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Sample records for based gene manipulation

  1. New pFA-cassettes for PCR-based gene manipulation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Dünkler, Alexander; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Several modules for efficient PCR-based gene disruption have recently been introduced in Candida albicans. These are based on auxotrophic marker genes for deficient strains derived from SC5314/CAI4. Commonly used protocols for the transformation C. albicans are based either on the lithium acetate procedure or on electroporation also used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present our updated arsenal of pFA-modules that now include the heterologous marker genes HIS1 from C. dubliniensis and LEU2 from C. maltosa (Noble and Johnson 2005) and the dominant selection marker ca SAT1 (Reuss et al. 2004). We also introduce the Ashbya gossypii TEF1 -promoter as a strong constitutive promoter. With these new elements an enlarged collection of pFA-marker and pFA-marker-promoter modules were generated containing 17 new modules. In addition, N-terminal tagging with GFP-(GA) 6 and epitope-tagging modules using the 6 x-HIS-tag were constructed. This adds to the previous modules that only enabled C-terminal GFP-tagging of genes (Gola et al. 2003). In total 29 pFA-modules are currently freely available from our lab which - together with an update on the diagnostic verification procedure - further enlarge the C. albicans molecular toolbox and enhance our capabilities to use PCR-based gene alteration methods in C. albicans. PMID:17009297

  2. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, In Sun; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-01-01

    Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this ...

  3. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sun Hwang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 , which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi.

  4. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  5. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA mouse line (TPH2-tTA that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ. In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox. Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20 were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We

  6. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  7. Gene manipulated peritoneal cell patch repairs infarcted myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Millard, Ronald W.; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Tiemin; Fan, Guo-Chang; Ashraf, Atif; Xu, Meifeng; ASHRAF, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2009-01-01

    A gene manipulated cell patch using a homologous peritoneum substrate was developed and applied after myocardial infarction to repair scarred myocardium. We genetically engineered male rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using adenoviral transduction to over-express CXCR4/green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MSCCXCR4) or MSCNull or siRNA targeting CXCR4 (MSCsiRNA). Gene expression was studied by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells were cultured on e...

  8. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises...... four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...... a central role for giving a unified approach to goal-directed evaluation, a programminglanguage paradigm that is built on the notions of backtracking and of gener- ating successive results. Formulating the semantics of a small goal-directed language as a monadic semantics—a generic approach to structuring...

  9. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  10. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking

  11. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  12. Atlas based kinematic optimum design of the Stewart parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhufeng; Tang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Liping; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Optimum design is a key approach to make full use of potential advantages of a parallel manipulator. The optimum design of multi-parameter parallel manipulators(more than three design parameters), such as Stewart manipulator, relies on analysis based and algorithm based optimum design methods, which fall to be accurate or intuitive. To solve this problem and achieve both accurate and intuition, atlas based optimum design of a general Stewart parallel manipulator is established, with rational selection of design parameters. Based on the defined spherical usable workspace(SUW), primary kinematic performance indices of the Stewart manipulator, involving workspace and condition number are introduced and analyzed. Then, corresponding performance atlases are drawn with the established non-dimensional design space, and impact of joint distribution angles on the manipulator performance is analyzed and illustrated. At last, an example on atlas based optimum design of the Stewart manipulator is accomplished to illustrate the optimum design process, considering the end-effector posture. Deduced atlases can be flexibly applied to both quantitative and qualitative analysis to get the desired optimal design for the Stewart manipulator with respect to related performance requirements. Besides, the established optimum design method can be further applied to other multi-parameter parallel manipulators.

  13. Atlas Based Kinematic Optimum Design of the Stewart Parallel Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Zhufeng; TANG Xiaoqiang; WANG Liping; SUN Dengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Optimum design is a key approach to make full use of potential advantages of a parallel manipulator. The optimum design of multi-parameter parallel manipulators(more than three design parameters), such as Stewart manipulator, relies on analysis based and algorithm based optimum design methods, which fall to be accurate or intuitive. To solve this problem and achieve both accurate and intuition, atlas based optimum design of a general Stewart parallel manipulator is established, with rational selection of design parameters. Based on the defined spherical usable workspace(SUW), primary kinematic performance indices of the Stewart manipulator, involving workspace and condition number are introduced and analyzed. Then, corresponding performance atlases are drawn with the established non-dimensional design space, and impact of joint distribution angles on the manipulator performance is analyzed and illustrated. At last, an example on atlas based optimum design of the Stewart manipulator is accomplished to illustrate the optimum design process, considering the end-effector posture. Deduced atlases can be flexibly applied to both quantitative and qualitative analysis to get the desired optimal design for the Stewart manipulator with respect to related performance requirements. Besides, the established optimum design method can be further applied to other multi-parameter parallel manipulators.

  14. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  15. SOLVING INVERSE KINEMATICS OF REDUNDANT MANIPULATOR BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    For the redundant manipulators, neural network is used to tackle the velocity inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. The neural networks utilized are multi-layered perceptions with a back-propagation training algorithm. The weight table is used to save the weights solving the inverse kinematics based on the different optimization performance criteria. Simulations verify the effectiveness of using neural network.

  16. Implementation of vision based 2-DOF underwater Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Jinpeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulator is of vital importance to the remotely operated vehicle (ROV, especially when it works in the nuclear reactor pool. Two degrees of freedom (2-DOF underwater manipulator is designed to the ROV, which is composed of control cabinet, buoyancy module, propellers, depth gauge, sonar, a monocular camera and other attitude sensors. The manipulator can be used to salvage small parts like bolts and nuts to accelerate the progress of the overhaul. It can move in the vertical direction alone through the control of the second joint, and can grab object using its unique designed gripper. A monocular vision based localization algorithm is applied to help the manipulator work independently and intelligently. Eventually, field experiment is conducted in the swimming pool to verify the effectiveness of the manipulator and the monocular vision based algorithm.

  17. Mechatronic Model Based Computed Torque Control of a Parallel Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiyong Yang; Jiang Wu; Jiangping Mei; Jian Gao; Tian Huang

    2008-01-01

    With high speed and accuracy the parallel manipulators have wide application in the industry, but there still exist many difficulties in the actual control process because of the time-varying and coupling. Unfortunately, the present-day commercial controlles cannot provide satisfying performance for its single axis linear control only. Therefore, aimed at a novel 2-DOF (Degree of Freedom) parallel manipulator called Diamond 600, a motor-mechanism coupling dynamic model based control scheme em...

  18. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, R. J.

    1994-06-01

    Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and

  19. A large workspace flexure hinge-based parallel manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wei; Du Zhijiang; Sun Lining

    2005-01-01

    Parallel manipulator systems as promising precision devices are used widely in current researches. A novel large workspace flexure parallel manipulator system utilizing wide-range flexure hinges as passive joints is proposed in this paper, which can attain sub-micron-scale precision over the cubic centimeter motion range. This paper introduces the mechanical system architecture based on the wide-range flexure hinges, analyzes the kinematics via stiffness matrices, presents the control system configuration and control strategy, and finally gives the system performance test results.

  20. A planar parallel manipulator based novel MEMS device bonding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Junhong; Sun Lining; Zhu Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS device boning system is presented. Aiming at the high velocity, high precision and high flexibility requirements, a novel manipulator of planar parallel structure is developed to substitute ordinary X-Y table. In addition, the machine vision is implemented to improve the system's flexibility. The initial angular positions of the joints are estimated by the extended Kalman filter algorithm. As a result, the manipulator's absolute locating accuracy in its workspace is guaranteed indirectly. For any MEMS device, the bonding system itself can be used as measurement equipment to create the device's geometry model, which is the base to do off-line programming. A quite ideal trade-off between the system's flexibility and efficiency is got. Finally, some verified motion specification of the manipulator, the bonding experimental results and the verified qualities of the bonded devices are provided.

  1. Microcystin Biosynthesis in Planktothrix: Genes, Evolution, and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Guntram; Fastner, Jutta; Erhard, Marcel; Börner, Thomas; Dittmann, Elke

    2003-01-01

    Microcystins represent an extraordinarily large family of cyclic heptapeptide toxins that are nonribosomally synthesized by various cyanobacteria. Microcystins specifically inhibit the eukaryotic protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Their outstanding variability makes them particularly useful for studies on the evolution of structure-function relationships in peptide synthetases and their genes. Analyses of microcystin synthetase genes provide valuable clues for the potential and limits of combinatorial biosynthesis. We have sequenced and analyzed 55.6 kb of the potential microcystin synthetase gene (mcy) cluster from the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii CYA 126. The cluster contains genes for peptide synthetases (mcyABC), polyketide synthases (PKSs; mcyD), chimeric enzymes composed of peptide synthetase and PKS modules (mcyEG), a putative thioesterase (mcyT), a putative ABC transporter (mcyH), and a putative peptide-modifying enzyme (mcyJ). The gene content and arrangement and the sequence of specific domains in the gene products differ from those of the mcy cluster in Microcystis, a unicellular cyanobacterium. The data suggest an evolution of mcy clusters from, rather than to, genes for nodularin (a related pentapeptide) biosynthesis. Our data do not support the idea of horizontal gene transfer of complete mcy gene clusters between the genera. We have established a protocol for stable genetic transformation of Planktothrix, a genus that is characterized by multicellular filaments exhibiting continuous motility. Targeted mutation of mcyJ revealed its function as a gene coding for a O-methyltransferase. The mutant cells produce a novel microcystin variant exhibiting reduced inhibitory activity toward protein phosphatases. PMID:12511503

  2. Multisensor based robotic manipulation in an uncalibrated manufacturing workcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, B.K.; Xiao, Di; Xi, Ning; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The main problem that we address in this paper is how a robot manipulator is able to track and grasp a part placed arbitrarily on a moving disc conveyor aided by a single CCD camera and fusing information from encoders placed on the conveyor and also from encoders on the robot manipulator. The important assumption that distinguishes our work from what has been previously reported in the literature is that the position and orientation of the camera and the base frame of the robot is apriori assumed to be unknown and is `visually calibrated` during the operation of the manipulator. Moreover the part placed on the conveyor is assumed to be non-planar, i.e. the feature points observed on the part is assumed to be located arbitrarily in IR{sup 3}. The novelties of the proposed approach in this paper includes a (i) multisensor fusion scheme based on complementary data for the purpose of part localization, and (ii) self-calibration between the turntable and the robot manipulator using visual data and feature points on the end-effector. The principle advantages of the proposed scheme are the following. (i) It renders possible to reconfigure a manufacturing workcell without recalibrating the relation between the turntable and the robot. This significantly shortens the setup time of the workcell. (ii) It greatly weakens the requirement on the image processing speed.

  3. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  4. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Mende, Ylva; Zevnik, Branko; Jackson, Walker S

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp) is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9), have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs). It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program. PMID:27128441

  5. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kaczmarczyk

    Full Text Available The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9, have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs. It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program.

  6. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Mende, Ylva; Zevnik, Branko; Jackson, Walker S.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp) is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9), have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs). It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program. PMID:27128441

  7. IMU-Based Online Kinematic Calibration of Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA and Kalman Filter (KF to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  8. IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods. PMID:24302854

  9. IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  10. A practical quality index based on the octahedral manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The octahedral manipulator is a 3-3 device that is fully in parallel. It has a linear actuator on each of its six legs. The legs connect an equilateral platform triangle to a similar base triangle in a zigzag pattern between vertices. The proposed quality index takes a maximum value of 1 at a central symmetrical configuration that is shown to correspond to the maximum value of the determinant of the 6 x 6 Jacobian matrix of the manipulator. This matrix is none other than that of the normalized line coordinates of the six leg-lines; for its determinant to be a maximum, the platform triangle is found to be half of the size of the base triangle, and the perpendicular distance between platform and base is equal to the side of the platform triangle. When the manipulator is actuated so that the octahedron departs from this central configuration, the determinant always diminishes, and, as is well known, it becomes zero when a special configuration is reached (the platform then gaining one or more uncontrollable freedoms). The quality index λ, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, is a constructive measure of acceptable design proportions. The double-spherical joints (there are six) are the source of the critical practical difficulties. Kinematic substitutions can circumvent this problem, but often there is no reasonable alternative to accepting a reduction of maximum quality index through separation by fairly short distances of some or all of the double-ball joints. Too great a separation easily leads too far toward generality; any fully-in-parallel manipulator of more general proportions should be tested for quality against the octahedral form simply because no different form can be superior to a well-designed octahedron from the points of view of structural soundness and ability to apply both forces and controlled displacements to the end-effector platform

  11. Mechatronic Model Based Computed Torque Control of a Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With high speed and accuracy the parallel manipulators have wide application in the industry, but there still exist many difficulties in the actual control process because of the time-varying and coupling. Unfortunately, the present-day commercial controlles cannot provide satisfying performance for its single axis linear control only. Therefore, aimed at a novel 2-DOF (Degree of Freedom parallel manipulator called Diamond 600, a motor-mechanism coupling dynamic model based control scheme employing the computed torque control algorithm are presented in this paper. First, the integrated dynamic coupling model is deduced, according to equivalent torques between the mechanical structure and the PM (Permanent Magnetism servomotor. Second, computed torque controller is described in detail for the above proposed model. At last, a series of numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to test the effectiveness of the system, and the results verify the favourable tracking ability and robustness.

  12. A novel magnetorheological damper based parallel planar manipulator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel parallel planar robot design which is low cost and simple in structure. The design addresses some of the problems, such as concentration of excessive load on the links and joints, due to wrong commanding signals being given by the controller. In this application two of the conventional actuators are replaced by magnetorheological (MR) dampers, and only one actuator is used to generate motion. The design paradigm is based on the concept that a moving object 'intuitively' follows the path with minimum resistance to its motion. This implies that virtual adoptable constraints can be used effectively to define motion trajectories. In fact, motion generation and adaptive constraints are two elements essential to implementing this strategy. In this paper, MR dampers are used to provide adjustable constraints and to guide the platform that is moved by the linear motor. The model of the MR dampers is derived using the Bouc–Wen model. This model is then used for manipulator simulation and controller design. Two controllers are developed for this manipulator: (1) a closed loop on/off one and (2) a proportional–derivative controller. Also, three different trajectories are defined and used for both the simulations and experiments. The results indicate a good agreement between the simulations and experiments. The experimental results also demonstrate the capability of the manipulator for following sophisticated trajectories

  13. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  14. Feasible Human-Spine Motion Simulators Based on Parallel Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Si-Jun; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Considering the characteristics of a human spine including nearly isotropic kinematical performance, fast speed, available under both active and passive modes and reachable workspace, three 3R2T 5-DoF fully-symmetrical parallel manipulators with base-actuator, including 5-RRR(RR), 5-(RRR)RR, 5-(RRR)(RR) are adopted as feasible human spine motion simulators. To decrease machining difficulty and guarantee the machining precision, 5RRR(RR) is designed and manufactured as the prototype of spine m...

  15. Manipulating Deformable Linear Objects: Sensor-Based Fast Manipulation during Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Shigang; Henrich, Dominik

    2002-01-01

    It is difficult for robots to handle a vibrating deformable object. Even for human beings it is a high-risk operation to, for example, insert a vibrating linear object into a small hole. However, fast manipulation using a robot arm is not just a dream; it may be achieved if some important features of the vibration are detected online. In this paper, we present an approach for fast manipulation using a force/torque sensor mounted on the robot's wrist. Template matching method is employed to re...

  16. Electroporation-Based Genetic Manipulation in Type I Methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin; Chu, Frances; Puri, Aaron W; Fu, Yanfen; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2016-04-01

    Methane is becoming a major candidate for a prominent carbon feedstock in the future, and the bioconversion of methane into valuable products has drawn increasing attention. To facilitate the use of methanotrophic organisms as industrial strains and accelerate our ability to metabolically engineer methanotrophs, simple and rapid genetic tools are needed. Electroporation is one such enabling tool, but to date it has not been successful in a group of methanotrophs of interest for the production of chemicals and fuels, the gammaproteobacterial (type I) methanotrophs. In this study, we developed electroporation techniques with a high transformation efficiency for three different type I methanotrophs: Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1C, Methylomonas sp. strain LW13, and Methylobacter tundripaludum 21/22. We further developed this technique in M. buryatense, a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methanotroph that demonstrates robust growth with a high carbon conversion efficiency and is well suited for industrial use for the bioconversion of methane. On the basis of the high transformation efficiency of M. buryatense, gene knockouts or integration of a foreign fragment into the chromosome can be easily achieved by direct electroporation of PCR-generated deletion or integration constructs. Moreover, site-specific recombination (FLP-FRT [FLP recombination target] recombination) and sacB counterselection systems were employed to perform marker-free manipulation, and two new antibiotics, zeocin and hygromycin, were validated to be antibiotic markers in this strain. Together, these tools facilitate the rapid genetic manipulation of M. buryatense and other type I methanotrophs, promoting the ability to perform fundamental research and industrial process development with these strains. PMID:26801578

  17. Velocity observer-based iterative learning control for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakrif, Farah; Boukhetala, Djamel; Boudjema, Farès

    2013-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of designing an iterative learning control for trajectory tracking of rigid robot manipulators subject to external disturbances, and performing repetitive tasks, without using the velocity measurement. For solving this problem, a velocity observer having an iterative form is proposed to reconstruct the velocity signal in the control laws. Under assumptions that the disturbances are repetitive and the velocities are bounded, it has been shown that the whole control system (robot plus controller plus observer) is asymptotically stable and the observation error is globally asymptotically stable, over the whole finite time-interval when the iteration number tends to infinity. This proof is based upon the use of a Lyapunov-like positive definite sequence, which is shown to be monotonically decreasing under the proposed observer-controller schemes.

  18. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  19. Manipulation of Microobjects Based on Dynamic Adhesion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to scale effects, microoperation, especially the releasing of microobjects, has been a long‐standing challenge in micromanipulation applications. In this paper a micromanipulation method is presented based on dynamic adhesion control with compound vibration. This adhesion control technique employs inertia force to overcome adhesion force achieving 100% repeatability with releasing accuracy of 4± 0.5μm, which was experimentally quantified through the manipulation of 20‐100μm polystyrene spheres under an optical microscope. The micromanipulation system consists of a microgripper and a piezoelectric ceramics module. The compound vibration comes from the electrostatic actuator and the piezoelectrically driven actuator. Surface and bulk micromachining technology is employed to fabricate the microgripper used in the system from a single crystal silicon wafer. Experimental results confirmed that this adhesion control technique is independent of substrate. Theoretical analyses were conducted to understand the picking up and releasing mechanism. Based on this preliminary study, the micromanipulation system proved to be an effective solution for active picking up and releasing of micromanipulation.

  20. Automatic calibration of space based manipulators and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Louis J.

    1988-01-01

    Four tasks in manipulator kinematic calibration are summarized. Calibration of a seven degree of freedom manipulator was simulated. A calibration model is presented that can be applied on a closed-loop robot. It is an expansion of open-loop kinematic calibration algorithms subject to constraints. A closed-loop robot with a five-bar linkage transmission was tested. Results show that the algorithm converges within a few iterations. The concept of model differences is formalized. Differences are categorized as structural and numerical, with emphasis on the structural. The work demonstrates that geometric manipulators can be visualized as points in a vector space with the dimension of the space depending solely on the number and type of manipulator joint. Visualizing parameters in a kinematic model as the coordinates locating the manipulator in vector space enables a standard evaluation of the models. Key results include a derivation of the maximum number of parameters necessary for models, a formal discussion on the inclusion of extra parameters, and a method to predetermine a minimum model structure for a kinematic manipulator. A technique is presented that enables single point sensors to gather sufficient information to complete a calibration.

  1. Multisensor-based robotic systems for inspection and manipulation tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced technology division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring research at four universities (Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) directed toward the development of advanced robotic systems for use in nuclear environments. The primary motivation for using robotic technology in such hazardous environments is to reduce exposure and costs associated with performing tasks such as surveillance, maintenance, and repair. The main focus of research at the University of Tennessee has been to contribute to the development of autonomous inspection and manipulation systems, which utilize a wide array of sensory inputs in controlling the actions of a stationary robot. This involves several important research issues, including selection of sensor modalities, processing and analysis of data acquired by individual sensors, integration of sensory information, control of the robotic arm and end effectors, and efficient computational architectures for implementing various algorithms. Experimental research effort is directed toward design and evaluation of new methodologies using a laboratory-based robotic test bed. A unique feature of this test bed is a multisensor module that is useful in the characterization of the robots work space. In this paper, the authors describe the development of a robotic vision system for automatic spill detection, localization, and cleanup verification and the development of efficient techniques for analyzing range images using a parallel computer. The simulated spill cleanup scenario allows demonstration of the applicability of robotic systems to problems encountered in nuclear environments

  2. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  3. From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    -carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852

  4. Nutrition-gene interaction (post-genomics): Changes in gene expression through nutritional manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Consumers in the developed world have demanded quality and consistency from animal products marketed to them, and as a result implementation of quality assurance systems has been a major industry priority. These systems are based on the principle that quality, as defined by the consumer, can be influenced at critical control points in the production chain. Consumer demands for sustainable production practices have also led to adoption of strategies sometimes counter to eating quality objectives. For example, Bos indicus animals are used in extensive grazing systems of northern Australia because of their drought and parasite tolerance, but have inferior eating quality. Given the environmental rigours of this northern production system, cattle producers are attempting to optimise decisions regarding all variables that influence their enterprises. These include breed and genotype, slaughter age, lifetime nutrition, health management strategy, growth promotion strategy, weather predictions, stocking rate, and eating quality criteria. In this paper, we will review what is known about development of the intrinsic factors (those extant at the time of slaughter) of bovine skeletal muscle as they relate to the subsequent eating quality attributes of meat. These attributes include toughness, colour, fat content, and nutritive value, but exclude food safety. We will focus on current understanding of nutritional regulation of the candidate genes known to underlie each of these attributes, and where appropriate draw on understanding developed in other mammalian species. We will discuss two experimental studies that are likely to contribute to our understanding of functional gene networks that are responsive to nutritional restriction. The first investigated the effects of severe nutritional restriction and compensatory growth in Bos indicus cross cattle during the post-weaning period. The study was motivated by our previous finding that nutritional effects on meat

  5. The optimization of global fault tolerant trajectory for redundant manipulator based on self-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The redundancy feature of manipulators provides the possibility for the fault tolerant trajectory planning. Aiming at the completion of the specific task, an algorithm of global fault tolerant trajectory optimization for redundant manipulator based on the self-motion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, inverse kinematics equation of single redundancy manipulator based on self-motion variable and null-space velocity array of Jacobian are analyzed. Secondly, the mathematical description of fault tolerance criteria of the configuration of manipulator is established and the fault tolerance configuration group of manipulator is obtained by using iteration traversal under the fault tolerance criteria. Then, considering the joint limits and minimum the energy consumption as the optimization target, the global fault tolerant joint trajectory is achieved. Finally, simulation for 7 degree of freedom (DOF manipulator is performed, by which the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated.

  6. RNA splicing manipulation: strategies to modify gene expression for a variety of therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Antisense oligomers initially showed promise as compounds to modify gene expression, primarily through RNaseH induced degradation of the target transcript. Expansion of the field has led to new chemistries capable of invoking different mechanisms, including suppression of protein synthesis by translational blockade and gene silencing using short interfering RNAs. It is now apparent that the majority of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at many levels. This review considers potential therapeutic applications of antisense oligomers to modify gene expression, primarily by interfering with the process of exon recognition and intron removal during gene transcript splicing. While suppression of gene expression will be necessary to address some conditions, it is likely that antisense oligomer splice modification will have extensive clinical application. Pre-mRNA splicing is a tightly co-ordinated, multifactorial process that can be disrupted by antisense oligomers in a highly specific manner to suppress aberrant splicing, remove exons to by-pass nonsense or frame-shifting mutations or influence exon selection to alter spliceoform ratios. Manipulation of splicing patterns has been applied to a diverse range of conditions, including b-thalassemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy and certain cancers. Alternative exon usage has been identified as a major mechanism for generating diversity from a limited repertoire of genes in higher eukaryotes. Considering that the majority of all human primary gene transcripts are reportedly alternatively spliced, intervention at the level of pre-mRNA processing is likely to become increasingly significant in the fight against genetic and acquired disorders.

  7. Comparison of Planar Parallel Manipulator Architectures based on a Multi-objective Design Optimization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chablat, Damien; Caro, Stéphane; Ur-Rehman, Raza; Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of planar parallel manipulator architectures based on a multi-objective design optimization approach. The manipulator architectures are compared with regard to their mass in motion and their regular workspace size, i.e., the objective functions. The optimization problem is subject to constraints on the manipulator dexterity and stiffness. For a given external wrench, the displacements of the moving platform have to be smaller than given values throughout t...

  8. Design, Dynamics, and Workspace of a Hybrid-Driven-Based Cable Parallel Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zi; Jianbin Cao; Zhencai Zhu; Peter Mitrouchev

    2013-01-01

    The design, dynamics, and workspace of a hybrid-driven-based cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM) are presented. The HDCPM is able to perform high efficiency, heavy load, and high-performance motion due to the advantages of both the cable parallel manipulator and the hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. The design is performed according to theories of mechanism structure synthesis for cable parallel manipulators. The dynamic formulation of the HDCPM is established on the basis of Newton-Eul...

  9. Trajectory Planning of 7-DOF Space Manipulator for Minimizing Base Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the free-floating mode, there is intense dynamic coupling existing between the space manipulator and the base, and the base attitude may change while performing a motion with its manipulator. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interference that resulted from the manipulator movement. For planning trajectories of the space manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF, simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO algorithm is presented in the paper. Firstly, kinematics equations are setup. Secondly, the joint functions are parameterized by sinusoidal functions, and the objective function is defined according to the motion constraints of manipulator and accuracy requirements of the base attitude. Finally, SAPSO algorithm is used to search the optimal trajectory. The simulation results verify the proposed method.

  10. A gas bubble-based parallel micro manipulator: conceptual design and kinematics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel mechanism has become an alternative solution when micro manipulators are demanded in the fields of micro manipulation and micro assembly. In this technical note, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) parallel micro manipulator is presented, which is directly driven by three micro gas bubbles. Since the micro gas bubbles are generated and maintained due to the surface tension between the gas and liquid media, the proposed novel system can be used in the liquid environment which allows for rotation about the X and Y axes and translation along the Z axis. In this technical note, the conceptual design of micro gas bubble-based parallel manipulator is introduced and the input/output characteristic of the actuator is analyzed in detail. The kinematics model of the parallel micro manipulator is also established, based on which the workspace and the system motion resolution are analyzed as a criterion and reference for future prototype development. (technical note)

  11. Dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator based on dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A study of dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with coupling of translation and rotation is carried out.The architecture of the manipulator is composed of a moving platform attached to a fixed base through three identical PRS(prismatic-revolute-spherical) serial limbs,whose unique topology leads to the physical unit inconsistency of the conventional Jacobian matrix and the emergence of the parasitic motion.Then this paper introduces a kinetostatic performance index of the manipulator based on the condition of a dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix,later,the workspace of the aforementioned manipulator is searched and the influence of the crucial design variables on the workspace is analyzed.Finally,a dimensional synthesis method of the manipulator is proposed,which may be regarded as a nonlinear programming problem with subject to the parasitic motion and other several engineering constraints.

  12. Global optimization of manipulator base placement by means of rapidly-exploring random tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京

    2016-01-01

    Due to the interrelationship between the base placement of the manipulator and its operation ob-ject , it is significant to analyze the accessibility and workspace of manipulators for the optimization of their base location.A new method is presented to optimize the base placement of manipulators through motion planning optimization and location optimization in the feasible area for manipulators. Firstly, research problems and contents are outlined.And then the feasible area for the manipulator base installation is discussed.Next, index depended on the joint movements and used to evaluate the kinematic performance of manipulators is defined.Although the mentioned indices in last section are regarded as the cost function of the latter,rapidly-exploring random tree ( RRT) and rapidly-ex-ploring random tree*( RRT*) algorithms are analyzed.And then, the proposed optimization method of manipulator base placement is studied by means of simulation research based on kinematic per-formance criteria.Finally, the conclusions could be proved effective from the simulation results.

  13. Molecular manipulation and modification of the genes encoding the G2 and G4 glycinin subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda H. Sammour

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The genes encoding the glycinin subunits G2 and G4 were molecularly manipulated and modified to test the possibility of increasing the nutritional value of soybean seed proteins. The recombinant DNAs pSP65/G2HG4, pSP65/G4HG2, pSP65/248 Metl, pSP65/248 Met2,3 and pSP65/248 Metl.2,3 were used in in vitro translation to produce (i chimeric proteins consisting of reciprocally exchanged acidic and basic G2 and G4 domains and (ii Gy4 point mutants with an increased number of methionine residues. The ability of the recombinant proteins to assemble into proper quaternary structures was investigated using sucrose gradient fractionation. The data produced by this study could provide valuable clues for the potential improvement of genetically modified crops.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF PARALLEL MECHANISM BASED ROBOT MANIPULATORS FROM STRUCTURAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. JAGDISH M. PRAJAPATI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential merits, the parallel mechanisms are more popular than serial mechanisms based robot manipulators in specific applications. One of the ways of classifying the parallel manipulatorsis according to their platform types and connection between them. Methods for designing different types of parallel manipulators with one or more platforms are presented. The classification of parallel mechanism based manipulators and synthesis of them from structural point of view are presented in this paper. The step by step procedure is presented with help of examples.

  15. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF TWO-LINK ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON THE METHOD OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of control for a two-link robot manipulator under disturbances and inaccurately known parameters of the system. A method for adaptive independent control of the two-link robot manipulator based on the method of consecutive compensator is proposed. Adaptability is provided by adaptive adjustment coefficients of the consecutive compensator, and its independence consists in independent control of each link of the manipulator separately from the others. Meanwhile, non-linear effect of other links is considered as a limited external disturbance in the control channel. Dynamic equation of the manipulator was received by the Euler-Lagrange method, taking into account the effect of dynamics of manipulator engines. Since the proposed method has the simplicity of engineering implementation as compared to other adaptive methods of controlling manipulators, its usage on real objects in industry seems to be attractive. During the method simulation it was assumed that disturbances have the form of shifted harmonic signal. A series of simulations for a two-link manipulator system was conducted with the proposed controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method in terms of external and internal disturbances. Comparison of this method with the PD controller was made. During the simulations, it was demonstrated that the proposed approach provides lower output error value than manipulator control using PD controller.

  16. Screw-System-Based Mobility Analysis of a Family of Fully Translational Parallel Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mobility of a family of fully translational parallel manipulators based on screw system analysis by identifying the common constraint and redundant constraints, providing a case study of this approach. The paper presents the branch motion-screws for the 3-RP̲C-Y parallel manipulator, the 3-RCC-Y (or 3-RP̲RC-Y parallel manipulator, and a newly proposed 3-RP̲C-T parallel manipulator. Then the paper determines the sets of platform constraint-screws for each of these three manipulators. The constraints exerted on the platforms of the 3-RP̲C architectures and the 3-RCC-Y manipulators are analyzed using the screw system approach and have been identified as couples. A similarity has been identified with the axes of couples: they are perpendicular to the R joint axes, but in the former the axes are coplanar with the base and in the latter the axes are perpendicular to the limb. The remaining couples act about the axis that is normal to the base. The motion-screw system and constraint-screw system analysis leads to the insightful understanding of the mobility of the platform that is then obtained by determining the reciprocal screws to the platform constraint screw sets, resulting in three independent instantaneous translational degrees-of-freedom. To validate the mobility analysis of the three parallel manipulators, the paper includes motion simulations which use a commercially available kinematics software.

  17. Object Structure from Manipulation via Particle Filter and Robot-based Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Kun; Meng, Max Q.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To learn object models for robotic manipulation, unsupervised methods cannot provide accurate object structural information and supervised methods require a large amount of manually labeled training samples, thus interactive object segmentation is developed to automate object modeling. In this article, we formulate a novel dynamic process for interactive object segmentation, and develop a solution based on particle filter and active learning so that a robot can manipulate and learn object str...

  18. Evidence-Based Theory of Market Manipulation And Application: The Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Heong, Yin Yun

    2010-01-01

    According to Part IX Division 1 in Securities Industry Act 1983 of Malaysia Law, stock market manipulation is defined as unlawful action taken either direct or indirectly by any person, to affect the price of securities of the corporation on a stock market in Malaysia for the purpose which may include the purpose of inducing other persons. Extending the framework of Allen and Gale (1992), the Author presents a theory based on the empirical evidence from prosecuted stock market manipulation ca...

  19. Fast Dynamic Model of a Moving-base 6-DOF Parallel Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Antonio M.

    2010-01-01

    A parallel manipulator is a complex multi-body dynamic system having several closed loops. Typically, it is composed of a (usually) fixed base platform and a moving payload platform, connected by at least two independent open kinematic chains. Dynamic modelling of parallel manipulators presents an inherent difficulty. Despite the intensive study in this topic of robotics, mostly conducted in the last two decades, additional research still has to be done in this area.

  20. Iterative Learning Tracking Control of a Hybrid-Driven Based Three-Cable Parallel Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zi; Jianbin Cao; Sen Qian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present iterative learning tracking control of a hybrid-driven based three-cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM). The HDCPM has the advantages of both cable parallel manipulator and hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. Design of the HDCPM is described and dynamic model is developed on the basis of Lagrange method. Consider the HDCPM system with nonlinear, time-varying characteristics and repetitive unknown disturbances; an adaptive iterative learning control strat...

  1. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2007-01-16

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  2. Solution of Inverse Kinematics for 6R Robot Manipulators With Offset Wrist Based on Geometric Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongtao; Yang, Wenyu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method based on geometric algebra for computing the solutions to the inverse kinematics problem (IKP) of the 6R robot manipulators with offset wrist. Due to the fact that there exist some difficulties to solve the inverse kinematics problem when the kinematics equations are complex, highly nonlinear, coupled and multiple solutions in terms of these robot manipulators stated mathematically, we apply the theory of Geometric Algebra to the kinematic modeling of 6R robot manipulators simply and generate closed-form kinematics equations, reformulate the problem as a generalized eigenvalue problem with symbolic elimination technique, and then yield 16 solutions. Finally, a spray painting robot, which conforms to the type of robot manipulators, is used as an example of implementation for the effectiveness and real-time of this method. The experimental results show that this method has a large advantage over the classical methods on geometric intuition, computation and real-time, and can be directly extended to all serial robot manipulators and completely automatized, which provides a new tool on the analysis and application of general robot manipulators.

  3. A PCR-based method for manipulation of the vaccinia virus genome that eliminates the need for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

    1992-11-01

    A general method is described for altering specific genes of vaccinia virus (VV). We demonstrate and evaluate the procedure by gene inactivation, using a dominant selectable marker in conjunction with recombinant polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primers based on the sequence of the target gene enable amplification of flanking arms and their subsequent attachment to the gpt cassette that confers resistance to mycophenolic acid. Linear PCR constructs are transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. Mutant viruses with gpt inserted into the target gene by homologous recombination are then selected by growth in the presence of MPA. This technique was applied to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and compared to the traditional method of constructing gpt-containing plasmids by cloning. The PCR scheme was found to be highly efficient and could theoretically be used to insert any foreign DNA element into any nonessential target gene for which partial or complete sequence information is available. The procedure can potentially be used for a wide variety of genetic modifications, including the insertion of foreign genes, with poxviruses and other DNA viruses. Genomes of microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast that can be transformed with linear DNA, are also candidates for manipulation by this methodology.

  4. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Jong, de B.R.; Boer, de M.J.; Jansen, H.V.; Dijk, van J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Soemers, H.M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. s

  5. Terahertz wave manipulation with metamaterials based on metal and graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim;

    2013-01-01

    for active and passive materials and devices. Metamaterials, metal-dielectric artificial composites, propose wide possibilities for achieving unconventional electromagnetic properties, not found in nature. Moreover, metamaterials constructed of graphene, a monolayer of carbon atoms, allow for tunable...... response. In this presentation we overview our results on theory, fabrication and characterization of metal and graphene based metamaterials for the THz range. We show that the multiple layers of structured graphene can form a hyperbolic dispersion medium lens able to resolve the subwavelength features [2......]. We analyze the limitations and demonstrate numerically and experimentally the chiral and nonchiral thin-film metamaterial based polarization converters [3–5] and graphene total absorbers for THz radiation [6]....

  6. Molecular engineering of manipulated alginate-based polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    The novel soluble alginate-based polyurethanes in organic solvents were synthesized by the reaction of NCO-terminated prepolymers and tributylammonium alginate (TBA-Alg) for the first time. The chemical structures of synthesized polyurethanes were characterized using FTIR, (1)H NMR and TGA. The reaction completion was confirmed by disappearing of NCO band in FTIR spectra. Furthermore, a peak at 4.71 ppm and some small peaks at a range of 4.12-4.37 ppm in the (1)H NMR of alginate-based polyurethanes were assigned to the backbone of alginate. The results of both FTIR and (1)H NMR were remarkably confirmed by TGA data. The ionic nature of polyurethane backbone not only affects on thermal properties of samples, but it also changes the chemically-bonded alginate morphology. Both polyether and polyester based non-ionic polyurethanes extended by TBA-Alg illustrated the distinct alginate, whereas those ionomers extended by alginate were appeared as the continuous systems at nanoscale. PMID:25129793

  7. Behavior-based Task Learning by Demonstration on Mobile Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Users should have the opportunity to teach new tasks on their robot to fit the specific needs in its own environment. Behaviors are good building blocks for complex tasks because they are in charge of a specific control objective and have an intuitive name. After encapsulating controls within a behavior, the task learning problem for behavior-based systems becomes a behavior recognition problem. Behavior-based task learning can be focused on either behavior segmentation, behavior recognition or behavior cooperation. The behavior diagram is expressed by an execution matrix, which consists of only numerical information referring to the parameters of the behaviors or transitions. The parameter values are determined by the behavior classification.A feature space is introduced to extract more meaningful information from sensory data. Geometric features, such as the plane feature or the line feature, detect whether the movement of points fulfills a certain geometric relationship. A combined machine learning approach, which consists of decision tree and support vector machine, is proposed for behavior-based task learning. The decision tree is used to select relevant features from the feature pool, and support vector machine is applied to find the mapping from the feature space to behaviors. This way, corresponding behaviors can be recognized during demonstration. This method also has the ability to handle the diversity of robot configurations and users. Post-processing techniques are proposed to improve the classifi-cation results.

  8. Current Opinions on the Functions of Tocopherol Based on the Genetic Manipulation of Tocopherol Biosynthesis in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Li; Zinan Wang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2008-01-01

    As a member of an important group of lipid soluble antioxidants,tocopherols play a paramount role In the daily diet of humans and animals.Recently,genes required for tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway have been identified and cloned with the help of genomics-based approaches and molecular manipulation in the model organisms: Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803.At the basis of these foundations,genetic manipulation of tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway can give rise to strategies that enhance the level of tocochromanol content or convert the constitution of tocochromanol.In addition,genetic manipulations of the tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway provide help for the study of the function of tocopherol in plant systems.The present article summarizes recent advances and pays special attention to the functions of tocopherol in plants.The roles of tocopherol in the network of reactive oxygen species,antioxidants and phytohormones to maintain redox homeostasis and the functions of tocopherol as a signal molecule in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling to regulate carbohydrate metabolism are also discussed.

  9. Virtual Velocity Vector-based Offline Collision-free Path Planning of Industrial Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ouyang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, industrial robotic manipulators are applied in many manufacturing applications. In most cases, an industrial environment is a cluttered and complex one where moving obstacles may exist and hinder the movement of robotic manipulators. Therefore, a robotic manipulator not only has to avoid moving obstacles, but also needs to fulfill the manufacturing requirements of smooth movement in fixed tact time. Thus, this paper proposes a virtual velocity vector-based algorithm of offline collision-free path planning for manipulator arms in a controlled industrial environment. The minimum distance between a manipulator and a moving obstacle can be maintained at an expected value by utilizing our proposed algorithm with established offline collision-free path-planning and trajectory generating systems. Furthermore, both joint space velocity and Cartesian space velocity of generated time-efficient trajectory are continuous and smooth. In addition, the vector of detour velocity in a 3D environment is determined and depicted. Simulation results indicate that detour velocity can shorten the total task time as well as escaping the local minimal effectively. In summary, our approach can fulfill both safety requirements of collision avoidance of moving obstacles and manufacturing requirements of smooth movement within fixed tact time in an industrial environment.

  10. Design, Dynamics, and Workspace of a Hybrid-Driven-Based Cable Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, dynamics, and workspace of a hybrid-driven-based cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM are presented. The HDCPM is able to perform high efficiency, heavy load, and high-performance motion due to the advantages of both the cable parallel manipulator and the hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. The design is performed according to theories of mechanism structure synthesis for cable parallel manipulators. The dynamic formulation of the HDCPM is established on the basis of Newton-Euler method. The workspace of the manipulator is analyzed additionally. As an example, a completely restrained HDCPM with 3 degrees of freedom is studied in simulation in order to verify the validity of the proposed design, workspace, and dynamic analysis. The simulation results, compared with the theoretical analysis, and the case study previously performed show that the manipulator design is reasonable and the mathematical models are correct, which provides the theoretical basis for future physical prototype and control system design.

  11. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  12. Low Speed Motion Optimization of Space Manipulator Based on Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-speed crawling phenomenon may occur when space manipulators run at a low speed, which may bring big problem for manipulation work. A kind of low-speed optimization algorithm based on gradient projection method is pro-posed in this paper. The designing of continuous balanced proportional factor can effectively reduce the quantitative differences between the homogeneous solution and the special solution, avoiding the joint velocities oscillations. The low-speed crawling problem can be effectively improved by appropriate increase of joint velocities. And the effectiveness and correctness of the optimization algorithm are confirmed by the simulation.

  13. Fuzzy PID Control Method for Internet-based Tele-operation Manipulators System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking control problem for internet-based tele-operation system is researched in this paper. The control structure of master and slave tele-operation manipulators adapts bilateral servo control architecture with force deviation feedback. The simulation model of three degrees of freedom (3-DOF manipulator is presented. In order to ensure the synchronization of positions of the master and slave manipulators, a fuzzy PID control method is proposed. This control algorithm is to adjust the three parameters of PID controller online by fuzzy control method. The contrast simulation experiments of PID and fuzzy PID control methods show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the force and position tracking performance and reduce time delay.

  14. A Force-Based Grid Manipulator for ALE Calculations in a Lobe Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Vande Voorde; Jan Vierendeels; Erik Dick

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a time-dependant calculation of flow in a lobe pump is presented. Calculations are performed using the arbitrary Lagrangean Eulerean (ALE) method. A grid manipulator is needed to move the nodes between time steps. The used grid manipulator is based on the pseudo-force idea. This means that each node is fictitiously connected with its 8 neighbours via fictitious springs. The equilibrium of the resulting pseudo spring forces defines the altered position of the nodes. The grid manipulator was coupled with a commercial flow solver and the whole was tested on the flow through a three-lobe lobe pump. Results were obtained for a rotational speed of 460 rpm and incompressible silicon oil as fluid.

  15. Dialogue-Based Activities and Manipulatives to Engage Liberal Arts Majors in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents four inquiry-based learning activities developed for a liberal arts math course. The activities cover four topics: the Pythagorean theorem, interest theory, optimization, and the Monty Hall problem. Each activity consists of a dialogue, with a theme and characters related to the topic, and a manipulative, that allow students…

  16. Efficacy of Simulation-Based Learning of Electronics Using Visualization and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Hong, Yu-Ru; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2011-01-01

    Software for simulation-based learning of electronics was implemented to help learners understand complex and abstract concepts through observing external representations and exploring concept models. The software comprises modules for visualization and simulative manipulation. Differences in learning performance of using the learning software…

  17. Dynamic Output Feedback Based Active Decentralized Fault-Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator with Concurrent Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to describe an active decentralized fault-tolerant control (ADFTC strategy based on dynamic output feedback for reconfigurable manipulators with concurrent actuator and sensor failures. Consider each joint module of the reconfigurable manipulator as a subsystem, and treat the fault as the unknown input of the subsystem. Firstly, by virtue of linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the decentralized proportional-integral observer (DPIO is designed to estimate and compensate the sensor fault online; hereafter, the compensated system model could be derived. Then, the actuator fault is estimated similarly by another DPIO using LMI as well, and the sufficient condition of the existence of H∞ fault-tolerant controller in the dynamic output feedback is presented for the compensated system model. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback controller is presented based on the estimation of actuator fault to realize active fault-tolerant control. Finally, two 3-DOF reconfigurable manipulators with different configurations are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in simulation. The main advantages of the proposed scheme lie in that it can handle the concurrent faults act on the actuator and sensor on the same joint module, as well as there is no requirement of fault detection and isolation process; moreover, it is more feasible to the modularity of the reconfigurable manipulator.

  18. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  19. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1987--April 14, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1988-12-31

    Many agronomically important crops are viewed as significant resources of renewable energy. Overall crop productivity could be increased if the efficiency of photoassimilate conversion into dry matter such as starch were improved in storage tissues. Starch production is controlled by the catalytic activity of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the first step of starch biosynthesis. This research focuses on the genetic structure and molecular mechanisms by which it is controlled during plant development and how it is affected by environmental and hormonal conditions. The current goal is to isolate the genes for this enzyme present in both cereal endosperm and potato tuber tissues, and to elucidate its structure and the controlling sequences responsible for gene expression. The long term goal is the improvement of starch production in storage organs by manipulating this gene so that it encodes an enzyme refractive to inorganic phosphate inhibition.

  20. xdamp Version 3: An IDL reg-sign-based data and image manipulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA trademark (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix reg-sign-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL reg-sign software, available from Research Systems Incorporated in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM reg-sign workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN reg-sign workstations, Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark computers, Macintosh reg-sign computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS reg-sign and Alpha reg-sign systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. The author has verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM Unix platforms; and DEC alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC trademark versions. Version 3 adds the capability to manipulate images to the original xdamp capabilities

  1. Compact piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Tae-Won; Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geon; Han, Jae-Hung; Park, Kwang-Chun; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-09-01

    We report a hierarchical piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type displacement amplifier. The reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism is pre-strained by each piezo-stack actuator up to 60 μm and is cross-stacked in a series arrangement to make a compact and high-stroke manipulator having load-bearing characteristics. The designed manipulator with three degrees of freedom is compact with a height of 56.0 mm, a diameter of 48.6 mm and total weight of 115 g. It achieves a translational stroke of up to 880 μm in heaving motion and a tilting angle of up to 2.0° in rotational motion within the operating voltage and power range of the piezoelectric stack actuator. A key feature of the present design is built-in and pre-strained displacement amplification mechanisms integrated with piezoelectric stacked actuators, resulting in a compact tripod manipulator having exceptionally high stroke and load-bearing capacity.

  2. A Dynamic Effective Fault Tolerance System in Robotic Manipulator using a Hybrid Neural Network based Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jiji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Robot manipulator play important role in the field of automobile industry, mainly it is used in gas welding application and manufacturing and assembling of motor parts. In complex trajectory, on each joint the speed of the robot manipulator is affected. For that reason, it is necessary to analyze the noise and vibration of robot's joints for predicting faults also improve the control precision of robotic manipulator. In this study we will propose a new fault detection system for Robot manipulator. The proposed hybrid fault detection system is designed based on fuzzy support vector machine and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this system the decouple joints are identified and corrected using fuzzy SVM, here non-linear signal are used for complete process and treatment, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are used to detect the free-swinging and locked joint of the robot, two types of neural predictors are also employed in the proposed adaptive neural network structure. The simulation results of a hybrid controller demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the methodology.

  3. Pressure observer based adaptive robust trajectory tracking control of a parallel manipulator driven by pneumatic muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a pressure observer based adaptive robust controller (POARC) for posture trajectory tracking of a parallel manipulator driven by three pneumatic muscles without pressure sensors. Due to model errors of the static forces and friction forces of pneumatic muscles, simplified average flow rate characteristics of valves, unknown disturbances of entire system,and unmeasured pressures, there exist rather severe parametric uncertainties, nonlinear uncertainties and dynamic uncertainties in modeling of the parallel manipulator. A nonlinear pressure observer is constructed to estimate unknown pressures on the basis of a single-input-single-output (SISO) decoupling model that is simplified from the actual multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)coupling model of the parallel manipulator. Then, an adaptive robust controller integrated with the pressure observer is developed to accomplish high precision posture trajectory tracking of the parallel manipulator. The experimental results indicate that the system with the proposed POARC not only achieves good control accuracy and smooth movement but also maintains robustness to disturbances.

  4. xdamp Version 3: An IDL{reg_sign}-based data and image manipulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, W.P.

    1998-05-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix{reg_sign}-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL{reg_sign} software, available from Research Systems Incorporated in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM{reg_sign} workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN{reg_sign} workstations, Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh{reg_sign} computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS{reg_sign} and Alpha{reg_sign} systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. The author has verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM Unix platforms; and DEC alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC{trademark} versions. Version 3 adds the capability to manipulate images to the original xdamp capabilities.

  5. A microcontroller-based three degree-of-freedom manipulator testbed. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert Michael, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A wheeled exploratory vehicle is under construction at the Mars Mission Research Center at North Carolina State University. In order to serve as more than an inspection tool, this vehicle requires the ability to interact with its surroundings. A crane-type manipulator, as well as the necessary control hardware and software, has been developed for use as a sample gathering tool on this vehicle. The system is controlled by a network of four Motorola M68HC11 microcontrollers. Control hardware and software were developed in a modular fashion so that the system can be used to test future control algorithms and hardware. Actuators include three stepper motors and one solenoid. Sensors include three optical encoders and one cable tensiometer. The vehicle supervisor computer provides the manipulator system with the approximate coordinates of the target object. This system maps the workspace surrounding the given location by lowering the claw, along a set of evenly spaced vertical lines, until contact occurs. Based on this measured height information and prior knowledge of the target object size, the system determines if the object exists in the searched area. The system can find and retrieve a 1.25 in. diameter by 1.25 in. tall cylinder placed within the 47.5 sq in search area in less than 12 minutes. This manipulator hardware may be used for future control algorithm verification and serves as a prototype for other manipulator hardware.

  6. Study of Automatic Fiber Placement Manipulator’s Robotic Kinematics Manipulability Based on Volume Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed based on volume element in order to measure the manipulator’s robotic kinematics manipulability. Then studied the series redundant automatic fiber placement robotic manipulator’s operation space, draw the conclusion that the greater of the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume, the better of the robotic manipulator’s manipulability, volume element based on redundant robotic manipulator’s kinematics is proposed as an operational performance index. n-DOF serial robotic manipulator’s operation space is n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, the n-dimensional Riemannian manifold volume is calculated using the moving coordinate system and the exterior product definition in differential geometry and get the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume then compared the obtained results with the operation space volume using inner product determinant in the literature, it shows that the volume element as a kinematics operational performance index is feasible.

  7. Solving the dynamic equations of a 3-PRS Parallel Manipulator for efficient model-based designs

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Rodríguez, M.; Carretero, J. A.; Bautista-Quintero, R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of parallel manipulator systems for different applications areas has influenced many researchers to develop techniques for obtaining accurate and computational efficient inverse dynamic models. Some subject areas make use of these models, such as, optimal design, parameter identification, model based control and even actuation redundancy approaches. In this context, by revisiting some of the current computationally-efficient solutions for obtaining the inverse d...

  8. Manipulation of Original Ideology Through Translation: A Discourse-Based Translation Quality Assessment of Speeches

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Khorsand; Bahloul Salmani

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on speeches in literary discourse as the superb ideological displays of propaganda as well as their translations for having an enormous capacity for ideological manipulation. In this paper, the only present English-Azarbaijani Turkish translation of Squealer’s speech from Orwell’s Animal Farm was discoursally analyzed based on House’s revised translation quality assessment (TQA) model. According to this model, speeches as propaganda in literary texts must be tr...

  9. INVESTIGATION ON KANE DYNAMIC EQUATIONS BASED ON SCREW THEORY FOR OPENCHAIN MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu-fa; GONG Zhen-bang; WANG Qin-que

    2005-01-01

    First, screw theory, product of exponential formulas and Jacobian matrix are introduced. Then definitions are given about active force wrench, inertial force wrench, partial velocity twist, generalized active force, and generalized inertial force according to screw theory. After that Kane dynamic equations based on screw theory for open-chain manipulators have been derived. Later on how to compute the partial velocity twist by geometrical method is illustrated. Finally the correctness of conclusions is verified by example.

  10. Humidity Dependence of Charge Transport through DNA Revealed by Silicon-Based Nanotweezers Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamahata, Christophe; Collard, Dominique; Takekawa, Tetsuya; Kumemura, Momoko; Hashiguchi, Gen; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The study of the electrical properties of DNA has aroused increasing interest since the last decade. So far, controversial arguments have been put forward to explain the electrical charge transport through DNA. Our experiments on DNA bundles manipulated with silicon-based actuated tweezers demonstrate undoubtedly that humidity is the main factor affecting the electrical conduction in DNA. We explain the quasi-Ohmic behavior of DNA and the exponential dependence of its conductivity with relati...

  11. Chromosomal manipulation by site-specific recombinases and fluorescent protein-based vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Uemura

    Full Text Available Feasibility of chromosomal manipulation in mammalian cells was first reported 15 years ago. Although this technique is useful for precise understanding of gene regulation in the chromosomal context, a limited number of laboratories have used it in actual practice because of associated technical difficulties. To overcome the practical hurdles, we developed a Cre-mediated chromosomal recombination system using fluorescent proteins and various site-specific recombinases. These techniques enabled quick construction of targeting vectors, easy identification of chromosome-rearranged cells, and rearrangement leaving minimum artificial elements at junctions. Applying this system to a human cell line, we successfully recapitulated two types of pathogenic chromosomal translocations in human diseases: MYC/IgH and BCR/ABL1. By inducing recombination between two loxP sites targeted into the same chromosome, we could mark cells harboring deletion or duplication of the inter-loxP segments with different colors of fluorescence. In addition, we demonstrated that the intrachromosomal recombination frequency is inversely proportional to the distance between two recombination sites, implicating a future application of this frequency as a proximity sensor. Our method of chromosomal manipulation can be employed for particular cell types in which gene targeting is possible (e.g. embryonic stem cells. Experimental use of this system would open up new horizons in genome biology, including the establishment of cellular and animal models of diseases caused by translocations and copy-number variations.

  12. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Progress report, [March 15, 1989--April 14, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of the gene that encodes for ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, a key regulatory enzyme of starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. During the last two years we have obtained information on the structure of this enzyme from both potato tuber and rice endosperm, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, we present evidence that this enzyme may be localized at discrete regions of the starch grain within the amyloplast, and plays a role in controlling overall starch biosynthesis in potato tubers.

  13. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Tao Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain.

  14. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  15. Quantifying molecule-surface interactions using AFM-based single-molecule manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, F. S.; Wagner, C.; Temirov, R.; Fournier, N.; Green, M.; Esat, T.; Leinen, P.; Groetsch, A.; Ruiz, V. G.; Tkatchenko, A.; Li, C.; Muellen, K.; Rohlfing, M.

    2015-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy plays an important role in the investigation of molecular adsorption. Promising, is the possibility to probe the molecule-surface interaction while tuning its strength through AFM tip-induced single-molecule manipulation. Here, we outline a strategy to achieve quantitative understanding of such manipulation experiments. The example of qPlus sensor based PTCDA molecule lifting experiments is used to demonstrate how different aspects of the molecule-surface interaction, namely the short-range adsorption potential, the asymptotic van der Waals potential, local chemical bonds which are the source of the surface corrugation, and molecule-molecule interactions can be measured with SPM and interpreted by the help of force-field simulations.

  16. Neuro-fuzzy and model-based motion control for mobile manipulator among dynamic obstacles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on autonomous motion control of a nonholonomic platform with a robotic arm, which is called mobile manipulator. It serves in transportation of loads in imperfectly known industrial environments with unknown dynamic obstacles. A union of both procedures is used to solve the general problems of collision-free motion. The problem of collision-free motion for mobile manipulators has been approached from two directions, Planning and Reactive Control. The dynamic path planning can be used to solve the problem of locomotion of mobile platform, and reactive approaches can be employed to solve the motion planning of the arm. The execution can generate the commands for the servo-systems of the robot so as to follow a given nominal trajectory while reacting in real-time to unexpected events. The execution can be designed as an Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Controller. In real world systems, sensor-based motion control becomes essential to deal with model uncertainties and unexpected obstacles.

  17. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Summary of progress, [April 15, 1991--April 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1992-12-31

    The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of genes encoding enzymes that may be rate-limiting in starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. In view of the regulatory role of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in starch biosynthesis at both the genetic and biochemical level, we have focused our attention on the genes that encode for this enzyme in potato tubers. The proposed objectives of the grant were to (1) analyze the structure of the tuber enzyme, (2) isolate and characterize the structure of its genes, and (3) identify the regulatory elements controlling ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase during plant development. During the last two and 1/2 years we have met or have made considerable progress in achieving these objectives as discussed in more detail below.

  18. xdamp Version 4: An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(regsign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(regsign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(regsign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(regsign) workstations, Microsoft(regsign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macintosh(regsign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(regsign) and Alpha(regsign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM Unix platforms; DEC Alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC(trademark) versions. Version 4 is an update that removes some obsolete features and better supports very large arrays and Excel formatted data import

  19. Manipulation of Original Ideology Through Translation: A Discourse-Based Translation Quality Assessment of Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khorsand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is on speeches in literary discourse as the superb ideological displays of propaganda as well as their translations for having an enormous capacity for ideological manipulation. In this paper, the only present English-Azarbaijani Turkish translation of Squealer’s speech from Orwell’s Animal Farm was discoursally analyzed based on House’s revised translation quality assessment (TQA model. According to this model, speeches as propaganda in literary texts must be translated overtly to meet the standards of an adequate translation. Of the main criteria of an overt translation are co-activating the original discourse world and being equivalent at the levels of text, register, and genre. With respect to covertly and overtly erroneous errors, the findings of the study demonstrated that enormous ideological distortions and manipulation were carried out in the Turkish translation. Therefore, the translation was a covert and inadequate one. Moreover, the social effect the source and target texts’ readerships receive would be radically different from each other. Finally, some implications and suggestions for further studies were proposed.Keywords: Ideology, Manipulation, Squealer’s speech, Discourse analysis, House’s revisited TQA model

  20. xdamp Version 2: An IDL{reg_sign}-based data manipulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Simulation Technology Research Dept.

    1996-12-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of UNIX{reg_sign}-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL{reg_sign} software, available from Research Systems Incorporated in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP.IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of UNIX platforms such as IBM{reg_sign} workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN{reg_sign} workstations, Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh{reg_sign} computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS{reg_sign} systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. The authors have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on IBM PC computers using Windows, Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM UNIX platforms; DEC Alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC{trademark} versions. Version 2 updates xdamp to require IDL version 4.0.1, adds many enhancements, and fixes a number of bugs.

  1. xdamp Version 6 : an IDL-based data and image manipulation program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sign) Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh(reg sign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg sign) and Alpha(reg sign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 7 and Windows Vista; Unix platforms; and Macintosh computers. Version 6 is an update that uses the IDL Virtual Machine to resolve the need for licensing IDL.

  2. Interactive sculpting of product shape based on constraint manipulation in virtual environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-yu; TAN Jian-rong

    2005-01-01

    In product concept design, not only designers with professional CAD skills, but also final customers take part in the design and evaluation of product shape styling. Because customers usually lack surface modelling background and are not familiar with concrete operations of commercial CAD systems, it is difficult for them to express their change intentions of product shape through professional CAD tools if they are not satisfied with the current shape design. This paper puts forward a method for creating, dragging and manipulating constraint and load represented in form of icon entity in interactive sculpting of product shape in virtual environment. The method supports customers manipulation of sculpting constraints or loads on sculpting shapes in virtual reality interaction to control the deformation of product shape. Constraints management based on icon entity is similar to spline lofting operation that is familiar to engineers, so users do not need to know surface details or have any professional knowledge of surface modelling, by only using their physical and engineering experience, they can manipulate the sculpting of product shape intuitively.

  3. xdamp Version 4 An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    CERN Document Server

    William-Ballar, P

    2002-01-01

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sub s ign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sub s ign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sub s ign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sub s ign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sub s ign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macinto...

  4. Genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus and functional analysis of DNA repair genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Changyi; Tian, Bin; Li, Suming;

    2013-01-01

    enzymes already impaired cell growth, highlighting their important roles in archaeal DNA repair. Systematically characterizing these mutants and generating mutants lacking two or more DNA repair genes will yield further insights into the genetic mechanisms of DNA repair in this model organism.......Recently, a novel gene-deletion method was developed for the crenarchaeal model Sulfolobus islandicus, which is a suitable tool for addressing gene essentiality in depth. Using this technique, we have investigated functions of putative DNA repair genes by constructing deletion mutants and studying...... their phenotype. We found that this archaeon may not encode a eukarya-type of NER (nucleotide excision repair) pathway because depleting each of the eukaryal NER homologues XPD, XPB and XPF did not impair the DNA repair capacity in their mutants. However, among seven homologous recombination proteins...

  5. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  6. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1999-04-01

    Part 1 of this research focuses on patterns of gene expression of ADPG-pyrophosphorylase in native and transgenic potato plants. To elucidate the mechanism controlling AGP expression during plant development, the expression of the potato tuber AGP small subunit (sAGP) gene was analyzed in transgenic potato plants using a promoter-{beta}-glucuronidase expression system. Part II evaluated the structure-function relationships of AGP.

  7. Interactive Web-based e-learning for Studying Flexible Manipulator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul K. M. Azad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper presents a web-based e-leaning facility for simulation, modeling, and control of flexible manipulator systems. The simulation and modeling part includes finite difference and finite element simulations along with neural network and genetic algorithm based modeling strategies for flexible manipulator systems. The controller part constitutes a number of open-loop and closed-loop designs. Closed loop control designs include the classical, adaptive, and neuro-model based strategies. Matlab software package and its associated toolboxes are used to implement these. The Matlab web server is used as the gateway between the facility and web-access. ASP.NET technology and SQL database are utilized to develop web applications for access control, user account and password maintenance, administrative management, and facility utilization monitoring. The reported facility provides a flexible but effective approach of web-based interactive e-learning facility of an engineering system. This can be extended to incorporate additional engineering systems within the e-learning framework.

  8. Novel integrated optimization algorithm for trajectory planning of robot manipulators based on integrated evolutionary programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong LUO; Xiaoping FAN; Heng ZHANG; Tefang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Optimal trajectory planning for robot manipulators plays an important role in implementing the high productivity for robots.The performance indexes used in optimal trajectory planning are classified into two main categories:optimum traveling time and optimum mechanical energy of the actuators.The current trajectory planning algorithms are designed based on one of the above two performance indexes.So far,there have been few planning algorithms designed to satisfy two performance indexes simultaneously.On the other hand,some deficiencies arise in the existing integrated optimization algorithms of trajectory planning.In order to overcome those deficiencies,the integrated optimization algorithms of trajectory planning are presented based on the complete analysis for trajectory planning of robot manipulators.In the algorithm,two object functions are designed based on the specific weight coefficient method and "ideal point" strategy.Moreover,based on the features of optimization problem,the intensified evolutionary programming is proposed to solve the corresponding optimization model.Especially,for the Stanford Robot,the high-quality solutions are found at a lower cost.

  9. Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

  10. Alternative splicing: an important mechanism for myometrial gene regulation that can be manipulated to target specific genes associated with preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson-Capper Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable effort has been expended in attempting to distinguish genes that contribute to initiating the onset of term and preterm labour (PTL from those that change in expression as a consequence of the progression of labour. The ability to define more clearly the genes involved in triggering labour contractions should lead to the development of new effective and safer strategies to prevent preterm birth. There is ample evidence to suggest that specific genes are co-ordinately regulated within the upper and lower regions of the myometrium prior to and during parturition and many of these genes are regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mini-review highlights that expression of a range of different splicing factors, with defined roles in pre-mRNA splicing, is both temporally and spatially regulated within the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy and labour. Moreover, several of these splicing factors play key roles in controlling the differential expression of specific regulatory proteins involved in uterine signalling and uterine quiescence. In addition, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing may have potential in defining and targeting uterine pro-labour genes and thus contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent PTL.

  11. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  12. Study of Web-based integration of pneumatic manipulator and its vision positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-zhao; WU Chuan-yu; HU Xu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Pneumatic driven system is widely used in industrial automation, mainly for relatively simple tasks with open-loop control. Because of the pneumatic system's compressibility and few stop positions, it was considered hard to control in a precise motion control system. With the help of newly developed pneumatic servo control technology, using servo-pneumatic positioning controller now is just as easy as using electro-servo system. This article discusses Web-based servo-pneumatic manipulator control and object recognition and positioning. The authors built a three-degrees-of-freedom (3 DOF) pneumatic manipulator with a servo-pneumatic closed-loop control system and machine vision system in their lab. Web-based tele-operation was a basic ability in this experimental system. After installing a CCD camera, video capture card, and related software developed by the authors, the robot could recognize the user specified object through the Web page and find its position. The remote user could command the robot to move to the position and to grab the object. The critical issues of Web-based control are to integrate hybrid open-architecture mechatronic system through the Web and develop a software language environment characterized by the script.The authors' experiment showed that pneumatic devices could serve as accurate position control and be controlled through the Web.

  13. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert;

    2013-01-01

    and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal...

  14. Neuroendocrine-Based Cooperative Intelligent Control System for Multiobjective Integrated Control of a Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongbin Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel multiloop and Multi-objective cooperative intelligent control system (MMCICS used to improve the performance of position, velocity and acceleration integrated control on a complex multichannel plant. Based on regulation mechanism of the neuroendocrine system (NES, a bioinspired motion control approach has been used in the MMCICS which includes four cooperative units. The planning unit outputs the desired signals. The selection unit chooses the real-time dominant control mode. The coordination unit uses the velocity Jacobian matrix to regulate the cooperative control signals. The execution unit achieves the ultimate task based on sub-channel controllers with the proposed hormone regulation self-adaptive Modules (HRSMs. Parameter tuning is given to facilitate the MMCICS implementation. The MMCICS is applied to an actual 2-DOF redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new control system is demonstrated. The MMCICS keeps its subchannels interacting harmoniously and systematically. Therefore, the plant has fast response, smooth velocity, accurate position, strong self-adaptability, and high stability. The HRSM improves the control performance of the local controllers and the global system as well, especially for manipulators running at high velocities and accelerations.

  15. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  16. A hybrid biogeography-based optimization method for the inverse kinematics problem of an 8-DOF redundant humanoid manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-wu REN; Zhen-hua WANG; Li-ning SUN

    2015-01-01

    The redundant humanoid manipulator has characteristics of multiple degrees of freedom and complex joint structure, and it is not easy to obtain its inverse kinematics solution. The inverse kinematics problem of a humanoid manipulator can be formulated as an equivalent minimization problem, and thus it can be solved using some numerical optimization methods. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is a new biogeography inspired optimization algorithm, and it can be adopted to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a humanoid manipulator. The standard BBO algorithm that uses traditional migration and mutation operators suffers from slow convergence and prematurity. A hybrid biogeography-based optimization (HBBO) algorithm, which is based on BBO and differential evolution (DE), is presented. In this hybrid algorithm, new habitats in the ecosystem are produced through a hybrid migration operator, that is, the BBO migration strategy and DE/best/1/bin differential strategy, to alleviate slow convergence at the later evolution stage of the algorithm. In addition, a Gaussian mutation operator is adopted to enhance the exploration ability and improve the diversity of the population. Based on these, an 8-DOF (degree of freedom) redundant humanoid manipulator is employed as an example. The end-effector error (position and orientation) and the‘away limitation level’ value of the 8-DOF humanoid manipulator constitute the fi tness function of HBBO. The proposed HBBO algorithm has been used to solve the inverse kinematics problem of the 8-DOF redundant humanoid manipulator. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  17. Research on the Influence of Accountants’ Human Capital Factors on Profit Manipulation Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinqiu Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of the influence of human factors on the profit manipulation. Literature review indicated that although earning management and profit manipulation has been discussed in previous study, little study has done in the investigation of the influence of human factors. To address this issue, this study has developed a new analysis model based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to assess the influence of human factors on profit manipulation. The innovation lies in that the education level of the accountants, the accountant number and the gender of the executors have been analyzed using the DEA to determine their influence on the profit manipulation. Empirical analysis has been carried out by the use of historical data of Hangzhou City, China. The DEA analysis results show that the profit manipulation is influenced significantly by the factors of the education level and number of the accountants. Hence, to constrain the illegal profit manipulation, it is essential to improve the education level of the accountants and control their number. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the earning management and can be referred in the profit manipulation control.

  18. Fault tolerant motion planning based on joint torque limit for redundant manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    First, two fault tolerant planning algorithms with avoidance of joint static torque limit or joint dynamic torque limit are proposed respectively. The former is suitable for the low-speed manipulators, and the latter is suitable for the high-speed manipulators. These algorithms not only can insure manipulation tasks to lie within the fault tolerant workspace but also can avoid joint torque limit, and hence can insure a redundant manipulator to be fault tolerant in both kinematical sense and dynamic sense. Then, the simulation examples for a planar 3R manipulator demonstrate the validity of these algorithms.

  19. Vibrating Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Yi-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ As a manipulation with unique therapeutic effect in TCM Tuina manipulations, Vibrating manipulation has significantly stronger effection on viscera, blood vessel, smooth muscle and gland secretion than other Tuina manipulations and it is mainly used in internal medicine, gynecology and miscellaneous diseases.

  20. Image-Based Visual Servoing for Manipulation Via Predictive Control – A Survey of Some Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Lazăr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of predictive control algorithms developed by the authors for visual servoing of robots in manipulation applications is presented. Using these algorithms, a control predictive framework was created for image-based visual servoing (IBVS systems. Firstly, considering the point features, in the year 2008 we introduced an internal model predictor based on the interaction matrix. Secondly, distinctly from the set-point trajectory, we introduced in 2011 the reference trajectory using the concept from predictive control. Finally, minimizing a sum of squares of predicted errors, the optimal input trajectory was obtained. The new concept of predictive control for IBVS systems was employed to develop a cascade structure for motion control of robot arms. Simulation results obtained with a simulator for predictive IBVS systems are also presented.

  1. Fuzzy Saturated Output Feedback Tracking Control for Robot Manipulators: A Singular Perturbation Theory Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of the output feedback tracking (OFT control with bounded torque inputs of robot manipulators, we propose a generalized fuzzy saturated OFT controller based on singular perturbation theory. First, considering the fact that the output toque of joint actuators is limited, a general expression for a class of saturation functions is given to be applied in the control law. Second, to carry out the whole closed‐loop control with only position measurements, linear and nonlinear filters are optionally involved to generate a pseudo signal to surrogate the actual velocity tracking error. As a third contribution, a fuzzy regulator is added to obtain a self‐tuning performance in tackling the disturbances. Moreover, an explicit but strict stability proof of the system based on the stability theory of singularly perturbed systems is presented. Finally, numerical simulations on several sample controllers are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Fuzzy force control of constrained robot manipulators based on impedance model in an unknown environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyi; WANG Lei; WANG Fei

    2007-01-01

    To precisely implement the force control of robot manipulators in an unknown environment,a control strategy based on fuzzy prediction of the reference trajectory in the impedance model is developed.The force tracking experiments are executed in an open-architecture control system with different tracking velocities,different desired forces,different contact stiffnesses and different surface figurations.The corresponding force control results are compared and analyzed.The influences of unknown parameters of the environment on the contact force are analyzed based on experimental data,and the tunings of predictive scale factors are illustrated.The experimental results show that the desired trajectory in the impedance model is predicted exactly and rapidly in the cases that the contact surface is unknown,the contact stiffness changes,and the fuzzy force control algorithm has high adaptability to the unknown environment.

  3. Micro magnetofluidics: droplet manipulation of double emulsions based on paramagnetic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuk, Viktor; Mai, Andreas; Giannopoulos, Konstantinos; Alobaid, Falah; Epple, Bernd; Loewe, Holger

    2013-12-01

    The ability to control and manipulate discrete fluid droplets by magnetic fields offers new opportunities in microfluidics. A surfactant-free and easy to realize technique for the continuous generation of double emulsion droplets, composed of an organic solvent and a paramagnetic ionic liquid, is applied. The inner phase of the emulsion droplet consists of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with either iron, manganese, nickel or dysprosium containing anions which provide paramagnetic behaviour. The double emulsion droplets are dispersed in a continuous phase of FC-40. All substances - the organic phase, the paramagnetic ionic liquid and the continuous phase -are immiscible. The magnetic properties of ionic liquids allow, through the influence of external magnetic fields, the manipulation of individual emulsion droplets such as capture and release, rotation and distortion. Arrays of magnets allow a coalescence of emulsion droplets and their subsequent mixing by flowing through an alternating permanent magnetic field. In addition, the double emulsion droplets can be split and reunified, or continuously separated into their original phases. PMID:24108233

  4. A Wearable-based and Markerless Human-manipulator Interface with Feedback Mechanism and Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a novel human-manipulator interface which incorporates wearable-based and markerless tracking to interact with the continuous movements of a human operator’s hand. Unlike traditional approaches, which usually include contacting devices or physical markers to track the human-limb movements, this interface enables registration of natural movement through a wireless wearable watch and a leap motion sensor. Due to sensor error and tracking failure, the measurements are not made with sufficient accuracy. Two Kalman filters are employed to compensate the noisy and incomplete measurements in real time. Furthermore, due to perceptive limitations and abnormal state signals, the operator is unable to achieve high precision and efficiency in robot manipulation; an adaptive multispace transformation method (AMT is therefore introduced, which serves as a secondary treatment. In addition, in order to allow two-way human-robot interaction, the proposed method provides a vibration feedback mechanism triggered by the wearable watch to call the operator’s attention to robot collision incidents or moments where the operator’s hand is in a transboundary state. This improves teleoperation.

  5. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  6. Introduction to Gene Editing and Manipulation Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Martin; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, the prospect of introducing mutations or exogenous DNA sequences at precise locations in the genomes of plants and animals was difficult, if not impossible. This rapidly changed with the demonstration that the type II CRISPR-Cas complex, a bacterial anti-viral surveillance system, could be engineered into a simple and robust platform for introducing double-stranded DNA breaks at nearly any position of plant and animal genomes. The prospect of efficiently creating tailored changes to a gene of interest is revolutionizing biomedical research, allowing exciting new questions to be asked. This overview introduces CRISPR-Cas technology as a tool for molecular biology and briefly discusses the advantages of this method over earlier techniques, as well as unique opportunities to create new avenues of research. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27366890

  7. Improvement of clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus by genetic manipulation of structural biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-06-01

    To enhance clavulanic acid production, four structural clavulanic acid biosynthesis genes, carboxyethylarginine synthase (ceas2), β-lactam synthetase (bls2), clavaminate synthase (cas2) and proclavaminate amidinohydrolase (pah2), were amplified from Streptomyces clavuligerus genomic DNA. They were cloned in the pSET152 integration and pIBR25 expression vectors containing the strong ermE* promoter to generate pHN18 and pHN19, respectively, and both plasmids were introduced into S. clavuligerus by protoplast transformation. Clavulanic acid production was increased by 8.7-fold (to ~310 mg/l) in integrative pHN18 transformants and by 5.1-fold in pHN19 transformants compared to controls. Transcriptional analyses showed that the expression levels of ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 were markedly increased in both transformants as compared with wild-type. The elevation of the ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 transcripts was consistent with the enhanced production of clavulanic acid.

  8. Broadband Metamaterial Reflectors for Polarization Manipulation Based on Cross/Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We presented the investigation of broadband metamaterial reflector for polarization manipulation based on cross/ring resonators. It is demonstrated that the meta¬material reflector can convert the linearly polarized inci¬dent wave to its cross polarized wave or circularly polar¬ized wave. Due to the multiple resonances at neighboring frequencies, the proposed reflector presents broadband property and high efficiency. The measured fraction band¬width of cross polarization conversion is 55.5% with effi¬ciency higher than 80%. Furthermore, a broadband circu¬lar polarizer is designed by adjusting the dimension para¬meters and the measured fraction bandwidth exceeds 30%.

  9. A gas bubble-based parallel micro manipulator : conceptual design and kinematics model.

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wei; Gauthier, Michaël; Lenders, Cyrille; Lambert, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The parallel mechanism has become an alternative solution when micro manipulators are demanded in the fields of micro manipulation and micro assembly. In this paper, a three-Degree-Of-Freedom (3-DOF) parallel micro manipulator is presented, which is directly driven by three micro gas bubbles. Since the micro gas bubbles are generated and maintained due to the surface tension between the gas and liquid media, the proposed novel system can be used in the liquid environment which allows for rota...

  10. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction-based gene removal from plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Krishnamurthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains supplementary figures and methods to the research article entitled, “Multiplex gene removal by two-step polymerase chain reactions” (Krishnamurthy et al., Anal. Biochem., 2015, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.03.033, which presents a restriction-enzyme free method to remove multiple DNA segments from plasmids. Restriction-free cloning methods have dramatically improved the flexibility and speed of genetic manipulation compared to conventional assays based on restriction enzyme digestion (Lale and Valla, 2014. DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods, vol. 1116. Here, we show the basic scheme and characterize the success rate for single and multiplex gene removal from plasmids. In addition, we optimize experimental conditions, including the amount of template, multiple primers mixing, and buffers for DpnI treatment, used in the one-pot reaction for multiplex gene removal.

  12. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. submitted) once the sample has been positioned in all DOFs. The clamping force is generated by a rotational electrostatic comb-drive actuator and can be latched passively by a parallel plate type electrostatically driven locking device. The clamp design is based on the principles of exact constraint design, resulting in a high actuation compliance (flexibility) combined with a high suspension stiffness. Therefore, a relatively large blocking force of 1.4 mN in relation to the used area of 1.8 mm2 is obtained. The fabrication is based on silicon bulk micromachining technology and combines a high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), conformal deposition of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride and an anisotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) backside etching technology. Special attention is given to void reduction of SixNy trench isolation and reduction of heating phenomena during front-side release etching. Guidelines are given for the applied process. Measurements showed that the clamp was able to fix, hold and release a test actuator. The dynamic behavior was in good agreement with the modal analysis

  13. Cable-based parallel manipulator for rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Wilgo Moreira; Rodrigues, Lucas Antônio Oliveira; Oliveira, Lucas Paiva; Ribeiro, José Francisco; Carvalho, João Carlos Mendes; Gonçalves, Rogério Sales

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a cable-based system is presented for rehabilitation of the shoulder and elbow movements. Cable-based manipulators have very good kinematic and dynamic characteristics, and they also show other properties such as: transportability and low-cost construction, which make them also suitable for medical applications and rehabilitation. The general robotics structure consists of four cables that allow the movement of vertical flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and horizontal flexion-extension with different limits of movement and speed of the shoulder. The structure can also perform the elbow movements of the flexion-extension. The development of this robotic device is justified by the large number of people with upper limb problems. These problems are due of stroke, polio, arthritis, recovery after accidents or trauma and can be applied to movements of physical therapy. The kinematics model of cable-based parallel robots is obtained similarly to the model obtained from traditional parallel structures. The graphical simulations of the cable-based parallel structure for rehabilitation of the movements of the human arm are presented showing the viability of the proposed structure. Finally preliminary experimental tests are presented. PMID:22275699

  14. Experimental investigations of sensor-based surface following tasks by a mobile manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.; Baker, J.E.; Pin, F.G.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses experimental investigations of the feasibility and requirements of simultaneous external-sensor-based-control of the wheeled platform and the manipulator of a mobile robot. The experiments involve 3-D arbitrary surface following by the manipulator while the platform moves along a predefined trajectory. A variety of concave and convex surfaces were used in the experiments, during which target and measured values of the platform and arm positions and orientations, together with the surface absolute location and normal estimates, were logged at 10 Hz. For all experiments, the data logs showed significant noise, at high frequency, in the calculated surface normal values despite smooth tracking of their target values by the arm and the platform, with typical closed loop delays between target and achieved values of the order of 100 msec. This high-frequency noise in the calculated values is conjectured to result mainly from the arm`s transmission cables compliance and backlash in the spherical wrist gears. On the other hand, the end-effector distance to the surface showed some low frequency errors of the order of {plus_minus}20%The two major sources of these low frequency errors appeared to reside respectively in the low values of the velocity bound and gain parameters utilized to filter the high frequency noise in the calculated normal values prior to using them as input to the arm control, and in the rolling contact of the platform`s rubber-coated wheels on the ground where significant errors in the platform`s positions and orientations can accumulate.

  15. Rod-based Fabrication of Customizable Soft Robotic Pneumatic Gripper Devices for Delicate Tissue Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jin-Huat; Yeow, Chen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber. This protocol eliminates the risk of channels occluding during the sealing process and the need for external air source or related control circuit. The soft gripper consists of a chamber filled with air, and one or more gripper arms with a pneumatic channel in each arm connected to the chamber. The pneumatic channel is positioned close to the outer wall to create different stiffness in the gripper arm. Upon compression of the chamber which generates pressure on the pneumatic channel, the gripper arm will bend inward to form a close grip posture because the outer wall area is more compliant. The soft gripper can be inserted into a 3D-printed handling tool with two different control modes for chamber compression: manual gripper mode with a movable piston, and robotic gripper mode with a linear actuator. The double-arm gripper with two actuatable arms was able to pick up objects of sizes up to 2 mm and yet generate lower compressive forces as compared to elastomer-coated and non-coated rigid grippers. The feasibility of having other designs, such as single-arm or hook gripper, was also demonstrated, which further highlighted the customizability of the soft gripper device, and it's potential to be used in delicate surgical manipulation to reduce the risk of tissue grip damage. PMID:27584722

  16. Robust motion control of oscillatory-base manipulators h∞-control and sliding-mode-control-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with alternative robust approaches to control design for an important class of systems characteristically associated with ocean-going vessels and structures. These systems, which include crane vessels, on-board cranes, radar gimbals, and a conductivity temperature and depth winch, are modelled as manipulators with oscillating bases. One design approach is based on the H-infinity control framework exploiting an effective combination of PD control, an extended matrix polytope and a robust stability analysis method with a state-dependent coefficient form. The other is based on sliding-mode control using some novel nonlinear sliding surfaces. The model demonstrates how successful motion control can be achieved by suppressing base oscillations and in the presence of uncertainties. This is important not only for ocean engineering systems in which the problems addressed here originate but more generally as a benchmark platform for robust motion control with disturbance rejection. Researche...

  17. Diurnal profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression with photoperiod manipulation in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Claire; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Ross, Alexander W; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2008-04-01

    Hypothalamic energy balance genes have been examined in the context of seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster. Most of these long photoperiod (LD)/short photoperiod (SD) comparisons have been of tissues collected at a single point in the light-dark cycle. We examined the diurnal expression profile of hypothalamic genes in hamsters killed at 3-h intervals throughout the light-dark cycle after housing in LD or SD for 12 wk. Gene expression of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, proopiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, long-form leptin receptor, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, and the clock gene Per1 as control were measured by in situ hybridization in hypothalamic nuclei. Effects of photoperiod on gene expression and leptin levels were generally consistent with previous reports. A clear diurnal variation was observed for Per1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both photoperiods. Temporal effects on expression of energy balance genes were restricted to long-form leptin receptor in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus, where similar diurnal expression profiles were observed, and melanocortin-4 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus; these effects were only observed in LD hamsters. There was no variation in serum leptin concentration. The 24-h profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression broadly confirm photoperiodic differences that were observed previously, based on single time point comparisons, support the growing consensus that these genes have a limited role in seasonal body weight regulation, and further suggest limited involvement in daily rhythms of food intake.

  18. Research on critical technology of micro/nano bioparticles manipulation platform based on light-induced dielectrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the research on the status and problems of micro/nano bio-particles manipulation using dielectrophoresis, the theoretical basis and the model simulation of micro/nano bio-particles manipu-lation using light-induced dielectrophoresis were discussed. The space distribution of electric field and dielectrophoresis forces in different heights were also obtained. On this basis, the core component of the micro manipulation system, that is, photoconductive layer of the chip, was completed in the mate-rial selection, fabricating process and performance analysis testing. Then the voltage drop of the sus-pension and the effective voltage frequency spectrum were obtained. Finally, by combining the machine vision detection with real-time tracking system, the micro/nano bio-particles manipulation platform based on the light-induced dielectrophoreisis was established, and then the manipulations for micro/nano bio-particles, such as quick collection, transport, separation, were implemented. This provided a basis for rapid, accurate, and low-cost detection of serious diseases based on the micro-fluidic biochip and early diagnosis.

  19. Rolling Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; SHEN Wei-na

    2003-01-01

    @@ Rolling manipulation, one of the characteristic manipulations of traditional Chinese massage, is the main therapeutic manipulation of the rolling-Tuina massage school. It plays an important roll in basic technical teaching of Chinese massage and the clinical treatment. The original meaning of "Rolling" in an ancient Chinese book called Shuowenjiezi () is "turning". This manipulation, founded by Mr. DING Ji-feng, gives the patient a sensation of a ball rolling on the surface of the body. Besides, this manipulation should be performed by hands, so it is named "Rolling".

  20. Manipulative-semantic complications of utterance syntax based on the British parliamentary speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyubina Irina Anatolevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possible impact on the addressee by manipulating. The analysis was applied to the manipulative strategy of the syntax complexity by the targeted and motivated selection of the best linguistic units of semantic pragmatic content. The relevance of the parliamentary discourse study is dictated by the need to search the best ways of speech influence on the audience for the parliament members, on the one hand, and the need to understand the real intentions of the audience and latent methods of language manipulation, on the other hand. The purpose of this article is to consider and identify the peculiarities of the mechanism of linguistic manipulation in the parliamentary speeches of the UK at the syntactic level. The study analyses the texts of the parliamentary political discourse of Britain on the issues related to the situation in the Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it was found out that the most frequent are the following means of manipulation: repetition inside a statement, antithesis, anaphora, syntactic parallelism, ellipse, inversion, rhetorical question, graduation, anadiplosis and epiphora. The study of such a mechanism of manipulation with the help of linguistic means and understanding its laws are important because they help to avoid the psycho-technical effect of speech manipulation, aggression or even speech abuse.

  1. An integrated micro-manipulation and biosensing platform built in glass-based LTPS TFT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glass-based low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) process, widely known for making liquid crystal displays, is utilized in this work to realize a fully integrated, microbead-based micro-manipulation and biosensing platform. The operation utilizes arrays of microelectrodes made of transparent iridium tin oxide (ITO) to move the immobilized polystyrene microbeads to the sensor surface by dielectrophoresis (DEP). Detection of remaining microbeads after a specific antigen/antibody reaction is accomplished by photo-detectors under the transparent electrodes. It was found that microbeads can be driven successfully by the 30 × 30 µm2 microelectrodes separated by 10 µm with no more than 6 Vp–p, which is compatible with the operating range of thin-film transistors. Microbeads immobilized with antimouse immunoglobulin (IgG) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) antibody were successfully detected after specific binding, illustrating the potential of LTPS TFT microarrays for more versatile biosensing applications. (paper)

  2. Output tracking control of mobile manipulators based on dynamical sliding-mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuxiang; FENG Ying; HU Yueming

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical sliding-mode controller is devised to track the output of mobile manipulators. During the investi- gation, firstly a reduced dynamic model considering the dynamics of the driving motor is developed for mobile manipulators. Then, the system is decomposed into four lower-dimensional subsystems by means of diffeomorphism and nonlinear input transformation. Moreover, a design method of the dynamical sliding-mode controller that is applied to the output tracking of mobile manipulators is proposed. The simulation results indicate that the dynamical sliding-mode controller can not only track the given trajec- tory correctly but also reduce the chattering of sliding-mode control system considerably.

  3. Adaptive and robust algorithms and tests for visual-based navigation of a space robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Marco; Monti, Riccardo; Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.

    2013-02-01

    Optical navigation for guidance and control of robotic systems is a well-established technique from both theoretic and practical points of view. According to the positioning of the camera, the problem can be approached in two ways: the first one, "hand-in-eye", deals with a fixed camera, external to the robot, which allows to determine the position of the target object to be reached. The second one, "eye-in-hand", consists in a camera accommodated on the end-effector of the manipulator. Here, the target object position is not determined in an absolute reference frame, but with respect to the image plane of the mobile camera. In this paper, the algorithms and the test campaign applied to the case of the planar multibody manipulator developed in the Guidance and Navigation Lab at the University of Rome La Sapienza are reported with respect to the eye-in-hand case. In fact, being the space environment the target application for this research activity, it is quite difficult to imagine a fixed, non-floating camera in the case of an orbital grasping maneuver. The classic approach of Image Base Visual Servoing considers the evaluation of the control actions directly on the basis of the error between the current image of a feature and the image of the same feature in a final desired configuration. Both simulation and experimental tests show that such a classic approach can fail when navigation errors and actuation delays are included. Moreover, changing light conditions or the presence of unexpected obstacles can lead to a camera failure in target acquisition. In order to overcome these two problems, a Modified Image Based Visual Servoing algorithm and an Extended Kalman Filtering for feature position estimation are developed and applied. In particular, the filtering shows a quite good performance if target's depth information is supplied. A simple procedure for estimating initial target depth is therefore developed and tested. As a result of the application of all the

  4. New system for manipulation of nanoobjects based on composite Ti2NiCu/Pt nanotweezers with shape memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhikharev, A. M.; Irzhak, A. V.; Beresin, M. Y.; Lega, P. V.; Koledov, V. V.; Kasyanov, N. N.; Martynov, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the new system for manipulation of nanoobjects based on composite Ti2NiCu/Pt nanotweezers with shape memory effect. The design consists of the bimetallic Ti2NiCu/Pt shape memory nanotweezers placed on a tip of electrochemically etched tungsten needle. The semiconductor diode placed on the tip of the needle plays both role of resistive element of the heater and temperature sensor for feedback control loop closing. The device is compatible with existing positioning systems like OmniProbe®, Kleindiek®, etc. and may find numerous practical applications in various tasks of nanotechnology connected with 3D manipulation.

  5. Synthesis of a spatial 3-RPS parallel manipulator based on physical constraints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nalluri Mohan Rao

    2010-12-01

    The range of motion of the moving platform of a spatial 3-RPS parallel manipulator will be greatly influenced by the physical constraints such as limits on the lengths of the limbs and the range of motion of the spherical joints. Therefore, while synthesizing the parallel manipulator, the physical constraints have to be considered. Synthesis of the manipulator involves determination of the architectural parameters of the manipulator so that a point on the moving platform passes through a prescribed set of positions in space. This paper presents a synthesis procedure that determines location and direction of revolute joints and location of spherical joints along with orientation of sockets of spherical joints, considering the physical constraints. The synthesis procedure is demonstrated through a numerical example.

  6. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  7. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  8. Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

  9. Asymptotically-optimal path planning for manipulation using incremental sampling-based algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Alejandro Tomas; Karaman, Sertac; Shkolnik, Alexander C.; Frazzoli, Emilio; Teller, Seth; Walter, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    A desirable property of path planning for robotic manipulation is the ability to identify solutions in a sufficiently short amount of time to be usable. This is particularly challenging for the manipulation problem due to the need to plan over high-dimensional configuration spaces and to perform computationally expensive collision checking procedures. Consequently, existing planners take steps to achieve desired solution times at the cost of low quality solutions. This paper presents a planni...

  10. Graphene based spin-FET devices: Spin current manipulation through spatially modulated Rashba Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Diniz, Ginetom; Vernek, Edson; Macedo de Souza, Fabricio

    We have calculated the spin dependent conductance in a two-terminal device made of zigzag graphene nanoribbon in the presence of a spatially modulated Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The modulated Rashba SOC can be achieved by using local gates that generate strong localized electric fields perpendicular to the plane underneath. We have used the equilibrium surface Green's function technique in real space using tight-binding approximation in order to calculate the electronic transport. We demonstrate that by an appropriate architecture of the gate width, and tuning the strength and direction of the electric field in the gates is possible to effectively control the spin-charge current flow along the device. In addition, we also discuss the effect of uniaxial strain in the spin-resolved conductance profiles, which demonstrates to be an additional tool as an on-off electronic current flow switch. Our results suggest suitable application of graphene-based nanostructures in the spintronic field, using spatially modulated Rashba SOC, and uniaxial strains to effectively manipulate the spin-polarized current in nanoelectronic devices. Supported by CAPES, CNPq and FAPEMIG.

  11. Real Time Web-based Data Monitoring and Manipulation System to Improve Translational Research Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nwokejizie Anyanwu, Venkateswara Ra Nagisetty, Emin Kuscu, Teeradache Viangteeravat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet technology and web browser capabilities of the internethas provided researchers/scientists with many advantages, which includes butnot limited to ease of access, platform independence of computer systems,relatively low cost of web access etc. Hence online collaboration like socialnetworks and information/data exchange among individuals and organizationscan now be done seamlessly. In practice, many investigators rely heavily ondifferent data modalities for studying and analyzing their research/study and alsofor producing quality reports. The lack of coherency and inconsistencies in datasets can dramatically reduce the quality of research data. Thus to prevent loss ofdata quality and value and provide the needed functionality of data, we haveproposed a novel approach as an ad-hoc component for data monitoring andmanipulation called RTWebDMM (Real-Time Web-based Data Monitoring andManipulation system to improve the quality of translational research data. TheRTWebDMM is proposed as an auditor, monitor, and explorer for improving theway in which investigators access and interact with the data sets in real-timeusing a web browser. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluatedwith different data sets from various studies. It is demonstrated that the approachyields very promising results for data quality improvement while leveraging on aweb-enabled environment.

  12. Optimal design of a spherical parallel manipulator based on kinetostatic performance using evolutionary techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshmand, Morteza [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Saadatzi, Mohammad Hossein [Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States); Kaloorazi, Mohammad Hadi [École de Technologie Supérieur, Montréal (Canada); Masouleh, Mehdi Tale [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anbarjafari, Gholamreza [Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkmenistan)

    2016-03-15

    This study aims to provide an optimal design for a Spherical parallel manipulator (SPM), namely, the Agile Eye. This aim is approached by investigating kinetostatic performance and workspace and searching for the most promising design. Previously recommended designs are examined to determine whether they provide acceptable kinetostatic performance and workspace. Optimal designs are provided according to different kinetostatic performance indices, especially kinematic sensitivity. The optimization process is launched based on the concept of the genetic algorithm. A single-objective process is implemented in accordance with the guidelines of an evolutionary algorithm called differential evolution. A multi-objective procedure is then provided following the reasoning of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. This process results in several sets of Pareto points for reconciliation between kinetostatic performance indices and workspace. The concept of numerous kinetostatic performance indices and the results of optimization algorithms are elaborated. The conclusions provide hints on the provided set of designs and their credibility to provide a well-conditioned workspace and acceptable kinetostatic performance for the SPM under study, which can be well extended to other types of SPMs.

  13. Configuration-based optimization for six degree-of-freedom haptic rendering for fine manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangxiao Wang; Xin Zhang; Yuru Zhang; Jing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) haptic rendering for fine manipulation in narrow space is a challenging topic because of frequent constraint changes caused by small tool movement and the requirement to preserve the feel of fine-features of objects. In this paper, we introduce a configuration-based constrained optimization method for solving this rendering problem. We represent an object using a hierarchy of spheres, i.e., a sphere tree, which allows faster detection of multiple contacts/collisions among objects than polygonal mesh and facilitates contact constraint formulation. Given a moving graphic tool as the avatar of the haptic tool in the virtual environment, we compute its quasi-static motion by solving a configuration-based optimization. The constraints in the 6D configuration space of the graphic tool is obtained and updated through online mapping of the nonpenetration constraint between the spheres of the graphic tool and those of the other objects in the three-dimensional physical space, based on the result of collision detection. This problem is further modeled as a quadratic programming optimization and solved by the classic active-set methods. Our algorithm has been implemented and interfaced with a 6-DOF Phantom Premium 3.0. We demonstrate its performance in several benchmarks involving complex, multiregion contacts. The experimental results show both the high efficiency and stability of haptic rendering by our method for complex scenarios. Nonpenetration between the graphic tool and the object is maintained under frequent contact switches. Update rate of the simulation loop including optimization and constraint identification is maintained at about 1 kHz. PMID:24808301

  14. Inverse kinematics of a heavy duty manipulator with 6-DOF based on dual quaternion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒升; 占德友; 黄平伦; 陈伟锋

    2015-01-01

    An iterative method is introduced successfully to solve the inverse kinematics of a 6-DOF manipulator of a tunnel drilling rig based on dual quaternion, which is difficult to get the solution by Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) based methods. By the intuitive expression of dual quaternion to the orientation of rigid body, the coordinate frames assigned to each joint are established all in the same orientation, which does not need to use the D-H procedure. The compact and simple form of kinematic equations, consisting of position equations and orientation equations, is also the consequence of dual quaternion calculations. The iterative process is basically of two steps which are related to solving the position equations and orientation equations correspondingly. First, assume an initial value of the iterative variable; then, the position equations can be solved because of the reduced number of unknown variables in the position equations and the orientation equations can be solved by applying the solution from the position equations, which obtains an updated value for the iterative variable; finally, repeat the procedure by using the updated iterative variable to the position equations till the prescribed accuracy is obtained. The method proposed has a clear geometric meaning, and the algorithm is simple and direct. Simulation for 100 poses of the end frame shows that the average running time of inverse kinematics calculation for each demanded pose of end-effector is 7.2 ms on an ordinary laptop, which is good enough for practical use. The iteration counts 2−4 cycles generally, which is a quick convergence. The method proposed here has been successfully used in the project of automating a hydraulic rig.

  15. Kane Method Based Dynamics Modeling and Control Study for Space Manipulator Capturing a Space Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics modeling and control problem of a two-link manipulator mounted on a spacecraft (so-called carrier freely flying around a space target on earth’s circular orbit is studied in the paper. The influence of the carrier’s relative movement on its manipulator is considered in dynamics modeling; nevertheless, that of the manipulator on its carrier is neglected with the assumption that the mass and inertia moment of the manipulator is far less than that of the carrier. Meanwhile, we suppose that the attitude control system of the carrier guarantees its side on which the manipulator is mounted points accurately always the space target during approaching operation. The ideal constraint forces can be out of consideration in dynamics modeling as Kane method is used. The path functions of the manipulator’s end-effector approaching the space target as well as the manipulator’s joints control torque functions are programmed to meet the soft touch requirement that the end-effector’s relative velocity to the space target is zero at touch moment. Numerical simulation validation is conducted finally.

  16. Intelligent control of an IPMC actuated manipulator using emotional learning-based controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Azadeh; Meghdari, Ali; Shariati, Parham

    2008-08-01

    In this research an intelligent emotional learning controller, Takagi- Sugeno- Kang (TSK) is applied to govern the dynamics of a novel Ionic-Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuated manipulator. Ionic-Polymer Metal Composites are active actuators that show very large deformation in existence of low applied voltage. In this research, a new IPMC actuator is considered and applied to a 2-dof miniature manipulator. This manipulator is designed for miniature tasks. The control system consists of a set of neurofuzzy controller whose parameters are adapted according to the emotional learning rules, and a critic with task to assess the present situation resulted from the applied control action in terms of satisfactory achievement of the control goals and provides the emotional signal (the stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critic's stress decreased.

  17. Obstacle avoidance planning of space manipulator end-effector based on improved ant colony algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of aerospace engineering, the space on-orbit servicing has been brought more attention to many scholars. Obstacle avoidance planning of space manipulator end-effector also attracts increasing attention. This problem is complex due to the existence of obstacles. Therefore, it is essential to avoid obstacles in order to improve planning of space manipulator end-effector. In this paper, we proposed an improved ant colony algorithm to solve this problem, which is effective and simple. Firstly, the models were established respectively, including the kinematic model of space manipulator and expression of valid path in space environment. Secondly, we described an improved ant colony algorithm in detail, which can avoid trapping into local optimum. The search strategy, transfer rules, and pheromone update methods were all adjusted. Finally, the improved ant colony algorithm was compared with the classic ant colony algorithm through the experiments. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27186473

  18. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benpeng Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT, used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51 was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9, demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications.

  19. Minimum-acceleration Trajectory Optimization for Humanoid Manipulator Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Ziwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid manipulator produces significantly reactive forces against a humanoid body when it operates in a rapid and continuous reaction environment (e.g., playing baseball, ping-pong etc.. This not only disturbs the balance and stability of the humanoid robot, but also influences its operation precision. To solve this problem, a novel approach, which is able to generate a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration trajectory for the humanoid manipulator, is presented in this paper. By this method, the whole trajectory of humanoid manipulation is divided into two processes, i.e., the operation process and the return process. Moreover, the target operation point is considered as a particular point that should be passed through. As such, the trajectory of each process is described through a quartic polynomial in the joint space, after which the trajectory planning problem for the humanoid manipulator can be formulated as a global constrained optimization problem. In order to alleviate the reactive force, a fitness function that aims to minimize the maximum acceleration of each joint of the manipulator is defined, while differential evolution is employed to determine the joint accelerations of the target operation point. Thus, a trajectory with a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration profile is obtained, which can reduce the effect on the body and be favourable for the balance and stability of the humanoid robot to a certain extent. Finally, a humanoid robot with a 7-DOF manipulator for ping-pong playing is employed as an example. Simulation experiment results show the effectiveness of this method for the trajectory planning problem being studied.

  20. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  1. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  2. Predicting the Motion of a Robot Manipulator with Unknown Trajectories Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Hong Tang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematically, the motion of a robot manipulator can be computed through the integration of kinematics, dynamics, and trajectories calculations. However, the calculations are complex and only can be applied if the configuration of the robot and the characteristics of the joint trajectories are known. This paper introduces the use of artificial neural networks (ANN to overcome these shortcomings by solving nonlinear functions and adapting the characteristics of unknown trajectories. A virtual six-degree-of-freedom (DOF robot manipulator is exploited as an example to show the robustness of the developed ANN topology.

  3. MEMS based 6 degrees-of-freedom parallel kinematic precision micro manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, D.M.; Jong, de, B.R.; Soemers, H.M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A design is presented for a 6 Degree-of-freedom parallel kinematic precision micro manipulator comprising 3 translations of 20 μm stroke, and three small correction rotation strokes of 5°. The elastic deformations of the manipulator have been optimized for minimal elastic energy storage at a large guiding stiffness. The parallel kinematics facilitates 6 electrostatic lateral comb-drive actuators to be made in-plane of the wafer, using a mechanism to direct the motion to out-of-plane to obtain...

  4. Extended Model-Based Feedforward Compensation in L1 Adaptive Control for Mechanical Manipulators: Design and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussab eBennehar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new control scheme for Parallel Kinematic Manipulators (PKMs based on the L1 adaptive control theory. The original L1 adaptive controller is extended by including an adaptive loop based on the dynamics of the PKM. The additional model-based term is in charge of the compensation of the modeled nonlinear dynamics in the aim of improving the tracking performance. Moreover, the proposed controller is enhanced to reduce the internal forces, which may appear in the case of Redundantly Actuated PKMs (RA-PKMs. The generated control inputs are first regulated through a projection mechanism that reduces the antagonistic internal forces, before being applied to the manipulator. To validate the proposed controller and to show its effectiveness, real-time experiments are conducted on a new four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOFs RA-PKM developed in our laboratory.

  5. A single vector-based strategy for marker-less gene replacement in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Stefania; Rühle, Thilo; Leister, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Background The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is widely used for research on photosynthesis and circadian rhythms, and also finds application in sustainable biotechnologies. Synechocystis is naturally transformable and undergoes homologous recombination, which enables the development of a variety of tools for genetic and genomic manipulations. To generate multiple gene deletions and/or replacements, marker-less manipulation methods based on counter-selection are generally employed....

  6. Study on optimum maneuverability in horizontal manipulation of objects with power-assist based on weight perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Mizanoor; Ikeura, Ryojun; Nobe, Masaya; Sawai, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 1-DOF (horizontal forward-backward translational motion) power assist system (PAS) for manipulating objects in horizontal direction based on human operator's perception of object weight. We adopt a hypothesis that pertains to human's weight perception. The hypothesis means that the human must consider the mass parameter for the inertial force different from the mass parameter for the gravitational force when programming (feedforward) the load force (tangential to grip surfaces) for manipulating an object with a PAS because the perception and the reality regarding the object weight are different in this case. We simulated the system using Matlab/Simulink. Five subjects manipulated objects of three different sizes with the PAS during the simulation. Subjects subjectively determined the optimum values for the mass parameters of the inertial and the gravitational force components. Optimum mass parameters resulted in optimum maneuverability. Finally, we proposed using the findings to develop humanfriendly PASs for manipulating heavy objects in industries such as manufacturing and assembly, mining, logistics and transport, construction, disaster management, military operations etc.

  7. Dynamic modeling of dual-arm cooperating manipulators based on Udwadia–Kalaba equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dual-arm cooperating manipulators subject to a certain constraint brought about by the desired trajectory and geometric constraint show high nonlinearity and coupling in their dynamic characteristic. Therefore, it is hard to build dynamical equation with traditional Lagrange equation. The Udwadia–Kalaba equation presents a new idea of dynamic modeling of multi-body systems. However, the dynamic modeling of the unconstrained systems still depends on the traditional Lagrange equation and is quite tedious for dual-arm cooperating manipulators. A generalized dynamical equation of multi-link planar manipulators is thus presented and proven to make modeling conveniently. The constraint relationship is established from a new perspective, and the dynamical equation of dual-arm cooperating manipulator subject to the desired trajectory is acquired with the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. The simple approach overcomes the disadvantage of obtaining dynamical equation from traditional Lagrange equation by Lagrange multiplier. The simulation results of varying law of the joint angles and the motion path of the bar prove that the dynamical equation established by this method conforms to reality.

  8. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  9. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Hester M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols, not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

  10. Ion Mobility Separations of Isomers based upon Long Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Aly, Noor A.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Xueyun; Garimella, Venkata BS; Webb, Ian K.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-07-07

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based multi-omic measurements, including proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and glycomics, are increasingly transforming our ability to characterize and understand biological systems, but, presently have limitations due to the chemical diversity and range of abundances of biomolecules in complex samples. Advances addressing these challenges increasingly are based upon the ability to quickly separate, react and otherwise manipulate sample components for analysis by MS. Here we report on a new approach using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) to enable long serpentine path ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations followed by MS analyses. This approach provides previously unachieved mobility biomolecule isomer separations for biomolecular species, in conjunction with more effective ion utilization, and producing a basis for the improved characterization of very small samples.

  11. Neural-network-based two-loop control of robotic manipulators including actuator dynamics in task space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyong WANG; Tianyou CHAI; Zheng FANG

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network-based motion controller in task space is presented in this paper. The proposed controller is addressed as a two-loop cascade control scheme. The outer loop is given by kinematic control in the task space. It provides a joint velocity reference signal to the inner one. The inner loop implements a velocity servo loop at the robot joint level. A radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with proportional-integral (PI) control to construct a velocity tracking control scheme for the inner loop. Finally, a prototype technology based control system is designed for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control scheme is applied to the robotic manipulator. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control scheme by comparing it with other control strategies.

  12. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McSweeney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  13. Manipulatives-Based Laboratory for Majors Biology – a Hands-On Approach to Understanding Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Boomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first course in our year-long introductory series for Biology majors encompasses four learning units: biological molecules and cells, metabolism, genetics, and evolution. Of these, the metabolism unit, which includes respiration and photosynthesis, has shown the lowest student exam scores, least interest, and lowest laboratory ratings. Consequently, we hypothesized that modeling metabolic processes in the laboratory would improve student content learning during this course unit. Specifically, we developed manipulatives-based laboratory exercises that combined paper cutouts, movable blocks, and large diagrams of the cell. In particular, our novel use of connecting LEGO blocks allowed students to move model electrons and phosphates between molecules and within defined spaces of the cell. We assessed student learning using both formal (content indicators and attitude surveys and informal (the identification of misconceptions or discussions with students approaches. On the metabolism unit content exam, student performance improved by 46% over pretest scores and by the end of the course, the majority of students rated metabolism as their most-improved (43% and favorite (33% subject as compared with other unit topics. The majority of students rated manipulatives-based labs as very helpful, as compared to non-manipulatives-based labs. In this report, we will demonstrate that students made learning gains across all content areas, but most notably in the unit that covered respiration and photosynthesis.

  14. Kneading Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the performance of rubbing manipulation, because of the fingers comparatively light vertical pressure and large-range circular movement, the palm and fingers cannot adhere to the patient's skin, and the relative friction movement.

  15. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  16. The Effects of a Grouping by Tens Manipulative on Children's Strategy Use, Base Ten Understanding and Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagar, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Manipulatives have the potential to be powerful tools in helping children improve their number sense, develop advanced mathematical strategies, and build an understanding of the base ten number system. Physical manipulatives used in classrooms, however, are often not designed to promote efficient strategy use, such as counting on, and typically do…

  17. Modulation of DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured sycamore cells treated by hypomethylating base analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T

    1990-12-12

    The selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in both the nuclear and plastid genomes of the nonphotosynthetic white wild-type cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) has been found to be inversely related to the presence of a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) and N6-methyladenine (N6-MeAde), localized in regions of the plastid genome containing silent genes. We used hypomethylating base analogs to manipulate the level of cytosine and adenine methylation in the white cells of sycamore, and examined the effects of changes in methylation on gene expression. Treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaCyd) and N6-benzyladenine (N6-BzlAde) decreased cytosine and adenine methylation. This was accompanied by restoration of transcriptional activity in photosynthetic genes which are usually suppressed. Both 5-MeCyt and N6-MeAde suppressed nuclear gene expression, but only 5-MeCyt suppressed plastid gene expression.

  18. Modulation of adrenal catecholamine secretion by in vivo gene transfer and manipulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Zincarelli, Carmela; Soltys, Stephen; Koch, Walter J

    2008-02-01

    We recently reported that the upregulation of adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) causes enhanced catecholamine (CA) secretion by desensitizing sympatho-inhibitory alpha (2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha (2)ARs) of chromaffin cells, and thereby aggravating heart failure (HF). In this study, we sought to develop an efficient and reproducible in vivo adrenal gene transfer method to determine whether manipulation of adrenal GRK2 levels/activity regulates physiological CA secretion in rats. We specifically investigated two different in vivo gene delivery methods: direct injection into the suprarenal glands, and retrograde delivery through the suprarenal veins. We delivered adenoviral (Ad) vectors containing either GRK2 or an inhibitor of GRK2 activity, the beta ARKct. We found both delivery approaches equally effective at supporting robust (>80% of the whole organ) and adrenal-restricted transgene expression, in the cortical region as well as in the medullar region. Additionally, rats with AdGRK2-infected adrenals exhibit enhanced plasma CA levels when compared with control rats (AdGFP-injected adrenals), whereas plasma CA levels after Ad beta ARKct infection were significantly lower. Finally, in isolated chromaffin cells, alpha (2)ARs of AdGRK2-infected cells failed to inhibit CA secretion whereas Ad beta ARKct-infected cells showed normal alpha (2)AR responsiveness. These results not only indicate that in vivo adrenal gene transfer is an effective way of manipulating adrenal gland signalling, but also identify GRK2 as a critically important molecule involved in CA secretion.

  19. Irreversible electrical manipulation of magnetization on BiFeO{sub 3}-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingyu, E-mail: xuqingyu@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: jdu@nju.edu.cn; Xu, Zhenyu [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); He, Maocheng; Du, Jun, E-mail: xuqingyu@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: jdu@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cao, Yanqiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-05-07

    We prepared several heterostructures, Co/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} on surface oxidized Si or (111) SrTiO{sub 3} and NiFe/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates using LaNiO{sub 3} as bottom electrode. With different strategies of voltage application, the exchange bias field H{sub E} decreased with increasing voltage irreversibly for all the heterostructures at room temperature. The chemical state at the NiFe/Bi{sub 0.90}La{sub 0.10}FeO{sub 3} interface was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after the electrical manipulation. The oxidization of the metallic ferromagnetic layer at interface after the electrical manipulation has been confirmed, which might explain the irreversibility.

  20. SIMULATION and ANALYSIS of PARALLEL MANIPULATOR for MANOEUVRING LAPAROSCOPIC CAMERA - CAD BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The inconvenience of laparoscopic operations lies mainly in the difficulties in mutual understanding between the surgeon and the camera assistant that manoeuvres the laparoscope camera according to the surgeon’s instructions .Another problem arises when the operation had to be performed for many hours.[1] In these cases the camera image tends to become unsteady due to fatigue of the camera assistant. The self-camera control, give more stability of the laparoscopic image, A robotic camera Assistant(parallel manipulator directly under surgeon’s control can help the surgeon control the view better.In this paper a parallel robot is simulated for the manipulation of laparoscopic camera and Two dimentional workspace generated is indicated and velocity ,acceleration ,displacement graphs are shown and analysis is done using ANSYS.

  1. Learning reaching strategies through reinforcement for a sensor-based manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, P; Millán, J del R

    1998-03-31

    This paper presents a neural controller that learns goal-oriented obstacle-avoiding reaction strategies for a multilink robot arm. It acquires these strategies on-line from local sensory data. The controller consists of two neural modules: an actor-critic module and a module for differential inverse kinematics (DIV). The input codification for the controller exploits the inherent symmetry of the robot arm kinematics. The actor-critic module generates actions with regard to the Shortest Path Vector (SPV) to the closest goal in the configuration space. However, the computation of the SPV is cumbersome for manipulators with more than two links. The DIV module aims to overcome the SPV calculation. This module provides a goal vector by means of the inversion of a neural network that has been trained previously to approximate the manipulator forward kinematics. Results for a two-link robot arm show that the combination of both modules speeds up the learning process. PMID:12662844

  2. Survey based investigation into general practitioner referral patterns for spinal manipulative therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Annabel; George, Matthew; McCarthy, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK Physiotherapy, Chiropractic and Osteopathy are all statutory regulated professions. Though guidelines have supported the use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT) for low back pain (LBP), General Practitioners (GP) referral patterns to the 3 registered professions that perform SMT are generally unknown. Method A short questionnaire was designed and piloted. Demographic information, patient referral to SMT and the GPs own personal utilisation of SMT were obtained. 385 GP’s ...

  3. Microfluidic-Based Droplet and Cell Manipulations Using Artificial Bacterial Flagella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ding

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we assess the functionality of magnetic helical microswimmers as basic tools for the manipulation of soft materials, including microdroplets and single cells. Their ability to perform a range of unit operations is evaluated and the operational challenges associated with their use are established. In addition, we also report on interactions observed between the head of such helical swimmers and the boundaries of droplets and cells and discuss the possibilities of assembling an artificial swimming microorganism or a motorized cell.

  4. An Image Processing Approach Based on Gnu Image Manipulation Program Gimp to the Panoramic Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    International audience We have recently proposed, in a paper published by the International Journal of Sciences, the use of some freely available image processing tools to enhance images of the fundus of the eye. In particular, we have discussed the use of GIMP, the GNU Image Manipulation Program, and of some wavelet filters and fractional gradient methods from other image processing programs. Here we propose GIMP to enhance the images given by panoramic radiography. This approach can prod...

  5. Graphical programming and the use of simulation for space-based manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrath, Debra S.; Reynolds, James C.

    1989-01-01

    Robotic manipulators are difficult to program even without the special requirements of a zero-gravity environment. While attention should be paid to investigating the usefulness of industrial application programming methods to space manipulators, new methods with potential application to both environments need to be invented. These methods should allow various levels of autonomy and human-in-the-loop interaction and simple, rapid switching among them. For all methods simulation must be integrated to provide reliability and safety. Graphical programming of manipulators is a candidate for an effective robot programming method despite current limitations in input devices and displays. A research project in task-level robot programming has built an innovative interface to a state-of-the-art commercial simulation and robot programming platform. The prototype demonstrates simple augmented methods for graphical programming and simulation which may be of particular interest to those concerned with Space Station applications; its development has also raised important issues for the development of more sophisticated robot programming tools. Both aspects of the project are discussed.

  6. High-Resolution Labeling and Functional Manipulation of Specific Neuron Types in Mouse Brain by Cre-Activated Viral Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2) upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 e...

  7. Optofluidic encapsulation and manipulation of silicon microchips using image processing based optofluidic maskless lithography and railed microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Su Eun; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Jiyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate optofluidic encapsulation of silicon microchips using image processing based optofluidic maskless lithography and manipulation using railed microfluidics. Optofluidic maskless lithography is a dynamic photopolymerization technique of free-floating microstructures within a fluidic channel using spatial light modulator. Using optofluidic maskless lithography via computer-vision aided image processing, polymer encapsulants are fabricated for chip protection and guiding-fins for efficient chip conveying within a fluidic channel. Encapsulated silicon chips with guiding-fins are assembled using railed microfluidics, which is an efficient guiding and heterogeneous self-assembly system of microcomponents. With our technology, externally fabricated silicon microchips are encapsulated, fluidically guided and self-assembled potentially enabling low cost fluidic manipulation and assembly of integrated circuits.

  8. Slim-Filter: an interactive windows-based application for illumina genome analyzer data assessment and manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovko Georgiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing technologies has made it possible for individual investigators to generate gigabases of sequencing data per week. Effective analysis and manipulation of these data is limited due to large file sizes, so even simple tasks such as data filtration and quality assessment have to be performed in several steps. This requires (potentially problematic interaction between the investigator and a bioinformatics/computational service provider. Furthermore, such services are often performed using specialized computational facilities. Results We present a Windows-based application, Slim-Filter designed to interactively examine the statistical properties of sequencing reads produced by Illumina Genome Analyzer and to perform a broad spectrum of data manipulation tasks including: filtration of low quality and low complexity reads; filtration of reads containing undesired subsequences (such as parts of adapters and PCR primers used during the sample and sequencing libraries preparation steps; excluding duplicated reads (while keeping each read’s copy number information in a specialized data format; and sorting reads by copy numbers allowing for easy access and manual editing of the resulting files. Slim-Filter is organized as a sequence of windows summarizing the statistical properties of the reads. Each data manipulation step has roll-back abilities, allowing for return to previous steps of the data analysis process. Slim-Filter is written in C++ and is compatible with fasta, fastq, and specialized AS file formats presented in this manuscript. Setup files and a user’s manual are available for download at the supplementary web site (https://www.bioinfo.uh.edu/Slim_Filter/. Conclusion The presented Windows-based application has been developed with the goal of providing individual investigators with integrated sequencing reads analysis, curation, and manipulation capabilities.

  9. Physiological hemostasis based intelligent integrated cooperative controller for precise fault-tolerant control of redundant parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kuangrong; Guo, Chongbin; Ding, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on precise fault-tolerant control for actual redundant parallel manipulator. Based on kinematic redundancy, some unnoticed influences such as mechanical clearance have been considered to design a more precise and intelligent fault-tolerant plan for actual plants. According to regulation principles in human hemostasis system, a bio-inspired intelligent integrated cooperative controller (BIICC) is developed including system structure, algorithm and step in parameter tuning. The proposed BIICC optimises partial error signal and improves control performance in each sub-channel. Moreover, the new controller transfers and disposes cooperative control signals among different sub-channels to achieve an intelligent integrated fault-tolerant system. The proposed BIICC is applied to an actual 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new controller is demonstrated. The BIICC is beneficial to control precision and fault-tolerant capability of redundant plant. The improvements are more obvious in cases where extra actuators of redundant manipulator are broken.

  10. A system for programming and controlling sensor-based robot manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschke, C C

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to programming and controlling robot manipulators which facilitates the use of sensory information. Robot actions are specified by declaring software servo processes which control the robot's various degrees of freedom. These servo processes can involve position, orientation, force, and torque information from the robot itself, or data from external sensors. Robot tasks are programmed by dynamically modifying the servo processes or by changing set points to these processes. Condition monitors, which have access to program and sensory information, detect the completion of program steps.

  11. Remote Manipulator System (RMS)-based Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) flight experiment feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of an experiment which will provide an on-orbit validation of Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology, was investigated. The experiment will demonstrate the on-orbit characterization and flexible-body control of large flexible structure dynamics using the shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with an attached payload as a test article. By utilizing existing hardware as well as establishing integration, operation and safety algorithms, techniques and procedures, the experiment will minimize the costs and risks of implementing a flight experiment. The experiment will also offer spin-off enhancement to both the Shuttle RMS (SRMS) and the Space Station RMS (SSRMS).

  12. Cuspidal and Noncuspidal Robot Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article synthezises the most important results on the kinematics of cuspidal manipulators i.e. nonredundant manipulators that can change posture without meeting a singularity. The characteristic surfaces, the uniqueness domains and the regions of feasible paths in the workspace are defined. Then, several sufficient geometric conditions for a manipulator to be noncuspidal are enumerated and a general necessary and sufficient condition for a manipulator to be cuspidal is provided. An explicit DH-parameter-based condition for an orthogonal manipulator to be cuspidal is derived. The full classification of 3R orthogonal manipulators is provided and all types of cuspidal and noncuspidal orthogonal manipulators are enumerated. Finally, some facts about cuspidal and noncuspidal 6R manipulators are reported.

  13. Advanced In vivo Use of CRISPR/Cas9 and Anti-sense DNA Inhibition for Gene Manipulation in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Brandon J.; Azam, Amber B.; Gillon, Colleen J.; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zovkic, Iva B.

    2016-01-01

    Gene editing tools are essential for uncovering how genes mediate normal brain–behavior relationships and contribute to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent progress in gene editing technology now allows neuroscientists unprecedented access to edit the genome efficiently. Although many important tools have been developed, here we focus on approaches that allow for rapid gene editing in the adult nervous system, particularly CRISPR/Cas9 and anti-sense nucleotide-based techn...

  14. Pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance in space manipulator systems for a capture task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at capture task for a free-floating space manipulator, a scheme of pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance caused by impact is proposed in this paper. Firstly, base attitude disturbance is established as a function of joint angles, collision direction and relative velocity between robotic hand and the target. Secondly, on the premise of keeping correct capture pose, a novel optimization factor in null space is designed to minimize base attitude disturbance and ensure that the joint angles do not exceed their limits simultaneously. After reaching the balance state, a desired configuration is achieved at the contact point. Thereafter, particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is employed to solve the pre-impact trajectory planning from its initial configuration to the desired configuration to achieve the minimized base attitude disturbance caused by impact and the correct capture pose simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a 7-dof free-floating space manipulator and the simulation results verify the effectiveness.

  15. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Soo Kim; Jongwon Park; Nitin Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on ...

  16. Research on modeling and motion simulation of a spherical space robot with telescopic manipulator based on virtual prototype technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengkun; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan; Zhao, Kailiang

    2009-05-01

    For realizing omni-directional movement and operating task of spherical space robot system, this paper describes an innovated prototype and analyzes dynamic characteristics of a spherical rolling robot with telescopic manipulator. Based on the Newton-Euler equations, the kinematics and dynamic equations of the spherical robot's motion are instructed detailedly. Then the motion simulations of the robot in different environments are developed with ADAMS. The simulation results validate the mathematics model of the system. And the dynamic model establishes theoretical basis for the latter job.

  17. Recent advances in plasma devices based on plasma lens configuration for manipulating high-current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe new results of development of novel generation cylindrical plasma devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration and concept of electrons magnetic insulation. The crossed electric and magnetic fields plasma lens configuration provides us with the attractive and suitable method for establishing a stable plasma discharge at low pressure. Using plasma lens configuration in this way some cost-effective plasma devices were developed for ion treatment and deposition of exotic coatings and the effective lens was first proposed for manipulating high-current beams of negatively charged particles. Here we describe operation and features of these plasma devices, and results of theoretical consideration of mechanisms determining their optimal operation conditions.

  18. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants.

  19. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants. PMID:26499065

  20. Field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip for a six-axis articulated robot manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shieh Kung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to build a field programmable gate array–based six-axis servo control integrated chip which can integrate the function of a motion trajectory planning and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers into one integrated chip. In the work, first, a mathematical modeling of a robot manipulator with the actuator using permanent magnet synchronous motor is derived. Second, the proportional controller in the position loop, a proportional–integral controller in the speed loop and a vector controller in the current loop for each axis are applied. Third, a system on a programmable chip technology which comprises an Altera field programmable gate array chip and an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor is considered to develop the proposed servo control integrated chip. However, in the servo control integrated chip, it has two modules. The first module is an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor which is used to generate the motion trajectory planning by software. The second module presents a six-axis servo controller intellectual property by hardware which is applied to execute six position/speed/current controllers. Therefore, the function of a motion trajectory command and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers for a six-axis robot manipulator can be integrated into one field programmable gate array. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip, a six-axis robot manipulator is applied and some experimental results are demonstrated.

  1. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  2. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Kuhlman

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  3. High-Resolution Labeling and Functional Manipulation of Specific Neuron Types in Mouse Brain by Cre-Activated Viral Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Huang, Z. Josh

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2) upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv) fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain. PMID:18414675

  4. Isolation and manipulation of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance in rice using a candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke-Ming; Qiu, De-Yun; Shen, Xiang-Ling; Li, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice, a main staple food for approximately 50% of the world's population. Application of host resistance to these pathogens is the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. Although large numbers of QTLs for bacterial blight and blast resistance have been identified, these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic control of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown. To isolate disease resistance QTLs, we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map, expression profile, and functional complementation analyses. This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M. grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals. Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL. Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes, whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signal transduction pathways, may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacterial blight and blast.

  5. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase genes. Progress report, [April 15, 1990--April 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1990-12-31

    The long term goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as cereal seeds and tubers, starch biosynthesis is primarily regulated by the gene activation, expression, and allosteric regulation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, as well as starch synthase, and branching enzyme. During the last year we have elucidated the structure of both subunits which compose this tetrameric enzyme and determined the temporal and spatial expression of the genes encoding each subunit as well as their correlation to starch biosynthesis. Genomic clones to both subunits have also been isolated and the gene structure of the small subunit determined. Transgenic potato plants have been produced containing deletions of the small subunit promoter. Currently, cis acting elements and their involvement in spatial and temporal expression are under investigation.

  6. Increasing Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis by Manipulating the Expression of a Novel TetR-Family Regulator and Its Target Gene Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshuai; Zhang, Qinling; Guo, Jia; Chen, Zhi; Li, Jilun; Wen, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are commercially important anthelmintic agents. The detailed regulatory mechanisms of avermectin biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, we identified SAV3619, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator designated AveT, to be an activator for both avermectin production and morphological differentiation in S. avermitilis. AveT was shown to indirectly stimulate avermectin production by affecting transcription of the cluster-situated activator gene aveR. AveT directly repressed transcription of its own gene (aveT), adjacent gene pepD2 (sav_3620), sav_7490 (designated aveM), and sav_7491 by binding to an 18-bp perfect palindromic sequence (CGAAACGKTKYCGTTTCG, where K is T or G and Y is T or C and where the underlining indicates inverted repeats) within their promoter regions. aveM (which encodes a putative transmembrane efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily [MFS]), the important target gene of AveT, had a striking negative effect on avermectin production and morphological differentiation. Overexpression of aveT and deletion of aveM in wild-type and industrial strains of S. avermitilis led to clear increases in the levels of avermectin production. In vitro gel-shift assays suggested that C-5-O-B1, the late pathway precursor of avermectin B1, acts as an AveT ligand. Taken together, our findings indicate positive-feedback regulation of aveT expression and avermectin production by a late pathway intermediate and provide the basis for an efficient strategy to increase avermectin production in S. avermitilis by manipulation of AveT and its target gene product, AveM.

  7. Manipulation of DET1 expression in tomato results in photomorphogenic phenotypes caused by post-transcriptional gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Mustilli, Anna Chiara; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A.; King, Stephen R.; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Pennings, Henk M. J.; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Summary The tomato HIGH PIGMENT-2 gene encodes an orthologue of the Arabidopsis nuclear protein DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1). From genetic analyses it has been proposed that DET1 is a negative regulator of light signal transduction, and recent results indicate that it may control light-regulated gene expression at the level of chromatin remodelling. To gain further understanding about the function of DET1 during plant development, we generated a range of overexpression constructs and introduced them into tomato. Unexpectedly, we only observed phenotypes characteristic of DET1 inactivation, i.e. hyper-responsiveness to light. Molecular analysis indicated in all cases that these phenotypes were a result of suppression of endogenous DET1 expression, due to post-transcriptional gene silencing. DET1 silencing was often lethal when it occurred at relatively early stages of plant development, whereas light hyper-responsive phenotypes were obtained when silencing occurred later on. The appearance of phenotypes correlated with the generation of siRNAs but not DNA hypermethylation, and was most efficient when using constructs with mutations in the DET1 coding sequence or with constructs containing only the 3′-terminal portion of the gene. These results indicate an important function for DET1 throughout plant development and demonstrate that silencing of DET1 in fruits results in increased carotenoids, which may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15469492

  8. Isolation and Manipulation of Quantitative Tra it Loci for DIsease Resistance in Rice Using a Candid ate Gene Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ming Hu; De-Yun Qiu; Xiang-Ling Shen; Xiang-Hua Li; Shi-Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice,a main staple food for approximately 50%of the world's population.Application of host resistance to these pathogens iS the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem.Quantitative trait loci(QTLs)controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad.spectrum and durable disease resistance.Although large numbers of QTLs for bacteriaI blight and blast resistance have been identified.these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic controI of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown.To isolate disease resistance QTLs,we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map,expression profile,and functionaI complementation analyses.This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals.Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL.Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes,whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signaI transduction pathways,may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacteriaI blight and blast.

  9. Adaptive-backstepping force/motion control for mobile-manipulator robot based on fuzzy CMAC neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thang-Long MAI; Yaonan WANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive backstepping fuzzy cerebellar-model-articulation-control neural-networks control (ABFCNC) system for motion/force control of the mobile-manipulator robot (MMR) is proposed. By applying the ABFCNC in the tracking-position controller, the unknown dynamics and parameter variation problems of the MMR control system are relaxed. In addition, an adaptive robust compensator is proposed to eliminate uncertainties that consist of approximation errors, uncertain disturbances. Based on the tracking position-ABFCNC design, an adaptive robust control strategy is also developed for the nonholonomic-constraint force of the MMR. The design of adaptive-online learning algorithms is obtained by using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Therefore, the proposed method proves that it not only can guarantee the stability and robustness but also the tracking performances of the MMR control system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by comparative simulation results.

  10. Singularity Analysis of a Six-dof Parallel Manipulator using Grassmann-Cayley Algebra and Gröbner Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Caro, Stéphane; Moroz, Guillaume; Gayral, Thibault; Chablat, Damien; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper deals with the singularity analysis of a six-dof three-legged parallel manipulator for force-feedback interface. To this end, a geometric condition for the manipulator singularities is obtained by means of Grassmann-Cayley algebra; the parallel singularities of the manipulator are computed using Jacobian and Gröbner basis. As a result, the algebraic relations of the singularities satisfied by the orientation variables are reported. Finally, the parallel singularities...

  11. Study on in-vessel ISI for JOYO. Laser based ultra sonic non-destructive inspection and manipulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the feasibility study on the in-vessel inspection technique to be applied for the experimental fast reactor JOYO. Since JOYO is a sodium cooled fast reactor and the core structure components are in high temperature and fast neutron irradiation environment, material strength yields to decrease due to heat fatigue and irradiation induced embrittlement. The present surveillance method of testing structural material mechanical property, monitoring subassembly outlet temperature and sodium leak monitoring are not sufficient to detect abnormalities with a small crack. Therefore, the direct inspection method to confirm the core structure integrity needs to be developed considering the recent innovative technology. Since the core structure has a complicated form and components under sodium are not visible, the manipulator technology is essential which has various positioning functions. The core support plate was selected to be an important inspection item, and the method which combines ultrasonic non-destructive inspection technology and manipulator technology was examined. As a result, the concept of core support plate inspection equipment under sodium condition was obtained by contacting ultrasonic sensor from inner side of the core support plate. Another concept was examined by applying laser based ultrasonic inspection technology. This method has advantage of remote control operation because of no-contacting inspection and it was confirmed to be feasible for JOYO in-vessel inspection method from viewpoint of defective detection accuracy and laser transmission ability by means of fiber cable. This is promising for in-vessel inspection without sodium draining. Based on this study, the development of in-vessel inspection equipment is continued and the proto-type will be demonstrated in JOYO. (author)

  12. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  13. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... rate cap; (IV) a rate collar; (V) a cross-currency rate swap; (VI) a basis swap; (VII) a currency swap... With Security-Based Swaps Agency: Securities and Exchange Commission. Action: Proposed rule. Summary... deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based swap, the exercise of...

  14. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  15. Manipulating Attention via Mindfulness Induction Improves P300-based Brain-Computer Interface Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lakey, Chad E.; Berry, Daniel R.; Sellers, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a short mindfulness meditation induction (MMI) on the performance of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) task. We expected that MMI would harness present moment attentional resources, resulting in two positive consequences for P300-based BCI use. Specifically, we believed MMI would facilitate increases in task accuracy and promote the production of robust P300 amplitudes. Sixteen-channel electroencephalographic data were recorded from 18 subje...

  16. A Comparison between Position-Based and Image-Based Dynamic Visual Servoings in the Control of a Translating Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palmieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different visual servoing controls have been developed to govern a translating parallel manipulator with an eye-in-hand configuration, That is, a position-based and an image-based controller. The robot must be able to reach and grasp a target randomly positioned in the workspace; the control must be adaptive to compensate motions of the target in the 3D space. The trajectory planning strategy ensures the continuity of the velocity vector for both PBVS and IBVS controls, whereas a replanning event is needed. A comparison between the two approaches is given in terms of accuracy, fastness, and stability in relation to the robot peculiar characteristics.

  17. A Comparison between Position-Based and Image-Based Dynamic Visual Servoings in the Control of a Translating Parallel Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    M. Battistelli; Callegari, M.; M. Palpacelli; Palmieri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two different visual servoing controls have been developed to govern a translating parallel manipulator with an eye-in-hand configuration, That is, a position-based and an image-based controller. The robot must be able to reach and grasp a target randomly positioned in the workspace; the control must be adaptive to compensate motions of the target in the 3D space. The trajectory planning strategy ensures the continuity of the velocity vector for both PBVS and IBVS controls, whereas a replanni...

  18. A gene-based information gain method for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Dongli; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Limei

    2015-11-01

    Currently, most methods for detecting gene-gene interactions (GGIs) in genome-wide association studies are divided into SNP-based methods and gene-based methods. Generally, the gene-based methods can be more powerful than SNP-based methods. Some gene-based entropy methods can only capture the linear relationship between genes. We therefore proposed a nonparametric gene-based information gain method (GBIGM) that can capture both linear relationship and nonlinear correlation between genes. Through simulation with different odds ratio, sample size and prevalence rate, GBIGM was shown to be valid and more powerful than classic KCCU method and SNP-based entropy method. In the analysis of data from 17 genes on rheumatoid arthritis, GBIGM was more effective than the other two methods as it obtains fewer significant results, which was important for biological verification. Therefore, GBIGM is a suitable and powerful tool for detecting GGIs in case-control studies.

  19. Gene cloning based on long oligonucleotide probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for gene cloning has been to utilize oligonucleotide probe based on protein sequence data. Of course this approach requires characterized and purified protein so that at least a portion of amino acid sequence can be determined and used to infer the corresponding DNA sequence. Based on the amino acid sequence information, either short or long oligonucleotide probes can be synthesized chemically. Long probes are typically 30-100 nucleotides long and are a single sequence based on a best guess for each codon. The long probe approach was first used to screen for three different genes: bovine trypsin inhibitor, human insulin-like growth factor I, and human factor IX. There are three advantages of long probes. (1) Any stretch of amino acid sequence 10 or longer can be used. (2) The amino acid sequence need not be absolutely correct. (3) These probes can be used to screen high-complexity libraries with fewer false positives. In spite of the uncertainties over codon selection, the long probe approach is currently the method of choice in screening for genes based on protein sequence data

  20. Improvement of lower extremity electrodiagnostic findings following a trial of spinal manipulation and motion-based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morningstar Mark W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar disc herniation is a problem frequently encountered in manual medicine. While manual therapy has shown reasonable success in symptomatic management of these cases, little information is known how manual therapy may affect the structure and function of the lumbar disc itself. In cases where lumbar disc herniation is accompanied by radicular symptoms, electrodiagnostic testing has been used to provide objective clinical information on nerve function. This report examines the treatment rendered for a patient with lower extremity neurological deficit, as diagnosed on electrodiagnostic testing. Patient was treated using spinal manipulation and exercises performed on a Pettibon Wobble Chair™, using electrodiagnostic testing as the primary outcome assessment. Case Presentation An elderly male patient presented to a private spine clinic with right-sided foot drop. He had been prescribed an ankle-foot orthosis for this condition. All sensory, motor, and reflex findings in the right leg and foot were absent. This was validated on prior electromyography and nerve conduction velocity testing, performed by a board certified neurologist. Patient was treated using spinal manipulation twice-weekly and wobble chair exercises three times daily for 90 days total. Following this treatment, the patient was referred for follow-up electrodiagnostic studies. Significant improvements were made in these studies as well as self-rated daily function. Conclusion Motion-based therapies, as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program, may contribute to the restoration of daily function and the reversal of neurological insult as detected by electrodiagnostic testing. Electrodiagnostic testing may be a useful clinical tool to evaluate the progress of chiropractic patients with lumbar disc herniation and radicular pain syndromes.

  1. PCR-based gene synthesis to produce recombinant proteins for crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne-Steele Miranda L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene synthesis technologies are an important tool for structural biology projects, allowing increased protein expression through codon optimization and facilitating sequence alterations. Existing methods, however, can be complex and not always reproducible, prompting researchers to use commercial suppliers rather than synthesize genes themselves. Results A PCR-based gene synthesis method, referred to as SeqTBIO, is described to efficiently assemble the coding regions of two novel hyperthermophilic proteins, PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille domain, a siRNA-binding domain of an Argonaute protein homologue and a deletion mutant of a family A DNA polymerase (PolA. The gene synthesis procedure is based on sequential assembly such that homogeneous DNA products can be obtained after each synthesis step without extensive manipulation or purification requirements. Coupling the gene synthesis procedure to in vivo homologous recombination techniques allows efficient subcloning and site-directed mutagenesis for error correction. The recombinant proteins of PAZ and PolA were subsequently overexpressed in E. coli and used for protein crystallization. Crystals of both proteins were obtained and they were suitable for X-ray analysis. Conclusion We demonstrate, by using PAZ and PolA as examples, the feasibility of integrating the gene synthesis, error correction and subcloning techniques into a non-automated gene to crystal pipeline such that genes can be designed, synthesized and implemented for recombinant expression and protein crystallization.

  2. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15 mM], MZ (0.15 mM) and T4 (2 nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33 days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45 dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25 dpf) and late (45 dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45 dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45 dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45 dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45 dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25 dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its “feminizing” activity on gonadal

  3. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15mM], MZ (0.15mM) and T4 (2nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25dpf) and late (45dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its "feminizing" activity on gonadal sex is not permanent. PMID:27255368

  4. Kinematics of an in-parallel actuated manipulator based on the Stewart platform mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents kinematic equations and solutions for an in-parallel actuated robotic mechanism based on Stewart's platform. These equations are required for inverse position and resolved rate (inverse velocity) platform control. NASA LaRC has a Vehicle Emulator System (VES) platform designed by MIT which is based on Stewart's platform. The inverse position solution is straight-forward and computationally inexpensive. Given the desired position and orientation of the moving platform with respect to the base, the lengths of the prismatic leg actuators are calculated. The forward position solution is more complicated and theoretically has 16 solutions. The position and orientation of the moving platform with respect to the base is calculated given the leg actuator lengths. Two methods are pursued in this paper to solve this problem. The resolved rate (inverse velocity) solution is derived. Given the desired Cartesian velocity of the end-effector, the required leg actuator rates are calculated. The Newton-Raphson Jacobian matrix resulting from the second forward position kinematics solution is a modified inverse Jacobian matrix. Examples and simulations are given for the VES.

  5. When action turns into words. Activation of motor-based knowledge during categorization of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2002-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that processing of man-made objects activate the left ventral premotor cortex, which is known to be concerned with motor function. This has led to the suggestion that the comprehension of man-made objects may rely on motor-based knowledge of object uti...

  6. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  7. Manipulation of gap nodes by uniaxial strain in iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Kemper, Alexander F; Fernandes, Rafael M

    2014-11-21

    In the iron pnictides and chalcogenides, multiple orbitals participate in the superconducting state, enabling different gap structures to be realized in distinct materials. Here we argue that the spectral weights of these orbitals can, in principle, be controlled by a tetragonal symmetry-breaking uniaxial strain, due to the enhanced nematic susceptibility of many iron-based superconductors. By investigating multiorbital microscopic models in the presence of orbital order, we show that not only Tc can be enhanced, but pairs of accidental gap nodes can be annihilated and created in the Fermi surface by an increasing external strain. We explain our results as a mixture of nearly degenerate superconducting states promoted by strain, and show that the annihilation and creation of nodes can be detected experimentally via anisotropic penetration depth measurements. Our results provide a promising framework to externally control the superconducting properties of iron-based materials. PMID:25479515

  8. Manipulating attention via mindfulness induction improves P300-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E.; Berry, Daniel R.; Sellers, Eric W.

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a short mindfulness meditation induction (MMI) on the performance of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) task. We expected that MMI would harness present-moment attentional resources, resulting in two positive consequences for P300-based BCI use. Specifically, we believed that MMI would facilitate increases in task accuracy and promote the production of robust P300 amplitudes. Sixteen-channel electroencephalographic data were recorded from 18 subjects using a row/column speller task paradigm. Nine subjects participated in a 6 min MMI and an additional nine subjects served as a control group. Subjects were presented with a 6 × 6 matrix of alphanumeric characters on a computer monitor. Stimuli were flashed at a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 125 ms. Calibration data were collected on 21 items without providing feedback. These data were used to derive a stepwise linear discriminate analysis classifier that was applied to an additional 14 items to evaluate accuracy. Offline performance analyses revealed that MMI subjects were significantly more accurate than control subjects. Likewise, MMI subjects produced significantly larger P300 amplitudes than control subjects at Cz and PO7. The discussion focuses on the potential attentional benefits of MMI for P300-based BCI performance.

  9. Manipulating Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia-Luciani, Angelo N M

    2012-04-01

    The present paper proposes a definition for the complex polysemic concepts of consciousness and awareness (in humans as well as in other species), and puts forward the idea of a progressive ontological development of consciousness from a state of 'childhood' awareness, in order to explain that humans are not only able to manipulate objects, but also their mental representations. The paper builds on the idea of qualia intended as entities posing regular invariant requests to neural processes, trough the permanence of different properties. The concept of semantic differential introduces the properties of metaphorical qualia as an exclusively human ability. Furthermore this paper proposes a classification of qualia, according to the models-with different levels of abstraction-they are implied in, in a taxonomic perspective. This, in turn, becomes a source of categorization of divergent representations, sign systems, and forms of intentionality, relying always on biological criteria. New emerging image-of-the-world-devices are proposed, whose qualia are likely to be only accessible to humans: emotional qualia, where emotion accounts for the invariant and dominant property; and the qualic self where continuity, combined with the oneness of the self, accounts for the invariant and dominant property. The concept of congruence between different domains in a metaphor introduces the possibility of a general evaluation of truth and falsity of all kinds of metaphorical constructs, while the work of Matte Blanco enables us to classify conscious versus unconscious metaphors, both in individuals and in social organizations. PMID:22347988

  10. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  11. Manipulating fluorescence color and intensity with regular metal nanoparticle-based composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first studies the role of structural parameters of ordered metal nanoparticle-based composites in the modification of the spectra and intensity of directional emission from organic molecules. It then investigates the possibilities of white light generation via color conversion using two materials, one emitting in the green and the other one in the red spectral region. The structures under study exhibit enhanced emission within small solid angle in the forward direction due to excitation of the quasiguided modes. These modes modify the angle-dependent local photon density of states and, thus, result in efficient directional outcoupling of radiation

  12. Manipulating effective spin orbit coupling based on proximity effect in magnetic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Sun, N. Y.; Che, W. R.; Zhang, J. W.; Shan, R., E-mail: shan.rong@hotmail.com [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, X. L. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), Shanghai 201204 (China); Zhu, Z. G., E-mail: zgzhu@ucas.ac.cn; Su, G., E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, College of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-08-24

    A proximity effect of spin orbit coupling (SOC) is proposed in nonmagnetic metal/ferromagnet (NM/FM) bilayers by extending the Crépieux-Bruno (CB) theory. We demonstrate that over 1000% enhancement of the SOC strength can be realized based on this effect (Pt/FM bilayers) and it brings greatly enhanced anomalous Hall effect and anomalous Nernst effect. This work could help maximize the performance of magnetic transport property for the spintronics device using NM/FM as the key structure.

  13. Manipulating fluorescence color and intensity with regular metal nanoparticle-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey G., E-mail: nikitin@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM, UPR 3118 CNRS), Aix-Marseille University, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille, France and Faculty of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Ave., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper first studies the role of structural parameters of ordered metal nanoparticle-based composites in the modification of the spectra and intensity of directional emission from organic molecules. It then investigates the possibilities of white light generation via color conversion using two materials, one emitting in the green and the other one in the red spectral region. The structures under study exhibit enhanced emission within small solid angle in the forward direction due to excitation of the quasiguided modes. These modes modify the angle-dependent local photon density of states and, thus, result in efficient directional outcoupling of radiation.

  14. Evidence Based Selection of Housekeeping Genes

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, Hendrik J.M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Eveline S. J. M. de Bont; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Gerbens, Frans; Kamps, Willem A.; Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van der Zee, Ate G.J.; te Meerman, Gerard J.; ter Elst, Arja

    2007-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes (reference or internal control genes) is required. It is known that commonly used housekeeping genes (e.g. ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, and B2M) vary considerably under different experimental conditions and therefore their use for normalization is limited. We performed a meta-analysis of 13,629 human gene array samples in order to identify the most stable expressed genes. Here we show n...

  15. Manipulation of prenylation reactions by structure-based engineering of bacterial indolactam prenyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takahiro; Zhang, Lihan; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Hoshino, Shotaro; Okada, Masahiro; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-03-01

    Prenylation reactions play crucial roles in controlling the activities of biomolecules. Bacterial prenyltransferases, TleC from Streptomyces blastmyceticus and MpnD from Marinactinospora thermotolerans, catalyse the `reverse' prenylation of (-)-indolactam V at the C-7 position of the indole ring with geranyl pyrophosphate or dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, to produce lyngbyatoxin or pendolmycin, respectively. Using in vitro analyses, here we show that both TleC and MpnD exhibit relaxed substrate specificities and accept various chain lengths (C5-C25) of the prenyl donors. Comparisons of the crystal structures and their ternary complexes with (-)-indolactam V and dimethylallyl S-thiophosphate revealed the intimate structural details of the enzyme-catalysed `reverse' prenylation reactions and identified the active-site residues governing the selection of the substrates. Furthermore, structure-based enzyme engineering successfully altered the preference for the prenyl chain length of the substrates, as well as the regio- and stereo-selectivities of the prenylation reactions, to produce a series of unnatural novel indolactams.

  16. Kinematic analysis of spatial parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyses a particularly spatial manipulator, establish initial data and based on fixed geometrical link parameters we conduct a kinematic analysis of manipulator by Denavit-Hartenberg matrix way. (author)

  17. A Method for Improving the Pose Accuracy of a Robot Manipulator Based on Multi-Sensor Combined Measurement and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An improvement method for the pose accuracy of a robot manipulator by using a multiple-sensor combination measuring system (MCMS is presented. It is composed of a visual sensor, an angle sensor and a series robot. The visual sensor is utilized to measure the position of the manipulator in real time, and the angle sensor is rigidly attached to the manipulator to obtain its orientation. Due to the higher accuracy of the multi-sensor, two efficient data fusion approaches, the Kalman filter (KF and multi-sensor optimal information fusion algorithm (MOIFA, are used to fuse the position and orientation of the manipulator. The simulation and experimental results show that the pose accuracy of the robot manipulator is improved dramatically by 38%~78% with the multi-sensor data fusion. Comparing with reported pose accuracy improvement methods, the primary advantage of this method is that it does not require the complex solution of the kinematics parameter equations, increase of the motion constraints and the complicated procedures of the traditional vision-based methods. It makes the robot processing more autonomous and accurate. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the pose measurements of MCMS, the visual sensor repeatability is experimentally studied. An optimal range of 1 x 0.8 x 1 ~ 2 x 0.8 x 1  m in the field of view (FOV is indicated by the experimental results.

  18. A Method for Improving the Pose Accuracy of a Robot Manipulator Based on Multi-Sensor Combined Measurement and Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    An improvement method for the pose accuracy of a robot manipulator by using a multiple-sensor combination measuring system (MCMS) is presented. It is composed of a visual sensor, an angle sensor and a series robot. The visual sensor is utilized to measure the position of the manipulator in real time, and the angle sensor is rigidly attached to the manipulator to obtain its orientation. Due to the higher accuracy of the multi-sensor, two efficient data fusion approaches, the Kalman filter (KF) and multi-sensor optimal information fusion algorithm (MOIFA), are used to fuse the position and orientation of the manipulator. The simulation and experimental results show that the pose accuracy of the robot manipulator is improved dramatically by 38%∼78% with the multi-sensor data fusion. Comparing with reported pose accuracy improvement methods, the primary advantage of this method is that it does not require the complex solution of the kinematics parameter equations, increase of the motion constraints and the complicated procedures of the traditional vision-based methods. It makes the robot processing more autonomous and accurate. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the pose measurements of MCMS, the visual sensor repeatability is experimentally studied. An optimal range of 1 × 0.8 × 1 ∼ 2 × 0.8 × 1 m in the field of view (FOV) is indicated by the experimental results. PMID:25850067

  19. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  20. In vivo X-ray elemental imaging of single cell model organisms manipulated by laser-based optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; de Rijcke, Maarten; Bauters, Stephen; Deruytter, David; Vandegehuchte, Michiel; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Janssen, Colin; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We report on a radically new elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural, in vivo state. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact, laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time. The main objective of this work is to establish a new method for in vivo elemental imaging in a two-dimensional (2D) projection mode in free-standing biological microorganisms or single cells, present in their aqueous environment. Using the model organism Scrippsiella trochoidea, a first proof of principle experiment at beamline ID13 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) demonstrates the feasibility of the OT XRF methodology, which is applied to study mixture toxicity of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn as a result of elevated exposure. We expect that the new OT XRF methodology will significantly contribute to the new trend of investigating microorganisms at the cellular level with added in vivo capability.

  1. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et de Robotique Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7222 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France); Polesel-Maris, Jerome [CEA, IRAMIS, Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-03-15

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  2. Design Process Optimization Based on Design Process Gene Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Shu-rong

    2011-01-01

    The idea of genetic engineering is introduced into the area of product design to improve the design efficiency. A method towards design process optimization based on the design process gene is proposed through analyzing the correlation between the design process gene and characteristics of the design process. The concept of the design process gene is analyzed and categorized into five categories that are the task specification gene, the concept design gene, the overall design gene, the detailed design gene and the processing design gene in the light of five design phases. The elements and their interactions involved in each kind of design process gene signprocess gene mapping is drawn with its structure disclosed based on its function that process gene.

  3. KBERG: KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Suisheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Tan, Sin Lam;

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen has a profound impact on human physiology affecting transcription of numerous genes. To decipher functional characteristics of estrogen responsive genes, we developed KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes (KBERG). Genes in KBERG were derived from Estrogen Responsive Gene Database...... is based on ab initio discovery of common cis-elements from the orthologous gene cluster from human, mouse and rat, thus reflecting a degree of promoter sequence preservation during evolution. The identified motifs are linked to transcription factor binding sites based on the TRANSFAC database. In addition...

  4. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  5. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D

    2016-04-01

    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level.

  6. Progress in Chimeric Vector and Chimeric Gene Based Cardiovascular Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-Song; YOON Young-sup; ISNER Jeffrey M.; LOSORDO Douglas W.

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy for cardiovascular diseases has developed from preliminary animal experiments to clinical trials. However, vectors and target genes used currently in gene therapy are mainly focused on viral, nonviral vector and single target gene or monogene. Each vector system has a series of advantages and limitations. Chimeric vectors which combine the advantages of viral and nonviral vector,chimeric target genes which combine two or more target genes and novel gene delivery modes are being developed. In this article, we summarized the progress in chimeric vectors and chimeric genes based cardiovascular gene therapy, which including proliferative or occlusive vascular diseases such as atheroslerosis and restenosis, hypertonic vascular disease such as hypertension and cardiac diseases such as myocardium ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even heart transplantation. The development of chimeric vector, chimeric gene and their cardiovascular gene therapy is promising.

  7. Evidence based selection of housekeeping genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J M de Jonge

    Full Text Available For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes (reference or internal control genes is required. It is known that commonly used housekeeping genes (e.g. ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, and B2M vary considerably under different experimental conditions and therefore their use for normalization is limited. We performed a meta-analysis of 13,629 human gene array samples in order to identify the most stable expressed genes. Here we show novel candidate housekeeping genes (e.g. RPS13, RPL27, RPS20 and OAZ1 with enhanced stability among a multitude of different cell types and varying experimental conditions. None of the commonly used housekeeping genes were present in the top 50 of the most stable expressed genes. In addition, using 2,543 diverse mouse gene array samples we were able to confirm the enhanced stability of the candidate novel housekeeping genes in another mammalian species. Therefore, the identified novel candidate housekeeping genes seem to be the most appropriate choice for normalizing gene expression data.

  8. Recent progress in polymer-based gene delivery vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shiwen; ZHUO Renxi

    2003-01-01

    The gene delivery system is one of the three components of a gene medicine, which is the bottle neck of current gene therapy. Nonviral vectors offer advantages over the viral system of safety, ease of manufacturing, etc. As important nonviral vectors, polymer gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention and have begun to show increasing promising. In this review, the fundamental and recent progress of polymer-based gene delivery vectors is reviewed.

  9. In-silico oncology: an approximate model of brain tumor mass effect based on directly manipulated free form deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan; Mang, Andreas; Toma, Alina; Buzug, Thorsten M. [University of Luebeck (Germany). Institute of Medical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    The present work introduces a novel method for approximating mass effect of primary brain tumors. The spatio-temporal dynamics of cancerous cells are modeled by means of a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Diffusion tensor information obtained from a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging atlas is incorporated into the model to simulate anisotropic diffusion of cancerous cells. To account for the expansive nature of the tumor, the computed net cell density of malignant cells is linked to a parametric deformation model. This mass effect model is based on the so-called directly manipulated free form deformation. Spatial correspondence between two successive simulation steps is established by tracking landmarks, which are attached to the boundary of the gross tumor volume. The movement of these landmarks is used to compute the new configuration of the control points and, hence, determines the resulting deformation. To prevent a deformation of rigid structures (i.e. the skull), fixed shielding landmarks are introduced. In a refinement step, an adaptive landmark scheme ensures a dense sampling of the tumor isosurface, which in turn allows for an appropriate representation of the tumor shape. The influence of different parameters on the model is demonstrated by a set of simulations. Additionally, simulation results are qualitatively compared to an exemplary set of clinical magnetic resonance images of patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Careful visual inspection of the results demonstrates the potential of the implemented model and provides first evidence that the computed approximation of tumor mass effect is sensible. The shape of diffusive brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) can be recovered and approximately matches the observations in real clinical data. (orig.)

  10. Noise-based switches and amplifiers for gene expression

    CERN Document Server

    Hasty, J; Dolnik, M; Collins, J J; Hasty, Jeff; Pradines, Joel; Dolnik, Milos

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of cellular function is often controlled at the level of gene transcription. Such genetic regulation usually consists of interacting networks, whereby gene products from a single network can act to control their own expression or the production of protein in another network. Engineered control of cellular function through the design and manipulation of such networks lies within the constraints of current technology. Here we develop a model describing the regulation of gene expression, and elucidate the effects of noise on the formulation. We consider a single network derived from bacteriophage $\\lambda$, and construct a two-parameter deterministic model describing the temporal evolution of the concentration of $\\lambda$ repressor protein. Bistability in the steady-state protein concentration arises naturally, and we show how the bistable regime is enhanced with the addition of the first operator site in the promotor region. We then show how additive and multiplicative external noise can be used...

  11. Inverse Kinematics and Control of a 7-DOF Redundant Manipulator Based on the Closed-Loop Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingguo Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop inverse kinematics (CLIK algorithm mostly resolves the redundancy at the velocity level. In this paper we extend the CLIK algorithm to the acceleration level to meet some applications that require the joint accelerations. The redundancy resolutions at the velocities and acceleration levels via pseudoinverse method are analyzed respectively. The objective function of joint limits avoidance (JLA is combined into the redundancy resolution as an optimization approach of the null space motion. A seven-DOF redundant manipulator is designed to do the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out on a Powercube modular manipulator. Their results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy: A promising therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Abasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in bone marrow, fat, and so many other tissues, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, as well as myocytes and neurons. Moreover, they have great capacity for self-renewal while maintaining their multipotency. Their capacity for proliferation and differentiation, in addition to their immunomodulatory activity, makes them very promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, MSCs have the ability of mobilization to the site of damage; therefore, they can automatically migrate to the site of injury via their chemokine receptors following intravenous transplantation. In this respect, they can be applied for MSC-based gene therapy. In this new therapeutic method, genes of interest are introduced into MSCs via viral and non-viral-based methods that lead to transgene expression in them. Although stem cell-based gene therapy is a relatively new strategy, it lights a new hope for the treatment of a variety of genetic disorders. In the near future, MSCs can be of use in a vast number of clinical applications, because of their uncomplicated isolation, culture, and genetic manipulation. However, full consideration is still crucial before they are utilized for clinical trials, because the number of studies that signify the advantageous effects of MSC-based gene therapy are still limited. PMID:26148175

  13. Expanding the repertoire of gene tools for precise manipulation of the Clostridium difficile genome: allelic exchange using pyrE alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Kuan Ng

    Full Text Available Sophisticated genetic tools to modify essential biological processes at the molecular level are pivotal in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile, a major cause of healthcare associated disease. Here we have developed an efficient procedure for making precise alterations to the C. difficile genome by pyrE-based allelic exchange. The robustness and reliability of the method was demonstrated through the creation of in-frame deletions in three genes (spo0A, cwp84, and mtlD in the non-epidemic strain 630Δerm and two genes (spo0A and cwp84 in the epidemic PCR Ribotype 027 strain, R20291. The system is reliant on the initial creation of a pyrE deletion mutant, using Allele Coupled Exchange (ACE, that is auxotrophic for uracil and resistant to fluoroorotic acid (FOA. This enables the subsequent modification of target genes by allelic exchange using a heterologous pyrE allele from Clostridium sporogenes as a counter-/negative-selection marker in the presence of FOA. Following modification of the target gene, the strain created is rapidly returned to uracil prototrophy using ACE, allowing mutant phenotypes to be characterised in a PyrE proficient background. Crucially, wild-type copies of the inactivated gene may be introduced into the genome using ACE concomitant with correction of the pyrE allele. This allows complementation studies to be undertaken at an appropriate gene dosage, as opposed to the use of multicopy autonomous plasmids. The rapidity of the 'correction' method (5-7 days makes pyrE(- strains attractive hosts for mutagenesis studies.

  14. Cell- and region-specific miR30-based gene knock-down with temporal control in the rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Haibo; Liu Beihui; Paton Julian FR; Kasparov Sergey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi) emerges as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes. In the context of the brain, gene manipulation is best targeted to specific subsets of cells in order to achieve a physiologically relevant outcome. Polymerase II-based viral expression systems can be used to cell-specifically express constructs incorporating flanking and loop sequences from endogenous microRNA (miRNA), which directs the designed hairpins into the endogenous gene sile...

  15. An oxidase-based electrochemical fluidic sensor with high-sensitivity and low-interference by on-chip oxygen manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Nitin; Park, Jongwon; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide). Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc.) to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems. PMID:23012527

  16. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc. to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems.

  17. Force/Position Hybrid Control of 6PUS-UPU Redundant Driven Parallel Manipulator Based on 2-DOF Internal Model Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijing Zheng; Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    To improve control performance of parallel manipulator, servo control is optimized according to 2-DOF control with Internal Model Control. Position loop of the controller is redesigned based on the original current loop and speed loop. The hybrid force/position control strategy on the basis of cross-coupling is proposed. With mechatronic cosimulation system, it is proved that the force/position hybrid control on the basis of 2-DOF Internal Model Control has better stability and position preci...

  18. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    Full Text Available This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO. Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  19. Slim-Filter: an interactive windows-based application for illumina genome analyzer data assessment and manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Golovko Georgiy; Khanipov Kamil; Rojas Mark; Martinez-Alcántara Antonio; Howard Jesse J; Ballesteros Efren; Gupta Sharu; Widger William; Fofanov Yuriy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing technologies has made it possible for individual investigators to generate gigabases of sequencing data per week. Effective analysis and manipulation of these data is limited due to large file sizes, so even simple tasks such as data filtration and quality assessment have to be performed in several steps. This requires (potentially problematic) interaction between the investigator and a bioinformatics/computational service provid...

  20. MFR (Multi-purpose Field Robot) Based on Human-Robot Cooperative Manipulation for Handling Building Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SeungYeol

    2010-01-01

    The prototype of MFR for handling building materials presented in this study combines a manipulator and a mobile platform standardized in modular form to compose its basic system. Also, the hardware and software necessary for each area of application were composed of additional modules and combined with the robot's basic system. The suggested MFR can execute particular operations in various areas such as construction, national defense and rescue by changing these additional modules. One of th...

  1. Novel definition files for human GeneChips based on GeneAnnot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Sergio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in genome sequence annotation revealed discrepancies in the original probeset/gene assignment in Affymetrix microarray and the existence of differences between annotations and effective alignments of probes and transcription products. In the current generation of Affymetrix human GeneChips, most probesets include probes matching transcripts from more than one gene and probes which do not match any transcribed sequence. Results We developed a novel set of custom Chip Definition Files (CDF and the corresponding Bioconductor libraries for Affymetrix human GeneChips, based on the information contained in the GeneAnnot database. GeneAnnot-based CDFs are composed of unique custom-probesets, including only probes matching a single gene. Conclusion GeneAnnot-based custom CDFs solve the problem of a reliable reconstruction of expression levels and eliminate the existence of more than one probeset per gene, which often leads to discordant expression signals for the same transcript when gene differential expression is the focus of the analysis. GeneAnnot CDFs are freely distributed and fully compliant with Affymetrix standards and all available software for gene expression analysis. The CDF libraries are available from http://www.xlab.unimo.it/GA_CDF, along with supplementary information (CDF libraries, installation guidelines and R code, CDF statistics, and analysis results.

  2. HMM-Based Gene Annotation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussler, David; Hughey, Richard; Karplus, Keven

    1999-09-20

    Development of new statistical methods and computational tools to identify genes in human genomic DNA, and to provide clues to their functions by identifying features such as transcription factor binding sites, tissue, specific expression and splicing patterns, and remove homologies at the protein level with genes of known function.

  3. An overview of gene therapy in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Bali; Deepika Bali; Ashutosh Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is a new treatment modality in which new gene is introduced or existing gene is manipulated to cause cancer cell death or slow the growth of the tumor. In this review, we have discussed the different treatment approaches for cancer gene therapy; gene addition therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy using oncolytic viruses, antisense ribonucleic acid (RNA) and RNA interference-based gene therapy. Clinical trials to date in head and neck cancer have shown evidence of gene transduction...

  4. Identifying disease feature genes based on cellular localized gene functional modules and regulation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing; GUO Zheng; LI Xia; YANG Da; WANG Lei; RAO Shaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Identifying disease-relevant genes and functional modules, based on gene expression profiles and gene functional knowledge, is of high importance for studying disease mechanisms and subtyping disease phenotypes. Using gene categories of biological process and cellular component in Gene Ontology, we propose an approach to selecting functional modules enriched with differentially expressed genes, and identifying the feature functional modules of high disease discriminating abilities. Using the differentially expressed genes in each feature module as the feature genes, we reveal the relevance of the modules to the studied diseases. Using three datasets for prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and leukemia, we have demonstrated that the proposed modular approach is of high power in identifying functionally integrated feature gene subsets that are highly relevant to the disease mechanisms. Our analysis has also shown that the critical disease-relevant genes might be better recognized from the gene regulation network, which is constructed using the characterized functional modules, giving important clues to the concerted mechanisms of the modules responding to complex disease states. In addition, the proposed approach to selecting the disease-relevant genes by jointly considering the gene functional knowledge suggests a new way for precisely classifying disease samples with clear biological interpretations, which is critical for the clinical diagnosis and the elucidation of the pathogenic basis of complex diseases.

  5. In silico network topology-based prediction of gene essentiality

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Joao Paulo Muller; Mombach, Jose Carlos Merino; Vieira, Renata; da Silva, Jose Guliherme Camargo; Lemke, Ney; Sinigaglia, Marialva

    2007-01-01

    The identification of genes essential for survival is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for drug design. As experimental studies with the purpose of building a catalog of essential genes for a given organism are time-consuming and laborious, a computational approach which could predict gene essentiality with high accuracy would be of great value. We present here a novel computational approach, called NTPGE (Network Topology-based Prediction of Gene Essentiality), that relies on network topology features of a gene to estimate its essentiality. The first step of NTPGE is to construct the integrated molecular network for a given organism comprising protein physical, metabolic and transcriptional regulation interactions. The second step consists in training a decision tree-based machine learning algorithm on known essential and non-essential genes of the organism of interest, considering as learning attributes the network topology information for each of these genes...

  6. Control Design Of Robot Manipulator Position Based On Pd-Fuzzy Mamdani Controlled With Computed Torque Control (Pd-Fuzzy-Ctc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Ridlo Istriantono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotics science has evolved significantly, driven by rapid advances in computer and sensor technology; and theoretical advances in control and computer vision. These development make widespread use of robot manipulators in industrial environments. Major problem in controlling a robot manipulator is to control the robot in order to achieve the desired position. Therefore the design issue of the robot control is to choose the right type controller. Computed Torque Controller (CTC is a powerful nonlinear controllers are widely used in the control of robot manipulators. CTC controller is designed based on feedback linearization and the required torque of the robot arm by using a nonlinear feedback control law. Simulation is done by providing joint trajectory from point to point. The simulation results show that the PD-Fuzzy-CTC controller is able to follow the joint trajectory with The RMSE value of the joint angle position of PD-Fuzzy-CTC controller is 10 times smaller than that of the PD-CTC controller with the end-effector position accuracy is 0.1 mm.  

  7. 以颈部推拿为主治疗失眠症的研究概况%Overview of Cervical Manipulation Based Treatment on Insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢健

    2014-01-01

    颈部不适患者常见失眠症的发生,其病机不仅与走行于颈部的经络相关,更与颈部的神经肌肉分布有着一定联系。本文综述了以颈部为主要作用部位,单纯推拿和以推拿为主的综合疗法在失眠症临床实践过程中的研究概况,总结特点及优劣,以暨为失眠症的推拿治疗提供新的思路和有益参考。%Insomnia is common among the patients with cervical discomfort, its pathogenesis is not only related to the meridians around the cervical, but also associated with the distribution of nerves and muscles of cervical. This article reviews research situation of simple manipulative therapy and manipulation based comprehensive therapy with cervical as the main action site during the clinical practice of insomnia, summarizes its characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, in order to provide new ideas and useful reference for the manipulative therapy on insomnia.

  8. Prediction of eukaryotic gene structures based on multilevel optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yanhong; YANG Lei; WANG Hui; LU Feng; WAN Honghui

    2004-01-01

    Computational gene structure prediction, which is valuable for finding new genes and understanding the composition of genomes, plays a very important role in various kinds of genome projects. For eukaryotic gene structures, however, the prediction accuracy of existing methods is still limited. This paper presents a method of predicting eukaryotic gene structures based on multilevel optimization. The complicated problem of predicting gene structure in eukaryotic DNA sequence containing multiple genes can be decomposed into a series of sub-problems at several levels with decreasing complexity, including the gene level (single-exon gene, multi-exon gene), the element level (exon, intron, etc.), and the feature level (functional site signals, codon usage preference, etc.). On the basis of this decomposition, a multilevel model for the prediction of complex gene structures is created by a multilevel optimization process, in which the models dealing with sub-problems at low complexity level are first optimized respectively, and then optimally combined together to form models for those sub-problems at higher complexity level. Based on the multilevel model, a dynamic programming algorithm is designed to search for optimal gene structures from DNA sequences, and a new program GeneKey (1.0) for the prediction of eukaryotic gene structures is developed. Testing results with widely used datasets demonstrate that the prediction accuracies of GeneKey (1.0) at the nucleotide level, exon level and gene level are all higher than that of the well known program GENSCAN. A web server of GeneKey(1.0) is available at http://infosci.hust.edu.cn

  9. Genetic Manipulation of Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M; Sorg, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium and is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. For many years this organism was considered genetically intractable, but in the past 10 years, multiple methods have been developed or adapted for genetic manipulation of C. difficile. This unit describes the molecular techniques used for genetic modification of this organism, including methods for gene disruption, complementation, plasmid int...

  10. Gene Network Biological Validity Based on Gene-Gene Interaction Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Gómez-Vela; Norberto Díaz-Díaz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in...

  11. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Khandelwal; Jalaj Gupta; B Jayaram

    2012-07-01

    We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of higher thermodynamic stability were identified, which were filtered based on already known annotations to yield a set of potentially new genes. These were then processed for their compatibility with the stereo-chemical properties of proteins and tripeptide frequencies of proteins in Swissprot data, which results in a reliable set of new genes in a genome. Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the methodology can handle genomes of any GC-content, size and number of annotated genes.

  12. Gene-based and semantic structure of the Gene Ontology as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, Claudia; Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The last decade has seen the advent and consolidation of ontology based tools for the identification and biological interpretation of classes of genes, such as the Gene Ontology. The Gene Ontology (GO) is constantly evolving over time. The information accumulated time-by-time and included in the GO is encoded in the definition of terms and in the setting up of semantic relations amongst terms. Here we investigate the Gene Ontology from a complex network perspective. We consider the semantic network of terms naturally associated with the semantic relationships provided by the Gene Ontology consortium. Moreover, the GO is a natural example of bipartite network of terms and genes. Here we are interested in studying the properties of the projected network of terms, i.e. a gene-based weighted network of GO terms, in which a link between any two terms is set if at least one gene is annotated in both terms. One aim of the present paper is to compare the structural properties of the semantic and the gene-based network. The relative importance of terms is very similar in the two networks, but the community structure changes. We show that in some cases GO terms that appear to be distinct from a semantic point of view are instead connected, and appear in the same community when considering their gene content. The identification of such gene-based communities of terms might therefore be the basis of a simple protocol aiming at improving the semantic structure of GO. Information about terms that share large gene content might also be important from a biomedical point of view, as it might reveal how genes over-expressed in a certain term also affect other biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components not directly linked according to GO semantics.

  13. Triplex inducer-directed self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes: a triplex DNA-based approach for controlled manipulation of nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chao; Qu, Konggang; Xu, Can; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    As a promising strategy for artificially control of gene expression, reversible assembly of nanomaterials and DNA nanomachine, DNA triplex formation has received much attention. Carbon nanotubes as gene and drug delivery vector or as ‘building blocks’ in nano/microelectronic devices have been successfully explored. Therefore, studies on triplex DNA-based carbon nanotube hybrid materials are important for development of smart nanomaterials and for gene therapy. In this report, a small molecule...

  14. Seed-based biclustering of gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulated biological research outcomes show that biological functions do not depend on individual genes, but on complex gene networks. Microarray data are widely used to cluster genes according to their expression levels across experimental conditions. However, functionally related genes generally do not show coherent expression across all conditions since any given cellular process is active only under a subset of conditions. Biclustering finds gene clusters that have similar expression levels across a subset of conditions. This paper proposes a seed-based algorithm that identifies coherent genes in an exhaustive, but efficient manner. METHODS: In order to find the biclusters in a gene expression dataset, we exhaustively select combinations of genes and conditions as seeds to create candidate bicluster tables. The tables have two columns (a a gene set, and (b the conditions on which the gene set have dissimilar expression levels to the seed. First, the genes with less than the maximum number of dissimilar conditions are identified and a table of these genes is created. Second, the rows that have the same dissimilar conditions are grouped together. Third, the table is sorted in ascending order based on the number of dissimilar conditions. Finally, beginning with the first row of the table, a test is run repeatedly to determine whether the cardinality of the gene set in the row is greater than the minimum threshold number of genes in a bicluster. If so, a bicluster is outputted and the corresponding row is removed from the table. Repeating this process, all biclusters in the table are systematically identified until the table becomes empty. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents a novel biclustering algorithm for the identification of additive biclusters. Since it involves exhaustively testing combinations of genes and conditions, the additive biclusters can be found more readily.

  15. 基于机器视觉的机器人写字技术的设计%Design of Writing by Robot Manipulator Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何薇; 钱增磊; 唐超; 蒋玉兵; 江耿红; 肖文皓; 白瑞林

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of experiment and teaching, the article proposed a method of writing by manipulator based on machine vision. This method, which uses 6-axis robot manipulator of DENSO VP6242g and machine vision of XINJE as the experimental platform, picks up the image information of the characters by machine vision, programs by VC + + , and transmits the image to computer by user-defined protocol of machine vision; it also makes a series of image processing by the OpenCV libraries, including threshold, close, thinning and character segmentation. The information of coordinates of character coming from image processing can then be used to control the manipulators movement, with the manipulator controller connected to the computer via 0RiN2, thus completing the writing process. The experimental results prove that this method can drive the manipulator to write the character caught by machine vision correctly. And the writing can be recognized easily.%针对教学与实验,提出一种基于机器视觉的机器人写字方法.以六自由度DENSO VP6242G机器人、信捷机器视觉和PC机为实验平台,通过机器视觉获取字符的图像信息,采用VC++编程,利用机器视觉自定义协议将图像传输给PC机;借助OpenCV库对图像进行阈值化、闭运算、细化和笔画分割等一系列的处理;利用图像处理得到字符坐标信息控制机器人的多轴联动,机器人控制器与PC机之间通过ORiN2连接,从而完成字符的书写.实验表明,在字迹清晰条件下该方法能够使机器人准确地写出机器视觉所看到的字符.

  16. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  17. Modified gateway system for double shRNA expression and Cre/lox based gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing need for functional studies of genes has set the stage for the development of versatile tools for genetic manipulations. Results Aiming to provide tools for high throughput analysis of gene functions, we have developed a modified short hairpin RNA (shRNA and gene expression system based on Gateway Technology. The system contains a series of entry and destination vectors that enables easy transfer of shRNA or cDNA into lentiviral expression systems with a variety of selection or marker genes (i.e. puromycin, hygromycin, green fluorescent protein-EGFP, yellow fluorescent protein-YFP and red fluorescent protein-dsRed2. Our shRNA entry vector pENTR.hU6.hH1 containing two tandem human shRNA expression promoters, H1 and U6, was capable of co-expressing two shRNA sequences simultaneously. The entry vector for gene overexpression, pENTR.CMV.ON was constructed to contain CMV promoter with a multiple cloning site flanked by loxP sites allowing for subsequent Cre/lox recombination. Both shRNA and cDNA expression vectors also contained attL sites necessary for recombination with attR sites in our destination expression vectors. As proof of principle we demonstrate the functionality and efficiency of this system by testing expression of several cDNA and shRNA sequences in a number of cell lines. Conclusion Our system is a valuable addition to already existing library of Gateway based vectors and can be an essential tool for many aspects of gene functional studies.

  18. Simulation Modeling of the Motion Control of a Two Degree of Freedom, Tendon Based, Parallel Manipulator in Operational Space Using MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiu; HILLER Manfred; FANG Shi-qing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a dynamical model of a two degree of freedom, tendon based, parallel manipulator (TBPM) system is proposed. The motion control methods of the TBPM system were designed. Using MATLAB, the motion control simulation of this model TBPM system was implemented in preparation for actual experiments. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the response time of the system was in a reasonable range, the motion behavior of the platform was stable and the tension forces acting on the tendons were in a safe range and acceptable. Furthermore, the parameters of the controllers were optimized using MATLAB and better results for the time response were obtained.

  19. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Priedigkeit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.

  20. AAV-Based Targeting Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Shi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first parvovirus serotype AAV2 was isolated from human and used as a vector for gene therapy application, there have been significant progresses in AAV vector development. AAV vectors have been extensively investigated in gene therapy for a broad application. AAV vectors have been considered as the first choice of vector due to efficient infectivity, stable expression and non-pathogenicity. However, the untoward events in AAV mediated in vivo gene therapy studies proposed the new challenges for their further applications. Deep understanding of the viral life cycle, viral structure and replication, infection mechanism and efficiency of AAV DNA integration, in terms of contributing viral, host-cell factors and circumstances would promote to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages and provide more insightful information for the possible clinical applications. In this review, main effort will be focused on the recent progresses in gene delivery to the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction and DNA specific integration regulation. Furthermore AAV receptor and virus particle intracellular trafficking are also discussed.

  1. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  2. Effect of manipulating progesterone before timed artificial insemination on reproductive and endocrine parameters in seasonal-calving, pasture-based Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, P M; Carvalho, P D; Lucy, M C; Curran, F; Herlihy, M M; Waters, S M; Larkin, J A; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    Fertility to timed AI (TAI) is profoundly affected by progesterone (P4) levels during hormonal synchronization protocols. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in a seasonal-calving, pasture-based production system were randomly assigned to 2 treatments to manipulate P4 before TAI during growth of the preovulatory follicle. Cows in the first treatment (High P4; n=30) were submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol {Pre-Ovsynch [GnRH; 7 d, PGF2α; 3 d, GnRH] followed 7 d later by Breeding-Ovsynch [GnRH (G1); 7 d PGF2α; 24 h, PGF2α; 32 h, GnRH (G2); 16 h, TAI]}. Cows in the second treatment (n=30; Low P4) received the same Double-Ovsynch protocol but with an additional PGF2α treatment 24 h after G1. Overall, synchronization rate did not differ between treatments and was 92% (55/60). Unexpectedly, 37% of Low P4 cows were detected in estrus ~24 h before scheduled TAI and were inseminated ~16 h before scheduled TAI. Overall, P4 did not differ between treatments at G1, whereas High P4 cows had greater P4 concentrations at PGF2α and G2 than Low P4 cows. High P4 cows had the smallest mean follicle diameter at G2, whereas Low P4 cows with no estrus before TAI had intermediate mean follicle diameter at G2, and Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had the largest mean follicle diameter. Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI had larger corpora lutea 15 d after TAI than Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI or High P4 cows. In accordance with corpus luteum size on d 15, High P4 cows and Low P4 cows without estrus before TAI had lower P4 from 4 to 46 d after TAI than Low P4 cows with estrus before TAI. Relative mRNA levels of the interferon-stimulated genes ISG15, MX1, MX2, and OAS1 were greater for Low P4 than for High P4 cows, whereas relative mRNA levels of RTP4 were greater for High P4 than for Low P4 cows 18 d after TAI. Treatment did not affect plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations after TAI; however, pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations were

  3. Increased complexity of gene structure and base composition in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Huizhong Yuan; Shengjun Tan; Jian-Qun Chen; Dacheng Tian; Haiwang Yang

    2011-01-01

    How the structure and base composition of genes changed with the evolution of vertebrates remains a puzzling question. Here we analyzed 895 orthologous protein-coding genes in six multicellular animals: human, chicken, zebrafish, sea squirt, fruit fly, and worm. Our analyses reveal that many gene regions, particularly intron and 3' UTR, gradually expanded throughout the evolution of vertebrates from their invertebrate ancestors, and that the number of exons per gene increased. Studies based on all protein-coding genes in each genome provide consistent results.We also find that GC-content increased in many gene regions (especially 5' UTR) in the evolution of endotherms, except in coding-exons.Analysis of individual genomes shows that 3′ UTR demonstrated stronger length and CC-content correlation with intron than 5' UTR, and gene with large intron in all six species demonstrated relatively similar GC-content. Our data indicates a great increase in complexity in vertebrate genes and we propose that the requirement for morphological and functional changes is probably the driving force behind the evolution of structure and base composition complexity in multicellular animal genes.

  4. A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari Raj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important consideration when analyzing both microarray and quantitative PCR expression data is the selection of appropriate genes as endogenous controls or reference genes. This step is especially critical when identifying genes differentially expressed between datasets. Moreover, reference genes suitable in one context (e.g. lung cancer may not be suitable in another (e.g. breast cancer. Currently, the main approach to identify reference genes involves the mining of expression microarray data for highly expressed and relatively constant transcripts across a sample set. A caveat here is the requirement for transcript normalization prior to analysis, and measurements obtained are relative, not absolute. Alternatively, as sequencing-based technologies provide digital quantitative output, absolute quantification ensues, and reference gene identification becomes more accurate. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE profiles of non-malignant and malignant lung samples were compared using a permutation test to identify the most stably expressed genes across all samples. Subsequently, the specificity of the reference genes was evaluated across multiple tissue types, their constancy of expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR, and their impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data was evaluated. Results We show that (i conventional references genes such as ACTB and GAPDH are highly variable between cancerous and non-cancerous samples, (ii reference genes identified for lung cancer do not perform well for other cancer types (breast and brain, (iii reference genes identified through SAGE show low variability using qPCR in a different cohort of samples, and (iv normalization of a lung cancer gene expression microarray dataset with or without our reference genes, yields different results for differential gene expression and subsequent analyses. Specifically, key established pathways in lung

  5. Prediction of Tumor Outcome Based on Gene Expression Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Juan; Hitoshi Iba

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression microarray data can be used to classify tumor types. We proposed a new procedure to classify human tumor samples based on microarray gene expressions by using a hybrid supervised learning method called MOEA+WV (Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm+Weighted Voting). MOEA is used to search for a relatively few subsets of informative genes from the high-dimensional gene space, and WV is used as a classification tool. This new method has been applied to predicate the subtypes of lymphoma and outcomes of medulloblastoma. The results are relatively accurate and meaningful compared to those from other methods.

  6. Modeling of contact theories for the manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles in the form of circular crowned rollers based on the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has dealt with the development and modeling of various contact theories for biological nanoparticles shaped as cylinders and circular crowned rollers for application in the manipulation of different biological micro/nanoparticles based on Atomic Force Microscope. First, the effective contact forces were simulated, and their impact on contact mechanics simulation was investigated. In the next step, the Hertz contact model was simulated and compared for gold and DNA nanoparticles with the three types of spherical, cylindrical, and circular crowned roller type contact geometries. Then by reducing the length of the cylindrical section in the circular crowned roller geometry, the geometry of the body was made to approach that of a sphere, and the results were compared for DNA nanoparticles. To anticipatory validate the developed theories, the results of the cylindrical and the circular crowned roller contacts were compared with the results of the existing spherical contact simulations. Following the development of these contact models for the manipulation of various biological micro/nanoparticles, the cylindrical and the circular crowned roller type contact theories were modeled based on the theories of Lundberg, Dowson, Nikpur, Heoprich, and Hertz for the manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles. Then, for a more accurate validation, the results obtained from the simulations were compared with those obtained by the finite element method and with the experimental results available in previous articles. The previous research works on the simulation of nanomanipulation have mainly investigated the contact theories used in the manipulation of spherical micro/nanoparticles. However since in real biomanipulation situations, biological micro/nanoparticles of more complex shapes need to be displaced in biological environments, this article therefore has modeled and compared, for the first time, different contact theories for use in the biomanipulation of

  7. Circular-rubbing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ "Mo" literally means "rubbing between two things"and "eliminating". Circular-rubbing is one of the earliest manipulations used in clinical practice. Circular-rubbing differs from pressing actually. Pressing is a static manipulation and acts to inhibit motion; circular-rubbing is a movable manipulation and serves to eliminate stationary. Circular-rubbing can be performed by either the palm or the finger.

  8. A new gene ontology-based measure for the functional similarity of gene products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Guo-long; QIAN Shi-yu; FANG Ji-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although biomedical ontologies have standardized the representation of gene products across species and databases,a method for determining the functional similarities of gene products has not yet been developed.Methods We proposed a new semantic similarity measure based on Gene Ontology that considers the semantic influences from all of the ancestor terms in a graph.Our measure was compared with Resnik's measure in two applications,which were based on the association of the measure used with the gene co-expression and the proteinprotein interactions.Results The results showed a considerable association between the semantic similarity and the expression correlation and between the semantic similarity and the protein-protein interactions,and our measure performed the best overall.Conclusion These results revealed the potential value of our newly proposed semantic similarity measure in studying the functional relevance of gene products.

  9. Control of Flexible Joint Manipulator via Variable Structure Rule-Based Fuzzy Control and Chaos Anti-Control with Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rostami Kandroodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a variable structure rule-based fuzzy control for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator by using chaotic anti-control. Based on Lyapunov stability theory for variable structure control and fuzzy rules, the nonlinear controller and some generic sufficient conditions for global asymptotic control are attained. The fuzzy rules are directly constructed subject to a Lyapunov function obtained from variable structure surfaces such that the error dynamics of control problem satisfy stability in the Lyapunov sense. Also in this study, the anti-control is applied to reduce the deflection angle of flexible joint system. To achieve this goal, the chaos dynamic must be created in the flexible joint system. So, the flexible joint system has been synchronized to chaotic gyroscope system. In this study, control and anti-control concepts are applied to achieve the high quality performance of flexible joint system. It is tried to design a controller which is capable to satisfy the control and anti- control aims. The performances of the proposed control are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed method is validated through experimentation on QUANSER’s flexible-joint manipulator.

  10. Research on a Nonlinear Robust Adaptive Control Method of the Elbow Joint of a Seven-Function Hydraulic Manipulator Based on Double-Screw-Pair Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaosheng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive control method with full-state feedback is proposed based on the fact that the elbow joint of a seven-function hydraulic manipulator with double-screw-pair transmission features the following control characteristics: a strongly nonlinear hydraulic system, parameter uncertainties susceptible to temperature and pressure changes of the external environment, and unknown outer disturbances. Combined with the design method of the back-stepping controller, the asymptotic stability of the control system in the presence of disturbances from uncertain systematic parameters and unknown external disturbances was demonstrated using Lyapunov stability theory. Based on the elbow joint of the seven-function master-slave hydraulic manipulator for the 4500 m Deep-Sea Working System as the research subject, a comparative study was conducted using the control method presented in this paper for unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experiments of different unknown outer disturbances showed that (1 the proposed controller could robustly track the desired reference trajectory with satisfactory dynamic performance and steady accuracy and that (2 the modified parameter adaptive laws could also guarantee that the estimated parameters are bounded.

  11. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  12. Combined method for parallel manipulator configuration design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Configuration design is an essential, creative and decision-making step in parallel manipulator design process, in which modeling and assembly are iterative and trivial. Combined approach with automatic parametric modeling and automatic assembly is proposed for parallel manipulator configuration design. The design process and key techniques, such as configuration design, configuration verification, poses calculation of all parts in parallel manipulator, virtual assembly and etc., are discussed and demonstrated by an example. A software package is developed for parallel manipulator configuration design based on the proposed method with Visual C+ + and UG/OPEN on Unigraphics.

  13. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; L(U) Jun-Hong; LI Hai-Kuo; AN Hong-Jie; WANG Guo-Hua; WANG Ying; LI Min-Qian; ZHANG Yi; LI Bin

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as "cutting", "pushing", "folding", "kneading", "picking up", "dipping", etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed.

  14. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  15. The Impact of an Ego Depletion Manipulation on Performance-Based and Self-Report Assessment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charek, Daniel B; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants' Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures. PMID:26002059

  16. Speeding disease gene discovery by sequence based candidate prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porteous David J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of interest identified through genetic linkage studies regularly exceed 30 centimorgans in size and can contain hundreds of genes. Traditionally this number is reduced by matching functional annotation to knowledge of the disease or phenotype in question. However, here we show that disease genes share patterns of sequence-based features that can provide a good basis for automatic prioritization of candidates by machine learning. Results We examined a variety of sequence-based features and found that for many of them there are significant differences between the sets of genes known to be involved in human hereditary disease and those not known to be involved in disease. We have created an automatic classifier called PROSPECTR based on those features using the alternating decision tree algorithm which ranks genes in the order of likelihood of involvement in disease. On average, PROSPECTR enriches lists for disease genes two-fold 77% of the time, five-fold 37% of the time and twenty-fold 11% of the time. Conclusion PROSPECTR is a simple and effective way to identify genes involved in Mendelian and oligogenic disorders. It performs markedly better than the single existing sequence-based classifier on novel data. PROSPECTR could save investigators looking at large regions of interest time and effort by prioritizing positional candidate genes for mutation detection and case-control association studies.

  17. The Movement Control of Manipulator Based on S7-200PLC%基于S7-200PLC的机械手运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅

    2014-01-01

    基于S7-200PLC对机械手的运动进行一系列控制,这些运动包括手臂上下、左右直线运动,手腕旋转运动,手爪夹紧动作和机械手整体旋转运动等。所采用的动力机构是步进电机,能够做到精确控制。在多个行程开关传感器的保护下,保证了这些运动万无一失。%The various movements of manipulator are controlled based on S7-200PLC. These movements include arms' up and down, left and right straight movements, wrist rotation, gripper clamping action and manipulator overall spin movement, etc. The power mechanism adopted is stepper motor, which can achieve precise control. Under the protection of multiple trip switch sensors, those movements are perfectly performed.

  18. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that de

  19. Development of Nano- and Microparticle Technologies for Targeted Gene Silencing through RNA Interference Manipulation of the Immune Response in Inflammatory Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ciara

    2011-01-01

    RNA Interference (RNAi) allows specific and potent knockdown of target genes and interest now lies beyond its use as a molecular biology tool and in its potential as a therapeutic to mediate gene silencing in diseased cells. Targeted local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs via inhalation offers a unique opportunity to treat a range of previously unbeatable or poorly controlled respiratory conditions. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defence against inhaled toxin...

  20. Efficient Gene Transfer Mediated by HIV-1-based Defective Lentivector and Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors have drawn considerable attention recently and show great promise to become important delivery vehicles for future gene transfer manipulation. In the present study we have optimized a protocol for preparation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-based defective lentiviral vectors (DLV) and characterized these vectors in terms of their transduction of different cells. Transient co-transfection of 293T packaging cells with DNA plasmids encoding lentiviral vector constituents resulted in production of high-titer DLV (0.5-1.2 × 107IU/mL), which can be further concentrated over 100-fold through a single step ultracentrifugation. These vectors were capable of transducing a variety of cells from both primate and non-primate sources and high transduction efficiency was achieved using concentrated vectors. Assessment of potential generation of RCV revealed no detection of infection by infectious particles in DLV-transduced CEM, SupT-1 and MT-2 cells. Long-term culture of transduced cells showed a stable expression of transgenes without apparent alteration in cellular morphology and growth kinetics. Vector mobilization to untransduced cells mediated by wild-type HIV-1 infection was confirmed in this test. Challenge of transduced human T-lymphocytes with wild-type HIV-1 showed these cells are totally resistant to the viral infection. Considering the effective gene transfer and stable gene expression, safety and anti-HIV activity, these DLV vectors warrant further exploration for their potential use as a gene transfer vehicle in the development of gene therapy protocols.

  1. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajeong Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large degree and BC values in the global network. We performed gene expression analysis to detect candidate genes in M. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling scores 2 to 7 using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrate that transmembrane protein 60 (TMEM60 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD are associated with increasing marbling fat. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may be an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with complex traits like marbling or tenderness.

  2. Modeling Gene Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Based on Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and innovative analysis of gene regulatory network structures may reveal novel insights to biological mechanisms. Here we study how gene regulatory network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can differ under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To achieve this, we discretized the gene expression profiles and calculated the self-entropy of down- and upregulation of gene expression as well as joint entropy. Based on these quantities the uncertainty coefficient was calculated for each gene triplet, following which, separate gene logic networks were constructed for the aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Four structural parameters such as average degree, average clustering coefficient, average shortest path, and average betweenness were used to compare the structure of the corresponding aerobic and anaerobic logic networks. Five genes were identified to be putative key components of the two energy metabolisms. Furthermore, community analysis using the Newman fast algorithm revealed two significant communities for the aerobic but only one for the anaerobic network. David Gene Functional Classification suggests that, under aerobic conditions, one such community reflects the cell cycle and cell replication, while the other one is linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  3. The gene expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on Affymetrix gene chips provide insight into regulatory and hypothetical genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Liu Casey S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a leading infectious disease with global public health threat. Its control and management have been complicated by multi-drug resistance and latent infection, which prompts scientists to find new and more effective drugs. With the completion of the genome sequence of the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is now feasible to search for new drug targets by sieving through a large number of gene products and conduct genome-scale experiments based on microarray technology. However, the full potential of genome-wide microarray analysis in configuring interrelationships among all genes in M. tuberculosis has yet to be realized. To date, it is only possible to assign a function to 52% of proteins predicted in the genome. Results We conducted a functional-genomics study using the high-resolution Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip. Approximately one-half of the genes were found to be always expressed, including more than 100 predicted conserved hypotheticals, in the genome of M. tuberculosis during the log phase of in vitro growth. The gene expression profiles were analyzed and visualized through cluster analysis to epitomize the full details of genomic behavior. Broad patterns derived from genome-wide expression experiments in this study have provided insight into the interrelationships among genes in the basic cellular processes of M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Our results have confirmed several known gene clusters in energy production, information pathways, and lipid metabolism, and also hinted at potential roles of hypothetical and regulatory proteins.

  4. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Objectives. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice e

  5. A study of nanoparticle manipulation using ultrasonic standing waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Rasidovic, A.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the noninvasive manipulation of particles in dispersions during the last 15 years. The manipulation techniques based on acoustic radiation forces are particularly interesting as they allow for the manipulation of particles based on their density, compressibili

  6. GOBO: gene expression-based outcome for breast cancer online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Ringnér

    Full Text Available Microarray-based gene expression analysis holds promise of improving prognostication and treatment decisions for breast cancer patients. However, the heterogeneity of breast cancer emphasizes the need for validation of prognostic gene signatures in larger sample sets stratified into relevant subgroups. Here, we describe a multifunctional user-friendly online tool, GOBO (http://co.bmc.lu.se/gobo, allowing a range of different analyses to be performed in an 1881-sample breast tumor data set, and a 51-sample breast cancer cell line set, both generated on Affymetrix U133A microarrays. GOBO supports a wide range of applications including: 1 rapid assessment of gene expression levels in subgroups of breast tumors and cell lines, 2 identification of co-expressed genes for creation of potential metagenes, 3 association with outcome for gene expression levels of single genes, sets of genes, or gene signatures in multiple subgroups of the 1881-sample breast cancer data set. The design and implementation of GOBO facilitate easy incorporation of additional query functions and applications, as well as additional data sets irrespective of tumor type and array platform.

  7. Cancer classification based on gene expression using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H P; Niu, Z J; Bai, Y P; Tan, X H

    2015-12-21

    Based on gene expression, we have classified 53 colon cancer patients with UICC II into two groups: relapse and no relapse. Samples were taken from each patient, and gene information was extracted. Of the 53 samples examined, 500 genes were considered proper through analyses by S-Kohonen, BP, and SVM neural networks. Classification accuracy obtained by S-Kohonen neural network reaches 91%, which was more accurate than classification by BP and SVM neural networks. The results show that S-Kohonen neural network is more plausible for classification and has a certain feasibility and validity as compared with BP and SVM neural networks.

  8. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  9. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  10. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  11. Sound visualization and manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-01-01

    Unique in addressing two different problems - sound visualization and manipulation - in a unified way Advances in signal processing technology are enabling ever more accurate visualization of existing sound fields and precisely defined sound field production. The idea of explaining both the problem of sound visualization and the problem of the manipulation of sound within one book supports this inter-related area of study.  With rapid development of array technologies, it is possible to do much in terms of visualization and manipulation, among other technologies involved with the spatial dis

  12. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  13. Sucrose ester based cationic liposomes as effective non-viral gene vectors for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Zhu, Jie; Zhou, Hengjun; Guo, Xin; Tian, Tian; Cui, Shaohui; Zhen, Yuhong; Zhang, Shubiao; Xu, Yuhong

    2016-09-01

    As sucrose esters (SEs) are natural and biodegradable excipients with excellent drug dissolution and drug absorption/permeation in controlled release systems, we firstly incorporated SE into liposomes for gene delivery in this article. A peptide-based lipid (CDO14), Gemini-based quaternary ammonium-based lipid (CTA14), and mono-head quaternary ammonium lipid (CPA14), and SE as helper lipid, were prepared into liposomes which could enhance the interactions between liposomes and pDNA. Most importantly, the liposomes with helper lipid SE showed higher transfection and lower cytotoxicity than those without SE in Hela and A549 cells. It was also found that the transfection efficiency increased with the increase of SE content. The selected liposome, CDO14/SE, was able to deliver siRNA against luciferase for silencing gene in lung tumors of mice, with little in vivo toxicity. The results convincingly demonstrated SEs could be highly desirable candidates for gene delivery systems. PMID:27232309

  14. PCR-based detection of gene transfer vectors: application to gene doping surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Irene C; Le Guiner, Caroline; Ni, Weiyi; Lyles, Jennifer; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O

    2013-12-01

    Athletes who illicitly use drugs to enhance their athletic performance are at risk of being banned from sports competitions. Consequently, some athletes may seek new doping methods that they expect to be capable of circumventing detection. With advances in gene transfer vector design and therapeutic gene transfer, and demonstrations of safety and therapeutic benefit in humans, there is an increased probability of the pursuit of gene doping by athletes. In anticipation of the potential for gene doping, assays have been established to directly detect complementary DNA of genes that are top candidates for use in doping, as well as vector control elements. The development of molecular assays that are capable of exposing gene doping in sports can serve as a deterrent and may also identify athletes who have illicitly used gene transfer for performance enhancement. PCR-based methods to detect foreign DNA with high reliability, sensitivity, and specificity include TaqMan real-time PCR, nested PCR, and internal threshold control PCR. PMID:23912835

  15. Manipulation by physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriax, J

    1970-03-01

    Divergent opinions exist on whether or not physiotherapists should manipulate. The controversy can be simply resolved by pointing out that the past policy of withholding such tuition from physiotherapists has in no way diminished the public demand for manipulation; it has merely forced potential patients to the bonesetter. Even those doctors who resent the idea of physiotherapists manipulating must surely prefer its performance by trained personnel working under doctors' guidance to indiscriminate recourse to all sorts of largely untrained laymen without doctors' prior approval. Come what may, the patients are going to be manipulated; at least let this then be sought from trained physiotherapists who give treatment ethically to patients sent to them by doctors.

  16. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  17. Manipulating Strings in Python

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Turkel; Adam Crymble

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  18. Nanoparticle manipulation by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, non-uniform electric field proved to be the most promising technique for nanoparticles manipulation with applications in fields such as medicine, biology, physics or nano technology. The paper presents a set of numerical results concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces on a nanoparticle suspension. The DEP force depends on the electric properties of the nanoparticles, as well as their shape, size and mass, and the properties of the surrounding medium. The numerical study was performed in the frame of a mathematical model describing the electric field distribution and the suspended nanoparticle movement in a dense and viscous fluid. The equations are solved, together with the appropriate boundary conditions using a code based on the finite element method. The dielectrophoretic force distribution, the particle trajectories and the nanoparticle concentration profile are computed. This type of analysis leads to the optimization of the control parameters and is crucial in the designing process of an experimental micro fluidic device with application in the separation of submicronic particles. (Author)

  19. PaGenBase: a pattern gene database for the global and dynamic understanding of gene function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bo Pan

    Full Text Available Pattern genes are a group of genes that have a modularized expression behavior under serial physiological conditions. The identification of pattern genes will provide a path toward a global and dynamic understanding of gene functions and their roles in particular biological processes or events, such as development and pathogenesis. In this study, we present PaGenBase, a novel repository for the collection of tissue- and time-specific pattern genes, including specific genes, selective genes, housekeeping genes and repressed genes. The PaGenBase database is now freely accessible at http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/PaGenBase/. In the current version (PaGenBase 1.0, the database contains 906,599 pattern genes derived from the literature or from data mining of more than 1,145,277 gene expression profiles in 1,062 distinct samples collected from 11 model organisms. Four statistical parameters were used to quantitatively evaluate the pattern genes. Moreover, three methods (quick search, advanced search and browse were designed for rapid and customized data retrieval. The potential applications of PaGenBase are also briefly described. In summary, PaGenBase will serve as a resource for the global and dynamic understanding of gene function and will facilitate high-level investigations in a variety of fields, including the study of development, pathogenesis and novel drug discovery.

  20. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female i

  1. Cytochrome P450-based cancer gene therapy: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, On; Kingsman, Susan; Naylor, Stuart

    2002-12-01

    Results from a number of preclinical studies have demonstrated that a P450-based gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy for the treatment of cancer is both safe and efficacious. This strategy has now moved forward into the clinic. At least two different approaches using different delivery methods (retroviral vector MetXia [Oxford BioMedica] and encapsulated P450 expressing cells), different cytochrome P450 isoforms (human CYP2B6 versus rat CYP2B1) and different prodrugs (cyclophosphamide [CPA] versus ifosfamide [IFA]) have concluded Phase I/II clinical trial with encouraging results. In the future, P450-based GDEPT can potentially be further enhanced by improved vectors for P450 gene delivery and disease-targeted promoters for focused gene expression at the target site. In addition, there is scope for developing synthetic P450s and their respective prodrugs to improve both enzyme kinetics and the profile of the active moiety. PMID:12517265

  2. A Model-Based Joint Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes and Phenotype-Associated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Samuel Sunghwan; Kim, Yongkang; Yoon, Joon; Seo, Minseok; Shin, Su-Kyung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Yun-Jung; Lee, Seungyeoun; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, many analytical methods and tools have been developed for microarray data. The detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among different treatment groups is often a primary purpose of microarray data analysis. In addition, association studies investigating the relationship between genes and a phenotype of interest such as survival time are also popular in microarray data analysis. Phenotype association analysis provides a list of phenotype-associated genes (PAGs). However, it is sometimes necessary to identify genes that are both DEGs and PAGs. We consider the joint identification of DEGs and PAGs in microarray data analyses. The first approach we used was a naïve approach that detects DEGs and PAGs separately and then identifies the genes in an intersection of the list of PAGs and DEGs. The second approach we considered was a hierarchical approach that detects DEGs first and then chooses PAGs from among the DEGs or vice versa. In this study, we propose a new model-based approach for the joint identification of DEGs and PAGs. Unlike the previous two-step approaches, the proposed method identifies genes simultaneously that are DEGs and PAGs. This method uses standard regression models but adopts different null hypothesis from ordinary regression models, which allows us to perform joint identification in one-step. The proposed model-based methods were evaluated using experimental data and simulation studies. The proposed methods were used to analyze a microarray experiment in which the main interest lies in detecting genes that are both DEGs and PAGs, where DEGs are identified between two diet groups and PAGs are associated with four phenotypes reflecting the expression of leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin. Model-based approaches provided a larger number of genes, which are both DEGs and PAGs, than other methods. Simulation studies showed that they have more power than other methods. Through analysis of

  3. A Model-Based Joint Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes and Phenotype-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Sunghwan Cho

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, many analytical methods and tools have been developed for microarray data. The detection of differentially expressed genes (DEGs among different treatment groups is often a primary purpose of microarray data analysis. In addition, association studies investigating the relationship between genes and a phenotype of interest such as survival time are also popular in microarray data analysis. Phenotype association analysis provides a list of phenotype-associated genes (PAGs. However, it is sometimes necessary to identify genes that are both DEGs and PAGs. We consider the joint identification of DEGs and PAGs in microarray data analyses. The first approach we used was a naïve approach that detects DEGs and PAGs separately and then identifies the genes in an intersection of the list of PAGs and DEGs. The second approach we considered was a hierarchical approach that detects DEGs first and then chooses PAGs from among the DEGs or vice versa. In this study, we propose a new model-based approach for the joint identification of DEGs and PAGs. Unlike the previous two-step approaches, the proposed method identifies genes simultaneously that are DEGs and PAGs. This method uses standard regression models but adopts different null hypothesis from ordinary regression models, which allows us to perform joint identification in one-step. The proposed model-based methods were evaluated using experimental data and simulation studies. The proposed methods were used to analyze a microarray experiment in which the main interest lies in detecting genes that are both DEGs and PAGs, where DEGs are identified between two diet groups and PAGs are associated with four phenotypes reflecting the expression of leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and insulin. Model-based approaches provided a larger number of genes, which are both DEGs and PAGs, than other methods. Simulation studies showed that they have more power than other methods

  4. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Drought Response in Rice by Network-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lida Zhang; Shunwu Yu; Kaijing Zuo; Lijun Luo; Kexuan Tang

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie plant responses to drought stress is challenging due to the complex interplay of numerous different genes. Here, we used network-based gene clustering to uncover the relationships between drought-responsive genes from large microarray datasets. We identified 2,607 rice genes that showed significant changes in gene expression under drought stress; 1,392 genes were highly intercorrelated to form 15 gene modules. These drought-responsive gene ...

  5. Real-time compensation of static deflections in robotic manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Calkins, Joseph M

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this work is the real-time prediction and compensation of static deflections in robotic manipulator arms. A general manipulator deflection model is developed based on static beam theory and robot kinematics. An optimization technique is proposed to determine the stiffness of the manipulator components using end-effector deflection measurements. Strategies for incorporating this modeling approach into a manipulator controller are also presented along with the results of a successf...

  6. Numeric processor and text manipulator for the ''MASTER CONTROL'' data-base-management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.W.

    1976-02-10

    The numeric and text processor of the MASTER CONTROL (MCP) data-base-management system permits the user to define fields and arrays that are functionally dependent on the data retained in a data base. This allows the storage of only the essential and unique information and data, and the calculation of derivable quantities as required. The derived quantity can be expressed as an arithmetic expression, that is, a functional relationship. Functions can be multiply subscripted and can be embedded within other functions at up to 58 levels. They can be stored either semi-permanently in a repertoire of functional relations, or they can be defined interactively from a terminal and used immediately for searching on the derived value. The processor also permits the conversion of literal strings into numbers, and vice versa. In addition, the user can define dictionaries that allow the expansion of keyed sentinels associated with records in the data base into fully descriptive expressions. This option can be used for cost-effective searching and data compaction. The functional definitions are reduced to Polish notation and stored in a disk file from which they are either retrieved on demand and evaluated according to the data of records specified or used in any given MASTER CONTROL command. The language used for the definitions of the numeric processor is essentially FORTRAN; most of the standard functions and over two dozen special functions are thus available. The functional processor provides a powerful technique for the integration of text and data for energy research and for scientific and technological work in general. MASTER CONTROL is operational at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). 6 figures, 1 table.

  7. Systematically characterizing and prioritizing chemosensitivity related gene based on Gene Ontology and protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genes that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity of cancer cells is of great importance. Chemosensitivity related genes (CRGs have been widely utilized to guide clinical and cancer chemotherapy decisions. In addition, CRGs potentially share functional characteristics and network features in protein interaction networks (PPIN. Methods In this study, we proposed a method to identify CRGs based on Gene Ontology (GO and PPIN. Firstly, we documented 150 pairs of drug-CCRG (curated chemosensitivity related gene from 492 published papers. Secondly, we characterized CCRGs from the perspective of GO and PPIN. Thirdly, we prioritized CRGs based on CCRGs’ GO and network characteristics. Lastly, we evaluated the performance of the proposed method. Results We found that CCRG enriched GO terms were most often related to chemosensitivity and exhibited higher similarity scores compared to randomly selected genes. Moreover, CCRGs played key roles in maintaining the connectivity and controlling the information flow of PPINs. We then prioritized CRGs using CCRG enriched GO terms and CCRG network characteristics in order to obtain a database of predicted drug-CRGs that included 53 CRGs, 32 of which have been reported to affect susceptibility to drugs. Our proposed method identifies a greater number of drug-CCRGs, and drug-CCRGs are much more significantly enriched in predicted drug-CRGs, compared to a method based on the correlation of gene expression and drug activity. The mean area under ROC curve (AUC for our method is 65.2%, whereas that for the traditional method is 55.2%. Conclusions Our method not only identifies CRGs with expression patterns strongly correlated with drug activity, but also identifies CRGs in which expression is weakly correlated with drug activity. This study provides the framework for the identification of signatures that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity and offers a valuable

  8. Construction of coffee transcriptome networks based on gene annotation semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis F; Galeano, Narmer; Isaza, Gustavo A; Gaitán, Alvaro

    2012-07-24

    Gene annotation is a process that encompasses multiple approaches on the analysis of nucleic acids or protein sequences in order to assign structural and functional characteristics to gene models. When thousands of gene models are being described in an organism genome, construction and visualization of gene networks impose novel challenges in the understanding of complex expression patterns and the generation of new knowledge in genomics research. In order to take advantage of accumulated text data after conventional gene sequence analysis, this work applied semantics in combination with visualization tools to build transcriptome networks from a set of coffee gene annotations. A set of selected coffee transcriptome sequences, chosen by the quality of the sequence comparison reported by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and Interproscan, were filtered out by coverage, identity, length of the query, and e-values. Meanwhile, term descriptors for molecular biology and biochemistry were obtained along the Wordnet dictionary in order to construct a Resource Description Framework (RDF) using Ruby scripts and Methontology to find associations between concepts. Relationships between sequence annotations and semantic concepts were graphically represented through a total of 6845 oriented vectors, which were reduced to 745 non-redundant associations. A large gene network connecting transcripts by way of relational concepts was created where detailed connections remain to be validated for biological significance based on current biochemical and genetics frameworks. Besides reusing text information in the generation of gene connections and for data mining purposes, this tool development opens the possibility to visualize complex and abundant transcriptome data, and triggers the formulation of new hypotheses in metabolic pathways analysis.

  9. Design and Implementation of Visual Dynamic Display Software of Gene Expression Based on GTK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei; MENG Fanjiang; LI Yong; YU Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The paper presented an implement method for a dynamic gene expression display software based on the GTK. This method established the dynamic presentation system of gene expression which according to gene expression data from gene chip hybridize at different time, adopted a linearity combination model and Pearson correlation coefficient algorithm. The system described the gene expression changes in graphic form, the gene expression changes with time and the changes in characteristics of the gene expression, also the changes in relations of the gene expression and regulation relationships among genes. The system also provided an integrated platform for analysis on gene chips data, especially for the research on the network of gene regulation.

  10. An all fiber apparatus for microparticles selective manipulation based on a variable ratio coupler and a microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoli; Luo, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    We propose an all fiber apparatus based on a variable ratio coupler which can transport microparticles controllably and trap particles one by one along a microfiber. By connecting two output ports of a variable ratio coupler with two end pigtails of a microfiber and launching a 980 nm laser into the variable ratio coupler, particles in suspension were trapped to the waist of microfiber due to a gradient force and then transported along the microfiber due to a total scattering force generated by two counter-propagating beams. The direction of transportation was controlled by altering the coupling ratio of the variable ratio coupler. When the intensities of two output ports were equivalent, trapped particles stayed at fixed positions. With time going, another particle around the micro fiber was trapped onto the microfiber. There were three particles trapped in total in our experiment. This technique combines with the function of conventional tweezers and optical conveyor.

  11. APPLICATION OF IMAGE MANIPULATION FOR CAVITATION ANALYZING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method, which is called image manipulation,is introduced to analyze the cavitation of flow field for the first time. As the complexity of the cavitation development must be considering,only the method of image manipulation can calculate the strength of the cavitation more accurately. This method based on wavelet transform is used to eliminate the noise. The area of the cavitations is deduced to serve as the strength of cavitation. The method is applied in an example of inducer's rotating cavitation. The results show that using image manipulation can get the accurate date of cavitation with ease,and the reason of the inducer shaft's vibration is uncovered clearly.

  12. LEGO: a novel method for gene set over-representation analysis by incorporating network-based gene weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinran; Hao, Yun; Wang, Xiao; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-11

    Pathway or gene set over-representation analysis (ORA) has become a routine task in functional genomics studies. However, currently widely used ORA tools employ statistical methods such as Fisher's exact test that reduce a pathway into a list of genes, ignoring the constitutive functional non-equivalent roles of genes and the complex gene-gene interactions. Here, we develop a novel method named LEGO (functional Link Enrichment of Gene Ontology or gene sets) that takes into consideration these two types of information by incorporating network-based gene weights in ORA analysis. In three benchmarks, LEGO achieves better performance than Fisher and three other network-based methods. To further evaluate LEGO's usefulness, we compare LEGO with five gene expression-based and three pathway topology-based methods using a benchmark of 34 disease gene expression datasets compiled by a recent publication, and show that LEGO is among the top-ranked methods in terms of both sensitivity and prioritization for detecting target KEGG pathways. In addition, we develop a cluster-and-filter approach to reduce the redundancy among the enriched gene sets, making the results more interpretable to biologists. Finally, we apply LEGO to two lists of autism genes, and identify relevant gene sets to autism that could not be found by Fisher.

  13. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  14. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation with gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqiang; Shen, Yanyan; Hu, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative models of gene regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this work, we have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence. The proposed model relies on a continuous time, differential equation description of transcriptional dynamics. The sequence features of the promoter are exploited to derive the binding affinity which is derived based on statistical molecular thermodynamics. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively identify the activity levels of transcription factors and the regulatory parameters. Comparing with the previous models, the proposed model can reveal more biological sense.

  15. Graphlet Based Metrics for the Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alberto J. M.; Dominguez, Calixto; Contreras-Riquelme, Sebastián; Holmes, David S.; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the control of gene expression remains one of the main challenges in the post-genomic era. Accordingly, a plethora of methods exists to identify variations in gene expression levels. These variations underlay almost all relevant biological phenomena, including disease and adaptation to environmental conditions. However, computational tools to identify how regulation changes are scarce. Regulation of gene expression is usually depicted in the form of a gene regulatory network (GRN). Structural changes in a GRN over time and conditions represent variations in the regulation of gene expression. Like other biological networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks called graphlets. As a consequence, two new metrics based on graphlets are proposed in this work: REConstruction Rate (REC) and REC Graphlet Degree (RGD). REC determines the rate of graphlet similarity between different states of a network and RGD identifies the subset of nodes with the highest topological variation. In other words, RGD discerns how th GRN was rewired. REC and RGD were used to compare the local structure of nodes in condition-specific GRNs obtained from gene expression data of Escherichia coli, forming biofilms and cultured in suspension. According to our results, most of the network local structure remains unaltered in the two compared conditions. Nevertheless, changes reported by RGD necessarily imply that a different cohort of regulators (i.e. transcription factors (TFs)) appear on the scene, shedding light on how the regulation of gene expression occurs when E. coli transits from suspension to biofilm. Consequently, we propose that both metrics REC and RGD should be adopted as a quantitative approach to conduct differential analyses of GRNs. A tool that implements both metrics is available as an on-line web server (http://dlab.cl/loto). PMID:27695050

  16. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  17. Integrated microfluidic device for droplet manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Droplets based microfluidic systems have a big potential for the miniaturization of processes for bioanalysis. In the form of droplets, reagents are used in discrete volume, enabling high-throughput chemical reactions as well as single-cell encapsulation. Microreactors of this type can be manipulated and applied in bio-testing. In this work we present a platform for droplet generation and manipulation by using dielectrophoresis force. This platform is an integrated microfluidic device wit...

  18. INTEGRATED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR DROPLET MANIPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Basova Evgenia; Drs Jakub; Zemanek Jiri; Hurak Zdenek; Foret František

    2013-01-01

    Droplets based microfluidic systems have a big potential for the miniaturization of processes for bioanalysis. In the form of droplets, reagents are used in discrete volume, enabling high-throughput chemical reactions as well as single-cell encapsulation. Microreactors of this type can be manipulated and applied in bio-testing. In this work we present a platform for droplet generation and manipulation by using dielectrophoresis force. This platform is an integrated microfluidic device wit...

  19. Efficient Computation Of Manipulator Inertia Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1991-01-01

    Improved method for computation of manipulator inertia matrix developed, based on concept of spatial inertia of composite rigid body. Required for implementation of advanced dynamic-control schemes as well as dynamic simulation of manipulator motion. Motivated by increasing demand for fast algorithms to provide real-time control and simulation capability and, particularly, need for faster-than-real-time simulation capability, required in many anticipated space teleoperation applications.

  20. Position-Singularity Analysis of a Class of the 3/6-Gough-Stewart Manipulators based on Singularity-Equivalent-Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2012-03-01

    this class of 3/6‐Gough‐Stewart manipulators for general orientations in parallel principal‐sections are all quadratic expressions, including a parabola, four pairs of intersecting lines and infinite hyperbolas. Finally, the properties of the position‐singularity loci of this class of 3/6‐Gough‐Stewart parallel manipulators in a three‐ dimensional space for all orientations are presented.

  1. Design of wireless video manipulated system based on humanoid robot%基于仿人机器人的无线视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢; 魏衡华

    2014-01-01

    针对仿人机器人的人机交互问题,提出在无线网络下,使用智能手机对配备有摄像头的仿人机器人进行视频监控。基于 Linux 系统,使用 V4L2接口对摄像头视频信息进行采集,并使用JPEG 算法对其进行压缩,使用智能手机的 Web 浏览器显示视频信息,并通过浏览器页面的按钮向机器人发送控制命令。实验结果表明,在无线局域网内,仿人机器人摄像头拍摄到的视频信息可以清晰、稳定、及时地传输到不同系统和品牌的智能手机 Web 浏览器上,用户可根据需要向仿人机器人发送控制命令,操作方便简单,便于使用。%For the problem of humanoid robot interaction , using the smart phone for video manipulation of the humanoid robot equipped with camera via wireless network was proposed . The design used V4L2 interface to collect the information from the camer-a and JPEG algorithm for video compression based on the Linux system , the video could be shown on the browser and the manipu-lation command can send to the robot in the wireless network . Experimental elucidates that the video information can transmit form the humanoid robot camera to the browser on the disparity system and band of smart phone clearly in the wireless local area net-work , user can send command to the robot according to the demand , it demonstrates that the system is compatibility and user friendly .

  2. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeutic efficacy of gene delivery, various carriers have been engineered and developed to provide protection to the genetic materials and efficient delivery to targeted cancer cells. Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been widely applied in cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. Nanoparticles composed of artificial polymers, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids have been developed for the delivery of therapeutic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences to target cancer. In addition, the effectiveness of cancer targeting has been enhanced by surface modification or conjugation with biomolecules on the surface of nanoparticles. In this review article we provide an overview on the latest developments in nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancers. Firstly, we outline the conventional therapies and discuss strategies for targeted gene therapy using nanoparticles. Secondly, we provide the most representative and recent researches in lung cancers including malignant pleural mesothelioma, mainly focusing on the application of Polymeric, Lipid-based, and Metal-based nanoparticles. Finally, we discuss current achievements and future challenges. PMID:27294004

  3. Versatile Supramolecular Gene Vector Based on Host-Guest Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Hennink, Wim E; van Steenbergen, Mies J; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-04-20

    It is a great challenge to arrange multiple functional components into one gene vector system to overcome the extra- and intracellular obstacles for gene therapy. In this study, we developed a supramolecular approach for constructing a versatile gene delivery system composed of adamantyl-terminated functional polymers and a β-cyclodextrin based polymer. Adamantyl-functionalized low molecular weight PEIs (PEI-Ad) and PEG (Ad-PEG) as well as poly(β-cyclodextrin) (PCD) were synthesized by one-step chemical reactions. The supramolecular inclusion complex formed from PCD to assemble LMW PEI-Ad4 via host-guest interactions can condense plasmid DNA to form nanopolyplexes by electrostatic interactions. The supramolecular polyplexes can be further PEGylated with Ad-PEG to form inclusion complexes, which showed increased salt and serum stability. In vitro experiments revealed that these supramolecular assembly polyplexes had good cytocompatibility and showed high transfection activity close to that of the commercial ExGen 500 at high dose of DNA. Also, the supramolecular vector system exhibited about 60% silencing efficiency as a siRNA vector. Thus, a versatile effective supramolecular gene vector based on host-guest complexes was fabricated with good cytocompatbility and transfection activity. PMID:27019340

  4. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  5. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  6. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  7. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  8. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  9. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  10. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  12. Minimal gene selection for classification and diagnosis prediction based on gene expression profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mehridehnavi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: We have shown that the use of two most significant genes based on their S/N ratios and selection of suitable training samples can lead to classify DLBCL patients with a rather good result. Actually with the aid of mentioned methods we could compensate lack of enough number of patients, improve accuracy of classifying and reduce complication of computations and so running time.

  13. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  14. Genetic Manipulation in Δku80 Strains for Functional Genomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Rommereim, Leah M.; Hortua Triana, Miryam A.; Falla, Alejandra; Sanders, Kiah L; Guevara, Rebekah B.; Bzik, David J.; Fox, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted genetic manipulation using homologous recombination is the method of choice for functional genomic analysis to obtain a detailed view of gene function and phenotype(s). The development of mutant strains with targeted gene deletions, targeted mutations, complemented gene function, and/or tagged genes provides powerful strategies to address gene function, particularly if these genetic manipulations can be efficiently targeted to the gene locus of interest using integration mediated by ...

  15. Genetic manipulation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Myriam; Rodrigues, Paulo; Progulske-Fox, Ann

    2007-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobic bacterium, is an important etiological agent of periodontal disease and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, preterm birth, and diabetes as well. Therefore, genetic studies are of crucial importance in investigating molecular mechanisms of P. gingivalis virulence. Although molecular genetic tools have been available for many bacterial species for some time, genetic manipulations of Porphyromonas species were not developed until more recently and remain limited. In this unit, current molecular genetic approaches for mutant construction in P. gingivalis using the suicide vector pPR-UF1 and the transposon Tn4351 are described, as are protocols for performing electroporation and conjugation. Furthermore, a technique to restore the wild-type phenotype of the mutant by complementation using vector pT-COW is provided. Finally, a description of a noninvasive reporter system allowing the study of gene expression and regulation in P. gingivalis completes this unit. PMID:18770611

  16. IL4 gene polymorphism and previous malaria experiences manipulate anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibody isotype profiles in complicated and uncomplicated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalambaheti Thareerat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IL4-590 gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibodies and parasite intensity in the malaria protected Fulani of West Africa. This study aimed to investigate the possible impact of IL4-590C/T polymorphism on anti-P. falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies levels and the alteration of malaria severity in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences. Methods Anti-P.falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies in plasma of complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences were analysed using ELISA. IL4-590 polymorphisms were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Statistical analyses of the IgG subclass levels were done by Oneway ANOVA. Genotype differences were tested by Chi-squared test. Results The IL4-590T allele was significantly associated with anti-P. falciparum IgG3 antibody levels in patients with complicated (P = 0.031, but not with uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.622. Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying IL4-590TT genotype had significantly lower levels of anti-P. falciparum IgG3 (P = 0.0156, while uncomplicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying the same genotype had significantly higher levels (P = 0.0206 compared to their IL4-590 counterparts. The different anti-P. falciparum IgG1 and IgG3 levels among IL4 genotypes were observed. Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences tended to have lower IgG3 levels in individuals carrying TT when compared to CT genotypes (P = 0.075. In contrast, complicated malaria patients without previous malaria experiences carrying CC genotype had significantly higher anti-P. falciparum IgG1 than those carrying either CT or TT genotypes (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that IL4-590C or T alleles participated differently in the

  17. Identification of crucial genes in intracranial aneurysm based on weighted gene coexpression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Xue, C; Luo, G; Hu, Y; Luo, W; Sun, X

    2015-05-01

    The rupture of intracranial aneurysm (IA) is the leading cause for devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study aimed to investigate genes related to IA and potential diagnosis targets. Two data sets (GSE15629 and GSE54083) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. GSE15629 contained eight RI (ruptured IA), six UI (unruptured IA) and five control IA samples. GSE54083 included 8 RI, 5 UI and 10 superficial temporal artery samples. In total, 452 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between RI and control, and 570 DEGs between UI and control, were identified. Protein-protein interaction networks for two kinds of DEGs related to RI and UI were constructed, respectively. Module networks were searched for DEGs related to RI or UI based on WGCNA (weighted gene coexpression network analysis). In the significant modules, FOS, CCL2, COL4A2 and CXCL5 were screened as crucial nodes with high degrees. Among them, FOS and CCL2 were enriched in immune response and COL4A2 was involved in the ECM (extracellular matrix) pathway, whereas CXCL5 was related to cytokine-cytokine receptor pathway. Taken together, FOS, CCL2, COL4A2 and CXCL5 might participate in the pathogenesis of RI or UI, and could serve as potential diagnosis targets. PMID:25721208

  18. PGMA-based gene carriers with lipid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Yu, Bingran; Hu, Hao; Nizam, Muhammad Naeem; Yuan, Wei; Ma, Jie; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2016-08-19

    Lipids, as the greatest constituent in cell membranes, have been widely used for biomedical applications because of their excellent biological properties. The introduction of membrane lipid molecules into gene vectors would embody greater biocompatibility, cellular uptake and transfection efficiency. In this work, one flexible strategy for readily conjugating lipid molecules with polycations was proposed based on atom transfer radical polymerization to produce a series of cholesterol (CHO)- and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-terminated ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s, namely CHO-PGEAs and PI-PGEAs, as effective gene carriers. CHO-PGEAs and PI-PGEAs truly demonstrated much better transfection performances compared to linear ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (denoted as BUCT-PGEA) counterparts and traditional standard branched polythylenimine (PEI, 25 kDa). In addition, the good antitumor effects of CHO-PGEA and PI-PGEA were confirmed with suppressor tumor gene p53 systems in vitro and in vivo. The present work could provide a new strategy to develop effective cationic conjugation of lipid molecules for gene therapy. PMID:27374783

  19. A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao Kaustubh D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.

  20. A Resampling Based Clustering Algorithm for Replicated Gene Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Li, Chun; Hu, Jie; Fan, Xiaodan

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression data analysis, clustering is a fruitful exploratory technique to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism by identifying groups of co-expressed genes. To reduce the noise, usually multiple experimental replicates are performed. An integrative analysis of the full replicate data, instead of reducing the data to the mean profile, carries the promise of yielding more precise and robust clusters. In this paper, we propose a novel resampling based clustering algorithm for genes with replicated expression measurements. Assuming those replicates are exchangeable, we formulate the problem in the bootstrap framework, and aim to infer the consensus clustering based on the bootstrap samples of replicates. In our approach, we adopt the mixed effect model to accommodate the heterogeneous variances and implement a quasi-MCMC algorithm to conduct statistical inference. Experiments demonstrate that by taking advantage of the full replicate data, our algorithm produces more reliable clusters and has robust performance in diverse scenarios, especially when the data is subject to multiple sources of variance. PMID:26671802

  1. A Gene-Pool Based Genetic Algorithm for TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis of previous genetic algo rithms (GAs) for TSP, a novel method called Ge GA is proposed. It combines gene pool and GA so as to direct the evo lution of the whole population. The core of Ge GA is the construction of gene pool and how to apply it to GA. Different from standard GAs, Ge-GA aims to enhance the ability of exploration and exploitation by incorporating global search with local search. On one hand a local search called Ge LocalSearch operator is proposed to improve the solution quality, on the other hand the modified Inver-Over operator called Ge InverOver is considered as a global search mechanism to expand solution space of local minimal. Both of these operators are based on the gene pool. Our algorithm is applied to 11 well-known traveling salesman problems whose numbers of cities are from 70 to 1577 cities. The experiments results indicate that Ge GA has great robustness for TSP. For each test instance, the average value of solution quality, found in accepted time, stays within 0. 001 % from the optimum.

  2. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  3. MANIPULATOR FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.

    1961-04-01

    A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.

  4. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  5. Inference of Gene Regulatory Network Based on Local Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Guo, Wei-Feng; Wei, Ze-Gang; Chen, Luonan

    2016-08-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from expression data can mine the direct regulations among genes and gain deep insights into biological processes at a network level. During past decades, numerous computational approaches have been introduced for inferring the GRNs. However, many of them still suffer from various problems, e.g., Bayesian network (BN) methods cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while information theory-based methods cannot identify the directions of regulatory interactions and also suffer from false positive/negative problems. To overcome the limitations, in this work we present a novel algorithm, namely local Bayesian network (LBN), to infer GRNs from gene expression data by using the network decomposition strategy and false-positive edge elimination scheme. Specifically, LBN algorithm first uses conditional mutual information (CMI) to construct an initial network or GRN, which is decomposed into a number of local networks or GRNs. Then, BN method is employed to generate a series of local BNs by selecting the k-nearest neighbors of each gene as its candidate regulatory genes, which significantly reduces the exponential search space from all possible GRN structures. Integrating these local BNs forms a tentative network or GRN by performing CMI, which reduces redundant regulations in the GRN and thus alleviates the false positive problem. The final network or GRN can be obtained by iteratively performing CMI and local BN on the tentative network. In the iterative process, the false or redundant regulations are gradually removed. When tested on the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in E.coli, our results suggest that LBN outperforms other state-of-the-art methods (ARACNE, GENIE3 and NARROMI) significantly, with more accurate and robust performance. In particular, the decomposition strategy with local Bayesian networks not only effectively reduce

  6. Dynamic simulation and modeling of the motion modes produced during the 3D controlled manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles based on the AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraee, Mahdieh B; Korayem, Moharam H

    2015-08-01

    Determining the motion modes and the exact position of a particle displaced during the manipulation process is of special importance. This issue becomes even more important when the studied particles are biological micro/nanoparticles and the goals of manipulation are the transfer of these particles within body cells, repair of cancerous cells and the delivery of medication to damaged cells. However, due to the delicate nature of biological nanoparticles and their higher vulnerability, by obtaining the necessary force of manipulation for the considered motion mode, we can prevent the sample from interlocking with or sticking to the substrate because of applying a weak force or avoid damaging the sample due to the exertion of excessive force. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors and the motion modes of biological micro/nanoparticles such as DNA, yeast, platelet and bacteria due to the 3D manipulation effect have been investigated. Since the above nanoparticles generally have a cylindrical shape, the cylindrical contact models have been employed in an attempt to more precisely model the forces exerted on the nanoparticle during the manipulation process. Also, this investigation has performed a comprehensive modeling and simulation of all the possible motion modes in 3D manipulation by taking into account the eccentricity of the applied load on the biological nanoparticle. The obtained results indicate that unlike the macroscopic scale, the sliding of nanoparticle on substrate in nano-scale takes place sooner than the other motion modes and that the spinning about the vertical and transverse axes and the rolling of nanoparticle occur later than the other motion modes. The simulation results also indicate that the applied force necessary for the onset of nanoparticle movement and the resulting motion mode depend on the size and aspect ratio of the nanoparticle.

  7. A comprehensive family-based replication study of schizophrenia genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberg, Karolina A; Liu, Youfang; Bukszár, Jozsef;

    2013-01-01

     768 control subjects from 6 databases and, after quality control 6298 individuals (including 3286 cases) from 1811 nuclear families. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Case-control status for SCZ. RESULTS Replication results showed a highly significant enrichment of SNPs with small P values. Of the SNPs...... genes. DESIGN We integrated results from a meta-analysis of 18 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving 1 085 772 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 6 databases that showed significant informativeness for SCZ. The 9380 most promising SNPs were then specifically genotyped...... in an independent family-based replication study that, after quality control, consisted of 8107 SNPs. SETTING Linkage meta-analysis, brain transcriptome meta-analysis, candidate gene database, OMIM, relevant mouse studies, and expression quantitative trait locus databases. PATIENTS We included 11 185 cases and 10...

  8. Efficient manipulation of the human adenovirus genome as an infectious yeast artificial chromosome clone.

    OpenAIRE

    Ketner, G; Spencer, F; Tugendreich, S; C. Connelly; Hieter, P

    1994-01-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a complete human adenovirus type 2 genome was constructed, and viral DNA derived from the YAC was shown to be infectious upon introduction into mammalian cells. The adenovirus YAC could be manipulated efficiently using homologous recombination-based methods in the yeast host, and mutant viruses, including a variant that expresses the human analog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC27 gene, were readily recovered from modified derivatives of the Y...

  9. Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators Based on Variable Structure Method%基于变结构方法的机器手臂自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐得志; 王道波; 冯旭刚

    2012-01-01

    针对二自由度机器手臂的轨迹跟踪控制中出现的运动学模型参数可能发生改变以及外部状况变化和负荷变化等不确定因素,提出基于滑模变结构补偿方法的径向基神经网络自调节控制律,其中径向基神经网络抵偿了系统参数不确定性和外部扰动量,滑模变结构方法抵消了径向基神经网络的逼近误差,较好地消除了系统未知不确定性的影响.仿真结果表明,该控制律能保证轨迹跟踪误差的快速收敛性及对参数不确定性和外部扰动的鲁棒性.%In view of the uncertainty factors, such as parameters change of kinematics model, condition change and load change, which are appear in the trajectory tracking control of 2-dof robot manipulators, a self-regulation neural control law based on the slide mode method is presented. The neural network of radial basis function is employed to compensate the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, in addition, the slide mode variable structure method is used to eliminate the effect of approximation error, and the system uncertainty is overcome effectively. The simulation result shows that the control law can guarantee the fast convergence of trajectory tracking error, as well as the robustness for parameter uncertainties and external disturbances.

  10. Intelligent modular manipulation for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John

    2008-04-01

    As mobile robots continue to gain acceptance across a variety of applications within the defense and civilian markets, the number of tasks that these robot platforms are expected to accomplish are expanding. Robot operators are asked to do more with the same platforms - from EOD missions to reconnaissance and inspection operations. Due to the fact that a majority of missions are dangerous in nature, it is critical that users are able to make remote adjustments to the systems to ensure that they are kept out of harm's way. An efficient way to expand the capabilities of existing robot platforms, improve the efficiency of robot missions, and to ultimately improve the operator's safety is to integrate JAUS-enabled Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads. Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads include both simple and dexterous manipulator arms with plug-and-play end-effector tools that can be changed based on the specific mission. End-effectors that can be swapped down-range provide an added benefit of decreased time-on-target. The intelligence in these systems comes from semi-autonomous mobile manipulation actions that enable the robot operator to perform manipulation task with the touch of a button on the OCU. RE2 is supporting Unmanned Systems Interoperability by utilizing the JAUS standard as the messaging protocol for all of its manipulation systems. Therefore, they can be easily adapted and integrated onto existing JAUS-enabled robot platforms.

  11. Parallel microassembly with a robotic manipulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a methodology to assemble multiple micro-components simultaneously with a robotic manipulator using a parallel assembly method. Through manipulating and assembling the micro-components, intricate, out-of-plane, three-dimensional micro-devices can now be fabricated. Use of a parallel microassembly process rather that a serial approach can significantly increase the productivity and reduce the cost of assembling micro-devices. The parallel microassembly operation proposed in this work was developed and implemented on a 6-DOF robot manipulator to attain considerable manufacturing flexibility. In this study, three passive microgrippers were bonded in parallel to the end-effector of the manipulator. Three microparts were then grasped by the grippers from the worktable of the manipulator, rotated 90°, and assembled onto the base substrate simultaneously. During the parallel microassembly operation, the visual image may not be able to monitor all three gripper-part pairs simultaneously due to the limited field of view of the microscope. Through the use of an alignment-calibration algorithm with only one gripper-part set, the remaining two sets were successfully manipulated and inserted onto the desired assembly location

  12. Group II intron-based gene targeting reactions in eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mastroianni

    Full Text Available Mobile group II introns insert site-specifically into DNA target sites by a mechanism termed retrohoming in which the excised intron RNA reverse splices into a DNA strand and is reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. Retrohoming is mediated by a ribonucleoprotein particle that contains the intron-encoded protein and excised intron RNA, with target specificity determined largely by base pairing of the intron RNA to the DNA target sequence. This feature enabled the development of mobile group II introns into bacterial gene targeting vectors ("targetrons" with programmable target specificity. Thus far, however, efficient group II intron-based gene targeting reactions have not been demonstrated in eukaryotes.By using a plasmid-based Xenopus laevis oocyte microinjection assay, we show that group II intron RNPs can integrate efficiently into target DNAs in a eukaryotic nucleus, but the reaction is limited by low Mg(2+ concentrations. By supplying additional Mg(2+, site-specific integration occurs in up to 38% of plasmid target sites. The integration products isolated from X. laevis nuclei are sensitive to restriction enzymes specific for double-stranded DNA, indicating second-strand synthesis via host enzymes. We also show that group II intron RNPs containing either lariat or linear intron RNA can introduce a double-strand break into a plasmid target site, thereby stimulating homologous recombination with a co-transformed DNA fragment at frequencies up to 4.8% of target sites. Chromatinization of the target DNA inhibits both types of targeting reactions, presumably by impeding RNP access. However, by using similar RNP microinjection methods, we show efficient Mg(2+-dependent group II intron integration into plasmid target sites in zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos and into plasmid and chromosomal target sites in Drosophila melanogster embryos, indicating that DNA replication can mitigate effects of chromatinization.Our results provide an

  13. Rule based classifier for the analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehr Thorsten

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methods have been presented for the analysis of complex interactions between genetic polymorphisms and/or environmental factors. Despite the available methods, there is still a need for alternative methods, because no single method will perform well in all scenarios. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of three selected rule based classifier algorithms, RIPPER, RIDOR and PART, for the analysis of genetic association studies. Methods Overall, 42 datasets were simulated with three different case-control models, a varying number of subjects (300, 600, SNPs (500, 1500, 3000 and noise (5%, 10%, 20%. The algorithms were applied to each of the datasets with a set of algorithm-specific settings. Results were further investigated with respect to a the Model, b the Rules, and c the Attribute level. Data analysis was performed using WEKA, SAS and PERL. Results The RIPPER algorithm discovered the true case-control model at least once in >33% of the datasets. The RIDOR and PART algorithm performed poorly for model detection. The RIPPER, RIDOR and PART algorithm discovered the true case-control rules in more than 83%, 83% and 44% of the datasets, respectively. All three algorithms were able to detect the attributes utilized in the respective case-control models in most datasets. Conclusions The current analyses substantiate the utility of rule based classifiers such as RIPPER, RIDOR and PART for the detection of gene-gene/gene-environment interactions in genetic association studies. These classifiers could provide a valuable new method, complementing existing approaches, in the analysis of genetic association studies. The methods provide an advantage in being able to handle both categorical and continuous variable types. Further, because the outputs of the analyses are easy to interpret, the rule based classifier approach could quickly generate testable hypotheses for additional evaluation. Since the algorithms are

  14. IL-12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Darja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12 displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.

  15. Semantic Search among Heterogeneous Biological Databases Based on Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Liang CAO; Lei QIN; Wei-Zhong HE; Yang ZHONG; Yang-Yong ZHU; Yi-Xue LI

    2004-01-01

    Semantic search is a key issue in integration of heterogeneous biological databases. In thispaper, we present a methodology for implementing semantic search in BioDW, an integrated biological datawarehouse. Two tables are presented: the DB2GO table to correlate Gene Ontology (GO) annotated entriesfrom BioDW data sources with GO, and the semantic similarity table to record similarity scores derived fromany pair of GO terms. Based on the two tables, multifarious ways for semantic search are provided and thecorresponding entries in heterogeneous biological databases in semantic terms can be expediently searched.

  16. Position Control of Redundant Tetrahedron Variable Geometry Truss Manipulators Based on Neural Network%基于神经网络的冗余度四面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼钜; 雷勇; 等

    2001-01-01

    A position control scheme for redundant tetrahedron based variable geometry truss manipulators is proposed based on two BP neural networks. The constraint conditions that is the minimum of change of joint variables are set and the objective function of optimization is defined. Based on it, the position control model of redundant tetrahedron based variable geometry truss manipulators is established. The simulation study of position control system for a four-celled tetrahedron variable geometry truss manipulator is carried out.%提出了一个基于双重BP神经网络的冗余度四 面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制方案,通过增加关节角变化最小的约束条件,定义了优化的 目标函数,在此基础上建立了冗余度四面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制模型,并以四重四面 体变几何桁架机器人位置控制为例进行了系统仿真。

  17. Genetic Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiges, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    One of the great advantages of embryonic stem (ES) cells over other cell types is their accessibility to genetic manipulation. They can easily undergo genetic modifications while remaining pluripotent, and can be selectively propagated, allowing the clonal expansion of genetically altered cells in culture. Since the first isolation of ES cells in mice, many effective techniques have been developed for gene delivery and manipulation of ES cells. These include transfection, electroporation, and infection protocols, as well as different approaches for inserting, deleting, or changing the expression of genes. These methods proved to be extremely useful in mouse ES cells, for monitoring and directing differentiation, discovering unknown genes, and studying their function, and are now being extensively implemented in human ES cells (HESCs). This chapter describes the different approaches and methodologies that have been applied for the genetic manipulation of HESCs and their applications. Detailed protocols for generating clones of genetically modified HESCs by transfection, electroporation, and infection will be described, with special emphasis on the important technical details that are required for this purpose. All protocols are equally effective in human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  18. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  19. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  20. RiceGeneThresher: a web-based application for mining genes underlying QTL in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongjuea, Supat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Bruskiewich, Richard; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2009-01-01

    RiceGeneThresher is a public online resource for mining genes underlying genome regions of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in rice genome. It is a compendium of rice genomic resources consisting of genetic markers, genome annotation, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), protein domains, gene ontology, plant stress-responsive genes, metabolic pathways and prediction of protein-protein interactions. RiceGeneThresher system integrates these diverse data sources and provides powerful web-based applications, and flexible tools for delivering customized set of biological data on rice. Its system supports whole-genome gene mining for QTL by querying using DNA marker intervals or genomic loci. RiceGeneThresher provides biologically supported evidences that are essential for targeting groups or networks of genes involved in controlling traits underlying QTL. Users can use it to discover and to assign the most promising candidate genes in preparation for the further gene function validation analysis. The web-based application is freely available at http://rice.kps.ku.ac.th. PMID:18820292

  1. Improving gene expression similarity measurement using pathway-based analytic dimension

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene expression similarity measuring methods were developed and applied to search rapidly growing public microarray databases. However, current expression similarity measuring methods need to be improved to accurately measure similarity between gene expression profiles from different platforms or different experiments. Results We devised new gene expression similarity measuring method based on pathway information. In short, newly devised method measure similarity between gene expre...

  2. Base J represses genes at the end of polycistronic gene clusters in Leishmania major by promoting RNAP II termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David L; Hofmeister, Brigitte T; Cliffe, Laura; Siegel, T Nicolai; Anderson, Britta A; Beverley, Stephen M; Schmitz, Robert J; Sabatini, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The genomes of kinetoplastids are organized into polycistronic gene clusters that are flanked by the modified DNA base J. Previous work has established a role of base J in promoting RNA polymerase II termination in Leishmania spp. where the loss of J leads to termination defects and transcription into adjacent gene clusters. It remains unclear whether these termination defects affect gene expression and whether read through transcription is detrimental to cell growth, thus explaining the essential nature of J. We now demonstrate that reduction of base J at specific sites within polycistronic gene clusters in L. major leads to read through transcription and increased expression of downstream genes in the cluster. Interestingly, subsequent transcription into the opposing polycistronic gene cluster does not lead to downregulation of sense mRNAs. These findings indicate a conserved role for J regulating transcription termination and expression of genes within polycistronic gene clusters in trypanosomatids. In contrast to the expectations often attributed to opposing transcription, the essential nature of J in Leishmania spp. is related to its role in gene repression rather than preventing transcriptional interference resulting from read through and dual strand transcription.

  3. Incretin manipulation in diabetes management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies have revolutionized the medicalmanagement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)in the 21st century. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)suppresses appetite and gastric motility, and has trophiceffects on pancreas, cardio-protective and renal effects.GLP-1 analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitorsform the incretin-based therapies. Significant reductionof hemoglobin A1c when used as monotherapy andin combination regimens, favorable effects on bodyweight, and low risk of hypoglycemia are their uniquetherapeutic benefits. Their safety and tolerability arecomparable to other anti-diabetic medications. Concernabout elevated risk of pancreatitis has been discardedby two recent meta-analyses. This article discussesthe therapeutic manipulation of incretin system for themanagement of T2DM.

  4. Self mobile space manipulator project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  5. Family genetic algorithms based on gene exchange and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianhua; Ding Xiangqian; Wang Sunan; Yu Qing

    2006-01-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a search techniques based on mechanics of nature selection and have already been successfully applied in many diverse areas. However, increasing samples show that GA's performance is not as good as it was expected to be. Criticism of this algorithm includes the slow speed and premature result during convergence procedure. In order to improve the performance, the population size and individuals' space is emphatically described. The influence of individuals' space and population size on the operators is analyzed. And a novel family genetic algorithm (FGA) is put forward based on this analysis. In this novel algorithm, the optimum solution families closed to quality individuals is constructed, which is exchanged found by a search in the world space. Search will be done in this microspace. The family that can search better genes in a limited period of time would win a new life. At the same time, the best gene of this micro space with the basic population in the world space is exchanged. Finally, the FGA is applied to the function optimization and image matching through several experiments. The results show that the FGA possessed high performance.

  6. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dajeong Lim; Nam-Kuk Kim; Seung-Hwan Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Yong-Min Cho; Han-Ha Chai; Heebal Kim

    2014-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large d...

  7. Design and Transmission Analysis of an Asymmetrical Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Caro, Stéphane; Wang, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an asymmetrical spherical parallel manipulator and its transmissibility analysis. This manipulator contains a center shaft to both generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and support the mobile platform for high positioning accuracy. This work addresses the transmission...... analysis and optimal design of the proposed manipulator based on its kinematic analysis. The input and output transmission indices of the manipulator are defined for its optimum design based on the virtual coefficient between the transmission wrenches and twist screws. The sets of optimal parameters...... are identified and the distribution of the transmission index is visualized. Moreover, a comparative study regarding to the performances with the symmetrical spherical parallel manipulators is conducted and the comparison shows the advantages of the proposed manipulator with respect to its spherical parallel...

  8. Inference of Gene Regulatory Network Based on Local Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Guo, Wei-Feng; Wei, Ze-Gang; Chen, Luonan

    2016-08-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from expression data can mine the direct regulations among genes and gain deep insights into biological processes at a network level. During past decades, numerous computational approaches have been introduced for inferring the GRNs. However, many of them still suffer from various problems, e.g., Bayesian network (BN) methods cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while information theory-based methods cannot identify the directions of regulatory interactions and also suffer from false positive/negative problems. To overcome the limitations, in this work we present a novel algorithm, namely local Bayesian network (LBN), to infer GRNs from gene expression data by using the network decomposition strategy and false-positive edge elimination scheme. Specifically, LBN algorithm first uses conditional mutual information (CMI) to construct an initial network or GRN, which is decomposed into a number of local networks or GRNs. Then, BN method is employed to generate a series of local BNs by selecting the k-nearest neighbors of each gene as its candidate regulatory genes, which significantly reduces the exponential search space from all possible GRN structures. Integrating these local BNs forms a tentative network or GRN by performing CMI, which reduces redundant regulations in the GRN and thus alleviates the false positive problem. The final network or GRN can be obtained by iteratively performing CMI and local BN on the tentative network. In the iterative process, the false or redundant regulations are gradually removed. When tested on the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in E.coli, our results suggest that LBN outperforms other state-of-the-art methods (ARACNE, GENIE3 and NARROMI) significantly, with more accurate and robust performance. In particular, the decomposition strategy with local Bayesian networks not only effectively reduce

  9. Inference of Gene Regulatory Network Based on Local Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Guo, Wei-Feng; Chen, Luonan

    2016-01-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from expression data can mine the direct regulations among genes and gain deep insights into biological processes at a network level. During past decades, numerous computational approaches have been introduced for inferring the GRNs. However, many of them still suffer from various problems, e.g., Bayesian network (BN) methods cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while information theory-based methods cannot identify the directions of regulatory interactions and also suffer from false positive/negative problems. To overcome the limitations, in this work we present a novel algorithm, namely local Bayesian network (LBN), to infer GRNs from gene expression data by using the network decomposition strategy and false-positive edge elimination scheme. Specifically, LBN algorithm first uses conditional mutual information (CMI) to construct an initial network or GRN, which is decomposed into a number of local networks or GRNs. Then, BN method is employed to generate a series of local BNs by selecting the k-nearest neighbors of each gene as its candidate regulatory genes, which significantly reduces the exponential search space from all possible GRN structures. Integrating these local BNs forms a tentative network or GRN by performing CMI, which reduces redundant regulations in the GRN and thus alleviates the false positive problem. The final network or GRN can be obtained by iteratively performing CMI and local BN on the tentative network. In the iterative process, the false or redundant regulations are gradually removed. When tested on the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in E.coli, our results suggest that LBN outperforms other state-of-the-art methods (ARACNE, GENIE3 and NARROMI) significantly, with more accurate and robust performance. In particular, the decomposition strategy with local Bayesian networks not only effectively reduce

  10. Seed-Based Biclustering of Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyuan An; Alan Wee-Chung Liew; Colleen C Nelson

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulated biological research outcomes show that biological functions do not depend on individual genes, but on complex gene networks. Microarray data are widely used to cluster genes according to their expression levels across experimental conditions. However, functionally related genes generally do not show coherent expression across all conditions since any given cellular process is active only under a subset of conditions. Biclustering finds gene clusters that have similar e...

  11. Gene network-based cancer prognosis analysis with sparse boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Yuan; Huang, Jian; Fang, Kuangnan

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput gene profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we analyse cancer prognosis studies with right censored survival responses. With gene expression data, we adopt the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to describe the interplay among genes. In network analysis, nodes represent genes. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, which are tightly connected to each othe...

  12. Partially flagged parallel manipulators: singularity charting and avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Alberich-Carramiñana, Maria; Garolera, Marçal; Thomas, Federico; Torras, Carme

    2009-01-01

    There are only three 6-SPS parallel manipulators with triangular base and platform: the octahedral, the flagged, and the partially-flagged studied in this paper. The forward kinematics of the octahedral manipulator is algebraically intricate, while those of the other two can be solved by three trilaterations. As an additional nice feature, the flagged manipulator is the only parallel platform for which a cell decomposition of its singularity locus has been derived. Here we prove that the part...

  13. Type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 李秦川

    2002-01-01

    This paper originally presents a systematic general type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Based on the properties and geometrical conditions of structure constraint of minor-mobility parallel manipulators, this principle will be a cornerstone in solving the problem of type synthesis of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Many mechanisms have been synthesized by this principle, which illustrated the validity and universality of this principle.

  14. Simulation Results for Manipulation of Unknown Objects in Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiang; Haschke, Robert; Ritter, Helge; Bolder, Bram

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors proposed a novel reactive strategy to solve a unknown object local manipulation problem with an multifingered robot hand. In this method, the micro manipulation assumption is proposed and the object can be manipulated within the robot hand workspace without the active and explicit controlling about the rolling and sliding of the fingertips on the object. A 6 D.O.F reactive controller based on the hybrid of the contact force and the contact posit...

  15. A Dynamic Manipulation Strategy for an Intervention Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Ridolfi, Alessandro; Conti, Roberto; Costanzi, Riccardo; Fanelli, Francesco; Meli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and the control architecture of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Intervention (I-AUV). Autonomous underwater manipulation with free-floating base is still an open topic of research, far from reaching an industrial product. Dynamic manipulation tasks, where relevant vehicle velocities are required during manipulation, over an additional challenge. In this paper, the accurate modelling of an I-AUV is described, not neglecting the interaction wit...

  16. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  17. Design PID-Like Fuzzy Controller With Minimum Rule Base and Mathematical Proposed On-line Tunable Gain: Applied to Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Piltan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an on-line tunable gain model free PID-like fuzzy controller (GTFLC is designed for three degrees of freedom (3DOF robot manipulator to rich the best performance. Fuzzy logic controller is studied because of its model free and high performance. Today, robot manipulators are used in unknown and unstructured environment and caused to provide sophisticated systems, therefore strong mathematical tools are used in new control methodologies to design adaptive nonlinear robust controller with acceptable performance (e.g., minimum error, good trajectory, disturbance rejection. The strategies of control robot manipulator are classified into two main groups: classical and non-classical methods, however non linear classical theories have been applied successfully in many applications, but they also have some limitation. One of the most important nonlinear non classical robust controller that can used in uncertainty nonlinear systems, are fuzzy logic controller. This paper is focuses on applied mathematical tunable gain method in robust non classical method to reduce the fuzzy logic controller limitations. Therefore on-line tunable PID like fuzzy logic controller will be presented in this paper.

  18. 基于Kinect传感器的机械手自主抓取技术研究%Research of Manipulator to Snatch Target Object Based on Kinect Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟泽宇; 周海婷; 古炜豪; 邹修国

    2016-01-01

    For the realization of the manipulator to fetch the object, the Kinect sensors were used to get the RGB images. HSI and Lab color space segmentation algorithm were used to realize the recognition of objects, and then the space coordinates of the object were calculated. And then according to the coordinates of the object,manipulator operation angle was gotten reversly. Driving the manipulator ARM controller based on S3C2410, the goal of fetching was achieved. Based on the mature tomato in greenhouse to grab objects, the experimental results show that the system can accurately and effectively realize the object recogni-tion, positioning and fetching.%为实现机械手对物体的自主抓取,采用Kinect传感器采集RGB图像,运用HSI和Lab色彩空间分割算法对物体进行图像识别,并计算物体的空间坐标,然后根据物体的坐标值反求机械手运行角度,驱动基于S3C2410的ARM控制器的机械手,实现对目标的抓取.以温室内的成熟番茄为抓取对象,实验结果表明该系统能准确有效地实现对物体的识别、定位及抓取.

  19. 基于VB的气动复合式康复机械手单片机控制系统%Pneumatic Composite Rehabilitation Manipulators' Microcontroller Control System Based on VB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王领; 张志军; 王利波

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of pneumatic composite rehabilitation manipulators, the design of the corresponding pneumatic schematic diagram. Based on the Visual Basic language environment,using MSComm control communications , through the friendly man - machine interface control,the low cost,high performance of manipulator control system is built,also analyzed the open control system structure and component.%介绍了一种新型气动复合式康复机械手,设计了相应的气动原理图.建立了基于VB语言环境,采用MSComm控件通讯,通过友好的人机界面控制低成本、高性能的机械手控制系统,分析了这种开放式控制系统的结构组成.

  20. 基于触摸屏的模具清扫机械手 PLC 控制系统%PLC Control System Design of Mould Cleaning Manipulator Based on HMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金姣; 吴斌方; 王君明

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种基于触摸屏和可编程序控制器(PLC)的泡沫塑料成型模具清扫机械手控制系统设计方案,详细阐述控制系统硬件组成和软件设计思路,重点介绍 PLC 判定清扫模具的触摸屏界面和梯形图程序。%This paper introduces a control system design of mould cleaning manipulator for foam plastics based on HMI and PLC.It explains in great detail the hardware structure and software design idea of the control system,especially the HMI operation interface and ladder diagram for PLC to determine the next mould,which would be immediately cleaned by the manipulator.

  1. Gene-based analysis of regionally enriched cortical genes in GWAS data sets of cognitive traits and psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari M Ersland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ (n = 3 samples and bipolar affective disorder (BP (n = 3 samples, to which cognitive impairment is linked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the single gene level, the temporal cortex enriched gene RAR-related orphan receptor B (RORB showed the strongest overall association, namely to a test of verbal intelligence (Vocabulary, P = 7.7E-04. We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA to test the candidate genes, as gene sets, for enrichment of association signal in the NCNG GWAS and in GWASs of BP and of SCZ. We found that genes differentially expressed in the temporal cortex showed a significant enrichment of association signal in a test measure of non-verbal intelligence (Reasoning in the NCNG sample. CONCLUSION: Our gene-based approach suggests that RORB could be involved in verbal intelligence differences, while the genes enriched in the temporal cortex might be important to intellectual functions as measured by a test of reasoning in the healthy population. These findings warrant further replication in independent samples on cognitive traits.

  2. Manipulation with molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D Barnes

    2002-09-01

    For many years now, researchers in materials and photonics have been keenly interested in the design and fabrication of structures that confine and manipulate electromagnetic fields on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. The ultimate goal is an all-optical information processing and computation platform using photons in ways analogous to electrons in silicon devices on similar length scales. Specific focus areas such as wafer-scale integration, parallel processing, and frequency management (e.g. add-drop filters, on micron or sub-micron length scales are active areas of photonics research. While a great deal of progress has been made in the burgeoning field of microphotonics, we are still a long way off from realizing important goals such as the optical transistor and all-optical integrated circuits1.

  3. Mixing in manipulated turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kuczaj, A K; Geurts, Bernard J.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.

    2006-01-01

    A new computational framework for the simulation of turbulent flow through complex objects and along irregular boundaries is presented. This is motivated by the application of metal foams in compact heat-transfer devices, or as catalyst substrates in process-engineering. The flow-consequences of such complicated objects are incorporated by adding explicit multiscale forcing to the Navier-Stokes equations. The forcing represents the simultaneous agitation of a wide spectrum of length-scales when flow passes through the complex object. It is found that a considerable modulation of the traditional energy cascading can be introduced with a specific forcing strategy. In spectral space, forcing yields strongly localized deviations from the common Kolmogorov scaling law, directly associated with the explicitly forced scales. In addition, the accumulated effect of forcing induces a significant non-local alteration of the kinetic energy including the spectrum for the large scales. Consequently, a manipulation of turbu...

  4. How to manipulate polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balăşescu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every time you open a newspaper, listen to the radio, watch TV or browse the Internet, you will see some numbers and stats. All these numbers come from different sources like a national statistics office, an organization or an individual that has conducted research. These numbers can give a brief overview of the world surrounding us and are often used by people or organizations to strengthen their message. The way experts collect all the raw data to come up with all these clear-cut numbers is an important part of the process. In this respect, an experiment has been designed to see how a person can manipulate a poll to obtain the desired numbers and a lot of ways have been found.

  5. Ion manipulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  6. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  7. Concurrent Manipulation of Expanded AVL Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章寅; 许卓群

    1998-01-01

    The concurrent manipulation of an expanded AVL tree(EAVL tree)s considered in this paper.The presented system can support any number of concurrent processes which perform searching,insertion and deletion on the tree.Simulation results indicate the high performance of the system.Elaborate techniques are used to achieve such a system unavailable based on any known algorithms.Methods developed in this paper may provide new insights into other problems in the area of concurrent search structure manipulation.

  8. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.;

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...... to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. Based on our experience developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the concurrency requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures...

  9. Design of multivariable controllers for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a simple method for the design of linear multivariable controllers for multi-link robot manipulators. The control scheme consists of multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and achieves pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. The two controllers are independent of each other and are designed separately based on the linearized robot model and then integrated in the overall control scheme. The proposed scheme is simple and can be implemented for real-time control of robot manipulators.

  10. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  11. Spider management in agroecosystems: Habitat manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Fadel; Richman, David B.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the literature and on work conducted in Israel, the management of spider populations through habitat manipulation was found to be very helpful in controlling pest insects in various crops. Spiders were found to be reduced or eliminated by non-selective insecticides, although some resistance has been noted

  12. Mobile Manipulation: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hentout, A.; Bouzouia, B.; Akli, I.; Toumi, R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented a multi-agent control architecture of mobile manipulators. The architecture consists of six agents: Supervisory Agent (SA), Local Mobile Robot Agent (LMRA), Local Manipulator Robot Agent (LARA), Vision System Agent (VSA), Remote Mobile Robot Agent (RMRA) and Remote Manipulator Robot Agent (RARA). The first four agents are installed on an off-board PC while the two other agents are installed on the on-board PC of the robot. The controller was applied successfully to foll...

  13. 机械臂轨迹跟踪控制--基于EC-RBF神经网络的机械臂模型参考自适应控制%Trajectory tracking control of robot manipulator-model reference adaptive control for robot manipulator based on EC-RBF neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑锋; 张翠; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    针对机械臂运动轨迹控制中存在的跟踪精度不高的问题,采用了一种基于EC-RBF神经网络的模型参考自适应控制方案对机械臂进行模型辨识与轨迹跟踪控制。该方案采用了两个RBF神经网络,运用EC-RBF学习算法,采用离线与在线相结合的方法来训练神经网络,一个用来实现对机械臂进行模型辨识,一个用来实现对机械臂轨迹跟踪控制。对二自由度机械臂进行仿真,结果表明,使用该控制方案对机械臂进行轨迹跟踪控制具有较高的控制精度,且因采用EC-RBF学习算法使网络具有更快的训练速度,从而使得控制过程较迅速。%According to the problem that the tracking accuracy is not high enough in trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators, a model reference adaptive control scheme based on EC-RBF neural networks is adopted to achieve robot manipulator model identification and trajectory tracking control. This control scheme contains two RBF neural networks which are trained offline and online, using EC-RBF learning algorithm. The one is used to identify the robot manipulator’s model, and the other one is used to achieve its trajectory tracking control. Simulation result of 2-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator demonstrates that using this method for robot manipulator trajectory tracking control has high control accuracy, and the networks which gain high training speed because of the EC-RBF learning algorithm make the control process faster.

  14. Gene-based Association Approach Identify Genes Across Stress Traits in Fruit Flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete;

    approach grouping variants accordingly to gene position, thus lowering the number of statistical tests performed and increasing the probability of identifying genes with small to moderate effects. Using this approach we identify numerous genes associated with different types of stresses in Drosophila...

  15. Cell- and region-specific miR30-based gene knock-down with temporal control in the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Haibo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi emerges as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes. In the context of the brain, gene manipulation is best targeted to specific subsets of cells in order to achieve a physiologically relevant outcome. Polymerase II-based viral expression systems can be used to cell-specifically express constructs incorporating flanking and loop sequences from endogenous microRNA (miRNA, which directs the designed hairpins into the endogenous gene silencing machinery. While many studies have documented non-cell-selective gene knock-down in the brain, it has not been tested whether different cell types or different areas of the central nervous system (CNS are equally amenable to this approach. We have evaluated this issue using a tetracycline (Tet-controllable and cell-specific miRNA 30 (miR30-based short hairpin (shRNA interference system. Results To achieve targeted expression two cell type-specific promoters were used; the enhanced compact glial fibrillary acidic protein (GfaABC1D promoter and the enhanced human synapsin-1 (SYN promoter. Powerful luciferase (Luc and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS gene knock-down were achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Administration of doxycycline (Dox abrogated gene silencing. However, the efficacy of gene knock-down in both neurones and astrocytes in the hippocampus (HIP was lower than that in the dorsal vagal complex of the brainstem (DVC. This was not due to regional differences in the expression of the the key enzymes involved in miRNA processing. Conclusions The results from the presented experiments demonstrated that selective gene knock-down in subsets of brain cells is achievable. However, there are some presently unknown regional factors which affect either the processing of miRNA-based cassettes or their potency for gene silencing.

  16. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  17. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  18. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  19. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  20. Design PID-Like Fuzzy Controller With Minimum Rule Base and Mathematical Proposed On-line Tunable Gain: Applied to Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Piltan, N. Sulaiman, Arash Zargari, Mohammad Keshavarz & Ali Badri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an on-line tunable gain model free PID-like fuzzy controller (GTFLC is designed forthree degrees of freedom (3DOF robot manipulator to rich the best performance. Fuzzy logiccontroller is studied because of its model free and high performance. Today, robot manipulatorsare used in unknown and unstructured environment and caused to provide sophisticated systems,therefore strong mathematical tools are used in new control methodologies to design adaptivenonlinear robust controller with acceptable performance (e.g., minimum error, good trajectory,disturbance rejection. The strategies of control robot manipulator are classified into two maingroups: classical and non-classical methods, however non linear classical theories have beenapplied successfully in many applications, but they also have some limitation. One of the mostimportant nonlinear non classical robust controller that can used in uncertainty nonlinear systems,are fuzzy logic controller. This paper is focuses on applied mathematical tunable gain method inrobust non classical method to reduce the fuzzy logic controller limitations. Therefore on-linetunable PID like fuzzy logic controller will be presented in this paper.

  1. Kinematic analysis of platform-type robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolun

    New methods are developed for the kinematic analysis of serial and platform-type parallel robotic manipulators, including forward and inverse kinematic solutions, singularity identifications and workspace evaluation. Differences between serial and platform-type parallel manipulators, which can provide substantially improved end-point rigidity compared with the conventional serial robotic arms, are addressed. The problem of determining the screw parameters of rigid body motion from initial and final position data is discussed, as a basis to search for a general and efficient procedure to solve the complex forward kinematics problem of platform-type manipulators. Several Screw-Theory based approaches for solving the inverse instantaneous problem of 6 DOF serial manipulators are studied and compared in terms of their computational efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity to data error and capability of dealing with singularities. A modified Vector Decomposition method is then proposed for solving the IIK problem and for singularity analysis of serial kinematic chains, the method is especially effective when applied to the wrist partitioned serial manipulators, which are essential components to any platform-type parallel manipulators. By using the data of three point positions, velocities, and accelerations of the end effector a general method is developed for solving the forward kinematics problem, including position, velocity and acceleration kinematics, of platform-type manipulators. The solution procedure can be applied to a wide variety of platform-type manipulators such as the 6 DOF Steward Platform manipulator and other models. It is found that while the solution for the forward position kinematics of a platform-type manipulator can be obtained by solving a non-linear system of equations, the closed-form solutions for forward rate and acceleration kinematics can be found by solving a system of linear equations. Based on the proposed kinematic formulations, an algorithm

  2. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  3. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.Keywords: Manipulation, Discourse, Cognitive, Power Abuse, Persuasion, Social representation, J.R.R. Tolkien

  4. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample...

  5. Randomized parallel motion planning for robot manipulators.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Caigong; Henrich, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel approach to parallel motion planning for robot manipulators in 3D workspaces. The approach is based on a randomized parallel search algorithm and focuses on solving the path planning problem for industrial robot arms working in a reasonably cluttered workspace.The path planning system works in the discretized configuration space, which needs not to be represented explicitly. The parallel search is conducted by a number of rule-based sequential search pr...

  6. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  7. Identification of gene modules associated with drought response in rice by network-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie plant responses to drought stress is challenging due to the complex interplay of numerous different genes. Here, we used network-based gene clustering to uncover the relationships between drought-responsive genes from large microarray datasets. We identified 2,607 rice genes that showed significant changes in gene expression under drought stress; 1,392 genes were highly intercorrelated to form 15 gene modules. These drought-responsive gene modules are biologically plausible, with enrichments for genes in common functional categories, stress response changes, tissue-specific expression and transcription factor binding sites. We observed that a gene module (referred to as module 4 consisting of 134 genes was significantly associated with drought response in both drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive rice varieties. This module is enriched for genes involved in controlling the response of the plant to water and embryonic development, including a heat shock transcription factor as the key regulator in the expression of ABRE-containing genes. These results suggest that module 4 is highly conserved in the ABA-mediated drought response pathway in different rice varieties. Moreover, our study showed that many hub genes clustered in rice chromosomes had significant associations with QTLs for drought stress tolerance. The relationship between hub gene clusters and drought tolerance QTLs may provide a key to understand the genetic basis of drought tolerance in rice.

  8. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  9. 基于轮廓图元边缘检测的新式秸秆上料机械手设计%Manipulator Design of a New Straw Feeding Based on Contour Map Edge Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄力刚; 朱文琦; 刘志刚

    2016-01-01

    为了解决秸秆粉碎机自动上料问题,设计了一种新的秸秆上料机械手装置,提高了秸秆粉碎机作业的精度和自动化水平. 该装置使用Canny算子对秸秆图像进行分割, 并对弱边缘进行提取,将提取信息传递给机械手PC处理中心,发出控制机械手的动作的指令;并利用PLC闭环系统控制,完成了秸秆上料机械手的自动化控制,优化了伺服电机的启停时间和上料的工作效率. 同时,对装置进行了秸秆上料试验,结果表明:与人工上料相比,使用自动化控制的机械手可以提高工作效率及秸秆的粉碎质量,且可降低上料过程对人造成的损害,是一种安全高效的上料装置.%In order to solve the problem of straw crusher automatic feeding, we design a new straw stalk feeding manipu-lator device, precision and automation level of the straw crusher is improved.The device using canny operator of straw image segmentation, and the weak edge extraction, extracted information to manipulator PC processing center, a control action of the manipulator's instructions, and a closed-loop control system based on PLC, completes the straw stalk feed-ing automatic control of the manipulator, and optimize the servo motor start-stop time, improve loading efficiency.The last straw is for device feeding experiment, the experimental results can be seen that,compared with the artificial feeding, use of automatic control of the manipulator can improve work efficiency and improve the quality of the shattering of the straw, and can reduce the feeding process of damage,which is a safe and efficient feeding device.

  10. Kinect平台上使用机器学习的非接触式GUI操控方式%Non-Contact GUI Manipulation Approach Based on Machine Learning and Kinect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁江; 李涛; 黎铭

    2014-01-01

    People are gradually abandoning the mouse and keyboard since touch screens come into their lives, however the shortcomings and limitations of touch manipulation emerge subsequently, thus non-contact manipulations are becoming the new trend of human-computer interaction in the future due to its unique advantages. There are many problems in existing non-contact manipulation approaches, e.g. improper definitions of gestures, complex algo-rithms, low recognition accuracy, etc. This paper proposes RemoteControl, a non-contact manipulation approach based on machine learning and the Kinect device. Users can finish most fundamental GUI (graphical user interface) manipulations in the 3-dimensional space by the two actions,“grab”and“put”. RemoteControl utilizes SVM (support vector machine) and random forest to recognize hand shapes in hand images. The experimental results show that RemoteControl achieves high accuracy in hand gesture recognition.%触摸屏的出现使人们逐渐摒弃鼠标和键盘,而触摸操作的不便和局限性也随之显现,非接触式操作凭借其独特的优势正逐渐成为未来人机交互方式的新潮流。针对现有的非接触式操作方式存在的手势定义不合理,方法复杂难解,识别精度低等许多问题,提出了使用“抓”和“放”这两个手势的非接触式操控方式RemoteControl,用户可在三维空间中做出操控动作来完成大部分基础图形用户界面(graphical user interface,GUI)操作。RemoteControl使用支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)和随机森林来从手部图像中识别出手的形状。实验结果表明RemoteControl的操控动作识别取得了较高的精确度。

  11. Adaptive Control of Flexible Redundant Manipulators Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yimin; LI Jianxin; WANG Shiyu; LIU Jianping

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the neural networks based active vibration control of flexible redundant manipulators was conducted.The smart links of the manipulator were synthesized with the flexible links to which were attached piezoceramic actuators and strain gauge sensors.A nonlinear adaptive control strategy named neural networks based indirect adaptive control (NNIAC) was employed to improve the dynamic performance of the manipulator.The mathematical model of the 4-layered dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNN) was introduced.The neuro-identifier and the neurocontroller featuring the DRNN topology were designed off line so as to enhance the initial robustness of the NNIAC.By adjusting the neuro-identifier and the neuro-controller alternatively,the manipulator was controlled on line for achieving the desired dynamic performance.Finally,a planar 3R redundant manipulator with one smart link was utilized as an illustrative example.The simulation results proved the validity of the control strategy.

  12. A new gene co-expression network analysis based on Core Structure Detection (CSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, A-C; Azais, J-M; Loubes, J-M; Amar, J; Burcelin, R

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method to cluster gene networks. Based on a dissimilarity built using correlation structures, we consider networks that connect all the genes based on the strength of their dissimilarity. The large number of genes require the use of the threshold to find sparse structures in the graph. in this work, using the notion of graph coreness, we identify clusters of genes which are central in the network. Then we estimate a network that has these genes as main hubs. We use this new...

  13. Screening for genes and subnetworks associated with pancreatic cancer based on the gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jin; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Xingda; Xu, Yuanhong; Ge, Chunlin

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to screen for potential genes and subnetworks associated with pancreatic cancer (PC) using the gene expression profile. The expression profile GSE 16515 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 36 PC tissue samples and 16 normal samples. Limma package in R language was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were grouped as up‑ and downregulated genes. Then, PFSNet was applied to perform subnetwork analysis for all the DEGs. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and REACTOME pathway enrichment analysis of up‑ and downregulated genes was performed, followed by protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network construction using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. In total, 1,989 DEGs including 1,461 up‑ and 528 downregulated genes were screened out. Subnetworks including pancreatic cancer in PC tissue samples and intercellular adhesion in normal samples were identified, respectively. A total of 8 significant REACTOME pathways for upregulated DEGs, such as hemostasis and cell cycle, mitotic were identified. Moreover, 4 significant REACTOME pathways for downregulated DEGs, including regulation of β‑cell development and transmembrane transport of small molecules were screened out. Additionally, DEGs with high connectivity degrees, such as CCNA2 (cyclin A2) and PBK (PDZ binding kinase), of the module in the protein‑protein interaction network were mainly enriched with cell‑division cycle. CCNA2 and PBK of the module and their relative pathway cell‑division cycle, and two subnetworks (pancreatic cancer and intercellular adhesion subnetworks) may be pivotal for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of PC. PMID:27035224

  14. TXTGate: profiling gene groups with text-based information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenisson, P.; Coessens, B.; Van Vooren, S.;

    2004-01-01

    We implemented a framework called TXTGate that combines literature indices of selected public biological resources in a flexible text-mining system designed towards the analysis of groups of genes. By means of tailored vocabularies, term-as well as gene-centric views are offered on selected textual...

  15. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-20 deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  17. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (''bang-bang'') closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator ''seasickness'' caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator System SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system

  18. Human-like Manipulation Planning for Articulated Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahui Gan; Xianzhong Dai

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on human-likeness assessment and optimization concept to solve the problem of human-like manipulation planning for articulated robot is proposed in this paper.This method intrinsically formulates the problem as a constrained optimization problem in robot configuration space.The robot configuration space is divided into different subregions by human likeness assessment.A widely used strategy,Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) in applied ergonomics,is adopted here to evaluate the human likeness of robot configuration.A task compatibility measurement of the robot velocity transmission ratio along a specified direction is used as the target function for the optimization problem.Simple illustrative examples of this method applied to a two Degree of Freedom (DOF) planar robot that resembles the upper limb of a human are presented.Further applications to a humanoid industrial robot SDA10D are also presented.The reasonable planning results for these applications assert the effectiveness of our method.

  19. A Rough Set based Gene Expression Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Emilyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Microarray technology helps in monitoring the expression levels of thousands of genes across collections of related samples. Approach: The main goal in the analysis of large and heterogeneous gene expression datasets was to identify groups of genes that get expressed in a set of experimental conditions. Results: Several clustering techniques have been proposed for identifying gene signatures and to understand their role and many of them have been applied to gene expression data, but with partial success. The main aim of this work was to develop a clustering algorithm that would successfully indentify gene patterns. The proposed novel clustering technique (RCGED provides an efficient way of finding the hidden and unique gene expression patterns. It overcomes the restriction of one object being placed in only one cluster. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed algorithm is termed intelligent because it automatically determines the optimum number of clusters. The proposed algorithm was experimented with colon cancer dataset and the results were compared with Rough Fuzzy K Means algorithm.

  20. Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast amount of large-scale and genome-wide time-resolved data is becoming increasing available, which provides the golden opportunity to unravel the challenging reverse-engineering problem of time-delayed gene regulatory networks. Results In particular, this methodological paper aims to reconstruct regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data by using delayed correlations between genes, i.e., pairwise overlaps of expression levels shifted in time relative each other. We have thus developed a novel model-free computational toolbox termed TdGRN (Time-delayed Gene Regulatory Network to address the underlying regulations of genes that can span any unit(s of time intervals. This bioinformatics toolbox has provided a unified approach to uncovering time trends of gene regulations through decision analysis of the newly designed time-delayed gene expression matrix. We have applied the proposed method to yeast cell cycling and human HeLa cell cycling and have discovered most of the underlying time-delayed regulations that are supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence and that are remarkably consistent with the current knowledge on phase characteristics for the cell cyclings. Conclusion We established a usable and powerful model-free approach to dissecting high-order dynamic trends of gene-gene interactions. We have carefully validated the proposed algorithm by applying it to two publicly available cell cycling datasets. In addition to uncovering the time trends of gene regulations for cell cycling, this unified approach can also be used to study the complex

  1. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J D; Kysar, D A

    1999-05-01

    Over the last ten to fifteen years, economists and legal scholars have become increasingly interested in and sensitive to behavioralist insights. In a companion article, Jon Hanson and Douglas Kysar argued that those scholars have nevertheless given short shrift to what is, at least for policymaking purposes, perhaps the most important lesson of the behavioralist research: individuals' perceptions and preferences are highly manipulable. According to Hanson and Kysar, one theoretical implication of that insight for products liability law is that manufacturers and marketers will manipulate the risk perceptions of consumers. Indeed, to survive in a competitive market, manufacturers and marketers must do so. In this Article, Hanson and Kysar present empirical evidence of market manipulation--a previously unrecognized source of market failure. The Article begins by surveying the extensive qualitative and quantitative marketing research and consumer behavioral studies that discern and influence consumer perceptions. It then provides evidence of market manipulation by reviewing common practices in everyday market settings, such as gas stations and supermarkets, and by examining familiar marketing approaches, such as environmentally oriented and fear-based advertising. Although consumers may be well-aware of those practices and approaches, they appear to be generally unaware of the extent to which those tactics are manipulative. The Article then focuses on the industry that has most depended upon market manipulation: the cigarette industry. Through decades of sophisticated marketing and public relations efforts, cigarette manufacturers have heightened consumer demand and lowered consumer risk perceptions. Because consumers are aware that smoking may pose significant health risks, the tobacco industry's success in manipulating risk perceptions constitutes especially strong evidence of the power of market manipulation. The Article concludes by arguing that the evidence of

  2. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Jafari, Samira; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/ in vivo transformation efficiency.

  3. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: novel application to dermatological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Winkelmann, Richard R; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-10-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value.

  4. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: novel application to dermatological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Winkelmann, Richard R; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-10-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  5. Workspace and Kinematics Analysis of Redundant Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of tasks in the complex space environment, we designed a kind of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator in this paper. Its 3D modelling is based on SolidWorks 2015. The joint coordinate system of redundant space manipulator is described with the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method. And the kinematic model is established. The direct kinematic equations of redundant space manipulator are derived by the homogeneous coordinate transforming matrices. The workspace is simulated and analysed using the Monte Carlo method. The experimental results showed that the workspace of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator, which was designed in this paper, changed smoothly. What’s more, it had not the abrupt phenomenon, and the independent part is bigger. Thus it verifies the rationality of our designing about the redundant space manipulator. It provides a good reference for the path planning and obstacle avoidance planning.

  6. Excel® : importer, mettre en forme et manipuler des données de génotypage microsatellites produites par le logiciel GeneMapper® V4.1. avec l'aide de macros codées en langage visual basic for application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cet article présente les fonctionnalités d’un fichier Excel® permettant par le biais de plusieurs Macros VBA d’importer, mettre en forme et manipuler des données de génotypage issues de l’analyse faite par le logiciel GeneMapper® en Version 4.1. Les différentes fonctionnalités et outils seront exposés. Le fichier est en téléchargement libre.

  7. Configurable pattern-based evolutionary biclustering of gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes Balanza, Beatriz; Giráldez Rojo, Raúl; Aguilar Ruiz, Jesús Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background Biclustering algorithms for microarray data aim at discovering functionally related gene sets under different subsets of experimental conditions. Due to the problem complexity and the characteristics of microarray datasets, heuristic searches are usually used instead of exhaustive algorithms. Also, the comparison among different techniques is still a challenge. The obtained results vary in relevant features such as the number of genes or conditions, which makes it difficult to carr...

  8. Stem Cell Based Gene Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Heon Kim; Hong Jun Lee; Yun Seob Song

    2014-01-01

    Current prostate cancer treatment, especially hormone refractory cancer, may create profound iatrogenic outcomes because of the adverse effects of cytotoxic agents. Suicide gene therapy has been investigated for the substitute modality for current chemotherapy because it enables the treatment targeting the cancer cells. However the classic suicide gene therapy has several profound side effects, including immune-compromised due to viral vector. Recently, stem cells have been regarded as a new ...

  9. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devjak R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  10. Nanoparticle-based targeted gene therapy for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2016-01-01

    Despite striking insights on lung cancer progression, and cutting-edge therapeutic approaches the survival of patients with lung cancer, remains poor. In recent years, targeted gene therapy with nanoparticles is one of the most rapidly evolving and extensive areas of research for lung cancer. The major goal of targeted gene therapy is to bring forward a safe and efficient treatment to cancer patients via specifically targeting and deterring cancer cells in the body. To achieve high therapeuti...

  11. The evolution of teleoperated manipulators at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.; Herndon, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    ORNL has made significant contributions to teleoperator and telerobotics technology for two decades and continues with an aggressive program today. Examples of past projects are: (1) the M2 servomanipulator, which was the first digitally controlled teleoperator; (2) the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), which was the first remotely maintainable teleoperator; (3) the CESARm/Kraft dissimilar teleoperated system; and (4) the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM), a 7-Degree-of-Freedom (7-DOF) telerobot built as a prototype for work in space. More recently, ORNL has become heavily involved with Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) robotics programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The ERWM program requires high payloads and high dexterity. As a result, a hydraulically actuated, dual-arm system comprised of two 6-DOF arms mounted on a 5-DOF base has been constructed and is being used today for various research tasks and for decontamination and dismantlement activities. All of these teleoperated manipulator systems build upon the experiences gained throughout the almost two decades of development. Each system incorporates not only the latest technology in computers, sensors, and electronics, but each new . system also adds at least one new feature to the technologies already developed and demonstrated in the previous system(s). As a result of this process, a serious study of these manipulator systems is a study in the evolution of teleoperated manipulator the systems in general. This provides insight not only into the research and development paths chosen in the past, but also into the appropriate directions for future teleoperator and telerobotics research. This paper examines each of the teleoperated/telerobotic systems developed at ORNL, summarizes their features and capabilities, examines the state of the most current telerobotic system (the Dual Arm Work Module), PM provides direction for a Next Generation Telerobotic Manipulator system.

  12. Optimal Kinematic Design of a 2-DOF Planar Parallel Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; LI Tiemin; LIU Xinjun; WANG Liping

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form solutions were developed to optimize kinematics design of a 2-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) planar parallel manipulator. The optimum design based on the workspace was presented. Meanwhile,a global, comprehensive conditioning index was introduced to evaluate the kinematic designs. The optimal parallel manipulator is incorporated into a 5-DOF hybrid machine tool which includes a 2-DOF rotational milling head and a long movement worktable. The results show that the planar parallel manipulator-based machine tool can be successfully used to machine blades and guide vanes for a hydraulic turbine.

  13. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Flexible-Link Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Method of computing dynamics of multiple-flexible-link robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra, which originally applied to rigid-link manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator-algebra approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). In extension of spatial-operator algebra to manipulators with flexible links, each link represented by finite-element model: mass of flexible link apportioned among smaller, lumped-mass rigid bodies, coupling of motions expressed in terms of vibrational modes. This leads to operator expression for modal-mass matrix of link.

  14. Quantitative gene-gene and gene-environment mapping for leaf shape variation using tree-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape traits have long been a focus of many disciplines, but searching for complex genetic and environmental interactive mechanisms regulating leaf shape variation has not yet been well developed. The question of the respective roles of gene and environment and how they interplay to modulate l...

  15. Comparative study between recent methods manipulating ratio spectra and classical methods based on two-wavelength selection for the determination of binary mixture of antazoline hydrochloride and tetryzoline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Lamia M.; Abd-El Rahman, Mohamed K.; Ramadan, Nesrin K.; EL Sanabary, Hoda F. A.; Salem, Maissa Y.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study was developed between two classical spectrophotometric methods (dual wavelength method and Vierordt's method) and two recent methods manipulating ratio spectra (ratio difference method and first derivative of ratio spectra method) for simultaneous determination of Antazoline hydrochloride (AN) and Tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZ) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative without preliminary separation. The dual wavelength method depends on choosing two wavelengths for each drug in a way so that the difference in absorbance at those two wavelengths is zero for the other drug. While Vierordt's method, is based upon measuring the absorbance and the absorptivity values of the two drugs at their λmax (248.0 and 219.0 nm for AN and TZ, respectively), followed by substitution in the corresponding Vierordt's equation. Recent methods manipulating ratio spectra depend on either measuring the difference in amplitudes of ratio spectra between 255.5 and 269.5 nm for AN and 220.0 and 273.0 nm for TZ in case of ratio difference method or computing first derivative of the ratio spectra for each drug then measuring the peak amplitude at 250.0 nm for AN and at 224.0 nm for TZ in case of first derivative of ratio spectrophotometry. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing different laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. All methods were applied successfully for the determination of the selected drugs in their combined dosage form proving that the classical spectrophotometric methods can still be used successfully in analysis of binary mixture using minimal data manipulation rather than recent methods which require relatively more steps. Furthermore, validation of the proposed methods was performed according to ICH guidelines; accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limits. Statistical studies showed that the methods can be

  16. MASS MEDIA'S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    GUSHCHINA L.V.; AGAPOVA S.G.; AGAPOVA E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the pr...

  17. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G.; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device. PMID:27571084

  18. 基于CAN总线的换料机摄像系统%Camera System of Nuclear Fuel Manipulate Crane Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    According to the characters of camera system of Nuclear Fuel Manipulate Crane ( NFMC) , a camera system with distributed control architecture was designed. CAN Bus was adopted to transfer parameters among the scattered distribution control nodes. Video data was distributed to multiple terminals by video distribution and video switching module. Video format conversion module was implemented to finish remote monitoring. Field application and parameter test show that the system has well real-time and low symbol error rate in parameter transmission and has low loss and high reliability in video transmission.%依据换料机特点,研制一套采用分布式控制体系的摄像系统.系统用CAN总线实现分布分散的多控制节点间的参数传输;通过视频分配和切换模块进行耐辐照视频的多终端输出;系统设计视频格式转换模块实现远程监控.经现场应用和参数测试,系统传输控制参数具有实时性好,误码率低等特点;传输视频具有低损耗、高可靠等特点.

  19. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads(®) demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead(®) SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads(®) travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device.

  20. Preparation of hybrid soda-lime/quartz glass chips with wettability-patterned channels for manipulation of flow profiles in droplet-based analytical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zeqing; He, Qiaohong; Huang, Shanshi; Hu, Xianqiao; Chen, Hengwu

    2013-03-12

    Profile switching of two-phase flows is often required in microfluidic systems. Manipulation of flow profiles can be realized by control of local surface energy of micro channel through wettability-patterning of channel surface. This article presents a facile approach for wettability-patterning of the micro channels of glass chips. Commercially available octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) was used to hydrophobilize the channels via the formation of OTS self-assembly monolayer (SAM), and a UV-source that mainly emits deep UV-light of 254 and 185 nm was employed to degrade the in-channel formed OTS-SAM. The architecture of soda-lime glass/quartz glass hybrid chip was designed to facilitate the deep UV-light effective degrading the OTS-SAM. The established approach, together with the side-by-side laminar-flow patterning technique, was applied to prepare various finely patterned channel networks for different tasks of flow profile switching. The micro device capable of conducting the profile switch from W/O droplets to two separated continuous phases was demonstrated to perform on-chip quick liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of partition coefficients of pharmaceuticals. PMID:23452792

  1. Analysis of tumor suppressor genes based on gene ontology and the KEGG pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    Full Text Available Cancer is a serious disease that causes many deaths every year. We urgently need to design effective treatments to cure this disease. Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs are a type of gene that can protect cells from becoming cancerous. In view of this, correct identification of TSGs is an alternative method for identifying effective cancer therapies. In this study, we performed gene ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the TSGs and non-TSGs. Some popular feature selection methods, including minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS, were employed to analyze the enrichment features. Accordingly, some GO terms and KEGG pathways, such as biological adhesion, cell cycle control, genomic stability maintenance and cell death regulation, were extracted, which are important factors for identifying TSGs. We hope these findings can help in building effective prediction methods for identifying TSGs and thereby, promoting the discovery of effective cancer treatments.

  2. Identification of Genes Related to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with the Help of Pathway-based Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LI; Cai-Ping REN; Xiao-Jun TAN; Xu-Yu YANG; Hong-Bo ZHANG; Wen ZHOU; Kai-Tai YAO

    2006-01-01

    cDNA microarray is a powerful tool to analyze simultaneously the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes. Compared with normal nasopharynx (NP) tissues, 2210 genes were highly differentially expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues detected by cDNA microarray. Since signal pathway is widely used to describe the complex relationship between genes, a pathway-based network was constructed to visualize the connection between the genes obtained from microarray data in this report. We analyzed the targeted genes that may have more important influence on this gene network with statistical methods and found that some genes might have significant influence on this network, especially Ras-related nuclear protein (RAN), carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA) genes. To verify the results from pathway-based selection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression levels of RAN, CEL and RELA genes and it was found that the RAN and CEL genes were significantly up-regulated in more than 80%of NPC tissues. To further elucidate the function of the RAN gene, RAN expression was specifically suppressed in a 5-8F NPC cell line by RNA interference (RNAi). As expected, the depletion of RAN could effectively block the proliferation of tumor cells. Therefore, our study may open up a new way to analyze the vast microarray data.

  3. Estimation of growth rate of Skeletonema costatum based on relative expression amount of PCNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shanying; YU Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Partial sequence of Skeletonema costatum proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was obtained by reverse transcriptase PCR(RT-PCR) and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) techniques.Based on the obtained PCNA and cytochrome b gene(Cyt b gene) sequences,a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) method was developed to detect the expres-sion S.costatum PCNA gene,and this method was applied to study the relationship between the growth rate of S.costatum and the average expression amount of PCNA gene in a single cell.The expression amount of PCNA gene had large variation in cells col-lected at different culture phases,and the trend was well consistent with the growth rate,which suggested that the expression amount of PCNA gene correlated well with the cell division,and the PCNA could be a promising indicator for the S.costatum cell proliferation.Furthermore,using the PCNA gene as the objective gene and the Cyt b gene as the house-keeping gene,a new method for estimating the in situ growth rate of S.costatum was established by analysis of the relative expression quantity (REQ) of the PCNA gene.

  4. LCGbase: A Comprehensive Database for Lineage-Based Co-regulated Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Yubin; Fan, Zhonghua; Liu, Guiming; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Animal genes of different lineages, such as vertebrates and arthropods, are well-organized and blended into dynamic chromosomal structures that represent a primary regulatory mechanism for body development and cellular differentiation. The majority of genes in a genome are actually clustered, which are evolutionarily stable to different extents and biologically meaningful when evaluated among genomes within and across lineages. Until now, many questions concerning gene organization, such as what is the minimal number of genes in a cluster and what is the driving force leading to gene co-regulation, remain to be addressed. Here, we provide a user-friendly database-LCGbase (a comprehensive database for lineage-based co-regulated genes)-hosting information on evolutionary dynamics of gene clustering and ordering within animal kingdoms in two different lineages: vertebrates and arthropods. The database is constructed on a web-based Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP framework and effective interactive user-inquiry service. Compared to other gene annotation databases with similar purposes, our database has three comprehensible advantages. First, our database is inclusive, including all high-quality genome assemblies of vertebrates and representative arthropod species. Second, it is human-centric since we map all gene clusters from other genomes in an order of lineage-ranks (such as primates, mammals, warm-blooded, and reptiles) onto human genome and start the database from well-defined gene pairs (a minimal cluster where the two adjacent genes are oriented as co-directional, convergent, and divergent pairs) to large gene clusters. Furthermore, users can search for any adjacent genes and their detailed annotations. Third, the database provides flexible parameter definitions, such as the distance of transcription start sites between two adjacent genes, which is extendable to genes that flanking the cluster across species. We also provide useful tools for sequence alignment, gene

  5. 番茄收获机械手轨迹跟踪模糊控制仿真与试验%Simulation and test of trajectory tracking control for tomato harvesting manipulator based on fuzzy logic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁喜凤; 杨犇; 王永维

    2013-01-01

      针对番茄收获机械手动力学模型不精确和外界扰动问题,该文采用计算力矩-模糊补偿相结合的控制方法进行了番茄收获机械手轨迹跟踪控制研究。通过自适应模糊逻辑系统补偿机械手动力学模型中的不确定部分,模糊逻辑系统的参数基于Lynaponv稳定性理论自适应调节,并利用ADAMS与MATLAB进行仿真试验。结果表明,对比计算力矩法,计算力矩-模糊补偿控制算法中各关节轨迹跟踪误差明显减小且收敛趋势明显。关节1至关节7平均轨迹跟踪精度分别提高了70.29%、94.72%、0.61%、74.29%、89.75%、86.41%和67.14%。该控制方案中各关节控制力(矩)均呈规律性变化,增加扰动信号亦未使输出力(力矩)出现抖振和突变,启动力(矩)最大出现在移动关节2和转动关节4,分别为453N和98.33 N·m。研究结果可为番茄收获机械手轨迹跟踪控制系统的深入研究奠定基础。%The tomato harvesting manipulator is apt to work in a complicated and unstructured production environment. The research on the trajectory tracking control is a key task. The tomato harvesting manipulator studied in the paper is a redundant manipulator with 7-DOF including two prismatic joints and five revolute joints, which is a multivariable nonlinear system. It is difficult to obtain its accurate dynamic model during control due to the external disturbance and the nonlinear friction, etc. The traditional control algorithm based on this model has poor robustness and cannot achieve global asymptotic stability. A fuzzy logic system can approximate a nonlinear function with arbitrary precision, which has more and more application in the manipulator control. To realize trajectory tracking with high accuracy and stability, a control method based on compute torque-fuzzy logic compensation is proposed to control trajectory tracking for a tomato harvesting manipulator. This method compensates the

  6. A Design of Truss Manipulator Monitoring System Based on MAP library functions%基于西门子MAP库的桁架机械手监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仙珍; 徐进富

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring system of truss manipulator based on S7-200 PLC and Kingview software is designed for digital flexible manufacturing line in this paper. MAP library functions are applied to control the manipulator X axis and Z axis servo motion, so as to accomplish accurate positioning control of material handling. The experi⁃mental results show that the designed system is accurate and stable, which can realize parameter setting, control mode switching and real-time dynamic monitoring, so it meets the design requirements.%以数字化柔性制造生产线中的桁架机械手为控制对象,基于S7-200PLC和组态王软件设计了机械手监控系统。采用MAP库函数控制桁架机械手x轴、z轴的伺服运动,从而实现物料加工搬运的精确定位。运行结果表明,桁架机械手运行准确可靠,可以实现参数设置及系统运行状态的实时、动态监控,达到了设计要求。

  7. DNA purification and gene typing:Based on multifunctional nanobeads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xin; ZHANG Xu; GAO Huafang; ZHANG Huan; CHEN Depu; CHENG Jing; FEI Weiyang

    2004-01-01

    In this report, a universal protocol for extracting genomic DNA from whole blood, saliva, and bacterial culture by using magnetic nanobeads as solid-phase absorbents was presented. The enrichment of target cells and adsorption of DNA have been functionally integrated onto the surfaces of the carboxyl-modified magnetic nano-beads, and the DNA segments bound on the surface of the beads can be directly used as PCR templates to amplify a target gene. The PCR products were applied to an oligonucleotide array to perform gene typing. The protocol proves to be simple, rapid, biologically and chemically nonhazardous, and promising for the microfabrication of DNA preparation chip.

  8. 基于RBF的机械手建模误差补偿自适应控制%Self-adaptive Control of Robotic Manipulator Based on Modeling Error Compensated by RBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 杨开明; 朱煜

    2012-01-01

    According to the modeling error in the dynamical model of robotic manipulators, a new self-adaptive control strategy based on modeling error compensated by RBF neural network was proposed. By means of Computed Torque control method based on inverse dynamics, and through input torque and desired trajectory corrected, two self-adaptive control schemes based on error compensated were developed. The correction terms were learned on-line by RBF neural network, and the adaptive learning law of network weights was developed based on Lyapunov stability theory, therefore the convergence and stability were guaranteed. Simulations are presented for a planner manipulator with two joints, the trajectory tracking results show that the modeling error can be effectively approximated and compensated, the RBF neural network improves the performance and makes the controller have robustness to the parameter perturbations, and it can be applied to the control for robotic manipulators.%针对机械手动力学建模误差,提出了基于RBF神经网络误差补偿的自适应控制策略。在基于逆动力学的计算力矩控制方法的基础上,对系统输入与目标轨迹进行修正,设计了两种误差补偿自适应控制器。利用RBF神经网络对修正项在线自学习,并根据Lyapunov稳定性理论建立了网络权重自适应学习律,保证了跟踪误差的收敛及系统的稳定。以平面转动双臂机械手轨迹跟踪为例进行仿真,结果表明该方法能够有效地补偿建模误差,提高了系统的控制性能并使控制系统具有对参数摄动的鲁棒性,对于机械手自适应控制具有一定的可行性。

  9. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  10. Multiobjective Optimum Design of a 3-RRR Spherical Parallel Manipulator with Kinematic and Dynamic Dexterities

    OpenAIRE

    Guanglei Wu

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the kinematic synthesis problem of a 3-underlineRRR spherical parallel manipulator, based on the evaluation criteria of the kinematic, kinetostatic and dynamic performances of the manipulator. A multiobjective optimization problem is formulated to optimize the structural and geometric parameters of the spherical parallel manipulator. The proposed approach is illustrated with the optimum design of a special spherical parallel manipulator with unlimited rolling motion. The...

  11. 基于LMI方法的机器人LPV鲁棒H∞控制器设计%Robot Manipulator LPV Robust H∞ Controller Design Based on LMI Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞忠伟; 陈辉堂; 王月娟

    2001-01-01

    对平面两关节直接驱动机器人,提出一种同时将闭环极点配置到满足动态响应区域内的变增益LPV鲁棒H∞控制器设计新方法。利用LPV的凸分解方法,将机器人模型化为具有凸多面体结构的LPV模型,然后利用LMI技术对凸多面体各顶点分别设计满足H∞性能和闭环极点配置的反馈增益,再利用各顶点设计的反馈控制器综合得到具有凸多面体结构的LPV控制器。仿真结果验证了该控制器可使机器人随关节位置变化始终具有良好的控制性能。%A new approach to design robust H∞ contr ollers for a two-jointdirect drive planar manipulator is presented. The time- varying nonlinear model of robot is translated into a linear parameter varyin g(LPV) system with convex polytopic version via the LPV convex decomposition tec h nique. State feedback controllers satisfying H∞ performance and pole plac ement at every vertex of convex polyhedron parameter space are designed via line ar matrix inequalities(LMIs) approach. Using these designed controllers at every vertex, a LPV controller with smaller on-line calculating capacity is synthesi zed via convex decomposition techniques. Simulation results prove that the robot with the LPV controller has good performance as the joint angles vary.

  12. Physics-based gene identification: proof of concept for Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeramian, Edouard; Bonnefoy, Serge; Langsley, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    The ab initio prediction of new genes in eukaryotic genomes represents a difficult task, notably for the identification of complex split genes. A Physics-Based Gene Identification (PBGI) method was formulated recently (Yeramian, Gene, 255, 139-150, 151-168, 2000a,b) to address this problem, taking as a model the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Here, the predictive power of this method is put under experimental test for this genome. The presented results demonstrate the usefulness of the PBGI as a gene-identification tool for P. falciparum, notably for the discovery of new genes with no homology to known genes. Perspectives opened by this new method for other eukaryotic genomes are also mentioned.

  13. Accurate Gene Expression-Based Biodosimetry Using a Minimal Set of Human Gene Transcripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, James D., E-mail: jtucker@biology.biosci.wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Joiner, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Thomas, Robert A.; Grever, William E.; Bakhmutsky, Marina V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chinkhota, Chantelle N.; Smolinski, Joseph M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Divine, George W. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Auner, Gregory W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid and reliable methods for conducting biological dosimetry are a necessity in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Conventional biodosimetry methods lack the speed, portability, ease of use, and low cost required for triaging numerous victims. Here we address this need by showing that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a small number of gene transcripts can provide accurate and rapid dosimetry. The low cost and relative ease of PCR compared with existing dosimetry methods suggest that this approach may be useful in mass-casualty triage situations. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood from 60 adult donors was acutely exposed to cobalt-60 gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. mRNA expression levels of 121 selected genes were obtained 0.5, 1, and 2 days after exposure by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Optimal dosimetry at each time point was obtained by stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels. Results: Only 3 to 4 different gene transcripts, ASTN2, CDKN1A, GDF15, and ATM, are needed to explain ≥0.87 of the variance (R{sup 2}). Receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of 0.98 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. Conclusions: The actual and predicted radiation doses agree very closely up to 6 Gy. Dosimetry at 8 and 10 Gy shows some effect of saturation, thereby slightly diminishing the ability to quantify higher exposures. Analyses of these gene transcripts may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations or in clinical radiation emergencies.

  14. Optogenetic Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick-Bun Chan

    Full Text Available To study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems, it is important to be able to artificially manipulate gene expression in desired target sites with high precision. Based on the light dependent binding of cryptochrome 2 and a cryptochrome interacting bHLH protein, we developed a split lexA transcriptional activation system for use in Drosophila that allows regulation of gene expression in vivo using blue light or two-photon excitation. We show that this system offers high spatiotemporal resolution by inducing gene expression in tissues at various developmental stages. In combination with two-photon excitation, gene expression can be manipulated at precise sites in embryos, potentially offering an important tool with which to examine developmental processes.

  15. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

    2012-12-01

    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  16. Manipulator Controlled since a Smartphone by Bluetooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the design of transmitter interface of data between a microcontroller and Smartphone to control a robot. We used a Bluetooth module to send the commands to control the moving of the manipulator. The system is formed by three parts: the first part, the program made in Android. It is run on the Smartphone that controls the position of the robot. The second part is the reception board based in the PIC18F4550 that energizes the joints of the manipulator. The last part is the driver. It use an integrated circuit L293D that is configured in two full bridges H. This system is a good tool for learning of programing, sensors, actuators, robotic, electronic and design electronic

  17. Modular manual control device for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device described in this patent comprises a base, a series of connected modules, each with a position pickup and a handle. One module is provided for each degree of mobility of the manipulator being controlled; the modular construction enables the control of manipulators with differing degrees of mobility. One rotary movement module and three orthogonal linear movement modules are provided. Each linear module has two parallel guides between which a carriage is supported for movement by balls. The position pickup is provided on the carriage. The rotary module comprises inner and outer casings, relative movement of which is detected by pickup. Further rotary pickups may be provided for rotation about axes. A close/open switch and a speed control pickup may also be provided. (author)

  18. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies......Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now....... Congruent results of meta-analyses based on warming experiments, however, do not reflect a better general understanding of temperature effects, because the potential effects of more complex changes in temperature, including extreme events, are not yet covered well. Heat, frost, seasonality, and spatial...

  19. Manipulator Controlled since a Smartphone by Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Niño, F.; Rodríguez Pedroza, G.; Castillo Baldivia, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design of transmitter interface of data between a microcontroller and Smartphone to control a robot. We used a Bluetooth module to send the commands to control the moving of the manipulator. The system is formed by three parts: the first part, the program made in Android. It is run on the Smartphone that controls the position of the robot. The second part is the reception board based in the PIC18F4550 that energizes the joints of the manipulator. The last part is the driver. It use an integrated circuit L293D that is configured in two full bridges H. This system is a good tool for learning of programing, sensors, actuators, robotic, electronic and design electronic.

  20. Gene expression module-based chemical function similarity search

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yun; Hao, Pei; Zheng, Siyuan; Tu, Kang; Fan, Haiwei; Zhu, Ruixin; Ding, Guohui; Dong, Changzheng; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xuan; Thiesen, H.-J.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Jiang, HuaLiang; Liu, Lei; Li, Yixue

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of biological processes using selective chemical interventions is generally applied in biomedical research and drug discovery. Many studies of this kind make use of gene expression experiments to explore cellular responses to chemical interventions. Recently, some research groups constructed libraries of chemical related expression profiles, and introduced similarity comparison into chemical induced transcriptome analysis. Resembling sequence similarity alignment, expression pat...

  1. Direct and Inverse Kinematics of a Novel Tip-Tilt-Piston Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2004-01-01

    Closed-form direct and inverse kinematics of a new three degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with inextensible limbs and base-mounted actuators are presented. The manipulator has higher resolution and precision than the existing three DOF mechanisms with extensible limbs. Since all of the manipulator actuators are base-mounted; higher payload capacity, smaller actuator sizes, and lower power dissipation can be obtained. The manipulator is suitable for alignment applications where only tip, tilt, and piston motions are significant. The direct kinematics of the manipulator is reduced to solving an eighth-degree polynomial in the square of tangent of half-angle between one of the limbs and the base plane. Hence, there are at most 16 assembly configurations for the manipulator. In addition, it is shown that the 16 solutions are eight pairs of reflected configurations with respect to the base plane. Numerical examples for the direct and inverse kinematics of the manipulator are also presented.

  2. Kinematics of a New High Precision Three Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form direct and inverse kinematics of a new three degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator with inextensible limbs and base-mounted actuators are presented. The manipulator has higher resolution and precision than the existing three DOF mechanisms with extensible limbs. Since all of the manipulator actuators are base-mounted; higher payload capacity, smaller actuator sizes, and lower power dissipation can be obtained. The manipulator is suitable for alignment applications where only tip, tilt, and piston motions are significant. The direct kinematics of the manipulator is reduced to solving an eighth-degree polynomial in the square of tangent of half-angle between one of the limbs and the base plane. Hence, there are at most sixteen assembly configurations for the manipulator. In addition, it is shown that the sixteen solutions are eight pairs of reflected configurations with respect to the base plane. Numerical examples for the direct and inverse kinematics of the manipulator are also presented.

  3. A population-based gene signature is predictive of breast cancer survival and chemoresponse

    OpenAIRE

    Rathnagiriswaran, Shruti; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Abraham, Jame; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    It remains a critical issue to improve the survival rate in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. This study sought to develop a prognostic scheme based on a 28-gene signature in a broad patient population, including those with advanced disease. Clinically annotated transcriptional profiles of 1,734 breast cancer patients were obtained to validate the 28-gene signature in prognostic categorization. The 28-gene signature generated significant patient stratification with regard t...

  4. Stiffness of serial and quasi-serial manipulators: comparison analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchik Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with comparison analysis of serial and quasi-serial manipulators. It shows a difference between stiffness behaviours of corresponding industrial robots under external loading, which is caused by machining process. The analysis is based on the estimation of compliance errors induced by cutting forces that are applied to the manipulator end-effector. We demonstrate that the quasi-seral manipulators are preferable for large-dimensional tasks while the quasi-serial ones better suit small size tasks.

  5. Effective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus gene expression by DNA-based external guide sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Zeng; Hongjian Li; Yueqing Li; Yanwei Cui; Qi Zhou; Yi Zou; Guang Yang; Tianhong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether a 12 nucleotide DNA-based miniEGSs can silence the expression of human cytomegalovirus(HCMV)UL49 gene efficiently,A HeLa cell line stably expressing UL49 gene was constructed and the putative miniEGSs(UL49-miniEGSs)were assayed in the stable cell line.Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot resuits showed a reduction of 67%in UL49expression level in HeLa cells that were transfected with UL49-miniEGSs.It was significantly different from that of mock and control miniEGSs(TK-miniEGSs)which were 1 and 7%,respectively.To further confirm the gene silence directed by UL49-miniEGSs with human RNase P,a mutant of UL49-miniEGSs was constructedand a modified 5'RACE was carried out.Data showed that the inhibition of UL49 gene expression directed by UL49-miniEGSs was RNase P-dependent and the clea vage of UL49 mRNA by RNase P was site specific.As a result,the length of DNA-based miniEGSs that could silence gene expression efficiently was only 12 nt.That is significantly less than any other Oligonucleotide-based method of gene inactivation known SO far.MiniEGSs may represent novel gene-targeting agents for the inhibition of viral genes and other human disease reiated gene expression.

  6. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  7. Advanced manipulation for autonomous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Killough, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development, mechanical configuration, and control system architecture of a lightweight, high performance, seven-degree-of-freedom manipulator at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). Current activities focusing on modeling and parameter identification will provide a well-characterized manipulator for analytical and experimental research in manipulator dynamics and controls, coordinated manipulation, and autonomous mobile robotics.

  8. Employee involvement: motivation or manipulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    1998-03-01

    Employee involvement is subject to a great deal of verbal tribute; there is hardly a manager at work today who will not praise the value of employee input. However, many employee involvement efforts leave employees feeling more manipulated than motivated. This occurs because supervisors and managers, while expecting employees to change the way they work, are themselves either unwilling to change or remain unconscious of the need to change. The result is that, although employee input is regularly solicited in a number of forms, it is often discounted, ignored, or altered to fit the manager's preconceptions. Often the employee is left feeling manipulated. Since the opportunity for involvement can be a strong motivator, it becomes the manager's task to learn how to provide involvement opportunity in manipulative fashion. This can be accomplished by providing involvement opportunity accompanied by clear outcome expectations and allowing employees the freedom to pursue those outcomes in their own way.

  9. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  10. 从数术看经脉理论和针刺方法%Analysis on theory of meridians and acupuncture manipulation based on ancient Shushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓廉士

    2009-01-01

    The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and related expositions of foreign scholars are consulted, and Shushu theory is compared with the recordation in ancient medical books so as to probe into the relationship between Shushu and theory of meridians together with acupuncture manipu-lation. It is found that the eleven meridians system is the mathematical foundation of Five Shu Poits, Yuan-primary acupoints and the acupoints of all over the body, and which plays an important role in the theories of TCM. The exterior-interior relationship between viscera and meridians and circulation of ying-qi can be executed on the establishments of twelve meridians system. Shushu can affect needling instrument, needling methods, contraindications, etc. The construction of the meridians theory is full of philosophical dialectics, and it has certain subjectivity but does not influence the ancients to observe physiological phenomenon of viscera and meridians generally.%本文梳理了秦汉文献中有关数术的记载,参考了国外学者的有关论述,并将其与中医典籍进行对照,以探讨古代数术与经脉理论和针刺方法的联系.结果发现十一脉体系是五输穴、原穴、全身腧穴的数理基础,在中医理论中占有重要地位.十二经脉体系的建立使得脏腑经脉表里相合、营气环流得以实现.针灸在针具、刺法、禁忌等多个方面都受到数术的影响.经脉理论的构建充满了哲学思辨,具有一定主观成分,但并不影响古人对脏腑经脉的生理现象所进行的整体观察.

  11. Far-red fluorescence gene reporter tomography for determination of placement and viability of cell-based gene therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Hall, Mary A; Lazard, Zawaunyka W; Davis, Alan R; Simpson, Lashan; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Non-invasive injectable cellular therapeutic strategies based on sustained delivery of physiological levels of BMP-2 for spinal fusion are emerging as promising alternatives, which could provide sufficient fusion without the associated surgical risks. However, these injectable therapies are dependent on bone formation occurring only at the specific target region. In this study, we developed and deployed fluorescence gene reporter tomography (FGRT) to provide information on in vivo cell localization and viability. This information is sought to confirm the ideal placement of the materials with respect to the area where early bone reaction is required, ultimately providing three dimensional data about the future fusion. However, because almost all conventional fluorescence gene reporters require visible excitation wavelengths, current in vivo imaging of fluorescent proteins is limited by high tissue absorption and confounding autofluorescence. We previously administered fibroblasts engineered to produce BMP-2, but is difficult to determine 3-D information of placement prior to bone formation. Herein we used the far-red fluorescence gene reporter, IFP1.4 to report the position and viability of fibroblasts and developed 3-D tomography to provide placement information. A custom small animal, far-red fluorescence tomography system integrated into a commercial CT scanner was used to assess IFP1.4 fluorescence and to demark 3-D placement of encapsulated fibroblasts with respect to the vertebrae and early bone formation as assessed from CT. The results from three experiments showed that the placement of the materials within the spine could be detected. This work shows that in vivo fluorescence gene reporter tomography of cell-based gene therapy is feasible and could help guide cell-based therapies in preclinical models.

  12. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information.

  13. Design-Based Learning for Biology: Genetic Engineering Experience Improves Understanding of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Brinker, Rebecca A.; Vernacchio, Vincent J.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression is a difficult topic for students to learn and comprehend, at least partially because it involves various biochemical structures and processes occurring at the microscopic level. Designer Bacteria, a design-based learning (DBL) unit for high-school students, applies principles of DBL to the teaching of gene expression. Throughout…

  14. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  15. Evaluation of gene importance in microarray data based upon probability of selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Li M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray devices permit a genome-scale evaluation of gene function. This technology has catalyzed biomedical research and development in recent years. As many important diseases can be traced down to the gene level, a long-standing research problem is to identify specific gene expression patterns linking to metabolic characteristics that contribute to disease development and progression. The microarray approach offers an expedited solution to this problem. However, it has posed a challenging issue to recognize disease-related genes expression patterns embedded in the microarray data. In selecting a small set of biologically significant genes for classifier design, the nature of high data dimensionality inherent in this problem creates substantial amount of uncertainty. Results Here we present a model for probability analysis of selected genes in order to determine their importance. Our contribution is that we show how to derive the P value of each selected gene in multiple gene selection trials based on different combinations of data samples and how to conduct a reliability analysis accordingly. The importance of a gene is indicated by its associated P value in that a smaller value implies higher information content from information theory. On the microarray data concerning the subtype classification of small round blue cell tumors, we demonstrate that the method is capable of finding the smallest set of genes (19 genes with optimal classification performance, compared with results reported in the literature. Conclusion In classifier design based on microarray data, the probability value derived from gene selection based on multiple combinations of data samples enables an effective mechanism for reducing the tendency of fitting local data particularities.

  16. Identification of putative gene based markers of renal toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Rupesh P; Vickers, Alison E; Sistare, Frank; Thompson, Karol L.; Roman, Richard J.; Lawton, Michael; Kramer, Jeffrey; Hamadeh, Hisham K.; Collins, Jennifer; Grissom, Sherry; Bennett, Lee; Tucker, C Jeffrey; Wild, Stacie; Kind, Clive; Oreffo, Victor

    2004-01-01

    This study, designed and conducted as part of the International Life Sciences Institute working group on the Application of Genomics and Proteomics, examined the changes in the expression profile of genes associated with the administration of three different nephrotoxicants--cisplatin, gentamicin, and puromycin--to assess the usefulness of microarrays in the understanding of mechanism(s) of nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daily doses of puromycin (5-20 mg/kg/day for...

  17. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaolu Guo; Zhijian Wu; Xiaojian Dong; Kejun Zhang; Shenwen Wang; Yuanxiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression programming (GEP), improved genetic programming (GP), has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS) operator to quantitativel...

  18. Queueing-Based Synchronization and Entrainment for Synthetic Gene Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, William; Butzin, Nicholas; Hochendoner, Philip; Ogle, Curtis

    Synthetic gene oscillators have been a major focus of synthetic biology research since the beginning of the field 15 years ago. They have proven to be useful both for biotechnological applications as well as a testing ground to significantly develop our understanding of the design principles behind synthetic and native gene oscillators. In particular, the principles governing synchronization and entrainment of biological oscillators have been explored using a synthetic biology approach. Our work combines experimental and theoretical approaches to specifically investigate how a bottleneck for protein degradation, which is present in most if not all existing synthetic oscillators, can be leveraged to robustly synchronize and entrain biological oscillators. We use both the terminology and mathematical tools of queueing theory to intuitively explain the role of this bottleneck in both synchronization and entrainment, which extends prior work demonstrating the usefulness of queueing theory in synthetic and native gene circuits. We conclude with an investigation of how synchronization and entrainment may be sensitive to the presence of multiple proteolytic pathways in a cell that couple weakly through crosstalk. This work was supported by NSF Grant #1330180.

  19. 基于稀疏直方图的空间机械臂视觉目标跟踪方法%Space Manipulator Visual Object Tracking Method Using Sparsity-based Histogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高升; 袁宝峰; 齐哲; 陈磊; 王康; 梁常春

    2015-01-01

    视觉系统作为空间机械臂的重要组成部分,一项重要功能就是在复杂空间环境下在规定周期内自主、可靠地完成对空间目标的跟踪,即在相机采集的图像序列中定位目标区域。文章面向空间机械臂视觉跟踪的应用需求,提出一种基于稀疏直方图的视觉目标跟踪方法,在目标区域内选取相互重叠的局部图像块,通过组合全部图像块的稀疏系数构造直方图以获取目标表示,采用基于簇比重信息的相似性度量方法计算目标模板与候选目标之间的距离,将此距离作为粒子滤波的观测模型以在图像中确定目标位置。标准测试集测试、室内环境和在轨环境试验的定性和定量分析结果均表明文中方法可以实现对相机视场范围内目标的准确和可靠跟踪。%Vision system is a key part of a space manipulator system. Space object tracking or object localization in image sequences from cameras, which is implemented autonomously and reliably within a given time in complex space environment, is one of the important functions of the vision system. In this paper, we propose a sparsity-based histogram visual object tracking method for a space manipulator system. The object representation is acquired by combining the sparse coefficients of overlapped image patches in the object region, and the distance between the candidate and the template is calculated by using the bin-ratio information based similarity measure. Tracking is carried out within a particle filter framework, in which the distance is used to construct the observation model. Experiments conducted on benchmark set and image sequences captured by manipulator vision systems in indoor environment and on-orbit environment demonstrate qualitatively and quantitatively that the proposed method can perform accurate and reliable tracking of the object in the camera field of view.

  20. Homologous recombination-mediated cloning and manipulation of genomic DNA regions using Gateway and recombineering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagale Sateesh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employing genomic DNA clones to characterise gene attributes has several advantages over the use of cDNA clones, including the presence of native transcription and translation regulatory sequences as well as a representation of the complete repertoire of potential splice variants encoded by the gene. However, working with genomic DNA clones has traditionally been tedious due to their large size relative to cDNA clones and the presence, absence or position of particular restriction enzyme sites that may complicate conventional in vitro cloning procedures. Results To enable efficient cloning and manipulation of genomic DNA fragments for the purposes of gene expression and reporter-gene studies we have combined aspects of the Gateway system and a bacteriophage-based homologous recombination (i.e. recombineering system. To apply the method for characterising plant genes we developed novel Gateway and plant transformation vectors that are of small size and incorporate selectable markers which enable efficient identification of recombinant clones. We demonstrate that the genomic coding region of a gene can be directly cloned into a Gateway Entry vector by recombineering enabling its subsequent transfer to Gateway Expression vectors. We also demonstrate how the coding and regulatory regions of a gene can be directly cloned into a plant transformation vector by recombineering. This construct was then rapidly converted into a novel Gateway Expression vector incorporating cognate 5' and 3' regulatory regions by using recombineering to replace the intervening coding region with the Gateway Destination cassette. Such expression vectors can be applied to characterise gene regulatory regions through development of reporter-gene fusions, using the Gateway Entry clones of GUS and GFP described here, or for ectopic expression of a coding region cloned into a Gateway Entry vector. We exemplify the utility of this approach with the Arabidopsis