the experiment in November 2011.

  4. Molecular spectroscopy with a multimode THz quantum-cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eichholz, René; Richter, Heiko; Pavlov, Sergey; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, L; Hey, R.; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution molecular spectroscopy is a powerful tool for investigations of the structure and energy levels of molecules and atoms. In addition to scientific utilization, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is of interest for detection and identification of gases in safety and security applications. While for frequencies below 2 THz many different methods have been developed, spectroscopy above 2 THz is hampered by the lack of frequency-tunable, continuous-wave, powerful, and narrow-linewidth ra...

  5. Emission spectroscopy from an XUV laser irradiated solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzelzainis, T.W.J.; Khattak, F.Y.; Nagler, B.; Vinko, S.M.; Whitcher, T.; Nelson, A.J.; Lee, R. W.; Bajt, S.; Toleikis, S.; Fäustlin, R.; Tschentscher, T.; Juha, Libor; Kozlová, Michaela; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Krzywinski, J.; Soberierski, R.; Jurek, M.; Fajardo, M.; Rosmej, F.B.; Heinmann, P.; Wark, J. S.; Riley, D.

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2009 - (Ciaran, L.; Riley, D.), s. 549-555 ISBN 978-1-4020-9923-6. [International Conference on X-Ray Lasers /11th./. Belfast (GB), 17.08.2008-22.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : free -electron laser * XUV emission spectra * XUV laser * high-energy density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.springer.com/physics/optics/ book /978-1-4020-9923-6

  6. Real-time observation of dynamics in rotational molecular wave packets by use of "air laser" spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Li, Guihua; Yao, Jinping; Zhang, Haisu; Ni, Jielei; Jing, Chenrui; Xie, Hongqiang; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy based on strong-field-ionization-induced nitrogen laser is employed to investigate the time evolution of the rotational wave packet composed by a coherent superposition of quantum rotational states created in a field-free molecular alignment. We show that this technique uniquely allows real-time observation of the ultrafast dynamics of the individual rotational states in the rotational wavepacket. Our analysis also shows that there exist two channels of gener...

  7. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  8. Frontiers of QC Laser spectroscopy for high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim; Harris, Eliza; Eyer, Simon; Ibraim, Erkan; Tuzson, Béla

    2016-04-01

    An important milestone for laser spectroscopy was achieved when isotope ratios of greenhouse gases were reported at precision levels that allow addressing research questions in environmental sciences. Real-time data with high temporal resolution at moderate cost and instrument size make the optical approach highly attractive, complementary to the well-established isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) method. Especially appealing, in comparison to IRMS, is the inherent specificity to structural isomers having the same molecular mass. Direct absorption in the MIR in single or dual QCL configuration has proven highly reliable for the sta-ble isotopes of CO2, N2O and CH4. The longest time series of real-time measurements is currently available for δ13C and δ18O in CO2 at the high-alpine station Jung-fraujoch. At this well-equipped site, QCL based direct absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) measurements are ongoing since 2008 1,2. Applications of QCLAS for N2O and CH4 stable isotopes are considerably more challenging because of the lower atmospheric mixing ratios, especially for the less abundant species, such as N218O and CH3D. For high precision (emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland. Waste Management 35, 135-140 (2015). 6 Harris, E. et al. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor. Water Research 83, 258-270 (2015). 7 Eyer, S. et al. Real-time analysis of δ13C- and δ D-CH4 in ambient air with laser spectroscopy: method development and first intercomparison results. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 8, 8925-8970 (2015).

  9. Comparing predictive ability of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Near Infrared Spectroscopy for soil texture and organic carbon determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Gislum, René; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and texture have a practical value for agronomy and the environment. Thus, alternative techniques to supplement or substitute for the expensive conventional analysis of soil are developed. Here the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine SOC...... and texture was tested and compared with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique and traditional laboratory analysis. Calibration models were developed on 50 topsoil samples. For all properties except silt, higher predictive ability of LIBS than NIRS models was obtained. Successful calibrations...

  10. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Miaja-Avila, L.; G. C. O'Neil; Uhlig, J.; C. L. Cromer; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary opti...

  11. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Natural Gas with Optical Feedback cw-Diode Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Hippler, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on improvements made on our previously introduced technique of cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CERS) with optical feedback cw-diode lasers in the gas phase, including a new mode-matching procedure which keeps the laser in resonance with the optical cavity without inducing long-term frequency shifts of the laser, and using a new CCD camera with improved noise performance. With 10 mW of 636.2 nm diode laser excitation and 30 s integration time, cavity enhancement achieves noise-eq...

  12. Metastable Magnesium fluorescence spectroscopy using a frequency-stabilized 517 nm laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ming; Jensen, Brian B; Therkildsen, Kasper T;

    2009-01-01

    We present a laser operating at 517 nm for our Magnesium laser-cooling and atomic clock project. A two-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier (YDFA) system generates more than 1.5 W of 1034 nm light when seeded with a 15 mW diode laser. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide, we...... obtained more than 40 mW of 517 nm output power by single pass frequency doubling. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of metastable magnesium atoms could be used to stabilize the 517 nm laser to an absolute frequency within 1 MHz....

  13. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  14. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  15. Improving the selectivity of the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source and in-source laser spectroscopy of polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exotic atomic nuclei far away from stability are fascinating objects to be studied in many scientific fields such as atomic-, nuclear-, and astrophysics. Since these are often short-lived isotopes, it is necessary to couple their production with immediate extraction and delivery to an experiment. This is the purpose of the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, at CERN. An essential aspect of this laboratory is the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) because it provides a fast and highly selective means of ionizing the reaction products. This technique is also a sensitive laser-spectroscopy tool for the development and improvement of electron excitation schemes for the resonant laser photoionization and the study of the nuclear structure or fundamental atomic physics. Each of these aspects of the RILIS applications are subjects of this thesis work: a new device for the suppression of unwanted surface ionized contaminants in RILIS ion beams, known as the Laser Ion Source and Trap (LIST), was implemented into the ISOLDE framework, further developed and characterized; a new electron-excitation scheme for the laser ionization of calcium was developed; the ionization energy of polonium was determined by high-precision Rydberg spectroscopy; and finally, the first ever on-line physics operation of the highly selective LIST enabled the study of nuclear structure properties of 217Po by in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy.

  16. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project''s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies

  17. Satellite-based laser windsounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.F.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Quick, C.R. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s primary objective is to determine the technical feasibility of using satellite-based laser wind sensing systems for detailed study of winds, aerosols, and particulates around and downstream of suspected proliferation facilities. Extensive interactions with the relevant operational organization resulted in enthusiastic support and useful guidance with respect to measurement requirements and priorities. Four candidate wind sensing techniques were evaluated, and the incoherent Doppler technique was selected. A small satellite concept design study was completed to identify the technical issues inherent in a proof-of-concept small satellite mission. Use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer instead of a Fabry-Perot would significantly simplify the optical train and could reduce weight, and possibly power, requirements with no loss of performance. A breadboard Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based system has been built to verify these predictions. Detailed plans were made for resolving other issues through construction and testing of a ground-based lidar system in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin, and through numerical lidar wind data assimilation studies.

  18. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  19. Measurement of OH reactivity by laser flash photolysis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel; Whalley, Lisa K.; Ingham, Trevor; Edwards, Peter M.; Cryer, Danny R.; Brumby, Charlotte A.; Seakins, Paul W.; Heard, Dwayne E.

    2016-07-01

    OH reactivity (k'OH) is the total pseudo-first-order loss rate coefficient describing the removal of OH radicals to all sinks in the atmosphere, and is the inverse of the chemical lifetime of OH. Measurements of ambient OH reactivity can be used to discover the extent to which measured OH sinks contribute to the total OH loss rate. Thus, OH reactivity measurements enable determination of the comprehensiveness of measurements used in models to predict air quality and ozone production, and, in conjunction with measurements of OH radical concentrations, to assess our understanding of OH production rates. In this work, we describe the design and characterisation of an instrument to measure OH reactivity using laser flash photolysis coupled to laser-induced fluorescence (LFP-LIF) spectroscopy. The LFP-LIF technique produces OH radicals in isolation, and thus minimises potential interferences in OH reactivity measurements owing to the reaction of HO2 with NO which can occur if HO2 is co-produced with OH in the instrument. Capabilities of the instrument for ambient OH reactivity measurements are illustrated by data collected during field campaigns in London, UK, and York, UK. The instrumental limit of detection for k'OH was determined to be 1.0 s-1 for the campaign in London and 0.4 s-1 for the campaign in York. The precision, determined by laboratory experiment, is typically < 1 s-1 for most ambient measurements of OH reactivity. Total uncertainty in ambient measurements of OH reactivity is ˜ 6 %. We also present the coupling and characterisation of the LFP-LIF instrument to an atmospheric chamber for measurements of OH reactivity during simulated experiments, and provide suggestions for future improvements to OH reactivity LFP-LIF instruments.

  20. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Ugidos, T.; Navarro-Villoslada, F.; Caceres, J.O., E-mail: jcaceres@ucm.es

    2014-11-01

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Classification and discrimination of human remains have been studied. • Remains were analyzed by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). • Neural Networks models (NN) were used. • Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95 %. • LIBS-NN showed the potential for rapid and cost-effective analysis.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Steel with Multi-Line Internal Standard Calibration Method Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; An, Ning; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-04-01

    A multi-line internal standard calibration method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of carbon steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A procedure based on the method was adopted to select the best calibration curves and the corresponding emission lines pairs automatically. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments with carbon steel samples were performed, and C, Cr, and Mn were analyzed via the proposed method. Calibration curves of these elements were constructed via a traditional single line internal standard calibration method and a multi-line internal standard calibration method. The calibration curves obtained were evaluated with the determination coefficient, the root mean square error of cross-validation, and the average relative error of cross-validation. All of the parameters were improved significantly with the proposed method. The results show that accurate and stable calibration curves can be obtained efficiently via the multi-line internal standard calibration method. PMID:26872822

  2. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Classification and discrimination of human remains have been studied. • Remains were analyzed by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). • Neural Networks models (NN) were used. • Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95 %. • LIBS-NN showed the potential for rapid and cost-effective analysis

  3. Picosecond absorption spectroscopy of an intense ultrafast laser produced plasma; Spectroscopie d'absorption picoseconde d'un plasma produit par un laser intense ultra bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaudin, P.; Gary, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Geindre, J.P. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI), Unite Mixte de recherche n. 7605 CNRS - CEA - Ecole Polytechnique - Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France); Gauthier, J.C. [Le Centre Laser Intense et application (CELIA) est une unite mixte de recherche CNRS-CEA-UB1, 33 - Talence (France); Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    By using high-intensity sub-picosecond lasers, it is possible to heat a solid up to million degrees with very shallow gradients. We present an experiment where a thin foil is irradiated by a sub-picosecond laser. Frequency domain interferometry measures the velocity of the rear critical density using a pomp-probe method. The recombination dynamics of the transient plasma is measured by point-projection absorption spectroscopy. The good agreement between the experimental data, atomic physics calculations, and hydrodynamic modelling demonstrates the capability of the codes to reproduce the ultra fast evolution of plasmas in the sub-picosecond regime. (authors)

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseller, Kemal E; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH(4)/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH(4)/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH(4)/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH(4)/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor. PMID:19122695

  6. Quantitative mixture fraction measurements in combustion system via laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied to quantitative mixture fraction measurements in flames. The measured spectra of different mixtures of natural gas and air are used to obtain the calibration parameters for local elemental mass fraction measurements and hence calculate the mixture fraction. The results are compared with the mixture fraction calculations based on the ratios of the spectral lines of H/N elements, H/O elements and C/(N+O) and they show good agreement within the reaction zone of the flames. Some deviations are observed outside the reaction zone. The ability of LIBS technique as a tool for quantitative mixture fraction as well as elemental fraction measurements in reacting and non-reacting of turbulent flames is feasible. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correction and analysis of lead content in soil by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengli Xie; Jidong Lu; Pengyan Li; Jie Li; Zhaoxiang Lin

    2009-01-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is used to analyze the lead content in soils. The analyzed spectral line profile is fittcd by Lorentzian function for determining the background and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) intensity of spectral line. A self-absorption correction model based on the information of spectral broadening is introduced to calculate the true value of spectral line intensity,which refers to the elcnmntal concentration.Tile results show that the background intensity obtained by spectral profile fitting is very effective and important due to removing the interference of spectral broadening,and a better precision of calibration analysis is acquired by correcting the self-absorption effect.

  8. Laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy applied to a study on coagulation processes of Tc(IV) colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative determination of size and concentration of colloid particles in aqueous solutions was performed by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS), and this technique was applied to a study on coagulation processes of Tc(IV) colloids. The intensity of photoacoustic signals from colloid particles (polystyrene, gold sols) was successfully calculated as a product of the number of particles and the absorption cross section per particle based on the Mie's light scattering theory. With this technique, the coagulation of Tc(IV) colloids prepared by the reduction of TcO4 with Sn(II) was observed. The observed growth rate of colloid particles was successfully analyzed by a newly developed collision model, in which both the distribution of the kinetic energy of particles and the potential barrier between the two particles played significant roles. (author)

  9. Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large suite of natural carbonate, fluorite and silicate geological materials was studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Both single- and double-pulse LIBS spectra were acquired using close-contact benchtop and standoff (25 m) LIBS systems. Principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to identify the distinguishing characteristics of the geological samples and to classify the materials. Excellent discrimination was achieved with all sample types using PLS-DA and several techniques for improving sample classification were identified. The laboratory double-pulse LIBS system did not provide any advantage for sample classification over the single-pulse LIBS system, except in the case of the soil samples. The standoff LIBS system provided comparable results to the laboratory systems. This work also demonstrates how PCA can be used to identify spectral differences between similar sample types based on minor impurities.

  10. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.;

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (<100 fs) and intense (similar to 10(12) photons) pulses of hard X-rays, making them excellent sources for time-resolved studies. Here we show that, despite the inherent instabilities of current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  11. Analysis of plutonium oxide surrogate residue using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental composition of a CeO2 composite powder for process control verification during lanthanide borosilicate glass fabrication. Cerium oxide is used as a surrogate for plutonium oxide, which along with other canister contents will be combined with frit to make glass. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data for the composition of the CeO2 batch containing concentrations of Ce, Cr, Si, Fe, Ta, Ni, Zn, Al Mg, Gd, and W were quantitatively determined from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of both pellet and powder samples. The results of both forms were compared and it was determined that the pellet data gave slightly better precision than the powder sample

  12. Evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for explosive residue detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Frank C; Gottfried, Jennifer L; Miziolek, Andrzej W

    2009-01-19

    Recently laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential technique for trace explosive detection. Typically LIBS is performed using nanosecond laser pulses. For this work, we have investigated the use of femtosecond laser pulses for explosive residue detection at two different fluences. Femtosecond laser pulses have previously been shown to provide several advantages for laser ablation and other LIBS applications. We have collected LIBS spectra of several bulk explosives and explosive residues at different pulse durations and energies. In contrast to previous femtosecond LIBS spectra of explosives, we have observed atomic emission peaks for the constituent elements of explosives - carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Preliminary results indicate that several advantages attributed to femtosecond pulses are not realized at higher laser fluences. PMID:19158854

  13. The laser spectroscopy for the quality and safety food of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENEA has long been engaged in research in order to the development of instrumentation and application of spectroscopic methods for monitoring and diagnostics early and non-destructive state of health of plants and the quality of food products. In addition to the most common spectroscopic techniques (such as the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the spectroscopy transmittance and reflectance in the visible and near infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence), the use of which in the agro-industry is well documented in the scientific literature, particular attention has recently been paid to the Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopy Time resolved (time-resolved reflectivity spectroscopy, TRRS) with ultrashort laser pulses (in the domain of hundreds of femto seconds, 10-15 s).

  14. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and spectroscopies of laser shocked materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrane, Shawn David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Ultrafast ellipsometry and transient absorption spectroscopies are used to measure material dynamics under extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, and volumetric compression induced by shock wave loading with a chirped, spectrally clipped shock drive pulse.

  15. Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Fox, Robert V.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.; DeLucia, Frank C.; André, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  16. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavi Z. Martin; Robert V. Fox; Andrzej W. Miziolek; Frank C. DeLucia, Jr.; Nicolas Andre

    2001-05-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  17. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Fox, Dr. Richard V [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Miziolek, Andrzej W [United States Army Research Laboratory; DeLucia, Frank C [United States Army Research Laboratory; Andre, Nicolas O [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in real-world complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  18. Spectral Analysis of Rare Earth Elements using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Fox, Dr. Richard V [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Miziolek, Andrzej W [United States Army Research Laboratory; DeLucia, Frank C [United States Army Research Laboratory; Andre, Nicolas O [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in rapid analysis of rare earth elements (REEs) both due to the need to find new natural sources to satisfy increased demand in their use in various electronic devices, as well as the fact that they are used to estimate actinide masses for nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) appears to be a particularly well-suited spectroscopy-based technology to rapidly and accurately analyze the REEs in various matrices at low concentration levels (parts-per-million). Although LIBS spectra of REEs have been reported for a number of years, further work is still necessary in order to be able to quantify the concentrations of various REEs in realworld complex samples. LIBS offers advantages over conventional solution-based radiochemistry in terms of cost, analytical turnaround, waste generation, personnel dose, and contamination risk. Rare earth elements of commercial interest are found in the following three matrix groups: 1) raw ores and unrefined materials, 2) as components in refined products such as magnets, lighting phosphors, consumer electronics (which are mostly magnets and phosphors), catalysts, batteries, etc., and 3) waste/recyclable materials (aka e-waste). LIBS spectra for REEs such as Gd, Nd, and Sm found in rare earth magnets are presented.

  19. Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

  20. Simultaneous laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and Pd-assisted methane decomposition at different pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane decomposition is investigated during Pd-assisted laser induced plasma in the controlled chamber at various pressures using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Real time LIBS monitoring is applied to reveal the involved mechanisms during methane decomposition by inspecting the plasma parameters at mano-metric pressures of 1 to 10 mbar. The dependence of electron density and plasma temperature with pressure is also studied. It is shown that the plasma recreates higher hydrocarbons during the decomposition of methane. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy are applied to support the findings. - Highlights: ► Simultaneous laser induced breakdown spectroscopy ► Pd-assisted methane decomposition ► Nanosecond pulsed laser decomposition of methane ► Generation of higher hydrocarbon ► Dependence of electron density and temperature of induced plasma with pressure

  1. Note: A novel technique for analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusak, D. A.; Bell, Z. T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510 (United States); Anthony, T. P. [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates typically consist of gold or silver nanoparticles deposited on a non-conductive substrate. In Raman spectroscopy, the nanoparticles produce an enhancement of the electromagnetic field which, in turn, leads to greater electronic excitation of molecules in the local environment. Here, we show that these same surfaces can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio obtained in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solutions. In this case, the SERS substrates not only lower breakdown thresholds and lead to more efficient plasma initiation but also provide an appropriately wettable surface for the deposition of the liquid. We refer to this technique as surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  2. Study of Complexation of Metal Ion-Humic Acid by Using Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of laser fluorescence spectroscopy for determining of complex formation of MIHA has been done. Principle of laser spectroscopy utility is to measure excitation energy emission of metal ion to form a specific spectrum which displayed through MCA detector. The results were found showed that by using this apparatus, the kinetic of complex formation of MIHA could be observed. High sensitivity of the apparatus is very useful to analyze a very low concentration of MI (-8 mol.l-1), however for supplying of the apparatus is rather expensive in price hence for long term application should be recognized wisely. (author)

  3. Low-Temperature and High-Energy-Resolution Laser Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Takahiro; Okazaki, Kozo; Shin, Shik

    2015-07-01

    We present a review on the developments in the photoemission spectrometer with a vacuum ultraviolet laser at Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo. The advantages of high energy resolution, high cooling ability, and bulk sensitivity enable applications with a wide range of materials. We introduce some examples of fine electronic structures detected by laser photoemission spectroscopy and discuss the prospects of research on low-transition-temperature superconductors exhibiting unconventional superconductivity.

  4. Low-Temperature and High-Energy-Resolution Laser Photoemission Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojima, Takahiro; Okazaki, Kozo; Shin, Shik

    2016-01-01

    We present a review on the developments in the photoemission spectrometer with a vacuum ultraviolet laser at Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo. The advantages of high energy resolution, high cooling ability, and bulk sensitivity enable applications with a wide range of materials. We introduce some examples of fine electronic structures detected by laser photoemission spectroscopy and discuss the prospects of research on low-transition-temperature superconductors exh...

  5. Identification of British one pound counterfeit coins using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Andrew; Thevar, Thangavel

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a low-cost, nondestructive method for detecting counterfeit coins was examined. A pulsed laser was used to evaporate a minute amount of coin surface, and the emanating plasma was interrogated with an entry-level spectrometer. The spectra produced showed evidence of lead content in six of the eight counterfeits examined. Thus, LIBS could offer a viable low-cost technique for identifying a significant number of fake coins.

  6. New energy levels of atomic niobium by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was applied in order to find new energy levels of the niobium atom. A continuous wave tuneable titanium–sapphire laser in the wavelength range from 750 to 865 nm and a hollow-cathode lamp were used. We discovered four energy levels of even parity, three lying levels below 19 000 cm−1 and one at much higher energy. Additionally hyperfine structure data of six levels of odd parity were determined. (paper)

  7. Analysis of geological samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at low atmospheric pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, S.G.; Schröder, Susanne; Jessberger, E.K.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2011-01-01

    Several future space missions to planets, moons and asteroids in the solar system consider landers equip-ped with a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. This technique provides an in-situ elemental analysis of all major and many trace elements on surfaces of the solar system bodies by identification of particular atomic transitions in emission spectra of laser-induced plasmas. Excitation and evolution of the plasma depends strongly on the environmental pressure. Therefore, ...

  8. Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisons, G.; Gorrotxategi Carbajo, P.; Carras, M.; Romanini, D.

    2010-01-01

    Optical{feedback cavity{enhanced absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated in the mid{IR using a quantum cascade laser (emitting at 4.46 ¹m). The laser linewidth reduction and frequency locking by selective optical feedback from the resonant cavity ¯eld turns out to be particularly important in this spectral range: It allows strong cavity transmission which compensates for low light sensitivity, especially when using room temperature detectors. We obtain a noise equivalent absorption coe±cient ...

  9. Dynamics of Laser-Ablation Plume and Ambient Gas Visualized by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Watarai, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    The dynamics of both a laser-ablation plume and ambient gas were studied by visualizing their density distributions by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A deep dip was formed in the density distribution of the ambient gas. The depth of the dip was almost 100% immediately after irradiation of the ablation laser pulse. The size of the dip expanded with time. At a long delay time after the irradiation of the ablation laser pulse, the ambient gas returned to the dip and slowly filled it. The location of the dip corresponded to that of the plume ejected from the target. This means that the high pressure of the plume removed the ambient gas, and the plume and the ambient gas located exclusively. In addition, we observed the formation and propagation of a compressed layer around the dip.

  10. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  11. A tunable CW UV laser with <35 kHz absolute frequency instability for precision spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Elizabeth M; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A

    2015-01-01

    We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable between 316.3 nm and 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of <35 kHz. As an application we perform spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz.

  12. Tunable cw UV laser with <35 kHz absolute frequency instability for precision spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Elizabeth M; Keegan, Niamh C; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A

    2016-02-01

    We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable from 316.3 nm - 317.7 nm and 318.0 nm - 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of application we perform spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz. PMID:26906804

  13. Quantitative analysis of essential oils of Thymus daenensis using laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshroo, H; Khadem, H; Bahreini, M; Tavassoli, S H; Hadian, J

    2015-11-10

    Laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are used for the investigation of different genotypes of Thymus daenensis native to the Ilam province of Iran. Different genotypes of T. daenensis essential oils, labeled T1 through T7, possess slight differences with regard to the composition of the thymol. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is performed to determine the concentration of each constituent as a reference method. The Raman spectra of different concentrations of pure thymol dissolved in hexane as standard samples are obtained via a laboratory prototype Raman spectroscopy setup for the calculation of the calibration curve. The regression coefficient and limit of detection are calculated. The possibility of the differentiation of different genotypes of T. daenensis is also examined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, although we do not know the exact amounts of their components. All the fluorescence spectral information is used jointly by cluster analysis to differentiate between 7 genotypes. Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of Raman spectroscopy with GC-MS and corroborate the capacity of Raman spectroscopy in applications in the quantitative analysis field. Furthermore, the cluster analysis results show that laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is an acceptable technique for the rapid classification of different genotypes of T. daenensis without having any previous information of their exact amount of constituents. So, the ability to rapidly and nondestructively differentiate between genotypes makes it possible to efficiently select high-quality herbs from many samples. PMID:26560783

  14. Quantification of fluorite mass-content in powdered ores using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy method based on the detection of minor elements and CaF molecular bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated as a fast and robust method to determine the fluorite (CaF2) mass-content of powdered ore samples. Calibrating samples covering a wide CaF2 concentration range (from 2.3 to 97.6%) are employed. LIBS operating conditions are optimized for the analysis of elemental emission lines and molecular bands, respectively. In particular, LIBS emission intensities from different CaF molecular bands are evaluated to calibrate the fluorite concentration as an alternative to the use of atomic fluorine F I emission lines. Furthermore, the determination of LIBS emission signals from minor elements (e.g. Si I and Mg I) is studied to further improve the accuracy and precision of pure fluorite sample analyses (e.g. [CaF2] > 75%). The proposed LIBS method avoids the tedious dissolution processes that are required by other analytical methods employed in mining industry for the quantitative analysis of fluorite. - Highlights: • Fluorite ore mass-content is determined using a LIBS system. • F I emission line at 685.60 nm is used to calibrate the fluorite mass-content. • CaF emission bands are used to quantify samples with low CaF2 concentrations. • Minor elements are used to quantify samples with high CaF2 concentrations

  15. Alloying elemental change of SS-316 and Al-5754 during laser welding using real time laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) accompanied by EDX and PIXE microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    Experimental studies of pulsed laser welding of stainless steel 316 in keyhole mode was done to examine a vaporization model based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. A long pulsed Nd:YAG laser with variable duration of 1-12 ms and 9-17 Gw/cm2 was employed. The undesirable loss of volatile elements affects on the weld metal compositions and the alloy properties. The model predicts that the loss of alloying elements strongly takes place at higher peak powers and longer pulse durations. On the other hand, the model shows the rapid migration of Mn and Cr based on the pressure and concentration gradients from the molten pool. Accordingly, the concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and manganese were determined in the weld pool by means of the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and proton induced X ray characteristics (PIXE) microanalysis. The change of weld metal composition of aluminium alloy 5754 in keyhole mode laser welding, was investigated using the model and was supported by the successive measurements. The model predicts that the concentration of magnesium in the weld metal decreases, while the aluminium concentration increases. Moreover, the real time concentrations of aluminium and magnesium elements in the weld metal were determined by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at different conditions. We conclude that variation of the Al to Mg concentration ratio is negligible with various laser power densities while it is strongly correlated to the pulse duration.

  16. Vibrational emission analysis of the CN molecules in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of organic materials is based on the analysis of atomic and ionic emission lines and on a few molecular bands, the most important being the CN violet system and the C2 Swan system. This paper is focused in molecular emission of LIBS plasmas based on the CN (B2Σ–X2Σ) band, one of the strongest emissions appearing in all carbon materials when analyzed in air atmosphere. An analysis of this band with sufficient spectral resolution provides a great deal of information on the molecule, which has revealed that valuable information can be obtained from the plume chemistry and dynamics affecting the excitation mechanisms of the molecules. The vibrational emission of this molecular band has been investigated to establish the dependence of this emission on the molecular structure of the materials. The paper shows that excitation/emission phenomena of molecular species observed in the plume depend strongly on the time interval selected and on the irradiance deposited on the sample surface. Precise time resolved LIBS measurements are needed for the observation of distinctive CN emission. For the organic compounds studied, larger differences in the behavior of the vibrational emission occur at early stages after plasma ignition. Since molecular emission is generally more complex than that involving atomic emission, local plasma conditions as well as plume chemistry may induce changes in vibrational emission of molecules. As a consequence, alterations in the distribution of the emissions occur in terms of relative intensities, being sensitive to the molecular structure of every single material. - Highlights: • Vibrational emission of CN species in laser-induced plasmas has been investigated. • Distribution of vibrational emission of CN has been found to be time dependent. • Laser irradiance affects the vibrational distribution of the CN molecules. • Plume chemistry controls the excitation mechanisms of CN molecules in the

  17. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and spectroscopy of laser shocked materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolme, Cynthia A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Grane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dang, Nhan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry is used to measure the material motion and changes in the optical refractive index of laser shock compressed materials. This diagnostic has shown us that the ultrafast laser driven shocks are the same as shocks on longer timescales and larger length scales. We have added spectroscopic diagnostics of infrared absorption, ultra-violet - visible transient absorption, and femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering to begin probing the initiation chemistry that occurs in shock reactive materials. We have also used the femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering to measure the vibrational temperature of materials using the Stokes gain to anti-Stokes loss ratio.

  18. Optomechanical spectroscopy with broadband interferometric and quantum cascade laser sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetard, Laurene [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Farahi, R H [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The spectral tunability of semiconductor-metal multilayer structures can provide a channel for the conversion of light into useful mechanical actuation. Response of suspended silicon, silicon nitride, chromium, gold, and aluminum microstructures is shown to be utilized as a detector for visible and infrared spectroscopy. Both dispersive and interferometric approaches are investigated to delineate the potential use of the structures in spatially resolved spectroscopy and spectrally resolved microscopy. The thermoplasmonic, spectral absorption, interference effects, and the associated energy deposition that contributes to the mechanical response are discussed to describe the optomechanical detection to be of potential importance in future integrated spectrometers.

  19. Using the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastichuman breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, R; Galhanone, P R; Zângaro, R A; Rodrigues, K C; Pacheco, M T T; Martin, A A; Netto, M M; Soares, F A; da Cunha, I W

    2003-01-01

    This article reports results of the in vitro study for potential evaluation of the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in the differentiation between normal and neoplastic human breast tissue. A coumarine dye laser pumped by nitrogen laser generated an excitation light centered at 458 nm. In order to collect the fluorescence signal was used an optical fiber catheter coupled to a spectrometer and CCD detector. Fluorescence spectra were recorded from normal and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissue, adding up 94 different areas. The discrimination between normal and neoplasm groups reach a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. PMID:14505202

  20. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Röpcke

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry.

  1. Ethylene spectroscopy using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Schilt, Stephane; Thévenaz, Luc; Robert, Philippe A.; Courtois, E.

    2002-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements on ethylene were performed using a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade (QC) laser operated in pulsed mode in the 10.3 μm range. Using transmission spectroscopy, a broadening of the ethylene absorption spectrum was observed with increasing laser pulse duration, due to an increase of the laser linewidth. This linewidth was determined from the measured absorption spectra, showing a value of 0.04 cm-1 for a 20 ns pulse duration and an enhancement coefficient of 6.5 ×...

  2. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  3. Mid-infrared photothermal heterodyne spectroscopy in a liquid crystal using a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mërtiri, Alket; Jeys, Thomas; Liberman, Vladimir; Hong, M K; Mertz, Jerome; Altug, Hatice; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2012-07-23

    We report a technique to measure the mid-infrared photothermal response induced by a tunable quantum cascade laser in the neat liquid crystal 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), without any intercalated dye. Heterodyne detection using a Ti:sapphire laser of the response in the solid, smectic, nematic and isotropic liquid crystal phases allows direct detection of a weak mid-infrared normal mode absorption using an inexpensive photodetector. At high pump power in the nematic phase, we observe an interesting peak splitting in the photothermal response. Tunable lasers that can access still stronger modes will facilitate photothermal heterodyne mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:22912508

  4. Mid-infrared photothermal heterodyne spectroscopy in a liquid crystal using a quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mërtiri, Alket; Jeys, Thomas; Liberman, Vladimir; Hong, M. K.; Mertz, Jerome; Altug, Hatice; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2012-01-01

    We report a technique to measure the mid-infrared photothermal response induced by a tunable quantum cascade laser in the neat liquid crystal 4-octyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), without any intercalated dye. Heterodyne detection using a Ti:sapphire laser of the response in the solid, smectic, nematic and isotropic liquid crystal phases allows direct detection of a weak mid-infrared normal mode absorption using an inexpensive photodetector. At high pump power in the nematic phase, we observe an interesting peak splitting in the photothermal response. Tunable lasers that can access still stronger modes will facilitate photothermal heterodyne mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:22912508

  5. Non-gated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in bulk water by position-selective detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye; Xue, Boyang; Song, Jiaojian; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: rzheng@ouc.edu.cn [Optics and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-09-14

    Temporal and spatial evolutions of the laser-induced plasma in bulk water are investigated using fast imaging and emission spectroscopic techniques. By tightly focusing a single-pulse nanosecond Nd: YAG laser beam into the bulk water, we generate a strongly expanded plasma with high reproducibility. Such a strong expanding plasma enables us to obtain well-resolved spectral lines by means of position-selective detection; hence, the time-gated detector becomes abdicable. The present results suggest not only a possible non-gated approach for underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy but also give an insight into the plasma generation and expansion in bulk water.

  6. Investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of a liquid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of heavy metal Pb in a Pb(NO3)2 aqueous solution by using a simple homemade vertical jet device and nanosecond laser pulses. Key experimental parameters that affect the analytical performance, such as delay of the time of observation, laser pulse energy, and liquid flow rate are optimized for the best limit of detection (LOD). The LOD was determined using Pb I emission at 405.781 nm, and after optimization, the 3σ LOD was found to be at the level of 60 ppm.

  7. Chemical and explosive detection with long-wave infrared laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Yang, Clayton S.; Brown, Ei E.; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H.; Samuels, Alan C.

    2016-05-01

    Conventional laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) mostly uses silicon-based detectors and measures the atomic emission in the UV-Vis-NIR (UVN) region of the spectrum. It can be used to detect the elements in the sample under test, such as the presence of lead in the solder for electronics during RoHS compliance verification. This wavelength region, however, does not provide sufficient information on the bonding between the elements, because the molecular vibration modes emit at longer wavelength region. Measuring long-wave infrared spectrum (LWIR) in a LIBS setup can instead reveal molecular composition of the sample, which is the information sought in applications including chemical and explosive detection and identification. This paper will present the work and results from the collaboration of several institutions to develop the methods of LWIR LIBS for chemical/explosive/pharmaceutical material detection/identification, such as DMMP and RDX, as fast as using a single excitation laser pulse. In our latest LIBS setup, both UVN and LWIR spectra can be collected at the same time, allowing more accurate detection and identification of materials.

  8. Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first high precision real-time analysis of the N2O site-specific isotopic composition at ambient mixing ratios. Our technique is based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS combined with an automated preconcentration unit. The QCLAS allows for simultaneous and specific analysis of the three main stable N2O isotopic species, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, 14N14N16O, and the respective site-specific relative isotope ratio differences δ15Nα and δ 15Nβ. Continuous, stand-alone operation is achieved by using liquid nitrogen free N2O preconcentration, a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser (QCL, quantitative sample transfer to the QCLAS and an optimized calibration algorithm. The N2O site-specific isotopic composition (δ15Nα and δ15Nβ can be analysed with a long-term precision of 0.2‰. The potential of this analytical tool is illustrated by continuous N2O isotopomer measurements above a grassland plot over a three week period, which allowed identification of microbial source and sink processes.

  9. Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers: time domain spectroscopy and micro cavity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) are based on transitions within quantized states of semiconductor nanostructures. This allows the design of the emission wavelength form the infrared to the THz spectral region. We have combined few-cycle THz spectroscopy with quantum cascade technology. This combination allows to perform unique THz time-domain measurements of THz- QCLs. By coupling the few-cycle THz pulse into the waveguide of the QCL, the processes within the active zone can be probed. This gives direct information regarding the energy, dynamics and coherence of transitions in the QCL structure. In addition, we will present micro-cavity quantum-cascade lasers emitting in the THz region. Strong mode confinement in the growth and in-plane directions are provided by a double-plasmon waveguide. We observe whispering-gallery modes and the threshold currents are smaller than from Fabry-Perot cavities; in the detailed study of the emission we were able to observe dynamical frequency pulling effects. (author)

  10. Site selective real-time measurements of atmospheric N2O isotopomers by laser spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Brand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first high precision real-time analysis of the N2O site-specific isotopic composition at ambient mixing ratios. Our technique is based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS combined with an automated preconcentration unit. The QCLAS allows for simultaneous and specific analysis of the three main stable N2O isotopic species, 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, 14N14N16O, and the respective site-specific relative isotope ratio differences δ15Nα and δ15Nβ. Continuous, stand-alone operation is achieved by using liquid nitrogen free N2O preconcentration, a quasi-room-temperature quantum cascade laser (QCL, quantitative sample transfer to the QCLAS, and an optimized calibration algorithm. The N2O site-specific isotopic composition (δ15Nα and δ15Nβ can be analysed with a long term precision of 0.2‰. The potential of this analytical tool is illustrated by continuous N2O isotopomer measurements above a grassland plot over three weeks period, which allowed identification of microbial source and sink processes.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for carbon single shot analysis of micrometer-sized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to study the ability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to perform in situ (without sample preparation) detection of graphite particles circulating in a gas loop used to simulate the cooling gas circuit of a helium-cooled nuclear reactor. Results obtained with a laboratory scale set up are presented. The experiments were performed in nitrogen with micrometer-sized particles containing carbon (glucose particles and sodium hydrogeno-carbonate particles). Statistical shot to shot analysis was used to determine the concentration of the analyte. The variation of LIBS signal as a function of glucose particle diameter showed an underestimation of the signal of particles of diameters larger than 5 μm. This phenomenon is likely to be correlated to an incomplete vaporization in the laser-induced plasma of particles of sizes above 5 μm. Analytical measurements were performed with glucose particles and sodium hydrogeno-carbonate particles, and the concentration-based limit of detection of carbon was evaluated to be about 60 μg m-3. (authors)

  12. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of calcified tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Telle, H. H.; Kaiser, J.; Liška, M.; Cáceres, J. O.; Gonzáles Ureña, A.

    2001-06-01

    We report on the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of important minerals and the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in calcified tissue, to trace e.g. the influence of environmental exposure, and other medical or biological factors. This theme was exemplified for quantitative detection and mapping of Al, Pb and Sr in representative samples, including teeth (first teeth of infants, second teeth of children and teeth of adults) and bones (tibia and femur). In addition to identifying and quantifying major and trace elements in the tissues, one- and two-dimensional profiles and maps were generated. Such maps (a) provide time/concentration relations, (b) allow to follow mineralisation of the hydroxyapatite matrix and the migration of the elements within it and (c) enable to identify disease states, such as caries in teeth. In order to obtain quantitative calibration, reference samples in the form of pressed pellets with calcified tissue-equivalent material (majority compound of pellets is CaCO 3) were used whose physical properties closely resembled hydroxyapatite. Compounds of Al, Sr and Pb were added to the pellets, containing atomic concentrations in the range 100-10 000 ppm relative to the Ca content of the matrix. Analytical results based on this calibration against artificial samples for the trace elements under investigation agree with literature values, and with our atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) cross-validation measurements.

  13. Techniques and Application of Electron Spectroscopy Based on Novel X-ray Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Plogmaker, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The curiosity of researchers to find novel characteristics and properties of matter constantly pushes for the development of instrumentation based on X-radiation. I present in this thesis techniques for electron spectroscopy based on developments of X-ray sources both in time structure and energy. One part describes a laser driven High-Harmonic Generation source and the application of an off-plane grating monochromator with additional beamlines and spectrometers. In initial experiments, the s...

  14. Photon detection system for laser spectroscopy experiments with cooled/bunched beams at BECOLA facility at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Minamisono, Kei; Mantica, Paul; Rossi, Dominic; Ryder, Caleb; Klose, Andrew; Tarazona, David; Strum, Ryan; Bollen, Georg; Ringle, Ryan; Barquest, Brad; Geppert, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL is designed to determine fundamental properties of the atomic nucleus such as the charge radii, the spin and electromagnetic moments. Commissioning tests of BECOLA has been completed using a stable 39K beam produced from an offline ion source. The 39K beam was cooled and bunched and propagated collinearly with laser light. The resulting fluorescence was detected in a photomultiplier tube (PMT)sensitive to the wavelength of D1 transition of 39K The PMT was cooled to minimize background due to dark counts. The resulting fluorescence light was measured as a function of laser frequency and time relative to the 39K beam bunch. An EPICS-based Control Systems Studio (CSS) was used for data acquisition and the software package Root was used for data analysis. The performance characteristics of the photon detection system as well as the laser spectroscopy of bunched 39K will be discussed. Work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Grant PHY-11-02511.

  15. Advancements in time-resolved x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A J; Dunn, J; Widmann, K; Ao, T; Ping, Y; Hunter, J; Ng, A

    2005-07-28

    Time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the non-steady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultra-thin (50 nm) metal foils and bulk semiconductors. Single-shot soft x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy with picosecond time resolution was used in combination with optical measurements of the disassembly dynamics that have shown the existence of a metastable liquid phase in fs-laser heated metal foils persisting 4-5 ps. This metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.3-2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500 x 700 {micro}m{sup 2} spot to create heated conditions of 0.2-1.8 x 10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} intensity. The unique LLNL COMET compact tabletop soft x-ray laser source provided the necessary high photon flux, highly monoenergetic, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for observing the evolution of changes in the valence band electronic structure of laser heated metals and semiconductors with picosecond time resolution. This work demonstrates the continuing development of a powerful new technique for probing reaction dynamics and changes of local order on surfaces on their fundamental timescales including phenomena such as non-thermal melting, chemical bond formation, intermediate reaction steps, and the existence of transient reaction products.

  16. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Quantum Cascade Lasers operated in Pulsed Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Time-resolved spectroscopy with pump-probe technique is a good instrument for analyzing physical processes and material properties in quantum cascade lasers. This method was used for the characterization of lasers in continuous wave. Whereas pulsed operated laser are subject to permanent changes in their working point and thus their optical properties. In our work we present an adapted version of this measurement technique capable to study pulsed operated lasers. By synchronizing pump current and sampling we can acquire the pump pulses in narrow time slots (∼20 ns) where we assume constant working conditions. This novel measurement technique gives us the possibility to gather more accurate data including gain, phase, refractive index and calculate the temperature behaviour of quantum cascade lasers. (author)

  17. Determination of Different Metals in Steel Waste Samples Using laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Bakry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Elemental analysis of waste samples collected from steel products manufacturing plant (SPS located at industrial city of Jeddah, Saudi-Arabia has been carried out using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. The 1064 nm laser radiations from a Nd:YAG laser at an irradiance of 7.6  1010 W cm –2 were used. Atomic emission spectra of the elements present in the waste samples were recorded in the 200 – 620 nm region. Elements such as Fe, W, Ti, Al, Mg, Ca, S, Mn, and Na were detected in these samples. Quantitative determination of the elemental concentration was obtained for these metals against certified standard samples. Parametric dependences of LIBS signal intensity on incident laser energy and time delay between the laser pulse and data acquisition system were also carried out.

  18. Mid-infrared Molecular Emission Studies from Energetic Materials using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ei; Hommerich, Uwe; Yang, Clayton; Trivedi, Sudhir; Samuels, Alan; Snyder, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of trace elements by monitoring the atomic and ionic emission from laser-induced plasmas. The laser-induced plasma was produced by focusing a 30 mJ pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) to dissociate, atomize, and ionize target molecules. In this work, LIBS emissions in the mid-infrared (MIR) region were studied for potential applications in chemical, biological, and explosives (CBE) sensing. We report on the observation of MIR emissions from energetic materials (e.g. ammonium compounds) due to laser-induced breakdown processes. All samples showed LIBS-triggered oxygenated breakdown products as well as partially dissociated and recombination molecular species. More detailed results of the performed MIR LIBS studies on the energetic materials will be discussed at the conference.

  19. [Laser-time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in immunoassays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Du, J; Xie, W; Du, Q; Yun, Q

    2000-06-01

    This paper described a laser-excited time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay set. It made lanthanide ion to couple the anhydrde of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPAA) for labeling antibodies. The experiment used polystyrene tap coated with HCV antigen as the solid phase and a chelate of the rare earth metal europium as fluorescent label. A nitrogen laser beam was used to excite the Eu3- chelates and after 60 microseconds delay time, the emission fluorescence was measured. Background fluorescence of short lifetimes caused by serum components and Raman scattering can be eliminated by set the delay time. In the system condition, fluorescent spectra and fluorescent lifetimes of Eu3+ beta-naphthoyltrifluroacetone (NTA) chelates were measured. The fluorescent lifetime value is 650 microseconds. The maximum emission wavelength is 613 nm. The linear range of europium ion concentration is 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-11) g.mL-1 and the detection limit is 1 x 10(-13) g.mL-1. The relative standard deviation of determination (n = 12) for samples at 0.01 ng.mL-1 magnitude is 6.4%. Laser-TRFIA was also found to be suitable for diagnosis of HCV. The sensitivity and specificity were comparable to enzyme immunoassay. The result was obtained with laser-TRFIA for 29 human correlated well with enzyme immunoassay. PMID:12958930

  20. Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2008-03-01

    A room temperature external grating cavity (EGC) quantum cascade laser (QCL) is characterized using saturation spectroscopy of NO2. The presence of two strong EGC QCL waveguide modes is evident from the saturation spectra. A linewidth of 21MHz for each EGC-QCL mode is measured from the width of the saturation peak at 10mTorr pressure of NO2.