WorldWideScience

Sample records for based gene manipulation

  1. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sun Hwang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 , which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi.

  2. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  3. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  4. Tetracycline inducible gene manipulation in serotonergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT neuronal system has important and diverse physiological functions throughout development and adulthood. Its dysregulation during development or later in adulthood has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Transgenic animal models designed to study the contribution of serotonergic susceptibility genes to a pathological phenotype should ideally allow to study candidate gene overexpression or gene knockout selectively in serotonergic neurons at any desired time during life. For this purpose, conditional expression systems such as the tet-system are preferable. Here, we generated a transactivator (tTA mouse line (TPH2-tTA that allows temporal and spatial control of tetracycline (Ptet controlled transgene expression as well as gene deletion in 5-HT neurons. The tTA cDNA was inserted into a 196 kb PAC containing a genomic mouse Tph2 fragment (177 kb by homologous recombination in E. coli. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled transgene expression, TPH2-tTA mice were crossed to a Ptet-regulated lacZ reporter line (Ptet-nLacZ. In adult double-transgenic TPH2-tTA/Ptet-nLacZ mice, TPH2-tTA founder line L62-20 showed strong serotonergic β-galactosidase expression which could be completely suppressed with doxycycline (Dox. Furthermore, Ptet-regulated gene expression could be reversibly activated or inactivated when Dox was either withdrawn or added to the system. For functional analysis of Ptet-controlled, Cre-mediated gene deletion, TPH2-tTA mice (L62-20 were crossed to double transgenic Ptet-Cre/R26R reporter mice to generate TPH2-tTA/Ptet-Cre/R26R mice. Without Dox, 5-HT specific recombination started at E12.5. With permanent Dox administration, Ptet-controlled Cre-mediated recombination was absent. Dox withdrawal either postnatally or during adulthood induced efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons of all raphe nuclei, respectively. In the enteric nervous system, recombination could not be detected. We

  5. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  6. Behavior-Based Assists for Telerobotic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Hamel, Dr. William R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulation has been a critical tool in hazardous operations where the presence of humans has been precluded since the early days of nuclear material handling. Performance levels and limitations were understood and accepted. However, in the current era of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, there has been criticism that traditional remote systems are too expensive, too slow, and too difficult to use by cost-driven demolition companies. Previous research in telerobotics has attempted to alleviate some of these issues; however, it has been difficult to get capabilities generated in the research lab into the field. One major difficulty is the severely unstructured environments found in real D&D type environments. Behavior-based robotics (BBR) is based on concepts specifically designed to permit autonomous robots to function in unstructured environments. BBR schemes use sensor data to interact with the world directly rather than to generate models that are manipulated. Because the robot is immersed in its environment and since sensors are mounted on the robot, sensing and motion are inherently calibrated with respect to the robot. This paper presents a behavior-based approach and architecture for executing telerobotic D&D type tooling tasks.

  7. Virally mediated gene manipulation in the adult CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat eEdry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the CNS functions poses one of the greatest challenges in modern life science and medicine. Studying the brain is especially challenging because of its complexity, the heterogeneity of its cellular composition, and the substantial changes it undergoes throughout its life-span. The complexity of adult-brain neural networks results also from the diversity of properties and functions of neuronal cells, governed, inter alia, by temporally and spatially differential expression of proteins in mammalian brain cell populations. Hence, research into the biology of CNS activity and its implications to human and animal behavior must use novel scientific tools. One source of such tools is the field of molecular genetics – recently utilized more and more frequently in neuroscience research. Transgenic approaches in general, and gene targeting in rodents have become fundamental tools for elucidating gene function in the CNS. Although spectacular progress has been achieved over recent decades by using these approaches, it is important to note that they face a number of restrictions. One of the main challenges is presented by the temporal and spatial regulation of introduced genetic manipulations. Viral vectors provide an alternative approach to temporally regulated, localized delivery of genetic modifications into neurons. In this review we describe available technologies for gene transfer into the adult mammalian CNS that use both viral and non-viral tools. We discuss viral vectors frequently used in neuroscience, with emphasis on lentiviral vector (LV systems. We consider adverse effects of LVs, and the use of LVs for temporally and spatially controllable manipulations. Especially, we highlight the significance of viral vector-mediated genetic manipulations in studying learning and memory processes, and how they may be effectively used to separate out the various phases of learning: acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and maintenance.

  8. Atlas Based Kinematic Optimum Design of the Stewart Parallel Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Zhufeng; TANG Xiaoqiang; WANG Liping; SUN Dengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Optimum design is a key approach to make full use of potential advantages of a parallel manipulator. The optimum design of multi-parameter parallel manipulators(more than three design parameters), such as Stewart manipulator, relies on analysis based and algorithm based optimum design methods, which fall to be accurate or intuitive. To solve this problem and achieve both accurate and intuition, atlas based optimum design of a general Stewart parallel manipulator is established, with rational selection of design parameters. Based on the defined spherical usable workspace(SUW), primary kinematic performance indices of the Stewart manipulator, involving workspace and condition number are introduced and analyzed. Then, corresponding performance atlases are drawn with the established non-dimensional design space, and impact of joint distribution angles on the manipulator performance is analyzed and illustrated. At last, an example on atlas based optimum design of the Stewart manipulator is accomplished to illustrate the optimum design process, considering the end-effector posture. Deduced atlases can be flexibly applied to both quantitative and qualitative analysis to get the desired optimal design for the Stewart manipulator with respect to related performance requirements. Besides, the established optimum design method can be further applied to other multi-parameter parallel manipulators.

  9. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program prop...

  10. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  11. SOLVING INVERSE KINEMATICS OF REDUNDANT MANIPULATOR BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    For the redundant manipulators, neural network is used to tackle the velocity inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. The neural networks utilized are multi-layered perceptions with a back-propagation training algorithm. The weight table is used to save the weights solving the inverse kinematics based on the different optimization performance criteria. Simulations verify the effectiveness of using neural network.

  12. Implementation of vision based 2-DOF underwater Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Jinpeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulator is of vital importance to the remotely operated vehicle (ROV, especially when it works in the nuclear reactor pool. Two degrees of freedom (2-DOF underwater manipulator is designed to the ROV, which is composed of control cabinet, buoyancy module, propellers, depth gauge, sonar, a monocular camera and other attitude sensors. The manipulator can be used to salvage small parts like bolts and nuts to accelerate the progress of the overhaul. It can move in the vertical direction alone through the control of the second joint, and can grab object using its unique designed gripper. A monocular vision based localization algorithm is applied to help the manipulator work independently and intelligently. Eventually, field experiment is conducted in the swimming pool to verify the effectiveness of the manipulator and the monocular vision based algorithm.

  13. Application of model based control to robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1988-01-01

    A robot that can duplicate humam motion capabilities in such activities as balancing, reaching, lifting, and moving has been built and tested. These capabilities are achieved through the use of real time Model-Based Control (MBC) techniques which have recently been demonstrated. MBC accounts for all manipulator inertial forces and provides stable manipulator motion control even at high speeds. To effectively demonstrate the unique capabilities of MBC, an experimental robotic manipulator was constructed, which stands upright, balancing on a two wheel base. The mathematical modeling of dynamics inherent in MBC permit the control system to perform functions that are impossible with conventional non-model based methods. These capabilities include: (1) Stable control at all speeds of operation; (2) Operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing; (3) Detection and monitoring of applied forces without the use of load sensors; (4) Manipulator safing via detection of abnormal loads. The full potential of MBC has yet to be realized. The experiments performed for this research are only an indication of the potential applications. MBC has no inherent stability limitations and its range of applicability is limited only by the attainable sampling rate, modeling accuracy, and sensor resolution. Manipulators could be designed to operate at the highest speed mechanically attainable without being limited by control inadequacies. Manipulators capable of operating many times faster than current machines would certainly increase productivity for many tasks.

  14. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, R. J.

    1994-06-01

    Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and

  15. A large workspace flexure hinge-based parallel manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wei; Du Zhijiang; Sun Lining

    2005-01-01

    Parallel manipulator systems as promising precision devices are used widely in current researches. A novel large workspace flexure parallel manipulator system utilizing wide-range flexure hinges as passive joints is proposed in this paper, which can attain sub-micron-scale precision over the cubic centimeter motion range. This paper introduces the mechanical system architecture based on the wide-range flexure hinges, analyzes the kinematics via stiffness matrices, presents the control system configuration and control strategy, and finally gives the system performance test results.

  16. Manipulator Neural Network Control Based on Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The three-layer forward neural networks are used to establish the inverse kinem a tics models of robot manipulators. The fuzzy genetic algorithm based on the line ar scaling of the fitness value is presented to update the weights of neural net works. To increase the search speed of the algorithm, the crossover probability and the mutation probability are adjusted through fuzzy control and the fitness is modified by the linear scaling method in FGA. Simulations show that the propo sed method improves considerably the precision of the inverse kinematics solutio ns for robot manipulators and guarantees a rapid global convergence and overcome s the drawbacks of SGA and the BP algorithm.

  17. Valley-dependent beam manipulators based on photonic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fu-Sheng; Sun, Yong; Dong, Li-Juan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Shi, Yun-Long

    2017-02-01

    Trigonal warping distortion in energy band lifts the degeneracy of two valleys (K and K' points) of graphene. In this situation, electron transport becomes valley dependent, which can be used to design the valley beam splitter, collimator, or guiding device. Here, valley-dependent beam manipulators are designed based on artificial photonic graphene. In this scheme, the finite-size artificial photonic graphene is intentionally designed to realize the novel device functionalities. This kind of valley-dependent beam manipulators can work at an arbitrary range of electromagnetic waves from microwave to visible light. It potentially paves the way for the application of photonic graphene in future integrated photonic devices.

  18. A planar parallel manipulator based novel MEMS device bonding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Junhong; Sun Lining; Zhu Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    A novel MEMS device boning system is presented. Aiming at the high velocity, high precision and high flexibility requirements, a novel manipulator of planar parallel structure is developed to substitute ordinary X-Y table. In addition, the machine vision is implemented to improve the system's flexibility. The initial angular positions of the joints are estimated by the extended Kalman filter algorithm. As a result, the manipulator's absolute locating accuracy in its workspace is guaranteed indirectly. For any MEMS device, the bonding system itself can be used as measurement equipment to create the device's geometry model, which is the base to do off-line programming. A quite ideal trade-off between the system's flexibility and efficiency is got. Finally, some verified motion specification of the manipulator, the bonding experimental results and the verified qualities of the bonded devices are provided.

  19. Multisensor based robotic manipulation in an uncalibrated manufacturing workcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, B.K.; Xiao, Di; Xi, Ning; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The main problem that we address in this paper is how a robot manipulator is able to track and grasp a part placed arbitrarily on a moving disc conveyor aided by a single CCD camera and fusing information from encoders placed on the conveyor and also from encoders on the robot manipulator. The important assumption that distinguishes our work from what has been previously reported in the literature is that the position and orientation of the camera and the base frame of the robot is apriori assumed to be unknown and is `visually calibrated` during the operation of the manipulator. Moreover the part placed on the conveyor is assumed to be non-planar, i.e. the feature points observed on the part is assumed to be located arbitrarily in IR{sup 3}. The novelties of the proposed approach in this paper includes a (i) multisensor fusion scheme based on complementary data for the purpose of part localization, and (ii) self-calibration between the turntable and the robot manipulator using visual data and feature points on the end-effector. The principle advantages of the proposed scheme are the following. (i) It renders possible to reconfigure a manufacturing workcell without recalibrating the relation between the turntable and the robot. This significantly shortens the setup time of the workcell. (ii) It greatly weakens the requirement on the image processing speed.

  20. A reliable and flexible gene manipulation strategy in posthatch zebra finch brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; London, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Songbird models meaningfully contribute to many fields including learned vocal communication, the neurobiology of social interactions, brain development, and ecology. The value of investigating gene-brain-behavior relationships in songbirds is therefore high. Viral infections typically used in other lab animals to deliver gene editing constructs have been less effective in songbirds, likely due to immune system properties. We therefore leveraged the in vivo electroporation strategy used in utero in rodents and in ovo in poultry, and apply it to posthatch zebra finch songbird chicks. We present a series of experiments with a combination of promoters, fluorescent protein genes, and piggyBac transposase vectors to demonstrate that this can be a reliable, efficient, and flexible strategy for genome manipulation. We discuss options for gene delivery experiments to test circuit and behavioral hypotheses using a variety of manipulations, including gene overexpression, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, inducible technologies, optogenetic or DREADD cellular control, and cell type-specific expression. PMID:28233828

  1. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  2. IMU-Based Online Kinematic Calibration of Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA and Kalman Filter (KF to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  3. IMU-based online kinematic calibration of robot manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guanglong; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Robot calibration is a useful diagnostic method for improving the positioning accuracy in robot production and maintenance. An online robot self-calibration method based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is presented in this paper. The method requires that the IMU is rigidly attached to the robot manipulator, which makes it possible to obtain the orientation of the manipulator with the orientation of the IMU in real time. This paper proposed an efficient approach which incorporates Factored Quaternion Algorithm (FQA) and Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate the orientation of the IMU. Then, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used to estimate kinematic parameter errors. Using this proposed orientation estimation method will result in improved reliability and accuracy in determining the orientation of the manipulator. Compared with the existing vision-based self-calibration methods, the great advantage of this method is that it does not need the complex steps, such as camera calibration, images capture, and corner detection, which make the robot calibration procedure more autonomous in a dynamic manufacturing environment. Experimental studies on a GOOGOL GRB3016 robot show that this method has better accuracy, convenience, and effectiveness than vision-based methods.

  4. Manipulating the Prion Protein Gene Sequence and Expression Levels with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kaczmarczyk

    Full Text Available The mammalian prion protein (PrP, encoded by Prnp is most infamous for its central role in prion diseases, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans, food animals, and animals in the wild. However, PrP is also hypothesized to be an important receptor for toxic protein conformers in Alzheimer's disease, and is associated with other clinically relevant processes such as cancer and stroke. Thus, key insights into important clinical areas, as well as into understanding PrP functions in normal physiology, can be obtained from studying transgenic mouse models and cell culture systems. However, the Prnp locus is difficult to manipulate by homologous recombination, making modifications of the endogenous locus rarely attempted. Fortunately in recent years genome engineering technologies, like TALENs or CRISPR/Cas9 (CC9, have brought exceptional new possibilities for manipulating Prnp. Herein, we present our observations made during systematic experiments with the CC9 system targeting the endogenous mouse Prnp locus, to either modify sequences or to boost PrP expression using CC9-based synergistic activation mediators (SAMs. It is our hope that this information will aid and encourage researchers to implement gene-targeting techniques into their research program.

  5. A novel magnetorheological damper based parallel planar manipulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, A.; Arzanpour, S.; Shen, Y.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel parallel planar robot design which is low cost and simple in structure. The design addresses some of the problems, such as concentration of excessive load on the links and joints, due to wrong commanding signals being given by the controller. In this application two of the conventional actuators are replaced by magnetorheological (MR) dampers, and only one actuator is used to generate motion. The design paradigm is based on the concept that a moving object 'intuitively' follows the path with minimum resistance to its motion. This implies that virtual adoptable constraints can be used effectively to define motion trajectories. In fact, motion generation and adaptive constraints are two elements essential to implementing this strategy. In this paper, MR dampers are used to provide adjustable constraints and to guide the platform that is moved by the linear motor. The model of the MR dampers is derived using the Bouc-Wen model. This model is then used for manipulator simulation and controller design. Two controllers are developed for this manipulator: (1) a closed loop on/off one and (2) a proportional-derivative controller. Also, three different trajectories are defined and used for both the simulations and experiments. The results indicate a good agreement between the simulations and experiments. The experimental results also demonstrate the capability of the manipulator for following sophisticated trajectories.

  6. Control of gene editing by manipulation of DNA repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Eric; Bashir, Sanum; Yumlu, Saniye; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wefers, Benedikt; Kühn, Ralf

    2017-04-03

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are produced intentionally by RNA-guided nucleases to achieve genome editing through DSB repair. These breaks are repaired by one of two main repair pathways, classic non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), the latter being restricted to the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle and notably less frequent. Precise genome editing applications rely on HDR, with the abundant c-NHEJ formed mutations presenting a barrier to achieving high rates of precise sequence modifications. Here, we give an overview of HDR- and c-NHEJ-mediated DSB repair in gene editing and summarize the current efforts to promote HDR over c-NHEJ.

  7. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  8. Manipulating Deformable Linear Objects: Sensor-Based Fast Manipulation during Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Shigang; Henrich, Dominik

    2002-01-01

    It is difficult for robots to handle a vibrating deformable object. Even for human beings it is a high-risk operation to, for example, insert a vibrating linear object into a small hole. However, fast manipulation using a robot arm is not just a dream; it may be achieved if some important features of the vibration are detected online. In this paper, we present an approach for fast manipulation using a force/torque sensor mounted on the robot's wrist. Template matching method is employed to re...

  9. Detection of infrastructure manipulation with knowledge-based video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, David; Hilsenbeck, Barbara; Kieritz, Hilke; Becker, Stefan; Grosselfinger, Ann-Kristin; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We are living in a world dependent on sophisticated technical infrastructure. Malicious manipulation of such critical infrastructure poses an enormous threat for all its users. Thus, running a critical infrastructure needs special attention to log the planned maintenance or to detect suspicious events. Towards this end, we present a knowledge-based surveillance approach capable of logging visual observable events in such an environment. The video surveillance modules are based on appearance-based person detection, which further is used to modulate the outcome of generic processing steps such as change detection or skin detection. A relation between the expected scene behavior and the underlying basic video surveillance modules is established. It will be shown that the combination already provides sufficient expressiveness to describe various everyday situations in indoor video surveillance. The whole approach is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on a prototypical scenario in a server room.

  10. Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S

    2016-03-01

    Engineered gene drives - the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes - have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

  11. SVM-Based Control System for a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foudil Abdessemed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Real systems are usually non‐linear, ill‐defined, have variable parameters and are subject to external disturbances. Modelling these systems is often an approximation of the physical phenomena involved. However, it is from this approximate system of representation that we propose ‐ in this paper ‐ to build a robust control, in the sense that it must ensure low sensitivity towards parameters, uncertainties, variations and external disturbances. The computed torque method is a well‐established robot control technique which takes account of the dynamic coupling between the robot links. However, its main disadvantage lies on the assumption of an exactly known dynamic model which is not realizable in practice. To overcome this issue, we propose the estimation of the dynamics model of the nonlinear system with a machine learning regression method. The output of this regressor is used in conjunction with a PD controller to achieve the tracking trajectory task of a robot manipulator. In cases where some of the parameters of the plant undergo a change in their values, poor performance may result. To cope with this drawback, a fuzzy precompensator is inserted to reinforce the SVM computed torque‐based controller and avoid any deterioration. The theory is developed and the simulation results are carried out on a two‐degree of freedom robot manipulator to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  12. Gene Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by In Vitro-Synthesized mRNA for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Li; Yu, Li; Ding, Yan; Guo, Xing Rong; Yuan, Ya Hong; Li, Dong Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty in producing genetically modified human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) limits research on their applications. Virus-based gene transfer is not safe for clinical use, whereas DNAbased non-viral methods are not efficient or safe, and mRNA-based methods are useful for genetic manipulation. In this study, we easily obtained multiple types and large amounts of in vitro-synthesized mRNA by PCR. The efficiency of different transfection methods was studied by flow cytometry. The effect of different mRNA modifications on protein translation efficiency and dynamics of luciferase mRNA expression in hESCs were studied using a bioluminescence imaging system. The pluripotency of hESCs after transfection was studied by immunofluorescence. In vitro-synthesized pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) mRNA was used to induce the differentiation of hESCs into insulin-producing cells. We found that electroporation is the most efficient transfection method, and it produces more than 95% transgene expression in multiple hESC lines. Synthesized mRNA with a combination of a polyA tail, cap and base analogues is more efficiently translated into protein in hESCs compared with single-modified mRNA. Transfection of mRNA into hESCs by trypsinizing the cells into single-cell suspensions did not affect their pluripotency, and multiple types of mRNAs can be transfected into hESCs efficiently. We found that PDX-1 mRNA transfection significantly improved the expression level of genes related to beta cells and differentiated cells that express insulin and C-peptide. ELISA analysis validate the insulin secretion of islet-like cell clusters in response to glucose stimulation. Our results indicate that electroporation of in vitro-synthesized mRNA is useful for genetic manipulation of hESCs and differentiation of hESCs into particular cell types, and this finding will pave the way for clinical applications of this method.

  13. A perspective on the economic valorization of gene manipulated biotechnology: Past and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knockaert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct fields of gene manipulated biotechnology have so far been economically exploited: medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. This article analyzes the economic evolution and its drivers in the three fields over the past decades, highlighting strong divergences. Product and market characteristics, affecting firms’ financing options, are shown to be important enablers or inhibitors. Subsequently, the lack of commercialization in a fourth type of gene manipulated biotechnology, namely environmental biotechnology, is explained by the existence of strong barriers. Given the latter’s great promises for environmental sustainability, we argue for a need to push the commercial valorization of environmental biotechnology. Our research has strong implications for (technology management research in biotechnology, pointing to a need to control for and/or distinguish between different biotechnology fields.

  14. Single and Multiple Gene Manipulations in Mouse Models of Human Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Heather L; Stairs, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer play a critical role in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Advances continue to be made in modeling human disease in a mouse, though the relevance of a mouse model often relies on how closely it is able to mimic the histologic, molecular, and physiologic characteristics of the respective human cancer. A classic use of a genetically engineered mouse in studying cancer is through the overexpression or deletion of a gene. However, the manipulation of a single gene often falls short of mimicking all the characteristics of the carcinoma in humans; thus a multiple gene approach is needed. Here we review genetic mouse models of cancers and their abilities to recapitulate human carcinoma with single versus combinatorial approaches with genes commonly involved in cancer. PMID:26380553

  15. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  16. Targeted Gene Manipulation in Plants Using the CRISPR/Cas Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Li, Zhenxiang; Li, Jian-Feng

    2016-05-20

    The CRISPR/Cas technology is emerging as a revolutionary genome editing tool in diverse organisms including plants, and has quickly evolved into a suite of versatile tools for sequence-specific gene manipulations beyond genome editing. Here, we review the most recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas toolkit in plants and also discuss key factors for improving CRISPR/Cas performance and strategies for reducing the off-target effects. Novel technical breakthroughs in mammalian research regarding the CRISPR/Cas toolkit will also be incorporated into this review in hope to stimulate prospective users from the plant research community to fully explore the potential of these technologies.

  17. I Have a Dream: Organic Movements Include Gene Manipulation to Improve Sustainable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhart U. Ryffel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several papers in a Special Issue of Sustainability have recently discussed various aspects to evaluate whether organic farming and gene manipulation are compatible. A special emphasis was given to new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs. These new approaches allow the most predictable genetic alterations of crop plants in ways that the genetically modified plant is identical to a plant generated by conventional breeding. The articles of the Special Issue present the arguments pro and contra the inclusion of the plants generated by NPBTs in organic farming. Organic movements have not yet made a final decision whether some of these techniques should be accepted or banned. In my view these novel genetically manipulated (GM crops could be used in such a way as to respect the requirements for genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs formulated by the International Federation of Organic Movements (IFOAM. Reviewing the potential benefits of disease-resistant potatoes and bananas, it seems possible that these crops support organic farming. To this end, I propose specific requirements that the organic movements should proactively formulate as their standards to accept specific GM crops.

  18. The optimization of global fault tolerant trajectory for redundant manipulator based on self-motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The redundancy feature of manipulators provides the possibility for the fault tolerant trajectory planning. Aiming at the completion of the specific task, an algorithm of global fault tolerant trajectory optimization for redundant manipulator based on the self-motion is proposed in this paper. Firstly, inverse kinematics equation of single redundancy manipulator based on self-motion variable and null-space velocity array of Jacobian are analyzed. Secondly, the mathematical description of fault tolerance criteria of the configuration of manipulator is established and the fault tolerance configuration group of manipulator is obtained by using iteration traversal under the fault tolerance criteria. Then, considering the joint limits and minimum the energy consumption as the optimization target, the global fault tolerant joint trajectory is achieved. Finally, simulation for 7 degree of freedom (DOF manipulator is performed, by which the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated.

  19. From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    -carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics).

  20. Manipulation of regulatory genes reveals complexity and fidelity in hormaomycin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaofeng; Teta, Roberta; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Crüsemann, Max; Ueoka, Reiko; Mangoni, Alfonso; Freeman, Michael F; Piel, Jörn

    2013-06-20

    Hormaomycin (HRM) is a structurally remarkable peptide produced by Streptomyces griseoflavus W-384 that acts as a Streptomyces signaling metabolite and exhibits potent antibiotic activity against coryneform actinomycetes. HRM biosynthetic studies have been hampered by inconsistent and low production. To enhance fermentation titers, the role of its cluster-encoded regulatory genes was investigated. Extra copies of the putative regulators hrmA and hrmB were introduced into the wild-type strain, resulting in an increase of HRM production and its analogs up to 135-fold. For the HrmB overproducer, six bioactive analogs were isolated and characterized. This study demonstrates that HrmA and HrmB are positive regulators in HRM biosynthesis. A third gene, hrmH, was identified as encoding a protein capable of shifting the metabolic profile of HRM and its derivatives. Its manipulation resulted in the generation of an additional HRM analog.

  1. Workflow automation based on OSI job transfer and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinderen, van Marten J.; Joosten, Stef M.M.; Guareis de Farias, Clever R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows that Workflow Management Systems (WFMS) and a data communication standard called Job Transfer and Manipulation (JTM) are built on the same concepts, even though different words are used. The paper analyses the correspondence of workflow concepts and JTM concepts. Besides, the corres

  2. RNA splicing manipulation: strategies to modify gene expression for a variety of therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Antisense oligomers initially showed promise as compounds to modify gene expression, primarily through RNaseH induced degradation of the target transcript. Expansion of the field has led to new chemistries capable of invoking different mechanisms, including suppression of protein synthesis by translational blockade and gene silencing using short interfering RNAs. It is now apparent that the majority of the eukaryotic genome is transcribed and non-protein coding RNAs have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at many levels. This review considers potential therapeutic applications of antisense oligomers to modify gene expression, primarily by interfering with the process of exon recognition and intron removal during gene transcript splicing. While suppression of gene expression will be necessary to address some conditions, it is likely that antisense oligomer splice modification will have extensive clinical application. Pre-mRNA splicing is a tightly co-ordinated, multifactorial process that can be disrupted by antisense oligomers in a highly specific manner to suppress aberrant splicing, remove exons to by-pass nonsense or frame-shifting mutations or influence exon selection to alter spliceoform ratios. Manipulation of splicing patterns has been applied to a diverse range of conditions, including b-thalassemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy and certain cancers. Alternative exon usage has been identified as a major mechanism for generating diversity from a limited repertoire of genes in higher eukaryotes. Considering that the majority of all human primary gene transcripts are reportedly alternatively spliced, intervention at the level of pre-mRNA processing is likely to become increasingly significant in the fight against genetic and acquired disorders.

  3. Trajectory Planning of 7-DOF Space Manipulator for Minimizing Base Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the free-floating mode, there is intense dynamic coupling existing between the space manipulator and the base, and the base attitude may change while performing a motion with its manipulator. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interference that resulted from the manipulator movement. For planning trajectories of the space manipulator with 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF, simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO algorithm is presented in the paper. Firstly, kinematics equations are setup. Secondly, the joint functions are parameterized by sinusoidal functions, and the objective function is defined according to the motion constraints of manipulator and accuracy requirements of the base attitude. Finally, SAPSO algorithm is used to search the optimal trajectory. The simulation results verify the proposed method.

  4. Development of an efficient genetic manipulation strategy for sequential gene disruption and expression of different heterologous GFP genes in Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Chen, Xianzhong; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Zezheng; Jiang, Shan; Li, Li; Pötter, Markus; Shen, Wei; Fan, You

    2016-11-01

    The diploid yeast Candida tropicalis, which can utilize n-alkane as a carbon and energy source, is an attractive strain for both physiological studies and practical applications. However, it presents some characteristics, such as rare codon usage, difficulty in sequential gene disruption, and inefficiency in foreign gene expression, that hamper strain improvement through genetic engineering. In this work, we present a simple and effective method for sequential gene disruption in C. tropicalis based on the use of an auxotrophic mutant host defective in orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase (URA3). The disruption cassette, which consists of a functional yeast URA3 gene flanked by a 0.3 kb gene disruption auxiliary sequence (gda) direct repeat derived from downstream or upstream of the URA3 gene and of homologous arms of the target gene, was constructed and introduced into the yeast genome by integrative transformation. Stable integrants were isolated by selection for Ura(+) and identified by PCR and sequencing. The important feature of this construct, which makes it very attractive, is that recombination between the flanking direct gda repeats occurs at a high frequency (10(-8)) during mitosis. After excision of the URA3 marker, only one copy of the gda sequence remains at the recombinant locus. Thus, the resulting ura3 strain can be used again to disrupt a second allelic gene in a similar manner. In addition to this effective sequential gene disruption method, a codon-optimized green fluorescent protein-encoding gene (GFP) was functionally expressed in C. tropicalis. Thus, we propose a simple and reliable method to improve C. tropicalis by genetic manipulation.

  5. Dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator based on dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A study of dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with coupling of translation and rotation is carried out.The architecture of the manipulator is composed of a moving platform attached to a fixed base through three identical PRS(prismatic-revolute-spherical) serial limbs,whose unique topology leads to the physical unit inconsistency of the conventional Jacobian matrix and the emergence of the parasitic motion.Then this paper introduces a kinetostatic performance index of the manipulator based on the condition of a dimensionally homogeneous Jacobian matrix,later,the workspace of the aforementioned manipulator is searched and the influence of the crucial design variables on the workspace is analyzed.Finally,a dimensional synthesis method of the manipulator is proposed,which may be regarded as a nonlinear programming problem with subject to the parasitic motion and other several engineering constraints.

  6. Global optimization of manipulator base placement by means of rapidly-exploring random tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京

    2016-01-01

    Due to the interrelationship between the base placement of the manipulator and its operation ob-ject , it is significant to analyze the accessibility and workspace of manipulators for the optimization of their base location.A new method is presented to optimize the base placement of manipulators through motion planning optimization and location optimization in the feasible area for manipulators. Firstly, research problems and contents are outlined.And then the feasible area for the manipulator base installation is discussed.Next, index depended on the joint movements and used to evaluate the kinematic performance of manipulators is defined.Although the mentioned indices in last section are regarded as the cost function of the latter,rapidly-exploring random tree ( RRT) and rapidly-ex-ploring random tree*( RRT*) algorithms are analyzed.And then, the proposed optimization method of manipulator base placement is studied by means of simulation research based on kinematic per-formance criteria.Finally, the conclusions could be proved effective from the simulation results.

  7. Graph-based algorithms for Boolean function manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    In this paper the authors present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Although a function requires, in the worst case, a graph of size exponential in the number of arguments, many of the functions encountered in typical applications have a more reasonable representation. The algorithms have time complexity proportional to the sizes of the graphs being operated on, and hence are quite efficient as long as the graphs do not grow too large. The authors present experimental results from applying these algorithms to problems in logic design verification that demonstrate the practicality of the approach.

  8. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were......, Experiment 4 revealed that allowing infants to manipulate objects shortly before the individuation task enabled them to individuate shape-similar objects from different categories. In Experiment 5, allowing object manipulation did not induce infants to individuate natural-looking objects from the same...... category. These findings suggest that object manipulation facilitates kind-based individuation of shape-similar objects by 12-month-olds. Keywords: Object individuation; Object shape; Object manipulation; Kind representations; Infancy...

  9. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF TWO-LINK ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON THE METHOD OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of control for a two-link robot manipulator under disturbances and inaccurately known parameters of the system. A method for adaptive independent control of the two-link robot manipulator based on the method of consecutive compensator is proposed. Adaptability is provided by adaptive adjustment coefficients of the consecutive compensator, and its independence consists in independent control of each link of the manipulator separately from the others. Meanwhile, non-linear effect of other links is considered as a limited external disturbance in the control channel. Dynamic equation of the manipulator was received by the Euler-Lagrange method, taking into account the effect of dynamics of manipulator engines. Since the proposed method has the simplicity of engineering implementation as compared to other adaptive methods of controlling manipulators, its usage on real objects in industry seems to be attractive. During the method simulation it was assumed that disturbances have the form of shifted harmonic signal. A series of simulations for a two-link manipulator system was conducted with the proposed controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method in terms of external and internal disturbances. Comparison of this method with the PD controller was made. During the simulations, it was demonstrated that the proposed approach provides lower output error value than manipulator control using PD controller.

  10. Screw-System-Based Mobility Analysis of a Family of Fully Translational Parallel Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rodriguez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mobility of a family of fully translational parallel manipulators based on screw system analysis by identifying the common constraint and redundant constraints, providing a case study of this approach. The paper presents the branch motion-screws for the 3-RP̲C-Y parallel manipulator, the 3-RCC-Y (or 3-RP̲RC-Y parallel manipulator, and a newly proposed 3-RP̲C-T parallel manipulator. Then the paper determines the sets of platform constraint-screws for each of these three manipulators. The constraints exerted on the platforms of the 3-RP̲C architectures and the 3-RCC-Y manipulators are analyzed using the screw system approach and have been identified as couples. A similarity has been identified with the axes of couples: they are perpendicular to the R joint axes, but in the former the axes are coplanar with the base and in the latter the axes are perpendicular to the limb. The remaining couples act about the axis that is normal to the base. The motion-screw system and constraint-screw system analysis leads to the insightful understanding of the mobility of the platform that is then obtained by determining the reciprocal screws to the platform constraint screw sets, resulting in three independent instantaneous translational degrees-of-freedom. To validate the mobility analysis of the three parallel manipulators, the paper includes motion simulations which use a commercially available kinematics software.

  11. In ovo gene manipulation of melanocytes and their adjacent keratinocytes during skin pigmentation of chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Hidetaka; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Sakai, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-04-01

    During skin pigmentation in avians and mammalians, melanin is synthesized in the melanocytes, and subsequently transferred to adjacently located keratinocytes, leading to a wide coverage of the body surface by melanin-containing cells. The behavior of melanocytes is influenced by keratinocytes shown mostly by in vitro studies. However, it has poorly been investigated how such intercellular cross-talk is regulated in vivo because of a lack of suitable experimental models. Using chicken embryos, we developed a method that enables in vivo gene manipulations of melanocytes and keratinocytes, where these cells are separately labeled by different genes. Two types of gene transfer techniques were combined: one was a retrovirus-mediated gene infection into the skin/keratinocytes, and the other was the in ovo DNA electroporation into neural crest cells, the origin of melanocytes. Since the Replication-Competent Avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long terminal repeat with Splice acceptor (RCAS) infection was available only for the White leghorn strain showing little pigmentation, melanocytes prepared from the Hypeco nera (pigmented) were back-transplanted into embryos of White leghorn. Prior to the transplantation, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(+) Neo(r+) -electroporated melanocytes from Hypeco nera were selectively grown in G418-supplemented medium. In the skin of recipient White leghorn embryos infected with RCAS-mOrange, mOrange(+) keratinocytes and transplanted EGFP(+) melanocytes were frequently juxtaposed each other. High-resolution confocal microscopy also revealed that transplanted melanocytes exhibited normal behaviors regarding distribution patterns of melanocytes, dendrite morphology, and melanosome transfer. The method described in this study will serve as a useful tool to understand the mechanisms underlying intercellular regulations during skin pigmentation in vivo.

  12. Reciprocal screw theory based singularity analysis of a novel 3-DOF parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hairong; Fang, Yuefa; Zhang, Ketao

    2012-07-01

    Singularity analysis is an essential issue for the development and application of parallel manipulators. Most of the existing researches focus on the singularity of parallel manipulators are carried out based on the study of Jacobian matrices. A 3-DOF parallel manipulator with symmetrical structure is presented. The novel parallel manipulator employs only revolute joints and consists of four closed-loop subchains connecting to both base and platform via revolute joints. The closed-loop subchain in each chain-leg is a spherical 6R linkage. The motion characteristics of the output link in the spherical 6R linkage with symmetrical structure are analyzed based on the interrelationships between screw systems. The constraints that are exerted on the platform by each chain-leg are investigated applying the concept of generalized kinematic pair in terms of equivalent screw system. Considering the geometric characteristics of the parallel manipulator, the singularity criteria of the parallel manipulator corresponding to different configurations are revealed based on the dependency of screw system and line geometry. The existing conditions of certain configuration that a singularity must occur are determined. This paper presents a new way of singularity analysis based on disposition of constraint forces on the geometrically identified constraint plane and the proposed approach is capable of avoiding the complexity in solving the Jacobian matrices.

  13. Improvement of a gene targeting system for genetic manipulation in Penicillium digitatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian XU; Cong-yi ZHU; Ming-shang WANG; Xue-peng SUN; Hong-ye LI

    2014-01-01

    本文题目:一种高效的柑橘绿霉菌基因敲除体系的构建Improvement of a gene targeting system for genetic manipulation in Penicillium digitatum研究目的:提高柑橘绿霉菌基因敲除效率。创新要点:低效的基因敲除与丝状真菌非同源末端链接(NHEJ)的DNA双链断裂修复途径有关。为提高柑橘绿霉病菌基因敲除效率,本研究利用农杆菌介导的转化体系,获得NHEJ途径中关键因子Ku80的缺失突变体(ΔPdKu80)。研究方法:与野生型菌株相比,以ΔPdKu80作为出发菌株,提高柑橘绿霉病菌PdbrlA和PdmpkA的基因敲除效率(见表1)。重要结论:ΔPdKu80的营养生长、产孢和致病性与野生型菌株基本一致。ΔPdKu80作为出发菌株,能显著提高柑橘绿霉菌的敲除效率。%Penicillium digitatum is the most important pathogen of postharvest citrus. Gene targeting can be done in P. digitatum using homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), but the frequencies are often very low. In the present study, we replaced the Ku80 homolog (a gene of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) with the hygromycin resistance cassette (hph) by ATMT. No significant change in vegetative growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity was observed in Ku80-deficient strain (∆PdKu80) of P. digitatum. However, using∆PdKu80 as a targeting strain, the gene-targeting frequencies for both genes PdbrlA and PdmpkA were significantly increased. These results suggest that Ku80 plays an important role in homologous inte-gration and the created∆PdKu80 strain would be a good candidate for rapid gene function analysis in P. digitatum.

  14. Investigation of geometrical effects in the carbon allotropes manipulation based on AFM: multiscale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Hefzabad, R. N.; Homayooni, A.; Aslani, H.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon allotropes are used as nanocarriers for drug and cell delivery. To obtain an accurate result in the nanoscale, it is important to use a precise model. In this paper, a multiscale approach is presented to investigate the manipulation process of carbon allotropes based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, the AFM setup is separated into two parts with different sizes as macro field (MF) and nano field (NF). Using Kirchhoff's plate model, the cantilever (the main part of MF) is modeled. The molecular dynamics method is applied to model the NF part, and then the MF and NF are coupled with the multiscale algorithm. With this model, by considering the effect of size and shape, the manipulation of carbon allotropes is carried out. The manipulations of armchair CNTs and fullerenes are performed to study the diameter changing effects. The result shows that the manipulation and friction force increases by increasing the diameter. The result of the indentation depth for the armchair CNTs indicates that decreasing the diameter causes the indentation depth to reduce. Moreover, the manipulations of four kinds of carbon allotropes with the same number of atoms have been studied to investigate the geometrical effects. The shapes of these nanoparticles change from sphere to cylinder. The results illustrate that the manipulation and the friction force decrease as the nanoparticle shape varies from sphere to cylinder. The Von-Mises results demonstrate that by changing the nanoparticle shape from the spherical to the cylindrical form, the stress increases, although the manipulation force reduces.

  15. Evidence-Based Theory of Market Manipulation And Application: The Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Heong, Yin Yun

    2010-01-01

    According to Part IX Division 1 in Securities Industry Act 1983 of Malaysia Law, stock market manipulation is defined as unlawful action taken either direct or indirectly by any person, to affect the price of securities of the corporation on a stock market in Malaysia for the purpose which may include the purpose of inducing other persons. Extending the framework of Allen and Gale (1992), the Author presents a theory based on the empirical evidence from prosecuted stock market manipulation ca...

  16. NN robust based-PID Control of A Two-Link Flexible Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Khairudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator. A planar two-link flexible manipulator that moves in the horizontal plane is considered. A dynamic model of the system is developed using an assumed mode methods. The NN robust based-PID controller is used to reduce a nonlinearities problem that can be efficiently solved. The system responses namely hub angular position, deflection and end-point acceleration responses at both links are obtained and analysed.

  17. Kinematics and Dynamics Hessian Matrices of Manipulators Based on Screw Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tieshi; GENG Mingchao; CHEN Yuhang; LI Erwei; YANG Jiantao

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the kinematics and dynamics of a manipulator makes it necessary to simplify the modeling process. However, the traditional representations cannot achieve this because of the absence of coordinate invariance. Therefore, the coordinate invariant method is an important research issue. First, the rigid-body acceleration, the time derivative of the twist, is proved to be a screw, and its physical meaning is explained. Based on the twist and the rigid-body acceleration, the acceleration of the end-effector is expressed as a linear-bilinear form, and the kinematics Hessian matrix of the manipulator(represented by Lie bracket) is deduced. Further, Newton-Euler’s equation is rewritten as a linear-bilinear form, from which the dynamics Hessian matrix of a rigid body is obtained. The formulae and the dynamics Hessian matrix are proved to be coordinate invariant. Referring to the principle of virtual work, the dynamics Hessian matrix of the parallel manipulator is gotten and the detailed dynamic model is derived. An index of dynamical coupling based on dynamics Hessian matrix is presented. In the end, a foldable parallel manipulator is taken as an example to validate the deduced kinematics and dynamics formulae. The screw theory based method can simplify the kinematics and dynamics of a manipulator, also the corresponding dynamics Hessian matrix can be used to evaluate the dynamical coupling of a manipulator.

  18. Kinematics and dynamics Hessian matrices of manipulators based on screw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieshi; Geng, Mingchao; Chen, Yuhang; Li, Erwei; Yang, Jiantao

    2015-03-01

    The complexity of the kinematics and dynamics of a manipulator makes it necessary to simplify the modeling process. However, the traditional representations cannot achieve this because of the absence of coordinate invariance. Therefore, the coordinate invariant method is an important research issue. First, the rigid-body acceleration, the time derivative of the twist, is proved to be a screw, and its physical meaning is explained. Based on the twist and the rigid-body acceleration, the acceleration of the end-effector is expressed as a linear-bilinear form, and the kinematics Hessian matrix of the manipulator(represented by Lie bracket) is deduced. Further, Newton-Euler's equation is rewritten as a linear-bilinear form, from which the dynamics Hessian matrix of a rigid body is obtained. The formulae and the dynamics Hessian matrix are proved to be coordinate invariant. Referring to the principle of virtual work, the dynamics Hessian matrix of the parallel manipulator is gotten and the detailed dynamic model is derived. An index of dynamical coupling based on dynamics Hessian matrix is presented. In the end, a foldable parallel manipulator is taken as an example to validate the deduced kinematics and dynamics formulae. The screw theory based method can simplify the kinematics and dynamics of a manipulator, also the corresponding dynamics Hessian matrix can be used to evaluate the dynamical coupling of a manipulator.

  19. Comparison of Planar Parallel Manipulator Architectures based on a Multi-objective Design Optimization Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Ur-Rehman, Raza; Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of planar parallel manipulator architectures based on a multi-objective design optimization approach. The manipulator architectures are compared with regard to their mass in motion and their regular workspace size, i.e., the objective functions. The optimization problem is subject to constraints on the manipulator dexterity and stiffness. For a given external wrench, the displacements of the moving platform have to be smaller than given values throughout the obtained maximum regular dexterous workspace. The contributions of the paper are highlighted with the study of 3-RPR, 3-RPR and 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator architectures, which are compared by means of their Pareto frontiers obtained with a genetic algorithm.

  20. Cooperative Control Based on Absolute Positional Information of Grasped Object in Multiple Mobile Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Toshiharu; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    This paper describes a control strategy to realize grasping and cooperative motion in multiple mobile manipulators. In the general approach, the stable grasping motion is well realized, but the emergent motion such as the obstacle avoidance motion and the collision avoidance motion among the robots are not taken into account in the cooperative motion of multiple mobile manipulators. In the practical application, however, the above issue is important to realize an adaptive and sophisticated motion. The proposed approach introduces the null space motion based on the grasping matrix and the absolute position of target object in the grasping motion of the manipulator. In this case, each motion of mobile manipulator is given independently of the grasping and the cooperative motion, and the emergent motion is determined arbitrary. This is one of the remarkable features of the proposed strategy. Several numerical and experimental results show the validity of the proposed approach.

  1. Integrating HMM-Based Speech Recognition With Direct Manipulation In A Multimodal Korean Natural Language Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Kim, S; Lee, Geunbae; Lee, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Sangeok

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a HMM-based speech recognition engine and its integration into direct manipulation interfaces for Korean document editor. Speech recognition can reduce typical tedious and repetitive actions which are inevitable in standard GUIs (graphic user interfaces). Our system consists of general speech recognition engine called ABrain {Auditory Brain} and speech commandable document editor called SHE {Simple Hearing Editor}. ABrain is a phoneme-based speech recognition engine which shows up to 97% of discrete command recognition rate. SHE is a EuroBridge widget-based document editor that supports speech commands as well as direct manipulation interfaces.

  2. Solution of Inverse Kinematics for 6R Robot Manipulators With Offset Wrist Based on Geometric Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongtao; Yang, Wenyu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient method based on geometric algebra for computing the solutions to the inverse kinematics problem (IKP) of the 6R robot manipulators with offset wrist. Due to the fact that there exist some difficulties to solve the inverse kinematics problem when the kinematics equations are complex, highly nonlinear, coupled and multiple solutions in terms of these robot manipulators stated mathematically, we apply the theory of Geometric Algebra to the kinematic modeling of 6R robot manipulators simply and generate closed-form kinematics equations, reformulate the problem as a generalized eigenvalue problem with symbolic elimination technique, and then yield 16 solutions. Finally, a spray painting robot, which conforms to the type of robot manipulators, is used as an example of implementation for the effectiveness and real-time of this method. The experimental results show that this method has a large advantage over the classical methods on geometric intuition, computation and real-time, and can be directly extended to all serial robot manipulators and completely automatized, which provides a new tool on the analysis and application of general robot manipulators.

  3. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2007-01-16

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  4. ADVANCED IN VIVO USE OF CRISPR/CAS9 AND ANTI-SENSE DNA INHIBITION FOR GENE MANIPULATION IN THE BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J Walters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene-editing tools are essential for uncovering how genes mediate normal brain-behaviour relationships and contribute to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent progress in gene-editing technology is now allowing neuroscientists unprecedented access to edit the genome efficiently. Although many important tools have been developed, here we focus on approaches that allow for rapid gene-editing in the mature nervous system, particularly CRISPR/Cas9 and anti-sense nucleotide-based techniques. CRISPR/Cas9 is a flexible gene-editing tool, allowing the genome to be manipulated in diverse ways. For instance, CRISPR/Cas9 has been successfully used to knock-out genes, knock-in mutations, overexpress or inhibit gene activity, and provide scaffolding for recruiting specific epigenetic regulators to individual genes and gene regions. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system may be modified to target multiple genes at one time, affording simultaneous inhibition and overexpression of distinct genetic targets. Although many of the more advanced applications of CRISPR/Cas9 have not been applied to the nervous system, the tool-box is widely-accessible, such that it is poised to help advance neuroscience. Anti-sense nucleotide-based technologies can be used to rapidly knock down genes in the brain and are simple to use. A main advantage of anti-sense based tools is their independence of viral packaging, allowing for rapid gene delivery with minimal technical expertise. Here, we describe the main applications and functions of each of these systems with an emphasis on their many potential applications in neuroscience laboratories.

  5. Power-Based Setpoint Control : Experimental Results on a Planar Manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D. A.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the power-based modeling framework, developed in the sixties to model nonlinear electrical RLC networks, has been extended for modeling and control of a larger class of physical systems. In this brief we apply power-based integral control to a planar manipulator experimental setup.

  6. MEMS-based clamp with a passive hold function for precision position retaining of micro manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Jong, de B.R.; Boer, de M.J.; Jansen, H.V.; Dijk, van J.; Krijnen, G.J.M.; Soemers, H.M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design, modeling and fabrication of a precision MEMS-based clamp with a relatively large clamping force are presented. The purpose of the clamp is to mechanically fix a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) MEMS-based sample manipulator (Brouwer et al J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol. s

  7. A PCR-based method for manipulation of the vaccinia virus genome that eliminates the need for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P C; Moyer, R W

    1992-11-01

    A general method is described for altering specific genes of vaccinia virus (VV). We demonstrate and evaluate the procedure by gene inactivation, using a dominant selectable marker in conjunction with recombinant polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primers based on the sequence of the target gene enable amplification of flanking arms and their subsequent attachment to the gpt cassette that confers resistance to mycophenolic acid. Linear PCR constructs are transfected into cells infected with wild-type vaccinia virus. Mutant viruses with gpt inserted into the target gene by homologous recombination are then selected by growth in the presence of MPA. This technique was applied to the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene and compared to the traditional method of constructing gpt-containing plasmids by cloning. The PCR scheme was found to be highly efficient and could theoretically be used to insert any foreign DNA element into any nonessential target gene for which partial or complete sequence information is available. The procedure can potentially be used for a wide variety of genetic modifications, including the insertion of foreign genes, with poxviruses and other DNA viruses. Genomes of microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast that can be transformed with linear DNA, are also candidates for manipulation by this methodology.

  8. Terahertz wave manipulation with metamaterials based on metal and graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim;

    2013-01-01

    for active and passive materials and devices. Metamaterials, metal-dielectric artificial composites, propose wide possibilities for achieving unconventional electromagnetic properties, not found in nature. Moreover, metamaterials constructed of graphene, a monolayer of carbon atoms, allow for tunable...... response. In this presentation we overview our results on theory, fabrication and characterization of metal and graphene based metamaterials for the THz range. We show that the multiple layers of structured graphene can form a hyperbolic dispersion medium lens able to resolve the subwavelength features [2......]. We analyze the limitations and demonstrate numerically and experimentally the chiral and nonchiral thin-film metamaterial based polarization converters [3–5] and graphene total absorbers for THz radiation [6]....

  9. Lyapunov-based control designs for flexible-link manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1989-01-01

    A feedback controller for the stabilization of closed-loop systems is proposed which is based on the Liapunov stability criterion. A feedback control law is first generated for the linear portion of the system equation using linear control theory. A feedback control is then designed for the nonlinear portion of the system equation by making negative the time derivative of a positive definite Liapunov function.

  10. Molecular engineering of manipulated alginate-based polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-11-04

    The novel soluble alginate-based polyurethanes in organic solvents were synthesized by the reaction of NCO-terminated prepolymers and tributylammonium alginate (TBA-Alg) for the first time. The chemical structures of synthesized polyurethanes were characterized using FTIR, (1)H NMR and TGA. The reaction completion was confirmed by disappearing of NCO band in FTIR spectra. Furthermore, a peak at 4.71 ppm and some small peaks at a range of 4.12-4.37 ppm in the (1)H NMR of alginate-based polyurethanes were assigned to the backbone of alginate. The results of both FTIR and (1)H NMR were remarkably confirmed by TGA data. The ionic nature of polyurethane backbone not only affects on thermal properties of samples, but it also changes the chemically-bonded alginate morphology. Both polyether and polyester based non-ionic polyurethanes extended by TBA-Alg illustrated the distinct alginate, whereas those ionomers extended by alginate were appeared as the continuous systems at nanoscale.

  11. Current Opinions on the Functions of Tocopherol Based on the Genetic Manipulation of Tocopherol Biosynthesis in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Li; Zinan Wang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2008-01-01

    As a member of an important group of lipid soluble antioxidants,tocopherols play a paramount role In the daily diet of humans and animals.Recently,genes required for tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway have been identified and cloned with the help of genomics-based approaches and molecular manipulation in the model organisms: Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803.At the basis of these foundations,genetic manipulation of tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway can give rise to strategies that enhance the level of tocochromanol content or convert the constitution of tocochromanol.In addition,genetic manipulations of the tocochromanol biosynthesis pathway provide help for the study of the function of tocopherol in plant systems.The present article summarizes recent advances and pays special attention to the functions of tocopherol in plants.The roles of tocopherol in the network of reactive oxygen species,antioxidants and phytohormones to maintain redox homeostasis and the functions of tocopherol as a signal molecule in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling to regulate carbohydrate metabolism are also discussed.

  12. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  13. Virtual Velocity Vector-based Offline Collision-free Path Planning of Industrial Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ouyang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, industrial robotic manipulators are applied in many manufacturing applications. In most cases, an industrial environment is a cluttered and complex one where moving obstacles may exist and hinder the movement of robotic manipulators. Therefore, a robotic manipulator not only has to avoid moving obstacles, but also needs to fulfill the manufacturing requirements of smooth movement in fixed tact time. Thus, this paper proposes a virtual velocity vector-based algorithm of offline collision-free path planning for manipulator arms in a controlled industrial environment. The minimum distance between a manipulator and a moving obstacle can be maintained at an expected value by utilizing our proposed algorithm with established offline collision-free path-planning and trajectory generating systems. Furthermore, both joint space velocity and Cartesian space velocity of generated time-efficient trajectory are continuous and smooth. In addition, the vector of detour velocity in a 3D environment is determined and depicted. Simulation results indicate that detour velocity can shorten the total task time as well as escaping the local minimal effectively. In summary, our approach can fulfill both safety requirements of collision avoidance of moving obstacles and manufacturing requirements of smooth movement within fixed tact time in an industrial environment.

  14. Design, Dynamics, and Workspace of a Hybrid-Driven-Based Cable Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, dynamics, and workspace of a hybrid-driven-based cable parallel manipulator (HDCPM are presented. The HDCPM is able to perform high efficiency, heavy load, and high-performance motion due to the advantages of both the cable parallel manipulator and the hybrid-driven planar five-bar mechanism. The design is performed according to theories of mechanism structure synthesis for cable parallel manipulators. The dynamic formulation of the HDCPM is established on the basis of Newton-Euler method. The workspace of the manipulator is analyzed additionally. As an example, a completely restrained HDCPM with 3 degrees of freedom is studied in simulation in order to verify the validity of the proposed design, workspace, and dynamic analysis. The simulation results, compared with the theoretical analysis, and the case study previously performed show that the manipulator design is reasonable and the mathematical models are correct, which provides the theoretical basis for future physical prototype and control system design.

  15. Low Speed Motion Optimization of Space Manipulator Based on Gradient Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-speed crawling phenomenon may occur when space manipulators run at a low speed, which may bring big problem for manipulation work. A kind of low-speed optimization algorithm based on gradient projection method is pro-posed in this paper. The designing of continuous balanced proportional factor can effectively reduce the quantitative differences between the homogeneous solution and the special solution, avoiding the joint velocities oscillations. The low-speed crawling problem can be effectively improved by appropriate increase of joint velocities. And the effectiveness and correctness of the optimization algorithm are confirmed by the simulation.

  16. Fuzzy PID Control Method for Internet-based Tele-operation Manipulators System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trajectory tracking control problem for internet-based tele-operation system is researched in this paper. The control structure of master and slave tele-operation manipulators adapts bilateral servo control architecture with force deviation feedback. The simulation model of three degrees of freedom (3-DOF manipulator is presented. In order to ensure the synchronization of positions of the master and slave manipulators, a fuzzy PID control method is proposed. This control algorithm is to adjust the three parameters of PID controller online by fuzzy control method. The contrast simulation experiments of PID and fuzzy PID control methods show that the proposed control method can effectively improve the force and position tracking performance and reduce time delay.

  17. A Force-Based Grid Manipulator for ALE Calculations in a Lobe Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Vande Voorde; Jan Vierendeels; Erik Dick

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a time-dependant calculation of flow in a lobe pump is presented. Calculations are performed using the arbitrary Lagrangean Eulerean (ALE) method. A grid manipulator is needed to move the nodes between time steps. The used grid manipulator is based on the pseudo-force idea. This means that each node is fictitiously connected with its 8 neighbours via fictitious springs. The equilibrium of the resulting pseudo spring forces defines the altered position of the nodes. The grid manipulator was coupled with a commercial flow solver and the whole was tested on the flow through a three-lobe lobe pump. Results were obtained for a rotational speed of 460 rpm and incompressible silicon oil as fluid.

  18. Efficacy of Simulation-Based Learning of Electronics Using Visualization and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lung; Hong, Yu-Ru; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2011-01-01

    Software for simulation-based learning of electronics was implemented to help learners understand complex and abstract concepts through observing external representations and exploring concept models. The software comprises modules for visualization and simulative manipulation. Differences in learning performance of using the learning software…

  19. Flow Manipulation in Thread-Based Microfluidics by Tuning the Wettability of Wool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So-Hyoun; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Jung, Won Suk; Seo, Hyeon-Jin; Nam, Sung Woo; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Yun, Sang H

    2015-02-01

    Recent progress in thread-based microfluidic devices has provided portable and inexpensive field-based technologies enabling medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. However, capillary-driven liquid flow in a single thread, a crucial aspect of thread-based microfluidics, is difficult to control. Among potential materials, hydrophobic wool thread is an appropriate candidate for liquid flow control in thread-based microfluidics because its wettability can be readily tuned by the introduction of a natural color pigment, thereby manipulating flow. Thus, utilizing natural wool thread as a channel, we demonstrate here that liquid flow manipulations, such as microselecting and micromixing, can be achieved by coating the complex Al(III) (Alum) brazilein onto wool thread. In addition to enabling flow control, the coated wool channels consisting entirely of naturally occurring substances will be beneficial for biological sensing devices.

  20. Dynamic Output Feedback Based Active Decentralized Fault-Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator with Concurrent Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to describe an active decentralized fault-tolerant control (ADFTC strategy based on dynamic output feedback for reconfigurable manipulators with concurrent actuator and sensor failures. Consider each joint module of the reconfigurable manipulator as a subsystem, and treat the fault as the unknown input of the subsystem. Firstly, by virtue of linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, the decentralized proportional-integral observer (DPIO is designed to estimate and compensate the sensor fault online; hereafter, the compensated system model could be derived. Then, the actuator fault is estimated similarly by another DPIO using LMI as well, and the sufficient condition of the existence of H∞ fault-tolerant controller in the dynamic output feedback is presented for the compensated system model. Furthermore, the dynamic output feedback controller is presented based on the estimation of actuator fault to realize active fault-tolerant control. Finally, two 3-DOF reconfigurable manipulators with different configurations are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in simulation. The main advantages of the proposed scheme lie in that it can handle the concurrent faults act on the actuator and sensor on the same joint module, as well as there is no requirement of fault detection and isolation process; moreover, it is more feasible to the modularity of the reconfigurable manipulator.

  1. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  2. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene. Progress report, [April 15, 1987--April 14, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1988-12-31

    Many agronomically important crops are viewed as significant resources of renewable energy. Overall crop productivity could be increased if the efficiency of photoassimilate conversion into dry matter such as starch were improved in storage tissues. Starch production is controlled by the catalytic activity of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in the first step of starch biosynthesis. This research focuses on the genetic structure and molecular mechanisms by which it is controlled during plant development and how it is affected by environmental and hormonal conditions. The current goal is to isolate the genes for this enzyme present in both cereal endosperm and potato tuber tissues, and to elucidate its structure and the controlling sequences responsible for gene expression. The long term goal is the improvement of starch production in storage organs by manipulating this gene so that it encodes an enzyme refractive to inorganic phosphate inhibition.

  3. A microcontroller-based three degree-of-freedom manipulator testbed. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert Michael, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A wheeled exploratory vehicle is under construction at the Mars Mission Research Center at North Carolina State University. In order to serve as more than an inspection tool, this vehicle requires the ability to interact with its surroundings. A crane-type manipulator, as well as the necessary control hardware and software, has been developed for use as a sample gathering tool on this vehicle. The system is controlled by a network of four Motorola M68HC11 microcontrollers. Control hardware and software were developed in a modular fashion so that the system can be used to test future control algorithms and hardware. Actuators include three stepper motors and one solenoid. Sensors include three optical encoders and one cable tensiometer. The vehicle supervisor computer provides the manipulator system with the approximate coordinates of the target object. This system maps the workspace surrounding the given location by lowering the claw, along a set of evenly spaced vertical lines, until contact occurs. Based on this measured height information and prior knowledge of the target object size, the system determines if the object exists in the searched area. The system can find and retrieve a 1.25 in. diameter by 1.25 in. tall cylinder placed within the 47.5 sq in search area in less than 12 minutes. This manipulator hardware may be used for future control algorithm verification and serves as a prototype for other manipulator hardware.

  4. A Dynamic Effective Fault Tolerance System in Robotic Manipulator using a Hybrid Neural Network based Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jiji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Robot manipulator play important role in the field of automobile industry, mainly it is used in gas welding application and manufacturing and assembling of motor parts. In complex trajectory, on each joint the speed of the robot manipulator is affected. For that reason, it is necessary to analyze the noise and vibration of robot's joints for predicting faults also improve the control precision of robotic manipulator. In this study we will propose a new fault detection system for Robot manipulator. The proposed hybrid fault detection system is designed based on fuzzy support vector machine and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this system the decouple joints are identified and corrected using fuzzy SVM, here non-linear signal are used for complete process and treatment, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are used to detect the free-swinging and locked joint of the robot, two types of neural predictors are also employed in the proposed adaptive neural network structure. The simulation results of a hybrid controller demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the methodology.

  5. Compact piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Tae-Won; Choi, Jun-Ho; Jung, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geon; Han, Jae-Hung; Park, Kwang-Chun; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-09-01

    We report a hierarchical piezoelectric tripod manipulator based on a reverse bridge-type displacement amplifier. The reverse bridge-type amplification mechanism is pre-strained by each piezo-stack actuator up to 60 μm and is cross-stacked in a series arrangement to make a compact and high-stroke manipulator having load-bearing characteristics. The designed manipulator with three degrees of freedom is compact with a height of 56.0 mm, a diameter of 48.6 mm and total weight of 115 g. It achieves a translational stroke of up to 880 μm in heaving motion and a tilting angle of up to 2.0° in rotational motion within the operating voltage and power range of the piezoelectric stack actuator. A key feature of the present design is built-in and pre-strained displacement amplification mechanisms integrated with piezoelectric stacked actuators, resulting in a compact tripod manipulator having exceptionally high stroke and load-bearing capacity.

  6. Three-degree-of-freedom flexure-based manipulator for high-resolution spatial micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, John E.; Goldfarb, Michael

    1998-10-01

    Flexure-based compliant mechanism design enables the development of revolute joint manipulators without the backlash or Coulomb friction that impede precision position and especially force control. Additionally, due to scaling effects, the adverse consequences of Coulomb friction are exacerbated at small scales. Conventional approaches to compliant mechanism design impose several limitations, however, such as severely limited ranges of motion, poor kinematic behavior, and significant deformation under multi- axis loading. The authors have developed a new type of compliant mechanism that enables the implementation of spatially-loaded revolute joint manipulators with well- behaved kinematic characteristics and without the backlash and stick-slip behavior that would otherwise impede precision control. The primary innovation in the design is the split-tube flexure, a unique small-scale revolute joint that exhibits a considerably larger range of motion and significantly better multi-axis revolute joint characteristics than a conventional flexure. Specifically, the compliant manipulator has an approximately spherical workspace two centimeters in diameter, yet is structurally rigid along non-actuated axes. Data from the small-scale manipulator demonstrates that positioning resolution is limited by digital quantization and sensor noise, and not by more fundamental physical limitations, such as backlash or Coulomb friction.

  7. Pressure observer based adaptive robust trajectory tracking control of a parallel manipulator driven by pneumatic muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a pressure observer based adaptive robust controller (POARC) for posture trajectory tracking of a parallel manipulator driven by three pneumatic muscles without pressure sensors. Due to model errors of the static forces and friction forces of pneumatic muscles, simplified average flow rate characteristics of valves, unknown disturbances of entire system,and unmeasured pressures, there exist rather severe parametric uncertainties, nonlinear uncertainties and dynamic uncertainties in modeling of the parallel manipulator. A nonlinear pressure observer is constructed to estimate unknown pressures on the basis of a single-input-single-output (SISO) decoupling model that is simplified from the actual multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)coupling model of the parallel manipulator. Then, an adaptive robust controller integrated with the pressure observer is developed to accomplish high precision posture trajectory tracking of the parallel manipulator. The experimental results indicate that the system with the proposed POARC not only achieves good control accuracy and smooth movement but also maintains robustness to disturbances.

  8. Study of Automatic Fiber Placement Manipulator’s Robotic Kinematics Manipulability Based on Volume Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed based on volume element in order to measure the manipulator’s robotic kinematics manipulability. Then studied the series redundant automatic fiber placement robotic manipulator’s operation space, draw the conclusion that the greater of the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume, the better of the robotic manipulator’s manipulability, volume element based on redundant robotic manipulator’s kinematics is proposed as an operational performance index. n-DOF serial robotic manipulator’s operation space is n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, the n-dimensional Riemannian manifold volume is calculated using the moving coordinate system and the exterior product definition in differential geometry and get the robotic manipulator’s operation space volume then compared the obtained results with the operation space volume using inner product determinant in the literature, it shows that the volume element as a kinematics operational performance index is feasible.

  9. Stem Cell-Based Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnis; Mannoni

    1997-01-01

    Many researchers and clinicians wonder if gene therapy remains a way to treat genetic or acquired life-threatening diseases. For the last few years, many experimental, pre-clinical, and clinical data have been published showing that it is possible to transfer with relatively high efficiency new genetic information (transgene) in many cells or tissues including both hematopoietic progenitor cells and differentiated cells. Based on experimental works, addition of the normal gene to cells with deletions, mutations, or alterations of the corresponding endogenous one has been shown to reverse the phenotype and to restore (in some case) the functional defect. In spite of very attractive preliminary results, however, suggesting the feasibility and safety of this process, therapeutically efficient gene transfer and expression in targeted cells or tissues must be proven. In this review, we will focus primarily on the attempts to use gene transfer in hematopoietic stem cells as a model for more general genetic manipulations of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are included in a subset of bone marrow, cord blood, or peripheral blood cells identified by the expression of the CD34 antigen on their membrane.

  10. Research of trajectory optimization on feeding manipulator based on internal penalty function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunli

    2016-10-01

    This paper has discussed the problems of trajectory optimization of feeding manipulator based on penalty function. Has selected the types of feeding robot, which work on NC machining center of the flexible workshop, and created the mathematical model with penalty function, for the purpose not only to optimize its walking path to reduce the production cost, but also improve its safety and efficiency of production. It has been verified by theoretical analysis and practice, the path optimization method is feasible.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON KANE DYNAMIC EQUATIONS BASED ON SCREW THEORY FOR OPENCHAIN MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wu-fa; GONG Zhen-bang; WANG Qin-que

    2005-01-01

    First, screw theory, product of exponential formulas and Jacobian matrix are introduced. Then definitions are given about active force wrench, inertial force wrench, partial velocity twist, generalized active force, and generalized inertial force according to screw theory. After that Kane dynamic equations based on screw theory for open-chain manipulators have been derived. Later on how to compute the partial velocity twist by geometrical method is illustrated. Finally the correctness of conclusions is verified by example.

  12. Second Order Sliding Mode-Based Output Feedback Tracking Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Van, Mien; Hee-Jun Kang; Young-Soo Suh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a robust output feedback tracking control scheme for motion control of uncertain robot manipulators without joint velocity measurement based on a second-order sliding mode (SOSM) observer is presented. Two second‐order sliding mode observers with finite time convergence are developed for velocity estimation and uncertainty identification, respectively. The first SOSM observer is used to estimate the state vector in finite time without filtration. However, for uncertainty identi...

  13. Chromosomal manipulation by site-specific recombinases and fluorescent protein-based vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Uemura

    Full Text Available Feasibility of chromosomal manipulation in mammalian cells was first reported 15 years ago. Although this technique is useful for precise understanding of gene regulation in the chromosomal context, a limited number of laboratories have used it in actual practice because of associated technical difficulties. To overcome the practical hurdles, we developed a Cre-mediated chromosomal recombination system using fluorescent proteins and various site-specific recombinases. These techniques enabled quick construction of targeting vectors, easy identification of chromosome-rearranged cells, and rearrangement leaving minimum artificial elements at junctions. Applying this system to a human cell line, we successfully recapitulated two types of pathogenic chromosomal translocations in human diseases: MYC/IgH and BCR/ABL1. By inducing recombination between two loxP sites targeted into the same chromosome, we could mark cells harboring deletion or duplication of the inter-loxP segments with different colors of fluorescence. In addition, we demonstrated that the intrachromosomal recombination frequency is inversely proportional to the distance between two recombination sites, implicating a future application of this frequency as a proximity sensor. Our method of chromosomal manipulation can be employed for particular cell types in which gene targeting is possible (e.g. embryonic stem cells. Experimental use of this system would open up new horizons in genome biology, including the establishment of cellular and animal models of diseases caused by translocations and copy-number variations.

  14. Multisensor Fault Identification Scheme Based on Decentralized Sliding Mode Observers Applied to Reconfigurable Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns with a fault identification scheme in a class of nonlinear interconnected systems. The decentralized sliding mode observer is recruited for the investigation of position sensor fault or velocity sensor fault. First, a decentralized neural network controller is proposed for the system under fault-free state. The diffeomorphism theory is utilized to construct a nonlinear transformation for subsystem structure. A simple filter is implemented to convert the sensor fault into pseudo-actuator fault scenario. The decentralized sliding mode observer is then presented for multisensor fault identification of reconfigurable manipulators based on Lyapunov stable theory. Finally, two 2-DOF reconfigurable manipulators with different configurations are employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in numerical simulation. The results demonstrate that one joint’s fault does not affect other joints and the sensor fault can be identified precisely by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer.

  15. Neuro-fuzzy and model-based motion control for mobile manipulator among dynamic obstacles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on autonomous motion control of a nonholonomic platform with a robotic arm, which is called mobile manipulator. It serves in transportation of loads in imperfectly known industrial environments with unknown dynamic obstacles. A union of both procedures is used to solve the general problems of collision-free motion. The problem of collision-free motion for mobile manipulators has been approached from two directions, Planning and Reactive Control. The dynamic path planning can be used to solve the problem of locomotion of mobile platform, and reactive approaches can be employed to solve the motion planning of the arm. The execution can generate the commands for the servo-systems of the robot so as to follow a given nominal trajectory while reacting in real-time to unexpected events. The execution can be designed as an Adaptive Fuzzy Neural Controller. In real world systems, sensor-based motion control becomes essential to deal with model uncertainties and unexpected obstacles.

  16. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Tao Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain.

  17. Cloning Sequencing and Structural Manipulation of the Enterotoxin D and E Genes from Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    time. Further characterization of the plasmid was carried out by restriction mapping of pIB485 was performed. pIB485 DNA was digested with EcoRI...the interruption of the gene by insertion of the phage DNA. To characterize this unique regulation of gene expression, we sequenced the lipase gene...in a solution of 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose (added to stabilize the emulsion) by sonication for 7 - 10 minutes at 50w. This suspension was used to

  18. xdamp Version 6 : an IDL-based data and image manipulation program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sign) Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh(reg sign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg sign) and Alpha(reg sign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 7 and Windows Vista; Unix platforms; and Macintosh computers. Version 6 is an update that uses the IDL Virtual Machine to resolve the need for licensing IDL.

  19. Web based tools for data manipulation, visualisation and validation with interactive georeferenced graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovic, D.; Dadic, V.

    2009-04-01

    Some of oceanographic parameters have to be manually inserted into database; some (for example data from CTD probe) are inserted from various files. All this parameters requires visualization, validation and manipulation from research vessel or scientific institution, and also public presentation. For these purposes is developed web based system, containing dynamic sql procedures and java applets. Technology background is Oracle 10g relational database, and Oracle application server. Web interfaces are developed using PL/SQL stored database procedures (mod PL/SQL). Additional parts for data visualization include use of Java applets and JavaScript. Mapping tool is Google maps API (javascript) and as alternative java applet. Graph is realized as dynamically generated web page containing java applet. Mapping tool and graph are georeferenced. That means that click on some part of graph, automatically initiate zoom or marker onto location where parameter was measured. This feature is very useful for data validation. Code for data manipulation and visualization are partially realized with dynamic SQL and that allow as to separate data definition and code for data manipulation. Adding new parameter in system requires only data definition and description without programming interface for this kind of data.

  20. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger‐arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3‐DOF fingers are attached to the end‐effector of a 6‐DOF arm to configure a multi‐finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi‐finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini‐max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi‐finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Interactive sculpting of product shape based on constraint manipulation in virtual environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-yu; TAN Jian-rong

    2005-01-01

    In product concept design, not only designers with professional CAD skills, but also final customers take part in the design and evaluation of product shape styling. Because customers usually lack surface modelling background and are not familiar with concrete operations of commercial CAD systems, it is difficult for them to express their change intentions of product shape through professional CAD tools if they are not satisfied with the current shape design. This paper puts forward a method for creating, dragging and manipulating constraint and load represented in form of icon entity in interactive sculpting of product shape in virtual environment. The method supports customers manipulation of sculpting constraints or loads on sculpting shapes in virtual reality interaction to control the deformation of product shape. Constraints management based on icon entity is similar to spline lofting operation that is familiar to engineers, so users do not need to know surface details or have any professional knowledge of surface modelling, by only using their physical and engineering experience, they can manipulate the sculpting of product shape intuitively.

  2. xdamp Version 4 An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    CERN Document Server

    William-Ballar, P

    2002-01-01

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sub s ign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sub s ign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sub s ign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sub s ign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sub s ign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macinto...

  3. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Summary of progress, [April 15, 1991--April 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1992-12-31

    The long term aim of this project is to assess the feasibility of increasing the conversion of photosynthate into starch via manipulation of genes encoding enzymes that may be rate-limiting in starch biosynthesis. In developing storage tissues such as tubers, starch biosynthesis is regulated by the gene activation and expression of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, branching enzyme and other ancillary starch modifying enzymes, as well as the allosteric-controlled behavior of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase activity. In view of the regulatory role of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase in starch biosynthesis at both the genetic and biochemical level, we have focused our attention on the genes that encode for this enzyme in potato tubers. The proposed objectives of the grant were to (1) analyze the structure of the tuber enzyme, (2) isolate and characterize the structure of its genes, and (3) identify the regulatory elements controlling ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase during plant development. During the last two and 1/2 years we have met or have made considerable progress in achieving these objectives as discussed in more detail below.

  4. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  5. [Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene]. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T.W.

    1999-04-01

    Part 1 of this research focuses on patterns of gene expression of ADPG-pyrophosphorylase in native and transgenic potato plants. To elucidate the mechanism controlling AGP expression during plant development, the expression of the potato tuber AGP small subunit (sAGP) gene was analyzed in transgenic potato plants using a promoter-{beta}-glucuronidase expression system. Part II evaluated the structure-function relationships of AGP.

  6. Novel integrated optimization algorithm for trajectory planning of robot manipulators based on integrated evolutionary programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong LUO; Xiaoping FAN; Heng ZHANG; Tefang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Optimal trajectory planning for robot manipulators plays an important role in implementing the high productivity for robots.The performance indexes used in optimal trajectory planning are classified into two main categories:optimum traveling time and optimum mechanical energy of the actuators.The current trajectory planning algorithms are designed based on one of the above two performance indexes.So far,there have been few planning algorithms designed to satisfy two performance indexes simultaneously.On the other hand,some deficiencies arise in the existing integrated optimization algorithms of trajectory planning.In order to overcome those deficiencies,the integrated optimization algorithms of trajectory planning are presented based on the complete analysis for trajectory planning of robot manipulators.In the algorithm,two object functions are designed based on the specific weight coefficient method and "ideal point" strategy.Moreover,based on the features of optimization problem,the intensified evolutionary programming is proposed to solve the corresponding optimization model.Especially,for the Stanford Robot,the high-quality solutions are found at a lower cost.

  7. Study of Web-based integration of pneumatic manipulator and its vision positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-zhao; WU Chuan-yu; HU Xu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Pneumatic driven system is widely used in industrial automation, mainly for relatively simple tasks with open-loop control. Because of the pneumatic system's compressibility and few stop positions, it was considered hard to control in a precise motion control system. With the help of newly developed pneumatic servo control technology, using servo-pneumatic positioning controller now is just as easy as using electro-servo system. This article discusses Web-based servo-pneumatic manipulator control and object recognition and positioning. The authors built a three-degrees-of-freedom (3 DOF) pneumatic manipulator with a servo-pneumatic closed-loop control system and machine vision system in their lab. Web-based tele-operation was a basic ability in this experimental system. After installing a CCD camera, video capture card, and related software developed by the authors, the robot could recognize the user specified object through the Web page and find its position. The remote user could command the robot to move to the position and to grab the object. The critical issues of Web-based control are to integrate hybrid open-architecture mechatronic system through the Web and develop a software language environment characterized by the script.The authors' experiment showed that pneumatic devices could serve as accurate position control and be controlled through the Web.

  8. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-assisted gene targeting enables rapid and precise genetic manipulation of mammalian neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Raul Bardini; Dewari, Pooran Singh; Kalantzaki, Maria; Gangoso, Ester; Matjusaitis, Mantas; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Blin, Carla; Grant, Vivien; Bulstrode, Harry; Gogolok, Sabine; Skarnes, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian neural stem cell (NSC) lines provide a tractable model for discovery across stem cell and developmental biology, regenerative medicine and neuroscience. They can be derived from foetal or adult germinal tissues and continuously propagated in vitro as adherent monolayers. NSCs are clonally expandable, genetically stable, and easily transfectable – experimental attributes compatible with targeted genetic manipulations. However, gene targeting, which is crucial for functional studies of embryonic stem cells, has not been exploited to date in NSC lines. Here, we deploy CRISPR/Cas9 technology to demonstrate a variety of sophisticated genetic modifications via gene targeting in both mouse and human NSC lines, including: (1) efficient targeted transgene insertion at safe harbour loci (Rosa26 and AAVS1); (2) biallelic knockout of neurodevelopmental transcription factor genes; (3) simple knock-in of epitope tags and fluorescent reporters (e.g. Sox2-V5 and Sox2-mCherry); and (4) engineering of glioma mutations (TP53 deletion; H3F3A point mutations). These resources and optimised methods enable facile and scalable genome editing in mammalian NSCs, providing significant new opportunities for functional genetic analysis. PMID:28096221

  9. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  10. Alternative splicing: an important mechanism for myometrial gene regulation that can be manipulated to target specific genes associated with preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson-Capper Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable effort has been expended in attempting to distinguish genes that contribute to initiating the onset of term and preterm labour (PTL from those that change in expression as a consequence of the progression of labour. The ability to define more clearly the genes involved in triggering labour contractions should lead to the development of new effective and safer strategies to prevent preterm birth. There is ample evidence to suggest that specific genes are co-ordinately regulated within the upper and lower regions of the myometrium prior to and during parturition and many of these genes are regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mini-review highlights that expression of a range of different splicing factors, with defined roles in pre-mRNA splicing, is both temporally and spatially regulated within the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy and labour. Moreover, several of these splicing factors play key roles in controlling the differential expression of specific regulatory proteins involved in uterine signalling and uterine quiescence. In addition, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing may have potential in defining and targeting uterine pro-labour genes and thus contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent PTL.

  11. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert;

    2013-01-01

    and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal...

  12. Neural network-based adaptive controller design of robotic manipulators with an observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Sun, Z; Woo, P Y

    2001-01-01

    A neural network (NN)-based adaptive controller with an observer is proposed for the trajectory tracking of robotic manipulators with unknown dynamics nonlinearities. It is assumed that the robotic manipulator has only joint angle position measurements. A linear observer is used to estimate the robot joint angle velocity, while NNs are employed to further improve the control performance of the controlled system through approximating the modified robot dynamics function. The adaptive controller for robots with an observer can guarantee the uniform ultimate bounds of the tracking errors and the observer errors as well as the bounds of the NN weights. For performance comparisons, the conventional adaptive algorithm with an observer using linearity in parameters of the robot dynamics is also developed in the same control framework as the NN approach for online approximating unknown nonlinearities of the robot dynamics. Main theoretical results for designing such an observer-based adaptive controller with the NN approach using multilayer NNs with sigmoidal activation functions, as well as with the conventional adaptive approach using linearity in parameters of the robot dynamics are given. The performance comparisons between the NN approach and the conventional adaptation approach with an observer is carried out to show the advantages of the proposed control approaches through simulation studies.

  13. Research on the Influence of Accountants’ Human Capital Factors on Profit Manipulation Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinqiu Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the investigation of the influence of human factors on the profit manipulation. Literature review indicated that although earning management and profit manipulation has been discussed in previous study, little study has done in the investigation of the influence of human factors. To address this issue, this study has developed a new analysis model based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to assess the influence of human factors on profit manipulation. The innovation lies in that the education level of the accountants, the accountant number and the gender of the executors have been analyzed using the DEA to determine their influence on the profit manipulation. Empirical analysis has been carried out by the use of historical data of Hangzhou City, China. The DEA analysis results show that the profit manipulation is influenced significantly by the factors of the education level and number of the accountants. Hence, to constrain the illegal profit manipulation, it is essential to improve the education level of the accountants and control their number. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in the earning management and can be referred in the profit manipulation control.

  14. Fault tolerant motion planning based on joint torque limit for redundant manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    First, two fault tolerant planning algorithms with avoidance of joint static torque limit or joint dynamic torque limit are proposed respectively. The former is suitable for the low-speed manipulators, and the latter is suitable for the high-speed manipulators. These algorithms not only can insure manipulation tasks to lie within the fault tolerant workspace but also can avoid joint torque limit, and hence can insure a redundant manipulator to be fault tolerant in both kinematical sense and dynamic sense. Then, the simulation examples for a planar 3R manipulator demonstrate the validity of these algorithms.

  15. Fuzzy force control of constrained robot manipulators based on impedance model in an unknown environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyi; WANG Lei; WANG Fei

    2007-01-01

    To precisely implement the force control of robot manipulators in an unknown environment,a control strategy based on fuzzy prediction of the reference trajectory in the impedance model is developed.The force tracking experiments are executed in an open-architecture control system with different tracking velocities,different desired forces,different contact stiffnesses and different surface figurations.The corresponding force control results are compared and analyzed.The influences of unknown parameters of the environment on the contact force are analyzed based on experimental data,and the tunings of predictive scale factors are illustrated.The experimental results show that the desired trajectory in the impedance model is predicted exactly and rapidly in the cases that the contact surface is unknown,the contact stiffness changes,and the fuzzy force control algorithm has high adaptability to the unknown environment.

  16. Image-Based Visual Servoing for Manipulation Via Predictive Control – A Survey of Some Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Lazăr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of predictive control algorithms developed by the authors for visual servoing of robots in manipulation applications is presented. Using these algorithms, a control predictive framework was created for image-based visual servoing (IBVS systems. Firstly, considering the point features, in the year 2008 we introduced an internal model predictor based on the interaction matrix. Secondly, distinctly from the set-point trajectory, we introduced in 2011 the reference trajectory using the concept from predictive control. Finally, minimizing a sum of squares of predicted errors, the optimal input trajectory was obtained. The new concept of predictive control for IBVS systems was employed to develop a cascade structure for motion control of robot arms. Simulation results obtained with a simulator for predictive IBVS systems are also presented.

  17. A Wearable-based and Markerless Human-manipulator Interface with Feedback Mechanism and Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a novel human-manipulator interface which incorporates wearable-based and markerless tracking to interact with the continuous movements of a human operator’s hand. Unlike traditional approaches, which usually include contacting devices or physical markers to track the human-limb movements, this interface enables registration of natural movement through a wireless wearable watch and a leap motion sensor. Due to sensor error and tracking failure, the measurements are not made with sufficient accuracy. Two Kalman filters are employed to compensate the noisy and incomplete measurements in real time. Furthermore, due to perceptive limitations and abnormal state signals, the operator is unable to achieve high precision and efficiency in robot manipulation; an adaptive multispace transformation method (AMT is therefore introduced, which serves as a secondary treatment. In addition, in order to allow two-way human-robot interaction, the proposed method provides a vibration feedback mechanism triggered by the wearable watch to call the operator’s attention to robot collision incidents or moments where the operator’s hand is in a transboundary state. This improves teleoperation.

  18. Plasma-based amplification and manipulation of high-power laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Goetz

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade the increasing availability of Tera- and Petawatt class lasers with ps to fs pulse duration has intensified the interest in the relativistic interaction between laser radiation and matter. Today laser intensities up to 1022 W/cm2 can be achieved. Most high intensity lasers today rely on amplification schemes that can only hardly be scaled to higher power levels due to material damage thresholds. An alternative approach that allows circumventing these issues is the use of plasma as an amplification medium. Langmuir or ion waves may be used as optical components, scattering the energy from a long pump pulse into a short seed pulse. Damage thresholds of solid-state materials are not only limiting the generation of high power laser light, but also its subsequent manipulation. Again, plasma can provide an alternative approach to light manipulation. We recently proposed the concept of transient plasma photonic crystals, which aims at transferring and extending the concept of photonic crystals to the realm of plasma physics in the range of optical frequencies. In my presentation I will discuss Brillouin type plasma-based laser amplifiers and show that the ion plasma waves, driven by the two laser pulses, eventually form photonic crystals. The properties and possible future applications of these plasma photonic crystals as efficient Bragg type mirrors or polarizers will be discussed.

  19. Thermally induced light-driven microfluidics using a MOEMS-based laser scanner for particle manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Matthias P.; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    One key challenge in the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip experiments for biological or chemical applications is the remote manipulation of fluids, droplets and particles. These can be volume elements of reactants, particles coated with markers, cells or many others. Light-driven microfluidics is one way of accomplishing this challenge. In our work, we manipulated micrometre sized polystyrene beads in a microfluidic environment by inducing thermal flows. Therefore, the beads were held statically in an unstructured microfluidic chamber, containing a dyed watery solution. Inside this chamber, the beads were moved along arbitrary trajectories on a micrometre scale. The experiments were performed, using a MOEMS (micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems)-based laser scanner with a variable focal length. This scanner system is integrated in a compact device, which is flexibly applicable to various microscope setups. The device utilizes a novel approach for varying the focal length, using an electrically tunable lens. A quasi statically driven MOEMS mirror is used for beam steering. The combination of a tunable lens and a dual axis micromirror makes the device very compact and robust and is capable of positioning the laser focus at any arbitrary location within a three dimensional working space. Hence, the developed device constitutes a valuable extension to manually executed microfluidic lab-on-chip experiments.

  20. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  1. Detection of Upscale-Crop and Partial Manipulation in Surveillance Video Based on Sensor Pattern Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Kyu Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many court cases, surveillance videos are used as significant court evidence. As these surveillance videos can easily be forged, it may cause serious social issues, such as convicting an innocent person. Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance videos. This paper proposes a forensic technique to detect forgeries of surveillance video based on sensor pattern noise (SPN. We exploit the scaling invariance of the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter to reliably unveil traces of upscaling in videos. By excluding the high-frequency components of the investigated video and adaptively choosing the size of the local search window, the proposed method effectively localizes partially manipulated regions. Empirical evidence from a large database of test videos, including RGB (Red, Green, Blue/infrared video, dynamic-/static-scene video and compressed video, indicates the superior performance of the proposed method.

  2. Broadband Metamaterial Reflectors for Polarization Manipulation Based on Cross/Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We presented the investigation of broadband metamaterial reflector for polarization manipulation based on cross/ring resonators. It is demonstrated that the meta¬material reflector can convert the linearly polarized inci¬dent wave to its cross polarized wave or circularly polar¬ized wave. Due to the multiple resonances at neighboring frequencies, the proposed reflector presents broadband property and high efficiency. The measured fraction band¬width of cross polarization conversion is 55.5% with effi¬ciency higher than 80%. Furthermore, a broadband circu¬lar polarizer is designed by adjusting the dimension para¬meters and the measured fraction bandwidth exceeds 30%.

  3. Manipulated electromagnetic losses by integrating chemically heterogeneous components in Fe-based core/shell architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Lv, Bo; Xue, Fang-Hong; Shah, Asif; Su, Lei; Yan, Jing-Guo; Yao, Man; Dong, Xing-Long

    2013-02-01

    Existing techniques for stabilizing and functionalizing metal nanostructures required precise control of complex procedures and probably introduce undesirable impurities. We herein report an arc-discharge chemical vapor deposition strategy for the synthesis of chemically heterogeneous core/shell metal/oxide nanocapsules Fe/TiFe2O4, Fe/MnFe2O4, and Fe/Al2O3. A universal formation mechanism based on the co-effect of oxygen potential and surface energy is further proposed, derived from fundamental thermodynamics. Such core/shell nanocapsules, integrated with tunable components, present an effective manipulability of microwave absorption at expected frequency, originating from the various dielectric behaviors of the heterogeneous oxide shells.

  4. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  5. Enhancement in motor learning through genetic manipulation of the Lynx1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Miwa

    Full Text Available The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain.

  6. Improvement of clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus by genetic manipulation of structural biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-06-01

    To enhance clavulanic acid production, four structural clavulanic acid biosynthesis genes, carboxyethylarginine synthase (ceas2), β-lactam synthetase (bls2), clavaminate synthase (cas2) and proclavaminate amidinohydrolase (pah2), were amplified from Streptomyces clavuligerus genomic DNA. They were cloned in the pSET152 integration and pIBR25 expression vectors containing the strong ermE* promoter to generate pHN18 and pHN19, respectively, and both plasmids were introduced into S. clavuligerus by protoplast transformation. Clavulanic acid production was increased by 8.7-fold (to ~310 mg/l) in integrative pHN18 transformants and by 5.1-fold in pHN19 transformants compared to controls. Transcriptional analyses showed that the expression levels of ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 were markedly increased in both transformants as compared with wild-type. The elevation of the ceas2, bls2, cas2 and pah2 transcripts was consistent with the enhanced production of clavulanic acid.

  7. Genetic manipulation of HSP26 and YHR087W stress genes may improve fermentative behaviour in wine yeasts under vinification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martí, E; Zuzuarregui, A; Ridaura, I; Lozano, N; del Olmo, M

    2009-03-31

    Throughout wine production yeast cells are affected by a plethora of stress conditions that compromise their ability to carry out the whole process. In recent years important knowledge about the mechanisms involved in stress response in both laboratory and wine yeast strains has been obtained. Several studies have indicated that a correlation exists between stress resistance, expression of stress response genes and fermentative behaviour. In this work we introduce several genetic manipulations in two genes induced by several stress conditions: HSP26 (which encodes a heat shock protein) and YHR087W (encoding a protein of unknown function) in two different wine yeasts, ICV16 and ICV27. These manipulations include expression in multicopy and centromeric plasmids, and substitution of the promoter in one of the genomic copies of these genes for that of the SPI1 gene, encoding for a cell wall protein of unknown function, or the PGK1 gene, which encodes the phosphoglycerate kinase glycolytic enzyme. Our results indicate that some of these modifications result in strains with higher expression of these genes, better resistance to certain stress conditions, and even improved fermentative behaviour. The modifications of the YHR087W gene are particularly interesting, and suggest an important role of this gene in the vinification process.

  8. Robust motion control of oscillatory-base manipulators h∞-control and sliding-mode-control-based approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with alternative robust approaches to control design for an important class of systems characteristically associated with ocean-going vessels and structures. These systems, which include crane vessels, on-board cranes, radar gimbals, and a conductivity temperature and depth winch, are modelled as manipulators with oscillating bases. One design approach is based on the H-infinity control framework exploiting an effective combination of PD control, an extended matrix polytope and a robust stability analysis method with a state-dependent coefficient form. The other is based on sliding-mode control using some novel nonlinear sliding surfaces. The model demonstrates how successful motion control can be achieved by suppressing base oscillations and in the presence of uncertainties. This is important not only for ocean engineering systems in which the problems addressed here originate but more generally as a benchmark platform for robust motion control with disturbance rejection. Researche...

  9. Recent advances in particle and droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices based on surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuochen; Zhe, Jiang

    2011-04-07

    Manipulation of microscale particles and fluid liquid droplets is an important task for lab-on-a-chip devices for numerous biological researches and applications, such as cell detection and tissue engineering. Particle manipulation techniques based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) appear effective for lab-on-a-chip devices because they are non-invasive, compatible with soft lithography micromachining, have high energy density, and work for nearly any type of microscale particles. Here we review the most recent research and development of the past two years in SAW based particle and liquid droplet manipulation for lab-on-a-chip devices including particle focusing and separation, particle alignment and patterning, particle directing, and liquid droplet delivery.

  10. Second Order Sliding Mode-Based Output Feedback Tracking Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mien Van

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust output feedback tracking control scheme for motion control of uncertain robot manipulators without joint velocity measurement based on a second-order sliding mode (SOSM observer is presented. Two second‐order sliding mode observers with finite time convergence are developed for velocity estimation and uncertainty identification, respectively. The first SOSM observer is used to estimate the state vector in finite time without filtration. However, for uncertainty identification, the values are constructed from the high switching frequencies, necessitating the application of a filter. To estimate the uncertainties without filtration, a second SOSM‐based nonlinear observer is designed. By integrating two SOSM observers, the resulting observer can theoretically obtain exact estimations of both velocity and uncertainty. An output feedback tracking control scheme is then designed based on the observed values of the state variables and the direct compensation of matched modelling uncertainty using their identified values. Finally, results of a simulation for a PUMA560 robot are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  11. Research on critical technology of micro/nano bioparticles manipulation platform based on light-induced dielectrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the research on the status and problems of micro/nano bio-particles manipulation using dielectrophoresis, the theoretical basis and the model simulation of micro/nano bio-particles manipu-lation using light-induced dielectrophoresis were discussed. The space distribution of electric field and dielectrophoresis forces in different heights were also obtained. On this basis, the core component of the micro manipulation system, that is, photoconductive layer of the chip, was completed in the mate-rial selection, fabricating process and performance analysis testing. Then the voltage drop of the sus-pension and the effective voltage frequency spectrum were obtained. Finally, by combining the machine vision detection with real-time tracking system, the micro/nano bio-particles manipulation platform based on the light-induced dielectrophoreisis was established, and then the manipulations for micro/nano bio-particles, such as quick collection, transport, separation, were implemented. This provided a basis for rapid, accurate, and low-cost detection of serious diseases based on the micro-fluidic biochip and early diagnosis.

  12. Apicidin F: characterization and genetic manipulation of a new secondary metabolite gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Niehaus

    Full Text Available The fungus F. fujikuroi is well known for its production of gibberellins causing the 'bakanae' disease of rice. Besides these plant hormones, it is able to produce other secondary metabolites (SMs, such as pigments and mycotoxins. Genome sequencing revealed altogether 45 potential SM gene clusters, most of which are cryptic and silent. In this study we characterize a new non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin F (APF. This new SM has structural similarities to the known histone deacetylase inhibitor apicidin. To gain insight into the biosynthetic pathway, most of the 11 cluster genes were deleted, and the mutants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-HRMS for their ability to produce APF or new derivatives. Structure elucidation was carried out be HPLC-HRMS and NMR analysis. We identified two new derivatives of APF named apicidin J and K. Furthermore, we studied the regulation of APF biosynthesis and showed that the cluster genes are expressed under conditions of high nitrogen and acidic pH in a manner dependent on the nitrogen regulator AreB, and the pH regulator PacC. In addition, over-expression of the atypical pathway-specific transcription factor (TF-encoding gene APF2 led to elevated expression of the cluster genes under inducing and even repressing conditions and to significantly increased product yields. Bioinformatic analyses allowed the identification of a putative Apf2 DNA-binding ("Api-box" motif in the promoters of the APF genes. Point mutations in this sequence motif caused a drastic decrease of APF production indicating that this motif is essential for activating the cluster genes. Finally, we provide a model of the APF biosynthetic pathway based on chemical identification of derivatives in the cultures of deletion mutants.

  13. Diurnal profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression with photoperiod manipulation in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Claire; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Ross, Alexander W; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2008-04-01

    Hypothalamic energy balance genes have been examined in the context of seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster. Most of these long photoperiod (LD)/short photoperiod (SD) comparisons have been of tissues collected at a single point in the light-dark cycle. We examined the diurnal expression profile of hypothalamic genes in hamsters killed at 3-h intervals throughout the light-dark cycle after housing in LD or SD for 12 wk. Gene expression of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, proopiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, long-form leptin receptor, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, and the clock gene Per1 as control were measured by in situ hybridization in hypothalamic nuclei. Effects of photoperiod on gene expression and leptin levels were generally consistent with previous reports. A clear diurnal variation was observed for Per1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both photoperiods. Temporal effects on expression of energy balance genes were restricted to long-form leptin receptor in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus, where similar diurnal expression profiles were observed, and melanocortin-4 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus; these effects were only observed in LD hamsters. There was no variation in serum leptin concentration. The 24-h profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression broadly confirm photoperiodic differences that were observed previously, based on single time point comparisons, support the growing consensus that these genes have a limited role in seasonal body weight regulation, and further suggest limited involvement in daily rhythms of food intake.

  14. Manipulative-semantic complications of utterance syntax based on the British parliamentary speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyubina Irina Anatolevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possible impact on the addressee by manipulating. The analysis was applied to the manipulative strategy of the syntax complexity by the targeted and motivated selection of the best linguistic units of semantic pragmatic content. The relevance of the parliamentary discourse study is dictated by the need to search the best ways of speech influence on the audience for the parliament members, on the one hand, and the need to understand the real intentions of the audience and latent methods of language manipulation, on the other hand. The purpose of this article is to consider and identify the peculiarities of the mechanism of linguistic manipulation in the parliamentary speeches of the UK at the syntactic level. The study analyses the texts of the parliamentary political discourse of Britain on the issues related to the situation in the Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it was found out that the most frequent are the following means of manipulation: repetition inside a statement, antithesis, anaphora, syntactic parallelism, ellipse, inversion, rhetorical question, graduation, anadiplosis and epiphora. The study of such a mechanism of manipulation with the help of linguistic means and understanding its laws are important because they help to avoid the psycho-technical effect of speech manipulation, aggression or even speech abuse.

  15. Motion Planning for Vibration Reducing of Free-floating Redundant Manipulators Based on Hybrid Optimization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yihuan; LI Daokui; TANG Guojin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal motion planning for vibration reducing of flee-floating flexible redundant manipulators.Firstly,dynamic model of the system is established based on Lagrange method,and the motion planning model for vibration reducing is proposed.Secondly,a hybrid optimization approach employing Gauss pseudospectral method(GPM) and direct shooting method(DSM),is proposed to solve the motion planning problem.In this approach,the motion planning problem is transformed into a non-linear parameter optimization problem using GPM,and genetic algorithm(GA) is employed to locate the approximate solution.Subsequently,an optimization model is formulated based on DSM,and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm is used to obtain the accurate solution,with the approximate solution as an initial reference solution.Finally,several numerical simulations are investigated,and the global vibration or residual vibration of flexible link is obviously reduced by the joint trajectory which is obtained by the hybrid optimization approach.The numerical simulation results indicate that the approach is effective and stable to the motion planning problem of vibration reducing.

  16. Phototransistor-based optoelectronic tweezers for dynamic cell manipulation in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsan-yin; Ohta, Aaron T; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Jamshidi, Arash; Neale, Steven L; Wu, Ming C

    2010-01-21

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET), based on light-induced dielectrophoresis, has been shown as a versatile tool for parallel manipulation of micro-particles and cells (P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta and M. C. Wu, Nature, 2005, 436, 370-372). However, the conventional OET device cannot operate in cell culture media or other high-conductivity physiological buffers due to the limited photoconductivity of amorphous silicon. In this paper, we report a new phototransistor-based OET (Ph-OET). Consisting of single-crystalline bipolar junction transistors, the Ph-OET has more than 500x higher photoconductivity than amorphous silicon. Efficient cell trapping of live HeLa and Jurkat cells in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) has been demonstrated using a digital light projector, with a cell transport speed of 33 microm/sec, indicating a force of 14.5 pN. Optical concentration of cells and real-time control of individually addressable cell arrays have also been realized. Precise control of separation between two cells has also been demonstrated. We envision a new platform for single cell studies using Ph-OET.

  17. Sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control of a piezoelectric nano-manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangming; Yan, Peng

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates a systematic modeling and control methodology for a multi-axis PZT (piezoelectric transducer) actuated servo stage supporting nano-manipulations. A sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping control method with an estimated inverse model compensation scheme is proposed to achieve ultra high precision tracking in the presence of the hysteresis nonlinearities, model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By introducing a time rate of the input signal, an enhanced rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is developed to describe the hysteresis behaviors, and its inverse is also constructed to mitigate their adverse effects. In particular, the corresponding inverse compensation error is analyzed and its boundedness is proven. Subsequently, the sliding mode disturbance observer-based adaptive integral backstepping controller is designed to guarantee the convergence of the tracking error, where the sliding mode disturbance observer can track the total disturbances in a finite time, while the integral action is incorporated into the adaptive backstepping design to improve the steady-state control accuracy. Finally, real time implementations of the proposed algorithm are applied on the PZT actuated servo system, where excellent tracking performance with tracking precision error around 6‰ for circular contour tracking is achieved in the experimental results.

  18. Sequential Adaptive Fuzzy Inference System Based Intelligent Control of Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahraoui Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to the presentation and implementation of an optimized technique allowing an on-line estimation of a robot manipulator parameters to use them in a computed torque control. Indeed the proposed control law needs the exact robot model to give good performances. The complexity of the robot manipulator and its strong non-linearity makes it hard to know its parameters. Therefore, we propose in this paper to use neuro-fuzzy networks Sequential Adaptive Fuzzy Inference System (SAFIS to estimate the parameters of the controlled robot manipulator.

  19. Output tracking control of mobile manipulators based on dynamical sliding-mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuxiang; FENG Ying; HU Yueming

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical sliding-mode controller is devised to track the output of mobile manipulators. During the investi- gation, firstly a reduced dynamic model considering the dynamics of the driving motor is developed for mobile manipulators. Then, the system is decomposed into four lower-dimensional subsystems by means of diffeomorphism and nonlinear input transformation. Moreover, a design method of the dynamical sliding-mode controller that is applied to the output tracking of mobile manipulators is proposed. The simulation results indicate that the dynamical sliding-mode controller can not only track the given trajec- tory correctly but also reduce the chattering of sliding-mode control system considerably.

  20. Tip position control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator based on nonlinear deflection feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, G. E-mail: oke@boun.edu.tr; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-07-01

    The control of flexible link manipulators has gained an increasing importance in robotics, in recent years. To control the tip of a flexible manipulator, the joint angles should converge to the desired positions fast and elastic deflections must be effectively suppressed. In this study, a two-link flexible manipulator is controlled by three methods and the results are compared. These methods are, Pd control, PD control augmented by a nonlinear correction term feedback, where the correction term is a function of the deflection of each link, and an adaptive fuzzy controller with the nonlinear correction term feedback. Simulations have been carried out to compare the performances of all three methods.

  1. Hi-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation based on Tactile Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Wataru; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Kojima, Fumio; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Tadashi; Imamura, Nobuaki; Shirasawa, Hidenori

    Recently, a robotic hand with tactile sensors is developed all over the world. We also have developed a universal robot hand with tactile sensors and other sensors. Tactile sensors are very important for manipulating objects dexterously. However, array-type tactile sensor has many I/O, thus require much processing time. In this paper, we propose a hi-speed tactile sensing based on the genetic algorithm in order to measure the tactile information rapidly. The validity of the proposed method shows through some experiments. Moreover, a multi-object manipulation according to the tactile information is proposed.

  2. New system for manipulation of nanoobjects based on composite Ti2NiCu/Pt nanotweezers with shape memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhikharev, A. M.; Irzhak, A. V.; Beresin, M. Y.; Lega, P. V.; Koledov, V. V.; Kasyanov, N. N.; Martynov, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    We report the new system for manipulation of nanoobjects based on composite Ti2NiCu/Pt nanotweezers with shape memory effect. The design consists of the bimetallic Ti2NiCu/Pt shape memory nanotweezers placed on a tip of electrochemically etched tungsten needle. The semiconductor diode placed on the tip of the needle plays both role of resistive element of the heater and temperature sensor for feedback control loop closing. The device is compatible with existing positioning systems like OmniProbe®, Kleindiek®, etc. and may find numerous practical applications in various tasks of nanotechnology connected with 3D manipulation.

  3. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.

  4. Synthesis of a spatial 3-RPS parallel manipulator based on physical constraints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nalluri Mohan Rao

    2010-12-01

    The range of motion of the moving platform of a spatial 3-RPS parallel manipulator will be greatly influenced by the physical constraints such as limits on the lengths of the limbs and the range of motion of the spherical joints. Therefore, while synthesizing the parallel manipulator, the physical constraints have to be considered. Synthesis of the manipulator involves determination of the architectural parameters of the manipulator so that a point on the moving platform passes through a prescribed set of positions in space. This paper presents a synthesis procedure that determines location and direction of revolute joints and location of spherical joints along with orientation of sockets of spherical joints, considering the physical constraints. The synthesis procedure is demonstrated through a numerical example.

  5. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  6. Grasping and manipulation of deformable objects based on internal force requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohil Garg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of grasping and manipulation of deformable objects by a three finger robot hand has been carried out. It is proved that the required fingertip grasping forces and velocities vary with change in object size due to deformation. The variation of the internal force with the change in fingertip and object contact angle has been investigated in detail. From the results it is concluded that it is very difficult to manipulate an object if the finger contact angle is not between 30 o and 70 o, as the internal forces or velocities become very large outside this range. Hence even if the object is inside the work volume of the three fingers it would still not be possible to manipulate it. A simple control model is proposed which can control the grasping and manipulation of a deformable object. Experimental results are also presented to prove the proposed method.

  7. Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

  8. Establishment of a Cre recombinase based mutagenesis protocol for markerless gene deletion in Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, A; Willenborg, J; Bertram, R; Takamatsu, D; Valentin-Weigand, P; Goethe, R

    2014-12-01

    The lack of knowledge about pathogenicity mechanisms of Streptococcus (S.) suis is, at least partially, attributed to limited methods for its genetic manipulation. Here, we established a Cre-lox based recombination system for markerless gene deletions in S. suis serotype 2 with high selective pressure and without undesired side effects.

  9. Optimal design of a spherical parallel manipulator based on kinetostatic performance using evolutionary techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshmand, Morteza [University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Saadatzi, Mohammad Hossein [Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States); Kaloorazi, Mohammad Hadi [École de Technologie Supérieur, Montréal (Canada); Masouleh, Mehdi Tale [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anbarjafari, Gholamreza [Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkmenistan)

    2016-03-15

    This study aims to provide an optimal design for a Spherical parallel manipulator (SPM), namely, the Agile Eye. This aim is approached by investigating kinetostatic performance and workspace and searching for the most promising design. Previously recommended designs are examined to determine whether they provide acceptable kinetostatic performance and workspace. Optimal designs are provided according to different kinetostatic performance indices, especially kinematic sensitivity. The optimization process is launched based on the concept of the genetic algorithm. A single-objective process is implemented in accordance with the guidelines of an evolutionary algorithm called differential evolution. A multi-objective procedure is then provided following the reasoning of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. This process results in several sets of Pareto points for reconciliation between kinetostatic performance indices and workspace. The concept of numerous kinetostatic performance indices and the results of optimization algorithms are elaborated. The conclusions provide hints on the provided set of designs and their credibility to provide a well-conditioned workspace and acceptable kinetostatic performance for the SPM under study, which can be well extended to other types of SPMs.

  10. Gene based therapies for kidney regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Manoe J; Arcolino, Fanny O; Schoor, Perry; Kok, Robbert Jan; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this review we provide an overview of the expanding molecular toolbox that is available for gene based therapies and how these therapies can be used for a large variety of kidney diseases. Gene based therapies range from restoring gene function in genetic kidney diseases to steering complex molec

  11. Inverse kinematics of a heavy duty manipulator with 6-DOF based on dual quaternion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒升; 占德友; 黄平伦; 陈伟锋

    2015-01-01

    An iterative method is introduced successfully to solve the inverse kinematics of a 6-DOF manipulator of a tunnel drilling rig based on dual quaternion, which is difficult to get the solution by Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) based methods. By the intuitive expression of dual quaternion to the orientation of rigid body, the coordinate frames assigned to each joint are established all in the same orientation, which does not need to use the D-H procedure. The compact and simple form of kinematic equations, consisting of position equations and orientation equations, is also the consequence of dual quaternion calculations. The iterative process is basically of two steps which are related to solving the position equations and orientation equations correspondingly. First, assume an initial value of the iterative variable; then, the position equations can be solved because of the reduced number of unknown variables in the position equations and the orientation equations can be solved by applying the solution from the position equations, which obtains an updated value for the iterative variable; finally, repeat the procedure by using the updated iterative variable to the position equations till the prescribed accuracy is obtained. The method proposed has a clear geometric meaning, and the algorithm is simple and direct. Simulation for 100 poses of the end frame shows that the average running time of inverse kinematics calculation for each demanded pose of end-effector is 7.2 ms on an ordinary laptop, which is good enough for practical use. The iteration counts 2−4 cycles generally, which is a quick convergence. The method proposed here has been successfully used in the project of automating a hydraulic rig.

  12. Kane Method Based Dynamics Modeling and Control Study for Space Manipulator Capturing a Space Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics modeling and control problem of a two-link manipulator mounted on a spacecraft (so-called carrier freely flying around a space target on earth’s circular orbit is studied in the paper. The influence of the carrier’s relative movement on its manipulator is considered in dynamics modeling; nevertheless, that of the manipulator on its carrier is neglected with the assumption that the mass and inertia moment of the manipulator is far less than that of the carrier. Meanwhile, we suppose that the attitude control system of the carrier guarantees its side on which the manipulator is mounted points accurately always the space target during approaching operation. The ideal constraint forces can be out of consideration in dynamics modeling as Kane method is used. The path functions of the manipulator’s end-effector approaching the space target as well as the manipulator’s joints control torque functions are programmed to meet the soft touch requirement that the end-effector’s relative velocity to the space target is zero at touch moment. Numerical simulation validation is conducted finally.

  13. Analysis of the Dynamics and Control of a Two Degree of Freedom Robotic Manipulator Mounted on a Moving Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-18

    PID ) controllers at each joint. They are able to accomplish position control, i.e. they can move to the manipulator to the configuration that they...on a moving base. If individual joint PID controllers are effective in this situation, then the entire problem can be simplified. PID cr)ntor o is a c...including the gravitational effects in the equations of motion. As was stated earlier, PID controllers are designed based on the concept of

  14. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  15. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benpeng Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT, used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51 was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9, demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications.

  16. Intelligent control of an IPMC actuated manipulator using emotional learning-based controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Azadeh; Meghdari, Ali; Shariati, Parham

    2008-08-01

    In this research an intelligent emotional learning controller, Takagi- Sugeno- Kang (TSK) is applied to govern the dynamics of a novel Ionic-Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) actuated manipulator. Ionic-Polymer Metal Composites are active actuators that show very large deformation in existence of low applied voltage. In this research, a new IPMC actuator is considered and applied to a 2-dof miniature manipulator. This manipulator is designed for miniature tasks. The control system consists of a set of neurofuzzy controller whose parameters are adapted according to the emotional learning rules, and a critic with task to assess the present situation resulted from the applied control action in terms of satisfactory achievement of the control goals and provides the emotional signal (the stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critic's stress decreased.

  17. Micro-particle manipulation by single beam acoustic tweezers based on hydrothermal PZT thick film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benpeng; Xu, Jiong; Li, Ying; Wang, Tian; Xiong, Ke; Lee, Changyang; Yang, Xiaofei; Shiiba, Michihisa; Takeuchi, Shinichi; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Single-beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT), used in laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) device has promising implications for an individual micro-particle contactless manipulation. In this study, a freestanding hydrothermal PZT thick film with excellent piezoelectric property (d33 = 270pC/N and kt = 0.51) was employed for SBAT applications and a press-focusing technology was introduced. The obtained SBAT, acting at an operational frequency of 50MHz, a low f-number (∼0.9), demonstrated the capability to trap and manipulate a micro-particle sized 10μm in the distilled water. These results suggest that such a device has great potential as a manipulator for a wide range of biomedical and chemical science applications. PMID:27014504

  18. Minimum-acceleration Trajectory Optimization for Humanoid Manipulator Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Ziwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid manipulator produces significantly reactive forces against a humanoid body when it operates in a rapid and continuous reaction environment (e.g., playing baseball, ping-pong etc.. This not only disturbs the balance and stability of the humanoid robot, but also influences its operation precision. To solve this problem, a novel approach, which is able to generate a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration trajectory for the humanoid manipulator, is presented in this paper. By this method, the whole trajectory of humanoid manipulation is divided into two processes, i.e., the operation process and the return process. Moreover, the target operation point is considered as a particular point that should be passed through. As such, the trajectory of each process is described through a quartic polynomial in the joint space, after which the trajectory planning problem for the humanoid manipulator can be formulated as a global constrained optimization problem. In order to alleviate the reactive force, a fitness function that aims to minimize the maximum acceleration of each joint of the manipulator is defined, while differential evolution is employed to determine the joint accelerations of the target operation point. Thus, a trajectory with a minimum-acceleration and continuous acceleration profile is obtained, which can reduce the effect on the body and be favourable for the balance and stability of the humanoid robot to a certain extent. Finally, a humanoid robot with a 7-DOF manipulator for ping-pong playing is employed as an example. Simulation experiment results show the effectiveness of this method for the trajectory planning problem being studied.

  19. Cell Monitoring and Manipulation Systems (CMMSs based on Glass Cell-Culture Chips (GC3s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Buehler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed different types of glass cell-culture chips (GC3s for culturing cells for microscopic observation in open media-containing troughs or in microfluidic structures. Platinum sensor and manipulation structures were used to monitor physiological parameters and to allocate and permeabilize cells. Electro-thermal micro pumps distributed chemical compounds in the microfluidic systems. The integrated temperature sensors showed a linear, Pt1000-like behavior. Cell adhesion and proliferation were monitored using interdigitated electrode structures (IDESs. The cell-doubling times of primary murine embryonic neuronal cells (PNCs were determined based on the IDES capacitance-peak shifts. The electrical activity of PNC networks was detected using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs. During seeding, the cells were dielectrophoretically allocated to individual MEAs to improve network structures. MEA pads with diameters of 15, 20, 25, and 35 µm were tested. After 3 weeks, the magnitudes of the determined action potentials were highest for pads of 25 µm in diameter and did not differ when the inter-pad distances were 100 or 170 µm. Using 25-µm diameter circular oxygen electrodes, the signal currents in the cell-culture media were found to range from approximately −0.08 nA (0% O2 to −2.35 nA (21% O2. It was observed that 60-nm thick silicon nitride-sensor layers were stable potentiometric pH sensors under cell-culture conditions for periods of days. Their sensitivity between pH 5 and 9 was as high as 45 mV per pH step. We concluded that sensorized GC3s are potential animal replacement systems for purposes such as toxicity pre-screening. For example, the effect of mefloquine, a medication used to treat malaria, on the electrical activity of neuronal cells was determined in this study using a GC3 system.

  20. Predicting the Motion of a Robot Manipulator with Unknown Trajectories Based on an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Hong Tang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mathematically, the motion of a robot manipulator can be computed through the integration of kinematics, dynamics, and trajectories calculations. However, the calculations are complex and only can be applied if the configuration of the robot and the characteristics of the joint trajectories are known. This paper introduces the use of artificial neural networks (ANN to overcome these shortcomings by solving nonlinear functions and adapting the characteristics of unknown trajectories. A virtual six-degree-of-freedom (DOF robot manipulator is exploited as an example to show the robustness of the developed ANN topology.

  1. Dynamic modeling of dual-arm cooperating manipulators based on Udwadia–Kalaba equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dual-arm cooperating manipulators subject to a certain constraint brought about by the desired trajectory and geometric constraint show high nonlinearity and coupling in their dynamic characteristic. Therefore, it is hard to build dynamical equation with traditional Lagrange equation. The Udwadia–Kalaba equation presents a new idea of dynamic modeling of multi-body systems. However, the dynamic modeling of the unconstrained systems still depends on the traditional Lagrange equation and is quite tedious for dual-arm cooperating manipulators. A generalized dynamical equation of multi-link planar manipulators is thus presented and proven to make modeling conveniently. The constraint relationship is established from a new perspective, and the dynamical equation of dual-arm cooperating manipulator subject to the desired trajectory is acquired with the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. The simple approach overcomes the disadvantage of obtaining dynamical equation from traditional Lagrange equation by Lagrange multiplier. The simulation results of varying law of the joint angles and the motion path of the bar prove that the dynamical equation established by this method conforms to reality.

  2. Combination of IGF-1 gene manipulation and 5-AZA treatment promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JUN; ZHU, KAI; WANG, YULIN; ZHENG, JIAYU; GUO, CHANGFA; LAI, HAO; WANG, CHUNSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic myocardium repair following myocardial infarction. Differentiation of MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells prior to cell transplantation is advantageous in improving their potential clinical benefits for cardiac repair. In the present study, we isolated and cultured porcine MSCs and evaluated the synergistic effect of 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) treatment and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene manipulation on MSC differentiation into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our results demonstrated that 5-AZA treatment alone induced a limited cardiomyocyte-like differentiation effect in vitro. Overexpression of the IGF-1 gene in MSCs improved the induction effect of 5-AZA, while knockdown of the IGF-1 gene attenuated the differentiation. These results suggest that IGF-1 is a significant stimulus affecting the cardiomyocyte-like differentiation of porcine MSCs. In addition, the combination of IGF-1 gene manipulation and 5-AZA treatment provides a new strategy to obtain more committed differentiated cardiomyocyte-like cells from porcine MSCs prior to cell transplantation. PMID:25351395

  3. Ion Mobility Separations of Isomers based upon Long Path Length Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations Combined with Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Baker, Erin S. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Aly, Noor A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Hamid, Ahmed M. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zhang, Xing [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Garimella, Sandilya V. B. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Webb, Ian K. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Prost, Spencer A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Sandoval, Jeremy A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Norheim, Randolph V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Anderson, Gordon A. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Tolmachev, Aleksey V. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd Richland, WA 99352 USA

    2016-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based multi-omic measurements, including proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and glycomics, are increasingly transforming our ability to characterize and understand biological systems, but, presently have limitations due to the chemical diversity and range of abundances of biomolecules in complex samples. Advances addressing these challenges increasingly are based upon the ability to quickly separate, react and otherwise manipulate sample components for analysis by MS. Here we report on a new approach using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) to enable long serpentine path ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations followed by MS analyses. This approach provides previously unachieved mobility biomolecule isomer separations for biomolecular species, in conjunction with more effective ion utilization, and producing a basis for the improved characterization of very small samples.

  4. Neural-network-based two-loop control of robotic manipulators including actuator dynamics in task space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyong WANG; Tianyou CHAI; Zheng FANG

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network-based motion controller in task space is presented in this paper. The proposed controller is addressed as a two-loop cascade control scheme. The outer loop is given by kinematic control in the task space. It provides a joint velocity reference signal to the inner one. The inner loop implements a velocity servo loop at the robot joint level. A radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with proportional-integral (PI) control to construct a velocity tracking control scheme for the inner loop. Finally, a prototype technology based control system is designed for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control scheme is applied to the robotic manipulator. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control scheme by comparing it with other control strategies.

  5. Gene based therapies for kidney regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Manoe J; Arcolino, Fanny O; Schoor, Perry; Kok, Robbert Jan; Mastrobattista, Enrico

    2016-11-05

    In this review we provide an overview of the expanding molecular toolbox that is available for gene based therapies and how these therapies can be used for a large variety of kidney diseases. Gene based therapies range from restoring gene function in genetic kidney diseases to steering complex molecular pathways in chronic kidney disorders, and can provide a treatment or cure for diseases that otherwise may not be targeted. This approach involves the delivery of recombinant DNA sequences harboring therapeutic genes to improve cell function and thereby promote kidney regeneration. Depending on the therapy, the recombinant DNA will express a gene that directly plays a role in the function of the cell (gene addition), that regulates the expression of an endogenous gene (gene regulation), or that even changes the DNA sequence of endogenous genes (gene editing). Some interventions involve permanent changes in the genome whereas others are only temporary and leave no trace. Efficient and safe delivery are important steps for all gene based therapies and also depend on the mode of action of the therapeutic gene. Here we provide examples on how the different methods can be used to treat various diseases, which technologies are now emerging (such as gene repair through CRISPR/Cas9) and what the opportunities, perspectives, potential and the limitations of these therapies are for the treatment of kidney diseases.

  6. PDMAEMA based gene delivery materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfection is the transfer of genetic material like DNA into cells. Cationic polymers which form nanocomplexes with DNA, so-called non-viral gene vectors, are a highly promising platform for efficient gene transfection. Despite intensive research efforts and some of the on-going clinical trials on gene transfection, none of the existing cationic polymer systems are generally acceptable for human gene therapy. Since the process of gene transfection is complex and puts different challenges and demands on the delivery system, there is a strong requirement for the design and development of a multifunctional system in a simple way. This review will discuss recent efforts in design, synthesis, and performance of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA nanocomplexes with DNA.

  7. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  8. Manipulatives-Based Laboratory for Majors Biology – a Hands-On Approach to Understanding Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Boomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The first course in our year-long introductory series for Biology majors encompasses four learning units: biological molecules and cells, metabolism, genetics, and evolution. Of these, the metabolism unit, which includes respiration and photosynthesis, has shown the lowest student exam scores, least interest, and lowest laboratory ratings. Consequently, we hypothesized that modeling metabolic processes in the laboratory would improve student content learning during this course unit. Specifically, we developed manipulatives-based laboratory exercises that combined paper cutouts, movable blocks, and large diagrams of the cell. In particular, our novel use of connecting LEGO blocks allowed students to move model electrons and phosphates between molecules and within defined spaces of the cell. We assessed student learning using both formal (content indicators and attitude surveys and informal (the identification of misconceptions or discussions with students approaches. On the metabolism unit content exam, student performance improved by 46% over pretest scores and by the end of the course, the majority of students rated metabolism as their most-improved (43% and favorite (33% subject as compared with other unit topics. The majority of students rated manipulatives-based labs as very helpful, as compared to non-manipulatives-based labs. In this report, we will demonstrate that students made learning gains across all content areas, but most notably in the unit that covered respiration and photosynthesis.

  9. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McSweeney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  10. The Effects of a Grouping by Tens Manipulative on Children's Strategy Use, Base Ten Understanding and Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagar, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Manipulatives have the potential to be powerful tools in helping children improve their number sense, develop advanced mathematical strategies, and build an understanding of the base ten number system. Physical manipulatives used in classrooms, however, are often not designed to promote efficient strategy use, such as counting on, and typically do…

  11. Inner-Learning Mechanism Based Control Scheme for Manipulator with Multitasking and Changing Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of robot technology and its application, manipulators may face complex tasks and dynamic environments in the coming future, which leads to two challenges of control: multitasking and changing load. In this paper, a novel multicontroller strategy is presented to meet such challenges. The presented controller is composed of three parts: subcontrollers, inner-learning mechanism, and switching rules. Each subcontroller is designed with self-learning skills to fit the changing load under a special task. When a new task comes, switching rule reselects the most suitable subcontroller as the working controller to handle current task instead of the older one. Inner-learning mechanism makes the subcontrollers learn from the working controller when load changes so that the switching action causes smaller tracking error than the traditional switch controller. The results of the simulation experiments on two-degree manipulator show the proposed method effect.

  12. Microfluidic-Based Droplet and Cell Manipulations Using Artificial Bacterial Flagella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ding

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we assess the functionality of magnetic helical microswimmers as basic tools for the manipulation of soft materials, including microdroplets and single cells. Their ability to perform a range of unit operations is evaluated and the operational challenges associated with their use are established. In addition, we also report on interactions observed between the head of such helical swimmers and the boundaries of droplets and cells and discuss the possibilities of assembling an artificial swimming microorganism or a motorized cell.

  13. Timoshenko Beam Theory based Dynamic Modeling of Lightweight Flexible Link Robotic Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Loudini, Malik

    2010-01-01

    An investigation into the development of flexible link robot manipulators mathematical models, with a high modeling accuracy, using Timoshenko beam theory concepts has been presented. The emphasis has been, essentially, set on obtaining accurate and complete equations of motion that display the most relevant aspects of structural properties inherent to the modeled lightweight flexible robotic structure. In particular, two important damping mechanisms: internal structural viscoelasticity effec...

  14. Optofluidic encapsulation and manipulation of silicon microchips using image processing based optofluidic maskless lithography and railed microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Su Eun; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Jiyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2009-10-07

    We demonstrate optofluidic encapsulation of silicon microchips using image processing based optofluidic maskless lithography and manipulation using railed microfluidics. Optofluidic maskless lithography is a dynamic photopolymerization technique of free-floating microstructures within a fluidic channel using spatial light modulator. Using optofluidic maskless lithography via computer-vision aided image processing, polymer encapsulants are fabricated for chip protection and guiding-fins for efficient chip conveying within a fluidic channel. Encapsulated silicon chips with guiding-fins are assembled using railed microfluidics, which is an efficient guiding and heterogeneous self-assembly system of microcomponents. With our technology, externally fabricated silicon microchips are encapsulated, fluidically guided and self-assembled potentially enabling low cost fluidic manipulation and assembly of integrated circuits.

  15. Graphical programming and the use of simulation for space-based manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgrath, Debra S.; Reynolds, James C.

    1989-01-01

    Robotic manipulators are difficult to program even without the special requirements of a zero-gravity environment. While attention should be paid to investigating the usefulness of industrial application programming methods to space manipulators, new methods with potential application to both environments need to be invented. These methods should allow various levels of autonomy and human-in-the-loop interaction and simple, rapid switching among them. For all methods simulation must be integrated to provide reliability and safety. Graphical programming of manipulators is a candidate for an effective robot programming method despite current limitations in input devices and displays. A research project in task-level robot programming has built an innovative interface to a state-of-the-art commercial simulation and robot programming platform. The prototype demonstrates simple augmented methods for graphical programming and simulation which may be of particular interest to those concerned with Space Station applications; its development has also raised important issues for the development of more sophisticated robot programming tools. Both aspects of the project are discussed.

  16. Design of safety mechanism for an industrial manipulator based on passive compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwi Su; Park, Jung Jun; Song, Jae Bok [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    In recent years, collision safety between humans and robots has drawn much attention since human-robot cooperation is increasingly needed in various fields. Since positioning accuracy and collision safety are both important, an industrial manipulator should maintain very high stiffness for positioning accuracy in a normal situation, but exhibit very low stiffness when subjected to a collision force greater than the tolerance for human injury. To satisfy these requirements, we proposed in our previous research a safety mechanism composed of a linear spring and a double-slider mechanism for a service robot with a small payload. We modified this device to meet more stringent requirements for an industrial manipulator which usually has a payload higher than a service robot. Several experiments on static and dynamic collisions showed high stiffness of the safety mechanism in response to an external torque that was less than a predetermined threshold torque, but low stiffness that enabled absorption of the collision force when the external torque exceeded the threshold. Thus, positioning accuracy and collision safety were improved using the proposed design. Furthermore, a new safety criterion is suggested to verify the collision safety of a manipulator that uses the proposed safety mechanism

  17. Modulation of adrenal catecholamine secretion by in vivo gene transfer and manipulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Zincarelli, Carmela; Soltys, Stephen; Koch, Walter J

    2008-02-01

    We recently reported that the upregulation of adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) causes enhanced catecholamine (CA) secretion by desensitizing sympatho-inhibitory alpha (2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha (2)ARs) of chromaffin cells, and thereby aggravating heart failure (HF). In this study, we sought to develop an efficient and reproducible in vivo adrenal gene transfer method to determine whether manipulation of adrenal GRK2 levels/activity regulates physiological CA secretion in rats. We specifically investigated two different in vivo gene delivery methods: direct injection into the suprarenal glands, and retrograde delivery through the suprarenal veins. We delivered adenoviral (Ad) vectors containing either GRK2 or an inhibitor of GRK2 activity, the beta ARKct. We found both delivery approaches equally effective at supporting robust (>80% of the whole organ) and adrenal-restricted transgene expression, in the cortical region as well as in the medullar region. Additionally, rats with AdGRK2-infected adrenals exhibit enhanced plasma CA levels when compared with control rats (AdGFP-injected adrenals), whereas plasma CA levels after Ad beta ARKct infection were significantly lower. Finally, in isolated chromaffin cells, alpha (2)ARs of AdGRK2-infected cells failed to inhibit CA secretion whereas Ad beta ARKct-infected cells showed normal alpha (2)AR responsiveness. These results not only indicate that in vivo adrenal gene transfer is an effective way of manipulating adrenal gland signalling, but also identify GRK2 as a critically important molecule involved in CA secretion.

  18. Manipulation of cell cycle progression can counteract the apparent loss of correction frequency following oligonucleotide-directed gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmiec Eric B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN are used routinely to direct specific base alterations within mammalian genomes that result in the restoration of a functional gene. Despite success with the technique, recent studies have revealed that following repair events, correction frequencies decrease as a function of time, possibly due to a sustained activation of damage response signals in corrected cells that lead to a selective stalling. In this study, we use thymidine to slow down the replication rate to enhance repair frequency and to maintain substantial levels of correction over time. Results First, we utilized thymidine to arrest cells in G1 and released the cells into S phase, at which point specific ssODNs direct the highest level of correction. Next, we devised a protocol in which cells are maintained in thymidine following the repair reaction, in which the replication is slowed in both corrected and non-corrected cells and the initial correction frequency is retained. We also present evidence that cells enter a senescence state upon prolonged treatment with thymidine but this passage can be avoided by removing thymidine at 48 hours. Conclusion Taken together, we believe that thymidine may be used in a therapeutic fashion to enable the maintenance of high levels of treated cells bearing repaired genes.

  19. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Hester M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols, not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

  20. Modulation of DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured sycamore cells treated by hypomethylating base analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T

    1990-12-12

    The selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in both the nuclear and plastid genomes of the nonphotosynthetic white wild-type cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) has been found to be inversely related to the presence of a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) and N6-methyladenine (N6-MeAde), localized in regions of the plastid genome containing silent genes. We used hypomethylating base analogs to manipulate the level of cytosine and adenine methylation in the white cells of sycamore, and examined the effects of changes in methylation on gene expression. Treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaCyd) and N6-benzyladenine (N6-BzlAde) decreased cytosine and adenine methylation. This was accompanied by restoration of transcriptional activity in photosynthetic genes which are usually suppressed. Both 5-MeCyt and N6-MeAde suppressed nuclear gene expression, but only 5-MeCyt suppressed plastid gene expression.

  1. Cuspidal and Noncuspidal Robot Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article synthezises the most important results on the kinematics of cuspidal manipulators i.e. nonredundant manipulators that can change posture without meeting a singularity. The characteristic surfaces, the uniqueness domains and the regions of feasible paths in the workspace are defined. Then, several sufficient geometric conditions for a manipulator to be noncuspidal are enumerated and a general necessary and sufficient condition for a manipulator to be cuspidal is provided. An explicit DH-parameter-based condition for an orthogonal manipulator to be cuspidal is derived. The full classification of 3R orthogonal manipulators is provided and all types of cuspidal and noncuspidal orthogonal manipulators are enumerated. Finally, some facts about cuspidal and noncuspidal 6R manipulators are reported.

  2. Underwater manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  3. Robust Kalman Filtering Cooperated Elman Neural Network Learning for Vision-Sensing-Based Robotic Manipulation with Global Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xungao Zhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a global-state-space visual servoing scheme is proposed for uncalibrated model-independent robotic manipulation. The scheme is based on robust Kalman filtering (KF, in conjunction with Elman neural network (ENN learning techniques. The global map relationship between the vision space and the robotic workspace is learned using an ENN. This learned mapping is shown to be an approximate estimate of the Jacobian in global space. In the testing phase, the desired Jacobian is arrived at using a robust KF to improve the ENN learning result so as to achieve robotic precise convergence of the desired pose. Meanwhile, the ENN weights are updated (re-trained using a new input-output data pair vector (obtained from the KF cycle to ensure robot global stability manipulation. Thus, our method, without requiring either camera or model parameters, avoids the corrupted performances caused by camera calibration and modeling errors. To demonstrate the proposed scheme’s performance, various simulation and experimental results have been presented using a six-degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator with eye-in-hand configurations.

  4. A Hierarchical Reliability Control Method for a Space Manipulator Based on the Strategy of Autonomous Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain and enhance the operational reliability of a robotic manipulator deployed in space, an operational reliability system control method is presented in this paper. First, a method to divide factors affecting the operational reliability is proposed, which divides the operational reliability factors into task-related factors and cost-related factors. Then the models describing the relationships between the two kinds of factors and control variables are established. Based on this, a multivariable and multiconstraint optimization model is constructed. Second, a hierarchical system control model which incorporates the operational reliability factors is constructed. The control process of the space manipulator is divided into three layers: task planning, path planning, and motion control. Operational reliability related performance parameters are measured and used as the system’s feedback. Taking the factors affecting the operational reliability into consideration, the system can autonomously decide which control layer of the system should be optimized and how to optimize it using a control level adjustment decision module. The operational reliability factors affect these three control levels in the form of control variable constraints. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a greater probability of meeting the task accuracy requirements, while extending the expected lifetime of the space manipulator.

  5. Physiological hemostasis based intelligent integrated cooperative controller for precise fault-tolerant control of redundant parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kuangrong; Guo, Chongbin; Ding, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on precise fault-tolerant control for actual redundant parallel manipulator. Based on kinematic redundancy, some unnoticed influences such as mechanical clearance have been considered to design a more precise and intelligent fault-tolerant plan for actual plants. According to regulation principles in human hemostasis system, a bio-inspired intelligent integrated cooperative controller (BIICC) is developed including system structure, algorithm and step in parameter tuning. The proposed BIICC optimises partial error signal and improves control performance in each sub-channel. Moreover, the new controller transfers and disposes cooperative control signals among different sub-channels to achieve an intelligent integrated fault-tolerant system. The proposed BIICC is applied to an actual 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new controller is demonstrated. The BIICC is beneficial to control precision and fault-tolerant capability of redundant plant. The improvements are more obvious in cases where extra actuators of redundant manipulator are broken.

  6. Multiobjective Optimization for the Forging Manipulator Based on the Comprehensive Manipulation Performance Indices%基于综合操作性能指标的操作机多目标优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文杰; 李刚

    2014-01-01

    为了更好地满足不同工作任务的要求,结合前人的研究工作提出一种基于综合操作性能指标的锻造操作机多目标优化设计策略。以速度性能、力承载性能和运动解耦性能来综合评价操作机的操作性能,借鉴机器人学中可操作性椭球的概念对速度性能和力承载性能进行相应的量化评估,并根据工作性能对方向性的要求分别定义二者的方向可操作度,引入全域性能的平均指标和波动指标精细评估操作机在整个工作空间上的操作性能。基于所提出的性能评价指标体系利用多目标遗传算法NSGA II对某型操作机的主运动机构参数进行优化设计,使操作机的综合操作性能达到最佳。结果表明所提出的操作机性能评价和优化方法是可行的,可以为操作机的机构设计提供参考。%To meet the performance requirements better in different cases, a multiobjective optimization strategy is presented for the comprehensive manipulation performance indices of the forging manipulator based on the previous work. The velocity dexterity, force bearing capability and kinematic decoupling are selected to evaluate the manipulation performance of the manipulator. The velocity dexterity and force capability are analyzed based on the manipulability ellipsoid, and their directional manipulability measurement is defined in terms of the directional property of the manipulation performance. Two global performance indices, which consider the mean value and standard deviation of the manipulation performance, are used to measure the manipulation performance over the entire workspace. The multiobjective optimization based on the proposed performance evaluation system is performed using NSGA II algorithm, to improve the comprehensive performance indices of the manipulator by optimizing the mechanism parameters. The optimization result shows that the proposed performance evaluation and optimization method

  7. A system for programming and controlling sensor-based robot manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschke, C C

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to programming and controlling robot manipulators which facilitates the use of sensory information. Robot actions are specified by declaring software servo processes which control the robot's various degrees of freedom. These servo processes can involve position, orientation, force, and torque information from the robot itself, or data from external sensors. Robot tasks are programmed by dynamically modifying the servo processes or by changing set points to these processes. Condition monitors, which have access to program and sensory information, detect the completion of program steps.

  8. Joint-space Lyapunov-based direct adaptive control of a kinematically redundant telerobot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei; Mosier, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a joint-space adaptive control scheme for controlling the slave arm motion of a dual-arm telerobot system developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to study telerobotic operations in space. Each slave arm of the dual-arm system is a kinematically redundant manipulator with seven degrees of freedom (DOF). Using the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Liupunov direct method, we derive an adaptation algorithm that adjusts the PD controller gains of the control scheme. The development of the adaptive control scheme assumes that the slave arm motion is non-compliant and slowly varying. The implementation of the derived control scheme does not require the computation of manipulator dynamics which makes the control scheme sufficiently fast for real-time applications. Computer simulation study performed for the 7-DOF slave arm shows that the developed control scheme can efficiently adapt to sudden change in payload while tracking various test trajectories such as ramp or sinusoids with negligible position errors.

  9. Responsiveness of genes to manipulation of transcription factors in ES cells is associated with histone modifications and tissue specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marshall

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to determining static states of gene expression (high vs. low, it is important to characterize their dynamic status. For example, genes with H3K27me3 chromatin marks are not only suppressed but also poised for activation. However, the responsiveness of genes to perturbations has never been studied systematically. To distinguish gene responses to specific factors from responsiveness in general, it is necessary to analyze gene expression profiles of cells responding to a large variety of disturbances, and such databases did not exist before. Results We estimated the responsiveness of all genes in mouse ES cells using our recently published database on expression change after controlled induction of 53 transcription factors (TFs and other genes. Responsive genes (N = 4746, which were readily upregulated or downregulated depending on the kind of perturbation, mostly have regulatory functions and a propensity to become tissue-specific upon differentiation. Tissue-specific expression was evaluated on the basis of published (GNF and our new data for 15 organs and tissues. Non-responsive genes (N = 9562, which did not change their expression much following any perturbation, were enriched in housekeeping functions. We found that TF-responsiveness in ES cells is the best predictor known for tissue-specificity in gene expression. Among genes with CpG islands, high responsiveness is associated with H3K27me3 chromatin marks, and low responsiveness is associated with H3K36me3 chromatin, stronger tri-methylation of H3K4, binding of E2F1, and GABP binding motifs in promoters. Conclusions We thus propose the responsiveness of expression to perturbations as a new way to define the dynamic status of genes, which brings new insights into mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and tissue specificity.

  10. Pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance in space manipulator systems for a capture task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Long

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at capture task for a free-floating space manipulator, a scheme of pre-impact trajectory planning for minimizing base attitude disturbance caused by impact is proposed in this paper. Firstly, base attitude disturbance is established as a function of joint angles, collision direction and relative velocity between robotic hand and the target. Secondly, on the premise of keeping correct capture pose, a novel optimization factor in null space is designed to minimize base attitude disturbance and ensure that the joint angles do not exceed their limits simultaneously. After reaching the balance state, a desired configuration is achieved at the contact point. Thereafter, particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is employed to solve the pre-impact trajectory planning from its initial configuration to the desired configuration to achieve the minimized base attitude disturbance caused by impact and the correct capture pose simultaneously. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a 7-dof free-floating space manipulator and the simulation results verify the effectiveness.

  11. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested.

  12. Gene function prediction based on the Gene Ontology hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liangxi; Lin, Hongfei; Hu, Yuncui; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2014-01-01

    The information of the Gene Ontology annotation is helpful in the explanation of life science phenomena, and can provide great support for the research of the biomedical field. The use of the Gene Ontology is gradually affecting the way people store and understand bioinformatic data. To facilitate the prediction of gene functions with the aid of text mining methods and existing resources, we transform it into a multi-label top-down classification problem and develop a method that uses the hierarchical relationships in the Gene Ontology structure to relieve the quantitative imbalance of positive and negative training samples. Meanwhile the method enhances the discriminating ability of classifiers by retaining and highlighting the key training samples. Additionally, the top-down classifier based on a tree structure takes the relationship of target classes into consideration and thus solves the incompatibility between the classification results and the Gene Ontology structure. Our experiment on the Gene Ontology annotation corpus achieves an F-value performance of 50.7% (precision: 52.7% recall: 48.9%). The experimental results demonstrate that when the size of training set is small, it can be expanded via topological propagation of associated documents between the parent and child nodes in the tree structure. The top-down classification model applies to the set of texts in an ontology structure or with a hierarchical relationship.

  13. A high-throughput liquid bead array-based screening technology for Bt presence in GMO manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Wang, Huiyu; Wang, Chenguang; Mei, Lin; Lin, Xiangmei; Han, Xueqing; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-03-15

    The number of species and planting areas of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has been rapidly developed during the past ten years. For the purpose of GMO inspection, quarantine and manipulation, we have now devised a high-throughput Bt-based GMOs screening method based on the liquid bead array. This novel method is based on the direct competitive recognition between biotinylated antibodies and beads-coupled antigens, searching for Bt presence in samples if it contains Bt Cry1 Aa, Bt Cry1 Ab, Bt Cry1 Ac, Bt Cry1 Ah, Bt Cry1 B, Bt Cry1 C, Bt Cry1 F, Bt Cry2 A, Bt Cry3 or Bt Cry9 C. Our method has a wide GMO species coverage so that more than 90% of the whole commercialized GMO species can be identified throughout the world. Under our optimization, specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and availability validation, the method shows a high specificity and 10-50 ng/mL sensitivity of quantification. We then assessed more than 1800 samples in the field and food market to prove capacity of our method in performing a high throughput screening work for GMO manipulation. Our method offers an applicant platform for further inspection and research on GMO plants.

  14. Field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip for a six-axis articulated robot manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shieh Kung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to build a field programmable gate array–based six-axis servo control integrated chip which can integrate the function of a motion trajectory planning and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers into one integrated chip. In the work, first, a mathematical modeling of a robot manipulator with the actuator using permanent magnet synchronous motor is derived. Second, the proportional controller in the position loop, a proportional–integral controller in the speed loop and a vector controller in the current loop for each axis are applied. Third, a system on a programmable chip technology which comprises an Altera field programmable gate array chip and an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor is considered to develop the proposed servo control integrated chip. However, in the servo control integrated chip, it has two modules. The first module is an embedded soft-core Nios-II processor which is used to generate the motion trajectory planning by software. The second module presents a six-axis servo controller intellectual property by hardware which is applied to execute six position/speed/current controllers. Therefore, the function of a motion trajectory command and the function of six position/speed/current servo controllers for a six-axis robot manipulator can be integrated into one field programmable gate array. Finally, to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed field programmable gate array–based servo control integrated chip, a six-axis robot manipulator is applied and some experimental results are demonstrated.

  15. The bounds on tracking performance utilising a laser-based linear and angular sensing and measurement methodology for micro/nano manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Leon; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Tian, Yanling; Zhong, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the tracking performance of a planar three degrees of freedom (DOF) flexure-based mechanism for micro/nano manipulation, utilising a tracking methodology for the measurement of coupled linear and angular motions. The methodology permits trajectories over a workspace with large angular range through the reduction of geometric errors. However, when combining this methodology with feedback control systems, the accuracy of performed manipulations can only be sta...

  16. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Kuhlman

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  17. Genetic manipulation in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1981-04-04

    The role of genetic manipulation in opening up new possibilities in biotechnology is discussed and the basic steps in a recombinant DNA experiment are summarized. Some current and future applications of this technology in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture are presented, including, conversion of wastes to SCP, chemicals and alcohols, plant improvement and the introduction of nitrogen fixation genes into plants as an alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

  18. Isolation and manipulation of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance in rice using a candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke-Ming; Qiu, De-Yun; Shen, Xiang-Ling; Li, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice, a main staple food for approximately 50% of the world's population. Application of host resistance to these pathogens is the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. Although large numbers of QTLs for bacterial blight and blast resistance have been identified, these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic control of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown. To isolate disease resistance QTLs, we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map, expression profile, and functional complementation analyses. This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M. grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals. Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL. Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes, whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signal transduction pathways, may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacterial blight and blast.

  19. A low temperature Co-fired ceramic-based dielectrophoretic device for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Ji-Yun; Yoon, Young Joon; Choi, Jaekyoung; Kim, Hyo Tae; Kim, Chang-Yeoul; Kim, Jong-Hee; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-11-01

    A dielectophoretic (DEP) device fabricated by a conventional low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) process, for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials, such as spherical polystyrene microspheres, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, and silver (Ag) nanowires, is described. To generate a non-uniform electric field, a castellated electrode configuration was applied to the LTCC-based DEP device using a screen printing method. The actual motions of the micro and nanostructure materials under both a positive and a negative DEP force were observed in detail and the findings compared with numerical simulation data for the electric field distribution. The performance of the LTCC-based DEP device for separating and trapping was evaluated and potential applications are discussed.

  20. Cotton Genome Manipulations:Exploring Smart Tools,Novel Germplasm,and Elite Genes for Super Cotton Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-long

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plant regeneration is the first step to cotton biotechnology.We screened over 100 genotypes and found two genotypes,YZ-1 and Y668,which are very easy to regenerate.It takes about 5 to 6 months for the two genotypes from explant inoculation to plant regeneration.Meanwhile,we investigated the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in cotton.The results suggested that a complicated and concerted mechanism involving multiple pathways is responsible for cotton SE.We constructed a network to show the relationship between genes during SE.

  1. Rapid and tunable method to temporally control gene editing based on conditional Cas9 stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Serif; Shirole, Nitin H; Nowak, Dawid G; Corbo, Vincenzo; Pal, Debjani; Vaughan, Alexander; Tuveson, David A; Trotman, Lloyd C; Kinney, Justin B; Sordella, Raffaella

    2017-02-22

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Here, we describe a method that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity based on conditional Cas9 destabilization. We demonstrate that fusing an FKBP12-derived destabilizing domain to Cas9 (DD-Cas9) enables conditional Cas9 expression and temporal control of gene editing in the presence of an FKBP12 synthetic ligand. This system can be easily adapted to co-express, from the same promoter, DD-Cas9 with any other gene of interest without co-modulation of the latter. In particular, when co-expressed with inducible Cre-ER(T2), our system enables parallel, independent manipulation of alleles targeted by Cas9 and traditional recombinase with single-cell specificity. We anticipate this platform will be used for the systematic characterization and identification of essential genes, as well as the investigation of the interactions between functional genes.

  2. Increasing Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis by Manipulating the Expression of a Novel TetR-Family Regulator and Its Target Gene Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshuai; Zhang, Qinling; Guo, Jia; Chen, Zhi; Li, Jilun; Wen, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are commercially important anthelmintic agents. The detailed regulatory mechanisms of avermectin biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, we identified SAV3619, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator designated AveT, to be an activator for both avermectin production and morphological differentiation in S. avermitilis. AveT was shown to indirectly stimulate avermectin production by affecting transcription of the cluster-situated activator gene aveR. AveT directly repressed transcription of its own gene (aveT), adjacent gene pepD2 (sav_3620), sav_7490 (designated aveM), and sav_7491 by binding to an 18-bp perfect palindromic sequence (CGAAACGKTKYCGTTTCG, where K is T or G and Y is T or C and where the underlining indicates inverted repeats) within their promoter regions. aveM (which encodes a putative transmembrane efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily [MFS]), the important target gene of AveT, had a striking negative effect on avermectin production and morphological differentiation. Overexpression of aveT and deletion of aveM in wild-type and industrial strains of S. avermitilis led to clear increases in the levels of avermectin production. In vitro gel-shift assays suggested that C-5-O-B1, the late pathway precursor of avermectin B1, acts as an AveT ligand. Taken together, our findings indicate positive-feedback regulation of aveT expression and avermectin production by a late pathway intermediate and provide the basis for an efficient strategy to increase avermectin production in S. avermitilis by manipulation of AveT and its target gene product, AveM.

  3. Manipulation of gene expression in the mammalian nervous system: application in the study of neurite outgrowth and neuroregeneration related proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Holtmaat, A.J.G.D.; Oestreicher, A.B.; Verhaagen, J.

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental issue in neurobiology entails the study of the formation of neuronal connections and their potential to regenerate following injury. In recent years, an expanding number of gene families has been identified involved in different aspects of neurite outgrowth and regeneration. These incl

  4. Manipulation of DET1 expression in tomato results in photomorphogenic phenotypes caused by post-transcriptional gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Ganga Rao; van Tuinen, Ageeth; Mustilli, Anna Chiara; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Newman, Robert; Burgess, Diane; Brummell, David A.; King, Stephen R.; Palys, Joe; Uhlig, John; Pennings, Henk M. J.; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Summary The tomato HIGH PIGMENT-2 gene encodes an orthologue of the Arabidopsis nuclear protein DE-ETIOLATED 1 (DET1). From genetic analyses it has been proposed that DET1 is a negative regulator of light signal transduction, and recent results indicate that it may control light-regulated gene expression at the level of chromatin remodelling. To gain further understanding about the function of DET1 during plant development, we generated a range of overexpression constructs and introduced them into tomato. Unexpectedly, we only observed phenotypes characteristic of DET1 inactivation, i.e. hyper-responsiveness to light. Molecular analysis indicated in all cases that these phenotypes were a result of suppression of endogenous DET1 expression, due to post-transcriptional gene silencing. DET1 silencing was often lethal when it occurred at relatively early stages of plant development, whereas light hyper-responsive phenotypes were obtained when silencing occurred later on. The appearance of phenotypes correlated with the generation of siRNAs but not DNA hypermethylation, and was most efficient when using constructs with mutations in the DET1 coding sequence or with constructs containing only the 3′-terminal portion of the gene. These results indicate an important function for DET1 throughout plant development and demonstrate that silencing of DET1 in fruits results in increased carotenoids, which may have biotechnological potential. PMID:15469492

  5. Isolation and Manipulation of Quantitative Tra it Loci for DIsease Resistance in Rice Using a Candid ate Gene Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ming Hu; De-Yun Qiu; Xiang-Ling Shen; Xiang-Hua Li; Shi-Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice,a main staple food for approximately 50%of the world's population.Application of host resistance to these pathogens iS the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem.Quantitative trait loci(QTLs)controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad.spectrum and durable disease resistance.Although large numbers of QTLs for bacteriaI blight and blast resistance have been identified.these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic controI of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown.To isolate disease resistance QTLs,we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map,expression profile,and functionaI complementation analyses.This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals.Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL.Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes,whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signaI transduction pathways,may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacteriaI blight and blast.

  6. Inverse Dynamics of Flexible Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Stig; Hanssen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    High performance robot manipulators, in terms of cycle time and accuracy, require well designed control methods, based on accurate dynamic models. Robot manipulators are traditionally described by the flexible joint model or the flexible link model. These models only consider elasticity in the rotational direction. When these models are used for control or simulation, the accuracy can be limited due to the model simplifications, since a real manipulator has a distributed flexibility inall directi...

  7. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  8. Improved Alkane Production in Nitrogen-Fixing and Halotolerant Cyanobacteria via Abiotic Stresses and Genetic Manipulation of Alkane Synthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering.

  9. Adaptive-backstepping force/motion control for mobile-manipulator robot based on fuzzy CMAC neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thang-Long MAI; Yaonan WANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive backstepping fuzzy cerebellar-model-articulation-control neural-networks control (ABFCNC) system for motion/force control of the mobile-manipulator robot (MMR) is proposed. By applying the ABFCNC in the tracking-position controller, the unknown dynamics and parameter variation problems of the MMR control system are relaxed. In addition, an adaptive robust compensator is proposed to eliminate uncertainties that consist of approximation errors, uncertain disturbances. Based on the tracking position-ABFCNC design, an adaptive robust control strategy is also developed for the nonholonomic-constraint force of the MMR. The design of adaptive-online learning algorithms is obtained by using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Therefore, the proposed method proves that it not only can guarantee the stability and robustness but also the tracking performances of the MMR control system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control system are verified by comparative simulation results.

  10. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  11. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... rate cap; (IV) a rate collar; (V) a cross-currency rate swap; (VI) a basis swap; (VII) a currency swap... With Security-Based Swaps Agency: Securities and Exchange Commission. Action: Proposed rule. Summary... deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based swap, the exercise of...

  12. Zebrafish as a model for long QT syndrome: the evidence and the means of manipulating zebrafish gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, I U S; Skinner, J R; Shelling, A N; Love, D R

    2010-07-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQT) is a group of cardiac disorders associated with the dysfunction of cardiac ion channels. It is characterized by prolongation of the QT-interval, episodes of syncope and even sudden death. Individuals may remain asymptomatic for most of their lives while others present with severe symptoms. This heterogeneity in phenotype makes diagnosis difficult with a greater emphasis on more targeted therapy. As a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying LQT syndrome, evaluating the effect of modifier genes on disease severity as well as to test new therapies, the development of model systems remains an important research tool. Mice have predominantly been the animal model of choice for cardiac arrhythmia research, but there have been varying degrees of success in recapitulating the human symptoms; the mouse cardiac action potential (AP) and surface electrocardiograms exhibit major differences from those of the human heart. Against this background, the zebrafish is an emerging vertebrate disease modelling species that offers advantages in analysing LQT syndrome, not least because its cardiac AP much more closely resembles that of the human. This article highlights the use and potential of this species in LQT syndrome modelling, and as a platform for the in vivo assessment of putative disease-causing mutations in LQT genes, and of therapeutic interventions.

  13. Manipulating the effective index of the hybrid plasmonic waveguide based on subwavelength grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Bowen; Zhou, Zhiping

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose and numerically study a subwavelength grating based hybrid plasmonic waveguide. The metal layer on top of the waveguide enables unique features compared with conventional silicon based waveguide. Since the field distribution in this structure is different, traditional homogeneous medium approximation is not applicative. Therefore, we develop a new effective index calculation method. This method is suitable for metal-existing waveguide as well as structures with multiple medium. Effective index of this waveguide depends on grating period, duty ratio and width, respectively. By modifying duty ratio and period of the waveguide, the relationship between effective index and waveguide width can be concave function or convex function and the slope can be similar to TM mode of silicon based waveguide, which opens up possibilities for SPPs based applications.

  14. Laparoscopic manipulation of a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope using a steerable intravascular catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Crispin; Desjardins, Adrien E; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Hawkes, David J; Davidson, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is an emerging imaging modality that enables visualization of histologic details during endoscopy and surgery. A method of guiding the probe with millimeter accuracy is required to enable imaging in all regions of the abdomen accessed during laparoscopy. On the basis of a porcine model of laparoscopic liver resection, we report our experience of using a steerable intravascular catheter to guide a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope.

  15. Improvement of lower extremity electrodiagnostic findings following a trial of spinal manipulation and motion-based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morningstar Mark W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar disc herniation is a problem frequently encountered in manual medicine. While manual therapy has shown reasonable success in symptomatic management of these cases, little information is known how manual therapy may affect the structure and function of the lumbar disc itself. In cases where lumbar disc herniation is accompanied by radicular symptoms, electrodiagnostic testing has been used to provide objective clinical information on nerve function. This report examines the treatment rendered for a patient with lower extremity neurological deficit, as diagnosed on electrodiagnostic testing. Patient was treated using spinal manipulation and exercises performed on a Pettibon Wobble Chair™, using electrodiagnostic testing as the primary outcome assessment. Case Presentation An elderly male patient presented to a private spine clinic with right-sided foot drop. He had been prescribed an ankle-foot orthosis for this condition. All sensory, motor, and reflex findings in the right leg and foot were absent. This was validated on prior electromyography and nerve conduction velocity testing, performed by a board certified neurologist. Patient was treated using spinal manipulation twice-weekly and wobble chair exercises three times daily for 90 days total. Following this treatment, the patient was referred for follow-up electrodiagnostic studies. Significant improvements were made in these studies as well as self-rated daily function. Conclusion Motion-based therapies, as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program, may contribute to the restoration of daily function and the reversal of neurological insult as detected by electrodiagnostic testing. Electrodiagnostic testing may be a useful clinical tool to evaluate the progress of chiropractic patients with lumbar disc herniation and radicular pain syndromes.

  16. Ideological Manipulation in Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖

    2011-01-01

    Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.

  17. Kinematics of an in-parallel actuated manipulator based on the Stewart platform mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents kinematic equations and solutions for an in-parallel actuated robotic mechanism based on Stewart's platform. These equations are required for inverse position and resolved rate (inverse velocity) platform control. NASA LaRC has a Vehicle Emulator System (VES) platform designed by MIT which is based on Stewart's platform. The inverse position solution is straight-forward and computationally inexpensive. Given the desired position and orientation of the moving platform with respect to the base, the lengths of the prismatic leg actuators are calculated. The forward position solution is more complicated and theoretically has 16 solutions. The position and orientation of the moving platform with respect to the base is calculated given the leg actuator lengths. Two methods are pursued in this paper to solve this problem. The resolved rate (inverse velocity) solution is derived. Given the desired Cartesian velocity of the end-effector, the required leg actuator rates are calculated. The Newton-Raphson Jacobian matrix resulting from the second forward position kinematics solution is a modified inverse Jacobian matrix. Examples and simulations are given for the VES.

  18. Passivity/Lyapunov based controller design for trajectory tracking of flexible joint manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.; Lanari, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    A passivity and Lyapunov based approach for the control design for the trajectory tracking problem of flexible joint robots is presented. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. Feedforward selection and solution is analyzed for a general model for flexible joints, and for more specific and practical model structures. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller in order to input-output stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Observability conditions for asymptotic stability are stated and verified. In order to accommodate for modeling uncertainties and to allow for the implementation of a simplified feedforward compensation, the stability of the system is analyzed in presence of approximations in the feedforward by using a Lyapunov based robustness analysis. It is shown that under certain conditions, e.g., the desired trajectory is varying slowly enough, stability is maintained for various approximations of a canonical feedforward.

  19. A versatile platform for manipulating photonic spin and orbital states based on liquid crystal microstructures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Wei; Ming, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing the spin degree of freedom breaks new ground for designing photonic devices. Seeking out a suitable platform for flexible steering of photonic spin states is a critical task. In this work, we demonstrate a versatile Liquid crystal (LC) based platform for manipulating photonic spin and orbital states. Owing to the photoalignment technique, the local and fine tuning of the LC medium is effectively implemented to form various anisotropic microstructures. The light-matter interaction in the corresponding medium is tailored to control the evolution of photonic spin states. The physical mechanism of such a system is investigated, and the corresponding dynamical equation is obtained. The high flexibility endows the LC-based photonic system with great value to be used for Hamiltonian engineering. As an illustration, the optical analogue of intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) in electronic systems is presented. The pseudospins of photons are driven to split by the anisotropic effective magnetic field arising from the inhomogeneous spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in the twisting microstructures. In virtue of the designability of the LC-based platform, the form of the interaction Hamiltonian is regulated to present diverse PSHE phenomena, which is hard to be realized in the solid electronic systems. Some representative samples are prepared for experimental observation, and the results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We believe the tunable LC system may shed new light on future photonic quantum applications.

  20. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rohn, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  1. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15 mM], MZ (0.15 mM) and T4 (2 nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33 days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45 dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25 dpf) and late (45 dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45 dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45 dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45 dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45 dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25 dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its “feminizing” activity on gonadal

  2. Manipulating attention via mindfulness induction improves P300-based brain-computer interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Chad E.; Berry, Daniel R.; Sellers, Eric W.

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a short mindfulness meditation induction (MMI) on the performance of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) task. We expected that MMI would harness present-moment attentional resources, resulting in two positive consequences for P300-based BCI use. Specifically, we believed that MMI would facilitate increases in task accuracy and promote the production of robust P300 amplitudes. Sixteen-channel electroencephalographic data were recorded from 18 subjects using a row/column speller task paradigm. Nine subjects participated in a 6 min MMI and an additional nine subjects served as a control group. Subjects were presented with a 6 × 6 matrix of alphanumeric characters on a computer monitor. Stimuli were flashed at a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 125 ms. Calibration data were collected on 21 items without providing feedback. These data were used to derive a stepwise linear discriminate analysis classifier that was applied to an additional 14 items to evaluate accuracy. Offline performance analyses revealed that MMI subjects were significantly more accurate than control subjects. Likewise, MMI subjects produced significantly larger P300 amplitudes than control subjects at Cz and PO7. The discussion focuses on the potential attentional benefits of MMI for P300-based BCI performance.

  3. Manipulating fluorescence color and intensity with regular metal nanoparticle-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey G., E-mail: nikitin@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM, UPR 3118 CNRS), Aix-Marseille University, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille, France and Faculty of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Ave., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-02-01

    This paper first studies the role of structural parameters of ordered metal nanoparticle-based composites in the modification of the spectra and intensity of directional emission from organic molecules. It then investigates the possibilities of white light generation via color conversion using two materials, one emitting in the green and the other one in the red spectral region. The structures under study exhibit enhanced emission within small solid angle in the forward direction due to excitation of the quasiguided modes. These modes modify the angle-dependent local photon density of states and, thus, result in efficient directional outcoupling of radiation.

  4. Manipulating effective spin orbit coupling based on proximity effect in magnetic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Sun, N. Y.; Che, W. R.; Zhang, J. W.; Shan, R., E-mail: shan.rong@hotmail.com [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, X. L. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), Shanghai 201204 (China); Zhu, Z. G., E-mail: zgzhu@ucas.ac.cn; Su, G., E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [School of Electronic, Electrical and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, College of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-08-24

    A proximity effect of spin orbit coupling (SOC) is proposed in nonmagnetic metal/ferromagnet (NM/FM) bilayers by extending the Crépieux-Bruno (CB) theory. We demonstrate that over 1000% enhancement of the SOC strength can be realized based on this effect (Pt/FM bilayers) and it brings greatly enhanced anomalous Hall effect and anomalous Nernst effect. This work could help maximize the performance of magnetic transport property for the spintronics device using NM/FM as the key structure.

  5. When action turns into words. Activation of motor-based knowledge during categorization of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2002-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that processing of man-made objects activate the left ventral premotor cortex, which is known to be concerned with motor function. This has led to the suggestion that the comprehension of man-made objects may rely on motor-based knowledge of object uti...... organized. Instead, the data are compatible with the suggestion that categories differ in the weight they put on different types of knowledge.......Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that processing of man-made objects activate the left ventral premotor cortex, which is known to be concerned with motor function. This has led to the suggestion that the comprehension of man-made objects may rely on motor-based knowledge of object...... utilization (action knowledge). Here we show that the left ventral premotor cortex is activated during categorization of "both" fruit/vegetables and articles of clothing, relative to animals and nonmanipulable man-made objects. This observation suggests that action knowledge may not be important...

  6. Improvement of Hydrodynamics-Based Gene Transfer of Nonviral DNA Targeted to Murine Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for supporting the life of an individual. Gene transfer toward this organ has been attempted in many laboratories to date; however, there have been few reports on improved liver-targeted gene delivery by using a nonviral vector. In this study, we examined the effect of various types of gene delivery carriers on enhancing the uptake and gene expression of exogenous DNA in murine hepatocytes when a hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD is performed via tail-vein injection. Mice were singly injected with a large amount of phosphate-buffered saline containing reporter plasmid DNA and/or with a gene delivery carrier. One day after the gene delivery, the animals' livers were dissected and subjected to biochemical, histochemical, and molecular biological analyses. The strongest signal from the reporter plasmid DNA was observed when the DNA was mixed with a polyethylenimine- (PEI- based reagent. Coinjection with pCRTEIL (a loxP-floxed reporter construct and pTR/NCre (a liver-specific Cre expression vector resulted in the liver-specific recombination of pCRTEIL. The combination of PEI with HGD would thus be a valuable tool for liver-specific manipulation to examine the function of a gene of interest in the liver and for creating liver disease models.

  7. PCR-based gene synthesis to produce recombinant proteins for crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne-Steele Miranda L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene synthesis technologies are an important tool for structural biology projects, allowing increased protein expression through codon optimization and facilitating sequence alterations. Existing methods, however, can be complex and not always reproducible, prompting researchers to use commercial suppliers rather than synthesize genes themselves. Results A PCR-based gene synthesis method, referred to as SeqTBIO, is described to efficiently assemble the coding regions of two novel hyperthermophilic proteins, PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille domain, a siRNA-binding domain of an Argonaute protein homologue and a deletion mutant of a family A DNA polymerase (PolA. The gene synthesis procedure is based on sequential assembly such that homogeneous DNA products can be obtained after each synthesis step without extensive manipulation or purification requirements. Coupling the gene synthesis procedure to in vivo homologous recombination techniques allows efficient subcloning and site-directed mutagenesis for error correction. The recombinant proteins of PAZ and PolA were subsequently overexpressed in E. coli and used for protein crystallization. Crystals of both proteins were obtained and they were suitable for X-ray analysis. Conclusion We demonstrate, by using PAZ and PolA as examples, the feasibility of integrating the gene synthesis, error correction and subcloning techniques into a non-automated gene to crystal pipeline such that genes can be designed, synthesized and implemented for recombinant expression and protein crystallization.

  8. A gene-based information gain method for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Dongli; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Limei

    2015-11-01

    Currently, most methods for detecting gene-gene interactions (GGIs) in genome-wide association studies are divided into SNP-based methods and gene-based methods. Generally, the gene-based methods can be more powerful than SNP-based methods. Some gene-based entropy methods can only capture the linear relationship between genes. We therefore proposed a nonparametric gene-based information gain method (GBIGM) that can capture both linear relationship and nonlinear correlation between genes. Through simulation with different odds ratio, sample size and prevalence rate, GBIGM was shown to be valid and more powerful than classic KCCU method and SNP-based entropy method. In the analysis of data from 17 genes on rheumatoid arthritis, GBIGM was more effective than the other two methods as it obtains fewer significant results, which was important for biological verification. Therefore, GBIGM is a suitable and powerful tool for detecting GGIs in case-control studies.

  9. A Method for Improving the Pose Accuracy of a Robot Manipulator Based on Multi-Sensor Combined Measurement and Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    An improvement method for the pose accuracy of a robot manipulator by using a multiple-sensor combination measuring system (MCMS) is presented. It is composed of a visual sensor, an angle sensor and a series robot. The visual sensor is utilized to measure the position of the manipulator in real time, and the angle sensor is rigidly attached to the manipulator to obtain its orientation. Due to the higher accuracy of the multi-sensor, two efficient data fusion approaches, the Kalman filter (KF) and multi-sensor optimal information fusion algorithm (MOIFA), are used to fuse the position and orientation of the manipulator. The simulation and experimental results show that the pose accuracy of the robot manipulator is improved dramatically by 38%∼78% with the multi-sensor data fusion. Comparing with reported pose accuracy improvement methods, the primary advantage of this method is that it does not require the complex solution of the kinematics parameter equations, increase of the motion constraints and the complicated procedures of the traditional vision-based methods. It makes the robot processing more autonomous and accurate. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the pose measurements of MCMS, the visual sensor repeatability is experimentally studied. An optimal range of 1 × 0.8 × 1 ∼ 2 × 0.8 × 1 m in the field of view (FOV) is indicated by the experimental results. PMID:25850067

  10. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et de Robotique Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7222 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France); Polesel-Maris, Jerome [CEA, IRAMIS, Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-03-15

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  11. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  12. Optoelectrofluidic Manipulation of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundoo Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optoelectrofluidic technologies for manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules. Optoelectrofluidics provides an elegant scheme for the programmable manipulation of particles or fluids in microenvironments based on optically induced electrokinetics. Recent progress on the optoelectrofluidic manipulation of nanoobjects, which include nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, and biomolecules, is introduced. Some potential applications of the optoelectrofluidic nanoparticle manipulation, such as nanoparticles separation, nanostructures manufacturing, molecular physics, and clinical diagnostics, and their future directions are also discussed.

  13. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-04-01

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics.

  14. Recent progresses in gene delivery-based bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Han; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Li, Kuei-Chang; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Gene therapy has converged with bone engineering over the past decade, by which a variety of therapeutic genes have been delivered to stimulate bone repair. These genes can be administered via in vivo or ex vivo approach using either viral or nonviral vectors. This article reviews the fundamental aspects and recent progresses in the gene therapy-based bone engineering, with emphasis on the new genes, viral vectors and gene delivery approaches.

  15. A Direct Kinematics Problem Solution for the Three-degree-of-freedom Parallel Structure Manipulator Based on Crank Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Paschenko

    2015-01-01

     to state the possibility to use the constructed model for the further development of control systems based on it.The paper shows the possibilities to use the presented solution to determine the working area of the mechanism. Computer simulation methods allowed us to find a working area of the manipulator without restrictions on the physical characteristics of a real model.

  16. In-silico oncology: an approximate model of brain tumor mass effect based on directly manipulated free form deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan; Mang, Andreas; Toma, Alina; Buzug, Thorsten M. [University of Luebeck (Germany). Institute of Medical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    The present work introduces a novel method for approximating mass effect of primary brain tumors. The spatio-temporal dynamics of cancerous cells are modeled by means of a deterministic reaction-diffusion equation. Diffusion tensor information obtained from a probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging atlas is incorporated into the model to simulate anisotropic diffusion of cancerous cells. To account for the expansive nature of the tumor, the computed net cell density of malignant cells is linked to a parametric deformation model. This mass effect model is based on the so-called directly manipulated free form deformation. Spatial correspondence between two successive simulation steps is established by tracking landmarks, which are attached to the boundary of the gross tumor volume. The movement of these landmarks is used to compute the new configuration of the control points and, hence, determines the resulting deformation. To prevent a deformation of rigid structures (i.e. the skull), fixed shielding landmarks are introduced. In a refinement step, an adaptive landmark scheme ensures a dense sampling of the tumor isosurface, which in turn allows for an appropriate representation of the tumor shape. The influence of different parameters on the model is demonstrated by a set of simulations. Additionally, simulation results are qualitatively compared to an exemplary set of clinical magnetic resonance images of patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Careful visual inspection of the results demonstrates the potential of the implemented model and provides first evidence that the computed approximation of tumor mass effect is sensible. The shape of diffusive brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) can be recovered and approximately matches the observations in real clinical data. (orig.)

  17. Inverse Kinematics and Control of a 7-DOF Redundant Manipulator Based on the Closed-Loop Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingguo Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop inverse kinematics (CLIK algorithm mostly resolves the redundancy at the velocity level. In this paper we extend the CLIK algorithm to the acceleration level to meet some applications that require the joint accelerations. The redundancy resolutions at the velocities and acceleration levels via pseudoinverse method are analyzed respectively. The objective function of joint limits avoidance (JLA is combined into the redundancy resolution as an optimization approach of the null space motion. A seven-DOF redundant manipulator is designed to do the computer simulations and the real experiments are carried out on a Powercube modular manipulator. Their results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Design Process Optimization Based on Design Process Gene Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Shu-rong

    2011-01-01

    The idea of genetic engineering is introduced into the area of product design to improve the design efficiency. A method towards design process optimization based on the design process gene is proposed through analyzing the correlation between the design process gene and characteristics of the design process. The concept of the design process gene is analyzed and categorized into five categories that are the task specification gene, the concept design gene, the overall design gene, the detailed design gene and the processing design gene in the light of five design phases. The elements and their interactions involved in each kind of design process gene signprocess gene mapping is drawn with its structure disclosed based on its function that process gene.

  19. 基于组态软件机械手监控系统的研究%Research of Manipulator Control System Based on Configuration Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进财; 廖建飞; 王红梅

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the application of configuration software in the manipulator graphic monitoring system, achieves the automatic control system of robot through the PLC. Based on configuration software, the paper designs graph monitoring human-machine interface to achieve the graphicanimation, connect, control manipulator. The mechanical hand movements process graphic animation are achieved through the configuration software, the mechanical manipulator's movement are of visualization. The paper provides the manipulator operation more intuitive, clear, accurate, and fully enhance the efficiency of the system.%研究了组态软件在机械手图形监控系统中的应用,通过PLC实现机械手的自动控制系统。基于组态软件设计出图形监控人机界面,实现图形动画连接,机械手的监控。通过组态软件实现机械手的动作过程图形动画演示,使机械手的动作形象化。提供较为直观、清晰、准确的机械手运行状态,充分提高系统的工作效率。

  20. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D

    2016-04-01

    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level.

  1. Omnidirectional Analysis of Spatial Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Leng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Space manipulators are mainly used in the spatial loading task. According to problems of the spatial loading diversity, the testing loading installing position, and the utilization ratio of a test platform, the space manipulator is asked to evaluate the position and attitude of itself. This paper proposes the Point Omnidirectional Coefficient (POC with unit attitude sphere/circle to describe attitude of the end-effector, which evaluates any points in the attainable space of the manipulators, in combination with the manipulation’s position message, and get relationships between its position and attitude of all points in the attainable space. It represents the mapping between sphere surface and plane for mission attitude constraints and the method for calculating volume of points space including attainable space, Omnidirectional space, and mission attitude space. Furthermore, the Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient based on mission or not is proposed for evaluating manipulator performance. Through analysis and simulation about 3D and 2D manipulators, the results show that the above theoretical approach is feasible and the relationships about link lengths, joints angles, attainable space, and Manipulator Omnidirectional Coefficient are drawn for guiding design.

  2. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  3. Expanding the repertoire of gene tools for precise manipulation of the Clostridium difficile genome: allelic exchange using pyrE alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Kuan Ng

    Full Text Available Sophisticated genetic tools to modify essential biological processes at the molecular level are pivotal in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile, a major cause of healthcare associated disease. Here we have developed an efficient procedure for making precise alterations to the C. difficile genome by pyrE-based allelic exchange. The robustness and reliability of the method was demonstrated through the creation of in-frame deletions in three genes (spo0A, cwp84, and mtlD in the non-epidemic strain 630Δerm and two genes (spo0A and cwp84 in the epidemic PCR Ribotype 027 strain, R20291. The system is reliant on the initial creation of a pyrE deletion mutant, using Allele Coupled Exchange (ACE, that is auxotrophic for uracil and resistant to fluoroorotic acid (FOA. This enables the subsequent modification of target genes by allelic exchange using a heterologous pyrE allele from Clostridium sporogenes as a counter-/negative-selection marker in the presence of FOA. Following modification of the target gene, the strain created is rapidly returned to uracil prototrophy using ACE, allowing mutant phenotypes to be characterised in a PyrE proficient background. Crucially, wild-type copies of the inactivated gene may be introduced into the genome using ACE concomitant with correction of the pyrE allele. This allows complementation studies to be undertaken at an appropriate gene dosage, as opposed to the use of multicopy autonomous plasmids. The rapidity of the 'correction' method (5-7 days makes pyrE(- strains attractive hosts for mutagenesis studies.

  4. A simple cell-based assay reveals that diverse neuropsychiatric risk genes converge on primary cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Marley

    Full Text Available Human genetic studies are beginning to identify a large number of genes linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. It is increasingly evident that different genes contribute to risk for similar syndromes and, conversely, the same genes or even the same alleles cross over traditional diagnostic categories. A current challenge is to understand the cellular biology of identified risk genes. However, most genes associated with complex neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not related through a known biochemical pathway, and many have an entirely unknown cellular function. One possibility is that diverse disease-linked genes converge at a higher-level cellular structure. The synapse is already known to be one such convergence, and emerging evidence suggests the primary cilium as another. Because many genes associated with neuropsychiatric illness are expressed also outside the nervous system, as are cilia, we tested the hypothesis that such genes affect conserved features of the primary cilium. Using RNA interference to test 41 broadly expressed candidate genes associated with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we found 20 candidates that reduce ciliation in NIH3T3 cells when knocked down, and three whose manipulation increases cilia length. Three of the candidate genes were previously implicated in cilia formation and, altogether, approximately half of the candidates tested produced a ciliary phenotype. Our results support the hypothesis that primary cilia indeed represent a conserved cellular structure at which the effects of diverse neuropsychiatric risk genes converge. More broadly, they suggest a relatively simple cell-based approach that may be useful for exploring the complex biological underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disease.

  5. Contact State Estimation by Vision-based Tactile Sensors for Dexterous Manipulation with Robot Hands Based on Shape-Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method for estimating the contact state of objects with varying shapes on a vision‐ based fluid‐type tactile sensor, which touch pad is an elastic transparent membrane of silicon rubber with dotted pattern printed on its inner side. The membrane is filled with translucent red colored water. The proposed method leads to better understanding of the object

  6. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc. to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapy: A promising therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Abasi, Elham; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in bone marrow, fat, and so many other tissues, and can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, as well as myocytes and neurons. Moreover, they have great capacity for self-renewal while maintaining their multipotency. Their capacity for proliferation and differentiation, in addition to their immunomodulatory activity, makes them very promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, MSCs have the ability of mobilization to the site of damage; therefore, they can automatically migrate to the site of injury via their chemokine receptors following intravenous transplantation. In this respect, they can be applied for MSC-based gene therapy. In this new therapeutic method, genes of interest are introduced into MSCs via viral and non-viral-based methods that lead to transgene expression in them. Although stem cell-based gene therapy is a relatively new strategy, it lights a new hope for the treatment of a variety of genetic disorders. In the near future, MSCs can be of use in a vast number of clinical applications, because of their uncomplicated isolation, culture, and genetic manipulation. However, full consideration is still crucial before they are utilized for clinical trials, because the number of studies that signify the advantageous effects of MSC-based gene therapy are still limited.

  8. Progress in Chimeric Vector and Chimeric Gene Based Cardiovascular Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-Song; YOON Young-sup; ISNER Jeffrey M.; LOSORDO Douglas W.

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy for cardiovascular diseases has developed from preliminary animal experiments to clinical trials. However, vectors and target genes used currently in gene therapy are mainly focused on viral, nonviral vector and single target gene or monogene. Each vector system has a series of advantages and limitations. Chimeric vectors which combine the advantages of viral and nonviral vector,chimeric target genes which combine two or more target genes and novel gene delivery modes are being developed. In this article, we summarized the progress in chimeric vectors and chimeric genes based cardiovascular gene therapy, which including proliferative or occlusive vascular diseases such as atheroslerosis and restenosis, hypertonic vascular disease such as hypertension and cardiac diseases such as myocardium ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even heart transplantation. The development of chimeric vector, chimeric gene and their cardiovascular gene therapy is promising.

  9. Noise-based switches and amplifiers for gene expression

    CERN Document Server

    Hasty, J; Dolnik, M; Collins, J J; Hasty, Jeff; Pradines, Joel; Dolnik, Milos

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of cellular function is often controlled at the level of gene transcription. Such genetic regulation usually consists of interacting networks, whereby gene products from a single network can act to control their own expression or the production of protein in another network. Engineered control of cellular function through the design and manipulation of such networks lies within the constraints of current technology. Here we develop a model describing the regulation of gene expression, and elucidate the effects of noise on the formulation. We consider a single network derived from bacteriophage $\\lambda$, and construct a two-parameter deterministic model describing the temporal evolution of the concentration of $\\lambda$ repressor protein. Bistability in the steady-state protein concentration arises naturally, and we show how the bistable regime is enhanced with the addition of the first operator site in the promotor region. We then show how additive and multiplicative external noise can be used...

  10. Recent progress in polymer-based gene delivery vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shiwen; ZHUO Renxi

    2003-01-01

    The gene delivery system is one of the three components of a gene medicine, which is the bottle neck of current gene therapy. Nonviral vectors offer advantages over the viral system of safety, ease of manufacturing, etc. As important nonviral vectors, polymer gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention and have begun to show increasing promising. In this review, the fundamental and recent progress of polymer-based gene delivery vectors is reviewed.

  11. Evidence based selection of housekeeping genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J M de Jonge

    Full Text Available For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against housekeeping genes (reference or internal control genes is required. It is known that commonly used housekeeping genes (e.g. ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, and B2M vary considerably under different experimental conditions and therefore their use for normalization is limited. We performed a meta-analysis of 13,629 human gene array samples in order to identify the most stable expressed genes. Here we show novel candidate housekeeping genes (e.g. RPS13, RPL27, RPS20 and OAZ1 with enhanced stability among a multitude of different cell types and varying experimental conditions. None of the commonly used housekeeping genes were present in the top 50 of the most stable expressed genes. In addition, using 2,543 diverse mouse gene array samples we were able to confirm the enhanced stability of the candidate novel housekeeping genes in another mammalian species. Therefore, the identified novel candidate housekeeping genes seem to be the most appropriate choice for normalizing gene expression data.

  12. The Dubbing of Gay-themed TV Series in Italy: Corpus-based Evidence of Manipulation and Censorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Sandrelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation and censorship of taboo and sensitive references in AVT has attracted the interest of several scholars over the last few years, but systematic studies of the impact of such practices on different genres in different countries are still needed. The paper analyses the Italian dubbing of three gay-themed TV series, Queer as Folk, Queer as Folk (US remake, and The L Word. Gay-themed series are less mainstream on Italian TV channels than in the UK and the USA, and gayspeak as a linguistic phenomenon is not well-known to Italian audiences. Consequently, the Italian dubbed dialogues are the product of different degrees of manipulation and even censorship. The paper finds empirical evidence of such alterations in data from the DubTalk corpus and attempts a tentative evaluation of the impact of such practices on the Italian versions of the above-mentioned series.

  13. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    Full Text Available This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO. Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  14. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  15. Computing gene expression data with a knowledge-based gene clustering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Oh, Sookyung; Montgomery, Beronda L; Chen, Jin; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Computational analysis methods for gene expression data gathered in microarray experiments can be used to identify the functions of previously unstudied genes. While obtaining the expression data is not a difficult task, interpreting and extracting the information from the datasets is challenging. In this study, a knowledge-based approach which identifies and saves important functional genes before filtering based on variability and fold change differences was utilized to study light regulation. Two clustering methods were used to cluster the filtered datasets, and clusters containing a key light regulatory gene were located. The common genes to both of these clusters were identified, and the genes in the common cluster were ranked based on their coexpression to the key gene. This process was repeated for 11 key genes in 3 treatment combinations. The initial filtering method reduced the dataset size from 22,814 probes to an average of 1134 genes, and the resulting common cluster lists contained an average of only 14 genes. These common cluster lists scored higher gene enrichment scores than two individual clustering methods. In addition, the filtering method increased the proportion of light responsive genes in the dataset from 1.8% to 15.2%, and the cluster lists increased this proportion to 18.4%. The relatively short length of these common cluster lists compared to gene groups generated through typical clustering methods or coexpression networks narrows the search for novel functional genes while increasing the likelihood that they are biologically relevant.

  16. Laser-driven gel microtool for single-cell manipulation based on temperature control with a photothermal conversion material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, T.; Kikukawa, M.; Maruyama, H.; Arai, F.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a laser-driven hybrid gel microtool for stable single-cell manipulation. The microtool is made of a microbead dyed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and thermosensitive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) gel coating. The gel adheres to cells at high temperatures but not at low temperatures. We can manipulate single cells without direct laser irradiation by adhering the cells to the gel on the microtool using the cell-adhesion property of the gel. The microtool is heated by trapping it with optical tweezers to make its surface cell-adhesive during the manipulation. Furthermore, we can control the optical heating property of the microtool by dyeing the microbeads with MWNT ink. The laser-heating-induced temperature increase of the microtool can be controlled from 4.2 °C to 23.5 °C by varying the concentration of MWNT ink. We succeeded in fabricating the proposed microtool and demonstrated single-cell transportation using the microtool without direct laser irradiation of the cell.

  17. Master-Slave Manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, R.C.

    1949-03-07

    A device for manipulating a pair of tongs behind a shielding barrier has been built and tested. It is called a Master-Slave Manipulator because the slave tongs move in exact correspondence with a master handle. The "slave hands" follow the master hands in complete synchronism. This is the first completely master-slave manipulator known to exist and has proved that this type of manipulation is very successful when the unit is prooperly engineered and built.

  18. GO-based Functional Dissimilarity of Gene Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Ruiz Jesús S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO provides a controlled vocabulary for describing the functions of genes and can be used to evaluate the functional coherence of gene sets. Many functional coherence measures consider each pair of gene functions in a set and produce an output based on all pairwise distances. A single gene can encode multiple proteins that may differ in function. For each functionality, other proteins that exhibit the same activity may also participate. Therefore, an identification of the most common function for all of the genes involved in a biological process is important in evaluating the functional similarity of groups of genes and a quantification of functional coherence can helps to clarify the role of a group of genes working together. Results To implement this approach to functional assessment, we present GFD (GO-based Functional Dissimilarity, a novel dissimilarity measure for evaluating groups of genes based on the most relevant functions of the whole set. The measure assigns a numerical value to the gene set for each of the three GO sub-ontologies. Conclusions Results show that GFD performs robustly when applied to gene set of known functionality (extracted from KEGG. It performs particularly well on randomly generated gene sets. An ROC analysis reveals that the performance of GFD in evaluating the functional dissimilarity of gene sets is very satisfactory. A comparative analysis against other functional measures, such as GS2 and those presented by Resnik and Wang, also demonstrates the robustness of GFD.

  19. Control Design Of Robot Manipulator Position Based On Pd-Fuzzy Mamdani Controlled With Computed Torque Control (Pd-Fuzzy-Ctc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Ridlo Istriantono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotics science has evolved significantly, driven by rapid advances in computer and sensor technology; and theoretical advances in control and computer vision. These development make widespread use of robot manipulators in industrial environments. Major problem in controlling a robot manipulator is to control the robot in order to achieve the desired position. Therefore the design issue of the robot control is to choose the right type controller. Computed Torque Controller (CTC is a powerful nonlinear controllers are widely used in the control of robot manipulators. CTC controller is designed based on feedback linearization and the required torque of the robot arm by using a nonlinear feedback control law. Simulation is done by providing joint trajectory from point to point. The simulation results show that the PD-Fuzzy-CTC controller is able to follow the joint trajectory with The RMSE value of the joint angle position of PD-Fuzzy-CTC controller is 10 times smaller than that of the PD-CTC controller with the end-effector position accuracy is 0.1 mm.  

  20. 基于ADAMS的危险作业机械手工作轨迹分析%Working Trajectory Analysis of Hazardous Operation Manipulator Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮亮; 马振书; 杜峰坡; 来升

    2011-01-01

    利用SolidWorks软件创建机械手的虚拟样机模型,采用D-H法对机械臂进行正向运动学分析和解算,为进一步验证解的正确性,运用ADAMS软件对机械臂运动特性进行仿真分析,得到了机械手处于2种抓取位姿时手爪形心随大臂俯仰的轨迹曲线,与经过正向运动学分析由Matlab绘制的曲线相吻合,这就证明了正向运动学分析的正确性.同时,基于ADAMS的机械手工作轨迹分析,为机械臂的优化设计及运动控制提供了参考依据.%The virtual model of the manipulator is established using SolidWorks,and the direct kinematics problem is analyzed based on the Denavit - Hartenberg method. In order to verify the accuracy of solutions, moving behavior simulation for the manipulator is analyzed depending on ADAMS,and trajectory curves of the gripper's centroid accompanied with the first arm's moving are drawn when the manipulator is set in the two kinds of working poses. The curves are consistent with the ones that are drawn by Matlab through analyzing direct kinematics,which proves the analytic results of direct kinematics to be right. In addition, the working trajectory analysis of the gripper provides a reference for optimal design and motion control of the manipulator.

  1. DYMAFLEX: DYnamic Manipulation FLight EXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    Moosavian. Learning- based Modified Transpose Jacobian control of robotic manipulators. In Proc. IEEE Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics , pages...34Path planning for minimizing base reaction of space robot and its ground experimental study," in IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics

  2. Novel definition files for human GeneChips based on GeneAnnot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Sergio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in genome sequence annotation revealed discrepancies in the original probeset/gene assignment in Affymetrix microarray and the existence of differences between annotations and effective alignments of probes and transcription products. In the current generation of Affymetrix human GeneChips, most probesets include probes matching transcripts from more than one gene and probes which do not match any transcribed sequence. Results We developed a novel set of custom Chip Definition Files (CDF and the corresponding Bioconductor libraries for Affymetrix human GeneChips, based on the information contained in the GeneAnnot database. GeneAnnot-based CDFs are composed of unique custom-probesets, including only probes matching a single gene. Conclusion GeneAnnot-based custom CDFs solve the problem of a reliable reconstruction of expression levels and eliminate the existence of more than one probeset per gene, which often leads to discordant expression signals for the same transcript when gene differential expression is the focus of the analysis. GeneAnnot CDFs are freely distributed and fully compliant with Affymetrix standards and all available software for gene expression analysis. The CDF libraries are available from http://www.xlab.unimo.it/GA_CDF, along with supplementary information (CDF libraries, installation guidelines and R code, CDF statistics, and analysis results.

  3. KBERG: KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Suisheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Tan, Sin Lam;

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen has a profound impact on human physiology affecting transcription of numerous genes. To decipher functional characteristics of estrogen responsive genes, we developed KnowledgeBase for Estrogen Responsive Genes (KBERG). Genes in KBERG were derived from Estrogen Responsive Gene Database...... (ERGDB) and were analyzed from multiple aspects. We explored the possible transcription regulation mechanism by capturing highly conserved promoter motifs across orthologous genes, using promoter regions that cover the range of [-1200, +500] relative to the transcription start sites. The motif detection...... is based on ab initio discovery of common cis-elements from the orthologous gene cluster from human, mouse and rat, thus reflecting a degree of promoter sequence preservation during evolution. The identified motifs are linked to transcription factor binding sites based on the TRANSFAC database. In addition...

  4. An overview of gene therapy in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is a new treatment modality in which new gene is introduced or existing gene is manipulated to cause cancer cell death or slow the growth of the tumor. In this review, we have discussed the different treatment approaches for cancer gene therapy; gene addition therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy using oncolytic viruses, antisense ribonucleic acid (RNA) and RNA interference-based gene therapy. Clinical trials to date in head and neck cancer have shown evidence of gene transduction...

  5. HMM-Based Gene Annotation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussler, David; Hughey, Richard; Karplus, Keven

    1999-09-20

    Development of new statistical methods and computational tools to identify genes in human genomic DNA, and to provide clues to their functions by identifying features such as transcription factor binding sites, tissue, specific expression and splicing patterns, and remove homologies at the protein level with genes of known function.

  6. 基于PLC控制的气动机械手%Pneumatic Manipulator Based on PLC Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 张庆良

    2013-01-01

      介绍了一种采用PLC控制的气动机械手的结构、动作要求;给出了气动机械手的气动回路及其工作原理,分析了工作流程,进行了PLC控制系统的I/O端口分配,设计相应的硬件。机械手的动作顺序和动作速度可根据客户要求而作相应调整,适应于工作环境。%The structure, movement demand of a pneumatic manipulator using PLC control was introduced. The pneumatic circuit and its working principle of penumatic manipulator were provided. Its work flow was analyzed and the inlet and outlet of PLC control system were ap⁃portioned. The relative hardware was designed. The movement sequence and working speed could be adjusted according to the demands of the clients, suiting for the woking environment.

  7. Development of a bipartite ecdysone-responsive gene switch for the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and its use to manipulate transcription during axenic culture and plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Heber; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression systems have been proven to be useful tools for the elucidation of gene function in many taxa. Here, we report the development of the first useful inducible promoter system for an oomycete, based on an ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the ecdysone analogue methoxyfenozide. In Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, a monopartite transactivator containing the VP16 activation domain from herpes simplex virus, the GAL4 DNA-binding domain from yeast and the EcR receptor domain from the spruce budworm enabled high levels of expression of a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, but unacceptable basal activity in the absence of the methoxyfenozide inducer. Greatly improved performance was obtained using a bipartite system in which transcription is activated by a heterodimer between a chimera of VP16 and the migratory locust retinoid X receptor, and a separate EcR-DNA-binding domain chimera. Transformants were obtained that exhibited >100-fold activation of the reporter by methoxyfenozide, with low basal levels of expression and induced activity approaching that of the strong ham34 promoter. Performance varied between transformants, probably as a result of position effects. The addition of methoxyfenozide enabled strong induction during hyphal growth, zoosporogenesis and colonization of tomato. No significant effects of the inducer or transactivators on growth, development or pathogenicity were observed. The technology should therefore be a useful addition to the arsenal of methods for the study of oomycete plant pathogens.

  8. A global test for gene-gene interactions based on random matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, H Robert; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H

    2016-12-01

    Statistical interactions between markers of genetic variation, or gene-gene interactions, are believed to play an important role in the etiology of many multifactorial diseases and other complex phenotypes. Unfortunately, detecting gene-gene interactions is extremely challenging due to the large number of potential interactions and ambiguity regarding marker coding and interaction scale. For many data sets, there is insufficient statistical power to evaluate all candidate gene-gene interactions. In these cases, a global test for gene-gene interactions may be the best option. Global tests have much greater power relative to multiple individual interaction tests and can be used on subsets of the markers as an initial filter prior to testing for specific interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel global test for gene-gene interactions, the global epistasis test (GET), that is based on results from random matrix theory. As we show via simulation studies based on previously proposed models for common diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer, our proposed GET method has superior performance characteristics relative to existing global gene-gene interaction tests. A glaucoma GWAS data set is used to demonstrate the practical utility of the GET method.

  9. Simulation Modeling of the Motion Control of a Two Degree of Freedom, Tendon Based, Parallel Manipulator in Operational Space Using MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiu; HILLER Manfred; FANG Shi-qing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a dynamical model of a two degree of freedom, tendon based, parallel manipulator (TBPM) system is proposed. The motion control methods of the TBPM system were designed. Using MATLAB, the motion control simulation of this model TBPM system was implemented in preparation for actual experiments. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the response time of the system was in a reasonable range, the motion behavior of the platform was stable and the tension forces acting on the tendons were in a safe range and acceptable. Furthermore, the parameters of the controllers were optimized using MATLAB and better results for the time response were obtained.

  10. Identifying disease feature genes based on cellular localized gene functional modules and regulation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing; GUO Zheng; LI Xia; YANG Da; WANG Lei; RAO Shaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Identifying disease-relevant genes and functional modules, based on gene expression profiles and gene functional knowledge, is of high importance for studying disease mechanisms and subtyping disease phenotypes. Using gene categories of biological process and cellular component in Gene Ontology, we propose an approach to selecting functional modules enriched with differentially expressed genes, and identifying the feature functional modules of high disease discriminating abilities. Using the differentially expressed genes in each feature module as the feature genes, we reveal the relevance of the modules to the studied diseases. Using three datasets for prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and leukemia, we have demonstrated that the proposed modular approach is of high power in identifying functionally integrated feature gene subsets that are highly relevant to the disease mechanisms. Our analysis has also shown that the critical disease-relevant genes might be better recognized from the gene regulation network, which is constructed using the characterized functional modules, giving important clues to the concerted mechanisms of the modules responding to complex disease states. In addition, the proposed approach to selecting the disease-relevant genes by jointly considering the gene functional knowledge suggests a new way for precisely classifying disease samples with clear biological interpretations, which is critical for the clinical diagnosis and the elucidation of the pathogenic basis of complex diseases.

  11. A transgenic Neospora caninum strain based on mutations of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luiz Miguel; Baroni, Luciana; Yatsuda, Ana Patrícia

    2014-03-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite related to abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. The amenability of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium to genetic manipulation offers several tools to determine the invasion and replication processes, which support posterior strategies related to the combat of these diseases. For Plasmodium the use of pyrimethamine as an auxiliary drug on malaria treatment has been affected by the rise of resistant strains and the analyses on Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene indicated several point mutations. In this work we developed a method for stable insertion of genes based on resistance to pyrimethamine. For that, the coding sequence of NcDHFR-TS (Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase) was point mutated in two amino acids, generating DHFRM2M3. The DHFRM2M3 flanked by the promoter and 3'UTR of Ncdhfr-ts (Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3) conferred resistance to pyrimethamine after transfection. For illustration of stability and expression, the cassette Ncdhfr-DHFRM2M3 was ligated to the reporter gene Lac-Z (β-galactosidase enzyme) controlled by the N. caninum tubulin promoter and was transfected and selected in N. caninum. The cassette was integrated into the genome and the selected tachyzoites expressed Lac-Z, allowing the detection of tachyzoites by the CPRG reaction and X-gal precipitation. The obtainment of transgenic N. caninum resistant to pyrimethamine confirms the effects on DHFR-TS among the Apicomplexa members and will support future approaches on pholate inhibitors for N. caninum prophylaxis. The construction of stable tachyzoites based on vectors with N. caninum promoters initiates the molecular manipulation of this parasite independently of T. gondii.

  12. In silico network topology-based prediction of gene essentiality

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Joao Paulo Muller; Mombach, Jose Carlos Merino; Vieira, Renata; da Silva, Jose Guliherme Camargo; Lemke, Ney; Sinigaglia, Marialva

    2007-01-01

    The identification of genes essential for survival is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for drug design. As experimental studies with the purpose of building a catalog of essential genes for a given organism are time-consuming and laborious, a computational approach which could predict gene essentiality with high accuracy would be of great value. We present here a novel computational approach, called NTPGE (Network Topology-based Prediction of Gene Essentiality), that relies on network topology features of a gene to estimate its essentiality. The first step of NTPGE is to construct the integrated molecular network for a given organism comprising protein physical, metabolic and transcriptional regulation interactions. The second step consists in training a decision tree-based machine learning algorithm on known essential and non-essential genes of the organism of interest, considering as learning attributes the network topology information for each of these genes...

  13. High-Speed Tactile Sensing for Array-Type Tactile Sensor and Object Manipulation Based on Tactile Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Fukui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a universal robot hand with tactile and other sensors. An array-type tactile sensor is crucial for dexterous manipulation of objects using a robotic hand, since this sensor can measure the pressure distribution on finger pads. The sensor has a very high resolution, and the shape of a grasped object can be classified by using this sensor. The more the number of measurement points provided, the higher the accuracy of the classification, but with a corresponding lengthening of the measurement cycle. In this paper, the problem of slow response time is resolved by using software for an array-type tactile sensor with high resolution that emulates the human sensor system. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through experiments.

  14. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Khandelwal; Jalaj Gupta; B Jayaram

    2012-07-01

    We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of higher thermodynamic stability were identified, which were filtered based on already known annotations to yield a set of potentially new genes. These were then processed for their compatibility with the stereo-chemical properties of proteins and tripeptide frequencies of proteins in Swissprot data, which results in a reliable set of new genes in a genome. Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the methodology can handle genomes of any GC-content, size and number of annotated genes.

  15. Study on gene sensor based on primer extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈誉华; 宋今丹; 李大为

    1997-01-01

    Based on the fact that the resonant frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is the function of its surface deposit, and that the primer extends after it hybridizes with the template, the primer extension gene sensor technique was developed. The prominent feature of the technique is that fast and sensitive frequency signals are used as the monitoring system of gene hybridization and primer strand extension. Results show that this technique may be used in homologous analysis of nucleic acid, trace DNA detection, and determining the integration of DNA. It may also be used for isolation of target gene, gene mutation analysis, and predicting the location of a gene in its genome.

  16. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper...... investigates the missing links and gaps between the research and developments efforts and the real-world application requirements, in order to bring the AIMM technology from laboratories to manufacturing environments. The investigation is based on 12 general application requirements for robotics......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...

  17. Gene-based and semantic structure of the Gene Ontology as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, Claudia; Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The last decade has seen the advent and consolidation of ontology based tools for the identification and biological interpretation of classes of genes, such as the Gene Ontology. The Gene Ontology (GO) is constantly evolving over time. The information accumulated time-by-time and included in the GO is encoded in the definition of terms and in the setting up of semantic relations amongst terms. Here we investigate the Gene Ontology from a complex network perspective. We consider the semantic network of terms naturally associated with the semantic relationships provided by the Gene Ontology consortium. Moreover, the GO is a natural example of bipartite network of terms and genes. Here we are interested in studying the properties of the projected network of terms, i.e. a gene-based weighted network of GO terms, in which a link between any two terms is set if at least one gene is annotated in both terms. One aim of the present paper is to compare the structural properties of the semantic and the gene-based network. The relative importance of terms is very similar in the two networks, but the community structure changes. We show that in some cases GO terms that appear to be distinct from a semantic point of view are instead connected, and appear in the same community when considering their gene content. The identification of such gene-based communities of terms might therefore be the basis of a simple protocol aiming at improving the semantic structure of GO. Information about terms that share large gene content might also be important from a biomedical point of view, as it might reveal how genes over-expressed in a certain term also affect other biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components not directly linked according to GO semantics.

  18. Giant optical manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-09-10

    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  19. Combined method for parallel manipulator configuration design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Configuration design is an essential, creative and decision-making step in parallel manipulator design process, in which modeling and assembly are iterative and trivial. Combined approach with automatic parametric modeling and automatic assembly is proposed for parallel manipulator configuration design. The design process and key techniques, such as configuration design, configuration verification, poses calculation of all parts in parallel manipulator, virtual assembly and etc., are discussed and demonstrated by an example. A software package is developed for parallel manipulator configuration design based on the proposed method with Visual C+ + and UG/OPEN on Unigraphics.

  20. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; L(U) Jun-Hong; LI Hai-Kuo; AN Hong-Jie; WANG Guo-Hua; WANG Ying; LI Min-Qian; ZHANG Yi; LI Bin

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as "cutting", "pushing", "folding", "kneading", "picking up", "dipping", etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed.

  1. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  2. The Increasing Importance of Gene-Based Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T Cirulli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, genome and exome sequencing studies have implicated a plethora of new disease genes with rare causal variants. Here, I review 150 exome sequencing studies that claim to have discovered that a disease can be caused by different rare variants in the same gene, and I determine whether their methods followed the current best-practice guidelines in the interpretation of their data. Specifically, I assess whether studies appropriately assess controls for rare variants throughout the entire gene or implicated region as opposed to only investigating the specific rare variants identified in the cases, and I assess whether studies present sufficient co-segregation data for statistically significant linkage. I find that the proportion of studies performing gene-based analyses has increased with time, but that even in 2015 fewer than 40% of the reviewed studies used this method, and only 10% presented statistically significant co-segregation data. Furthermore, I find that the genes reported in these papers are explaining a decreasing proportion of cases as the field moves past most of the low-hanging fruit, with 50% of the genes from studies in 2014 and 2015 having variants in fewer than 5% of cases. As more studies focus on genes explaining relatively few cases, the importance of performing appropriate gene-based analyses is increasing. It is becoming increasingly important for journal editors and reviewers to require stringent gene-based evidence to avoid an avalanche of misleading disease gene discovery papers.

  3. Control of Flexible Joint Manipulator via Variable Structure Rule-Based Fuzzy Control and Chaos Anti-Control with Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rostami Kandroodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a variable structure rule-based fuzzy control for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator by using chaotic anti-control. Based on Lyapunov stability theory for variable structure control and fuzzy rules, the nonlinear controller and some generic sufficient conditions for global asymptotic control are attained. The fuzzy rules are directly constructed subject to a Lyapunov function obtained from variable structure surfaces such that the error dynamics of control problem satisfy stability in the Lyapunov sense. Also in this study, the anti-control is applied to reduce the deflection angle of flexible joint system. To achieve this goal, the chaos dynamic must be created in the flexible joint system. So, the flexible joint system has been synchronized to chaotic gyroscope system. In this study, control and anti-control concepts are applied to achieve the high quality performance of flexible joint system. It is tried to design a controller which is capable to satisfy the control and anti- control aims. The performances of the proposed control are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed method is validated through experimentation on QUANSER’s flexible-joint manipulator.

  4. Research on a Nonlinear Robust Adaptive Control Method of the Elbow Joint of a Seven-Function Hydraulic Manipulator Based on Double-Screw-Pair Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaosheng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive control method with full-state feedback is proposed based on the fact that the elbow joint of a seven-function hydraulic manipulator with double-screw-pair transmission features the following control characteristics: a strongly nonlinear hydraulic system, parameter uncertainties susceptible to temperature and pressure changes of the external environment, and unknown outer disturbances. Combined with the design method of the back-stepping controller, the asymptotic stability of the control system in the presence of disturbances from uncertain systematic parameters and unknown external disturbances was demonstrated using Lyapunov stability theory. Based on the elbow joint of the seven-function master-slave hydraulic manipulator for the 4500 m Deep-Sea Working System as the research subject, a comparative study was conducted using the control method presented in this paper for unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experiments of different unknown outer disturbances showed that (1 the proposed controller could robustly track the desired reference trajectory with satisfactory dynamic performance and steady accuracy and that (2 the modified parameter adaptive laws could also guarantee that the estimated parameters are bounded.

  5. Two-Time Scale Virtual Sensor Design for Vibration Observation of a Translational Flexible-Link Manipulator Based on Singular Perturbation and Differential Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jinyong; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuqiao; Fan, Mengbao; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-10-28

    Effective feedback control requires all state variable information of the system. However, in the translational flexible-link manipulator (TFM) system, it is unrealistic to measure the vibration signals and their time derivative of any points of the TFM by infinite sensors. With the rigid-flexible coupling between the global motion of the rigid base and the elastic vibration of the flexible-link manipulator considered, a two-time scale virtual sensor, which includes the speed observer and the vibration observer, is designed to achieve the estimation for the vibration signals and their time derivative of the TFM, as well as the speed observer and the vibration observer are separately designed for the slow and fast subsystems, which are decomposed from the dynamic model of the TFM by the singular perturbation. Additionally, based on the linear-quadratic differential games, the observer gains of the two-time scale virtual sensor are optimized, which aims to minimize the estimation error while keeping the observer stable. Finally, the numerical calculation and experiment verify the efficiency of the designed two-time scale virtual sensor.

  6. Genetic Manipulations in Dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents. These included genetic transformation methods, indispensable molecular tools, i.e., dominant selectable markers, inducible promoter, and marker recycling system, along with improving homologous recombination frequency and gene silencing. Furthermore, annotated genome sequences of several dermatophytic species have recently been available, ensuring an optimal recruitment of the molecular tools to expand our knowledge on these fungi. In conclusion, the establishment of basic molecular tools and the availability of genomic data will open a new era that might change our understanding on the biology and pathogenicity of this fungal group.

  7. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  8. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Priedigkeit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.

  9. AAV-Based Targeting Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfang Shi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first parvovirus serotype AAV2 was isolated from human and used as a vector for gene therapy application, there have been significant progresses in AAV vector development. AAV vectors have been extensively investigated in gene therapy for a broad application. AAV vectors have been considered as the first choice of vector due to efficient infectivity, stable expression and non-pathogenicity. However, the untoward events in AAV mediated in vivo gene therapy studies proposed the new challenges for their further applications. Deep understanding of the viral life cycle, viral structure and replication, infection mechanism and efficiency of AAV DNA integration, in terms of contributing viral, host-cell factors and circumstances would promote to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages and provide more insightful information for the possible clinical applications. In this review, main effort will be focused on the recent progresses in gene delivery to the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction and DNA specific integration regulation. Furthermore AAV receptor and virus particle intracellular trafficking are also discussed.

  10. The Impact of an Ego Depletion Manipulation on Performance-Based and Self-Report Assessment Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charek, Daniel B; Meyer, Gregory J; Mihura, Joni L

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the impact of ego depletion on selected Rorschach cognitive processing variables and self-reported affect states. Research indicates acts of effortful self-regulation transiently deplete a finite pool of cognitive resources, impairing performance on subsequent tasks requiring self-regulation. We predicted that relative to controls, ego-depleted participants' Rorschach protocols would have more spontaneous reactivity to color, less cognitive sophistication, and more frequent logical lapses in visualization, whereas self-reports would reflect greater fatigue and less attentiveness. The hypotheses were partially supported; despite a surprising absence of self-reported differences, ego-depleted participants had Rorschach protocols with lower scores on two variables indicative of sophisticated combinatory thinking, as well as higher levels of color receptivity; they also had lower scores on a composite variable computed across all hypothesized markers of complexity. In addition, self-reported achievement striving moderated the effect of the experimental manipulation on color receptivity, and in the Depletion condition it was associated with greater attentiveness to the tasks, more color reactivity, and less global synthetic processing. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the response process, methodological limitations and strengths, implications for calculating refined Rorschach scores, and the value of using multiple methods in research and experimental paradigms to validate assessment measures.

  11. Increased complexity of gene structure and base composition in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Wu; Huizhong Yuan; Shengjun Tan; Jian-Qun Chen; Dacheng Tian; Haiwang Yang

    2011-01-01

    How the structure and base composition of genes changed with the evolution of vertebrates remains a puzzling question. Here we analyzed 895 orthologous protein-coding genes in six multicellular animals: human, chicken, zebrafish, sea squirt, fruit fly, and worm. Our analyses reveal that many gene regions, particularly intron and 3' UTR, gradually expanded throughout the evolution of vertebrates from their invertebrate ancestors, and that the number of exons per gene increased. Studies based on all protein-coding genes in each genome provide consistent results.We also find that GC-content increased in many gene regions (especially 5' UTR) in the evolution of endotherms, except in coding-exons.Analysis of individual genomes shows that 3′ UTR demonstrated stronger length and CC-content correlation with intron than 5' UTR, and gene with large intron in all six species demonstrated relatively similar GC-content. Our data indicates a great increase in complexity in vertebrate genes and we propose that the requirement for morphological and functional changes is probably the driving force behind the evolution of structure and base composition complexity in multicellular animal genes.

  12. Actuability of Underactuated Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    of a manipulator with passive joints in operational space. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 9(1), February 1993. [6] !irohiko Arai and...Susumu Tachi Position control of a manipulator with passive joints using dynamic coupling. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 7(4), August

  13. In praise of manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that de

  14. Distributed piezoelectric vibration control for a flexible-link manipulator based on an observer in the form of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongjun; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-02-01

    This paper mainly focuses on designing a distributed observer-based controller for a flexible-link manipulator bonded with piezoelectric actuators. The dynamic model of the link can be taken as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and takes on the form of partial differential equations (PDEs). The proposed observer, which is proven exponentially stable, has the ability to estimate infinite dimensional states, and only the boundary practical measurement values are needed. A novel distributed observer-based controller is subsequently developed to make the joint position track a desired trajectory and rapidly regulate vibrations on the whole beam, which is the main contribution of the paper. The closed-loop system is guaranteed exponentially stable by theoretical analysis and its favorable performance is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  15. 基于PLC的液压驱动式机械手动作设计%The Movement Design of Hydraulic Manipulator Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌宏

    2011-01-01

    A kind of hydraulic manipulator was introduced. The traits includled simple configuration and balanced movement. It was fit for conveying heavy objects. By analyzing the movement process, the hydraulic loop was designed, simulation and movement control based on PLC were completed. A simulated expriment was done on YZ-02 fluid driving platform. The results show that the hydraulic manipulator has strong power and stable performamce. The used differential loop improve local velocity.%介绍一款采用液压驱动式的机械手,该机械手的特点是结构简单、输出力大、动作平稳,适合于大物件的搬运工作.针对该机械手各动作情况分别对其进行液压回路设计、模拟仿真、PIE顺序控制,并在YZ-02型智能化液压传动实验台上进行机电液一体化模拟实验.实验结果表明:液压驱动式机械手抓力较大,工作性能稳定,通过差动回路可改善其局部运行速度.

  16. The Movement Control of Manipulator Based on S7-200PLC%基于S7-200PLC的机械手运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅

    2014-01-01

    基于S7-200PLC对机械手的运动进行一系列控制,这些运动包括手臂上下、左右直线运动,手腕旋转运动,手爪夹紧动作和机械手整体旋转运动等。所采用的动力机构是步进电机,能够做到精确控制。在多个行程开关传感器的保护下,保证了这些运动万无一失。%The various movements of manipulator are controlled based on S7-200PLC. These movements include arms' up and down, left and right straight movements, wrist rotation, gripper clamping action and manipulator overall spin movement, etc. The power mechanism adopted is stepper motor, which can achieve precise control. Under the protection of multiple trip switch sensors, those movements are perfectly performed.

  17. Prediction of Tumor Outcome Based on Gene Expression Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Juan; Hitoshi Iba

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression microarray data can be used to classify tumor types. We proposed a new procedure to classify human tumor samples based on microarray gene expressions by using a hybrid supervised learning method called MOEA+WV (Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm+Weighted Voting). MOEA is used to search for a relatively few subsets of informative genes from the high-dimensional gene space, and WV is used as a classification tool. This new method has been applied to predicate the subtypes of lymphoma and outcomes of medulloblastoma. The results are relatively accurate and meaningful compared to those from other methods.

  18. A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chari Raj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important consideration when analyzing both microarray and quantitative PCR expression data is the selection of appropriate genes as endogenous controls or reference genes. This step is especially critical when identifying genes differentially expressed between datasets. Moreover, reference genes suitable in one context (e.g. lung cancer may not be suitable in another (e.g. breast cancer. Currently, the main approach to identify reference genes involves the mining of expression microarray data for highly expressed and relatively constant transcripts across a sample set. A caveat here is the requirement for transcript normalization prior to analysis, and measurements obtained are relative, not absolute. Alternatively, as sequencing-based technologies provide digital quantitative output, absolute quantification ensues, and reference gene identification becomes more accurate. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE profiles of non-malignant and malignant lung samples were compared using a permutation test to identify the most stably expressed genes across all samples. Subsequently, the specificity of the reference genes was evaluated across multiple tissue types, their constancy of expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR, and their impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data was evaluated. Results We show that (i conventional references genes such as ACTB and GAPDH are highly variable between cancerous and non-cancerous samples, (ii reference genes identified for lung cancer do not perform well for other cancer types (breast and brain, (iii reference genes identified through SAGE show low variability using qPCR in a different cohort of samples, and (iv normalization of a lung cancer gene expression microarray dataset with or without our reference genes, yields different results for differential gene expression and subsequent analyses. Specifically, key established pathways in lung

  19. A new gene ontology-based measure for the functional similarity of gene products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Guo-long; QIAN Shi-yu; FANG Ji-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although biomedical ontologies have standardized the representation of gene products across species and databases,a method for determining the functional similarities of gene products has not yet been developed.Methods We proposed a new semantic similarity measure based on Gene Ontology that considers the semantic influences from all of the ancestor terms in a graph.Our measure was compared with Resnik's measure in two applications,which were based on the association of the measure used with the gene co-expression and the proteinprotein interactions.Results The results showed a considerable association between the semantic similarity and the expression correlation and between the semantic similarity and the protein-protein interactions,and our measure performed the best overall.Conclusion These results revealed the potential value of our newly proposed semantic similarity measure in studying the functional relevance of gene products.

  20. A study of nanoparticle manipulation using ultrasonic standing waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Rasidovic, A.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the noninvasive manipulation of particles in dispersions during the last 15 years. The manipulation techniques based on acoustic radiation forces are particularly interesting as they allow for the manipulation of particles based on their density, compressibili

  1. A riboswitch-based inducible gene expression system for mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Seeliger

    Full Text Available Research on the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb would benefit from novel tools for regulated gene expression. Here we describe the characterization and application of a synthetic riboswitch-based system, which comprises a mycobacterial promoter for transcriptional control and a riboswitch for translational control. The system was used to induce and repress heterologous protein overexpression reversibly, to create a conditional gene knockdown, and to control gene expression in a macrophage infection model. Unlike existing systems for controlling gene expression in Mtb, the riboswitch does not require the co-expression of any accessory proteins: all of the regulatory machinery is encoded by a short DNA segment directly upstream of the target gene. The inducible riboswitch platform has the potential to be a powerful general strategy for creating customized gene regulation systems in Mtb.

  2. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  3. Extensive co-operation between the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins in the manipulation of host gene expression and epigenetic chromatin modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E White

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is able to drive the transformation of B-cells, resulting in the generation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs in vitro. EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary for efficient transformation, while EBNA3B is dispensable. We describe a transcriptome analysis of BL31 cells infected with a series of EBNA3-knockout EBVs, including one deleted for all three EBNA3 genes. Using Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST microarrays analysed with the MMBGX algorithm, we have identified over 1000 genes whose regulation by EBV requires one of the EBNA3s. Remarkably, a third of the genes identified require more than one EBNA3 for their regulation, predominantly EBNA3C co-operating with either EBNA3B, EBNA3A or both. The microarray was validated by real-time PCR, while ChIP analysis of a selection of co-operatively repressed promoters indicates a role for polycomb group complexes. Targets include genes involved in apoptosis, cell migration and B-cell differentiation, and show a highly significant but subtle alteration in genes involved in mitosis. In order to assess the relevance of the BL31 system to LCLs, we analysed the transcriptome of a set of EBNA3B knockout (3BKO LCLs. Around a third of the genes whose expression level in LCLs was altered in the absence of EBNA3B were also altered in 3BKO-BL31 cell lines.Among these are TERT and TCL1A, implying that EBV-induced changes in the expression of these genes are not required for B-cell transformation. We also identify 26 genes that require both EBNA3A and EBNA3B for their regulation in LCLs. Together, this shows the complexity of the interaction between EBV and its host, whereby multiple EBNA3 proteins co-operate to modulate the behaviour of the host cell.

  4. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  5. Speeding disease gene discovery by sequence based candidate prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porteous David J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of interest identified through genetic linkage studies regularly exceed 30 centimorgans in size and can contain hundreds of genes. Traditionally this number is reduced by matching functional annotation to knowledge of the disease or phenotype in question. However, here we show that disease genes share patterns of sequence-based features that can provide a good basis for automatic prioritization of candidates by machine learning. Results We examined a variety of sequence-based features and found that for many of them there are significant differences between the sets of genes known to be involved in human hereditary disease and those not known to be involved in disease. We have created an automatic classifier called PROSPECTR based on those features using the alternating decision tree algorithm which ranks genes in the order of likelihood of involvement in disease. On average, PROSPECTR enriches lists for disease genes two-fold 77% of the time, five-fold 37% of the time and twenty-fold 11% of the time. Conclusion PROSPECTR is a simple and effective way to identify genes involved in Mendelian and oligogenic disorders. It performs markedly better than the single existing sequence-based classifier on novel data. PROSPECTR could save investigators looking at large regions of interest time and effort by prioritizing positional candidate genes for mutation detection and case-control association studies.

  6. Sound visualization and manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-01-01

    Unique in addressing two different problems - sound visualization and manipulation - in a unified way Advances in signal processing technology are enabling ever more accurate visualization of existing sound fields and precisely defined sound field production. The idea of explaining both the problem of sound visualization and the problem of the manipulation of sound within one book supports this inter-related area of study.  With rapid development of array technologies, it is possible to do much in terms of visualization and manipulation, among other technologies involved with the spatial dis

  7. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  8. Manipulation by physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriax, J

    1970-03-01

    Divergent opinions exist on whether or not physiotherapists should manipulate. The controversy can be simply resolved by pointing out that the past policy of withholding such tuition from physiotherapists has in no way diminished the public demand for manipulation; it has merely forced potential patients to the bonesetter. Even those doctors who resent the idea of physiotherapists manipulating must surely prefer its performance by trained personnel working under doctors' guidance to indiscriminate recourse to all sorts of largely untrained laymen without doctors' prior approval. Come what may, the patients are going to be manipulated; at least let this then be sought from trained physiotherapists who give treatment ethically to patients sent to them by doctors.

  9. Efficient Gene Transfer Mediated by HIV-1-based Defective Lentivector and Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors have drawn considerable attention recently and show great promise to become important delivery vehicles for future gene transfer manipulation. In the present study we have optimized a protocol for preparation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-based defective lentiviral vectors (DLV) and characterized these vectors in terms of their transduction of different cells. Transient co-transfection of 293T packaging cells with DNA plasmids encoding lentiviral vector constituents resulted in production of high-titer DLV (0.5-1.2 × 107IU/mL), which can be further concentrated over 100-fold through a single step ultracentrifugation. These vectors were capable of transducing a variety of cells from both primate and non-primate sources and high transduction efficiency was achieved using concentrated vectors. Assessment of potential generation of RCV revealed no detection of infection by infectious particles in DLV-transduced CEM, SupT-1 and MT-2 cells. Long-term culture of transduced cells showed a stable expression of transgenes without apparent alteration in cellular morphology and growth kinetics. Vector mobilization to untransduced cells mediated by wild-type HIV-1 infection was confirmed in this test. Challenge of transduced human T-lymphocytes with wild-type HIV-1 showed these cells are totally resistant to the viral infection. Considering the effective gene transfer and stable gene expression, safety and anti-HIV activity, these DLV vectors warrant further exploration for their potential use as a gene transfer vehicle in the development of gene therapy protocols.

  10. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  11. Spinal manipulative therapy in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, S

    1986-04-01

    Spinal manipulation or manual therapy is becoming an increasingly popular method of treating athletes with spinal problems. The primary theoretic basis for the claimed beneficial results of manipulation is the restoration of motion with subsequent effect on ligamentous adhesions, muscle spasm, disk nutrition, and central nervous system endorphin systems. The concept of joint barriers has been developed to differentiate among exercise therapy, mobilization, and manipulation. Research trials suggest that spinal manipulation is beneficial in relieving or reducing the duration of acute low back pain and acute neck pain but has much less effect on chronic low back pain and neck pain. There is evidence that manipulation increases certain parameters of motion of the spine but this evidence is not yet conclusive. There are a wide variety of manipulative procedures that are utilized to manipulate the spine to increase range of motion, and the selection of the procedures is based on manual diagnostic skills. Manipulation, however, is not a benign procedure and has been implicated in the aggravation of disk herniation or bony fractures as well as the precipitation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion.

  12. Manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina using AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced generations of biofuels basically revolve around non-agricultural energy crops. Among those, microalgae owing to its unique characteristics i.e. natural tolerance to waste and saline water, sustainable biomass production and high lipid content (LC, is regarded by many as the ultimate choice for the production of various biofuels such as biodiesel. In the present study, manipulation of carbon flux into fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in Dunaliella salina was achieved using pGH plasmid harboring AccD and ME genes to enhance lipid content and to improve produced biodiesel quality. The stability of transformation was confirmed by PCR after several passages. Southern hybridization of AccD probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in the specific positions in the chloroplast genome with no read through transcription by indigenous promoters. Comparison of the LC and fatty acid profile of the transformed algal cell line and the control revealed the over-expression of the ME/AccD genes in the transformants leading to 12% increase in total LC and significant improvements in biodiesel properties especially by increasing algal oil oxidation stability. The whole process successfully implemented herein for transforming algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway could be helpful for large scale biodiesel production from microalgae.

  13. Thermoelectrical manipulation of nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Andersson, S.; Radić, D.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.; Korenivski, V.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the interplay between the thermodynamic properties and spin-dependent transport in a mesoscopic device based on a magnetic multilayer (F/f/F), in which two strongly ferromagnetic layers (F) are exchange-coupled through a weakly ferromagnetic spacer (f) with the Curie temperature in the vicinity of room temperature. We show theoretically that the Joule heating produced by the spin-dependent current allows a spin-thermoelectronic control of the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic (f/N) transition in the spacer and, thereby, of the relative orientation of the outer F-layers in the device (spin-thermoelectric manipulation of nanomagnets). Supporting experimental evidence of such thermally-controlled switching from parallel to antiparallel magnetization orientations in F/f(N)/F sandwiches is presented. Furthermore, we show theoretically that local Joule heating due to a high concentration of current in a magnetic point contact or a nanopillar can be used to reversibly drive the weakly ferromagnetic spacer through its Curie point and thereby exchange couple and decouple the two strongly ferromagnetic F-layers. For the devices designed to have an antiparallel ground state above the Curie point of the spacer, the associated spin-thermionic parallel to antiparallel switching causes magnetoresistance oscillations whose frequency can be controlled by proper biasing from essentially dc to GHz. We discuss in detail an experimental realization of a device that can operate as a thermomagnetoresistive switch or oscillator.

  14. Modeling Gene Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Based on Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and innovative analysis of gene regulatory network structures may reveal novel insights to biological mechanisms. Here we study how gene regulatory network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can differ under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To achieve this, we discretized the gene expression profiles and calculated the self-entropy of down- and upregulation of gene expression as well as joint entropy. Based on these quantities the uncertainty coefficient was calculated for each gene triplet, following which, separate gene logic networks were constructed for the aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Four structural parameters such as average degree, average clustering coefficient, average shortest path, and average betweenness were used to compare the structure of the corresponding aerobic and anaerobic logic networks. Five genes were identified to be putative key components of the two energy metabolisms. Furthermore, community analysis using the Newman fast algorithm revealed two significant communities for the aerobic but only one for the anaerobic network. David Gene Functional Classification suggests that, under aerobic conditions, one such community reflects the cell cycle and cell replication, while the other one is linked to the mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  15. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajeong Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large degree and BC values in the global network. We performed gene expression analysis to detect candidate genes in M. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling scores 2 to 7 using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrate that transmembrane protein 60 (TMEM60 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD are associated with increasing marbling fat. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may be an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with complex traits like marbling or tenderness.

  16. Patients, evidence and genes: an exploration of GPs' perspectives on gene-based personalized nutrition advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Molder, te H.F.M.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nutrigenomics science examines the response of individuals to food compounds using post-genomics technology. It is expected that in the future, personalized nutrition advice can be provided based on information about genetic make-up. Objectives. Gene-based personalized nutrition advice e

  17. Genetic manipulation of the restricted facultative methylotroph Hyphomicrobium X by the R-plasmid-mediated introduction of the Escherichia coli pdh genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.; Boer, L. de; Boven, A. van; Clement, W.; Bron, S.; Venema, G.

    1984-01-01

    The inability of Hyphomicrobium X to grow on compounds such as pyruvate and succinate is most likely due to the absence of a functional pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Further support for this was sought by studying the effect of the introduction of the Escherichia coli pdh genes in Hyphomicro

  18. The gene expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on Affymetrix gene chips provide insight into regulatory and hypothetical genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Liu Casey S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a leading infectious disease with global public health threat. Its control and management have been complicated by multi-drug resistance and latent infection, which prompts scientists to find new and more effective drugs. With the completion of the genome sequence of the etiologic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is now feasible to search for new drug targets by sieving through a large number of gene products and conduct genome-scale experiments based on microarray technology. However, the full potential of genome-wide microarray analysis in configuring interrelationships among all genes in M. tuberculosis has yet to be realized. To date, it is only possible to assign a function to 52% of proteins predicted in the genome. Results We conducted a functional-genomics study using the high-resolution Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip. Approximately one-half of the genes were found to be always expressed, including more than 100 predicted conserved hypotheticals, in the genome of M. tuberculosis during the log phase of in vitro growth. The gene expression profiles were analyzed and visualized through cluster analysis to epitomize the full details of genomic behavior. Broad patterns derived from genome-wide expression experiments in this study have provided insight into the interrelationships among genes in the basic cellular processes of M. tuberculosis. Conclusion Our results have confirmed several known gene clusters in energy production, information pathways, and lipid metabolism, and also hinted at potential roles of hypothetical and regulatory proteins.

  19. Link-based quantitative methods to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhi-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression analysis (DCEA is increasingly used for investigating the global transcriptional mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Current DCEA methods mostly adopt a gene connectivity-based strategy to estimate differential coexpression, which is characterized by comparing the numbers of gene neighbors in different coexpression networks. Although it simplifies the calculation, this strategy mixes up the identities of different coexpression neighbors of a gene, and fails to differentiate significant differential coexpression changes from those trivial ones. Especially, the correlation-reversal is easily missed although it probably indicates remarkable biological significance. Results We developed two link-based quantitative methods, DCp and DCe, to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene pairs (links. Bearing the uniqueness of exploiting the quantitative coexpression change of each gene pair in the coexpression networks, both methods proved to be superior to currently popular methods in simulation studies. Re-mining of a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D expression dataset from the perspective of differential coexpression analysis led to additional discoveries than those from differential expression analysis. Conclusions This work pointed out the critical weakness of current popular DCEA methods, and proposed two link-based DCEA algorithms that will make contribution to the development of DCEA and help extend it to a broader spectrum.

  20. Cancer classification based on gene expression using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H P; Niu, Z J; Bai, Y P; Tan, X H

    2015-12-21

    Based on gene expression, we have classified 53 colon cancer patients with UICC II into two groups: relapse and no relapse. Samples were taken from each patient, and gene information was extracted. Of the 53 samples examined, 500 genes were considered proper through analyses by S-Kohonen, BP, and SVM neural networks. Classification accuracy obtained by S-Kohonen neural network reaches 91%, which was more accurate than classification by BP and SVM neural networks. The results show that S-Kohonen neural network is more plausible for classification and has a certain feasibility and validity as compared with BP and SVM neural networks.

  1. Novel AIDS therapies based on gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Kamel; White, Martyn K; Jacobson, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-16

    HIV/AIDS remains a major public health issue. In 2014, it was estimated that 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide, including 2.6 million children. Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the 1990s, treatment has been so successful that in many parts of the world, HIV has become a chronic condition in which progression to AIDS has become increasingly rare. However, while people with HIV can expect to live a normal life span with cART, lifelong medication is required and cardiovascular, renal, liver, and neurologic diseases are still possible, which continues to prompt research for a cure for HIV. Infected reservoir cells, such as CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells, allow persistence of HIV as an integrated DNA provirus and serve as a potential source for the re-emergence of virus. Attempts to eradicate HIV from these cells have focused mainly on the so-called "shock and kill" approach, where cellular reactivation is induced so as to trigger the purging of virus-producing cells by cytolysis or immune attack. This approach has several limitations and its usefulness in clinical applications remains to be assessed. Recent advances in gene-editing technology have allowed the use of this approach for inactivating integrated proviral DNA in the genome of latently infected cells or knocking out HIV receptors. Here, we review this strategy and its potential to eliminate the latent HIV reservoir resulting in a sterile cure of AIDS.

  2. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female i

  3. Schema-Based Instruction with Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives to Teach Problem Solving to Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jenny R.; Browder, Diane M.; Saunders, Alicia F.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of modified schema-based instruction on the mathematical word problem solving skills of three elementary students with autism spectrum disorders and moderate intellectual disability. Participants learned to solve compare problem type with themes that related to their interests and daily experiences. In…

  4. [Ribozyme riboswitch based gene expression regulation systems for gene therapy applications: progress and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing-Xian; Wang, Jia-wen; Lin, Jun-sheng; Diao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Robust and efficient control of therapeutic gene expression is needed for timing and dosing of gene therapy drugs in clinical applications. Ribozyme riboswitch provides a promising building block for ligand-controlled gene-regulatory system, based on its property that exhibits tunable gene regulation, design modularity, and target specificity. Ribozyme riboswitch can be used in various gene delivery vectors. In recent years, there have been breakthroughs in extending ribozyme riboswitch's application from gene-expression control to cellular function and fate control. High throughput screening platforms were established, that allow not only rapid optimization of ribozyme riboswitch in a microbial host, but also straightforward transfer of selected devices exhibiting desired activities to mammalian cell lines in a predictable manner. Mathematical models were employed successfully to explore the performance of ribozyme riboswitch quantitively and its rational design predictably. However, to progress toward gene therapy relevant applications, both precision rational design of regulatory circuits and the biocompatibility of regulatory ligand are still of crucial importance.

  5. Numeric processor and text manipulator for the ''MASTER CONTROL'' data-base-management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, R.W.

    1976-02-10

    The numeric and text processor of the MASTER CONTROL (MCP) data-base-management system permits the user to define fields and arrays that are functionally dependent on the data retained in a data base. This allows the storage of only the essential and unique information and data, and the calculation of derivable quantities as required. The derived quantity can be expressed as an arithmetic expression, that is, a functional relationship. Functions can be multiply subscripted and can be embedded within other functions at up to 58 levels. They can be stored either semi-permanently in a repertoire of functional relations, or they can be defined interactively from a terminal and used immediately for searching on the derived value. The processor also permits the conversion of literal strings into numbers, and vice versa. In addition, the user can define dictionaries that allow the expansion of keyed sentinels associated with records in the data base into fully descriptive expressions. This option can be used for cost-effective searching and data compaction. The functional definitions are reduced to Polish notation and stored in a disk file from which they are either retrieved on demand and evaluated according to the data of records specified or used in any given MASTER CONTROL command. The language used for the definitions of the numeric processor is essentially FORTRAN; most of the standard functions and over two dozen special functions are thus available. The functional processor provides a powerful technique for the integration of text and data for energy research and for scientific and technological work in general. MASTER CONTROL is operational at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  7. Platelet gene therapy corrects the hemophilic phenotype in immunocompromised hemophilia A mice transplanted with genetically manipulated human cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qizhen; Kuether, Erin L; Chen, Yingyu; Schroeder, Jocelyn A; Fahs, Scot A; Montgomery, Robert R

    2014-01-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that platelet FVIII (2bF8) gene therapy can improve hemostasis in hemophilia A mice, even in the presence of inhibitory antibodies, but none of our studies has targeted human cells. Here, we evaluated the feasibility for lentivirus (LV)-mediated human platelet gene therapy of hemophilia A. Human platelet FVIII expression was introduced by 2bF8LV-mediated transduction of human cord blood (hCB) CD34(+) cells followed by xenotransplantation into immunocompromised NSG mice or NSG mice in an FVIII(null) background (NSGF8KO). Platelet FVIII was detected in all recipients that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells as long as human platelet chimerism persisted. All NSGF8KO recipients (n = 7) that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells survived tail clipping if animals had greater than 2% of platelets derived from 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells, whereas 5 of 7 survived when human platelets were 0.3% to 2%. Whole blood clotting time analysis confirmed that hemostasis was improved in NSGF8KO mice that received 2bF8LV-transduced hCB cells. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of 2bF8LV gene delivery to human hematopoietic stem cells to introduce FVIII expression in human platelets and that human platelet-derived FVIII can improve hemostasis in hemophilia A.

  8. ROUGH SET BASED CLUSTERING OF GENE EXPRESSION DATA: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.JEBA EMILYN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. But the high dimensionality property of gene expression data makes it difficult to be analyzed. Lot of clustering algorithms are available for clustering. In this paper we first briefly introduce the concepts of microarray technology and discuss the basic elements of clustering on gene expression data. Then we introduce rough clustering and itsadvantage over strict and fuzzy clustering is explored. We also explain why rough clustering is preferred over other conventional methods by presenting a survey on few clustering algorithms based on rough set theory for gene expression data. We conclude by stating that this area proves to be potential research field for the researchcommunity.

  9. An all fiber apparatus for microparticles selective manipulation based on a variable ratio coupler and a microfiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoli; Luo, Wei; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    We propose an all fiber apparatus based on a variable ratio coupler which can transport microparticles controllably and trap particles one by one along a microfiber. By connecting two output ports of a variable ratio coupler with two end pigtails of a microfiber and launching a 980 nm laser into the variable ratio coupler, particles in suspension were trapped to the waist of microfiber due to a gradient force and then transported along the microfiber due to a total scattering force generated by two counter-propagating beams. The direction of transportation was controlled by altering the coupling ratio of the variable ratio coupler. When the intensities of two output ports were equivalent, trapped particles stayed at fixed positions. With time going, another particle around the micro fiber was trapped onto the microfiber. There were three particles trapped in total in our experiment. This technique combines with the function of conventional tweezers and optical conveyor.

  10. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  11. Fuzzy logic control of telerobot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ernest A.; Nedungadi, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Telerobot systems for advanced applications will require manipulators with redundant 'degrees of freedom' (DOF) that are capable of adapting manipulator configurations to avoid obstacles while achieving the user specified goal. Conventional methods for control of manipulators (based on solution of the inverse kinematics) cannot be easily extended to these situations. Fuzzy logic control offers a possible solution to these needs. A current research program at SRI developed a fuzzy logic controller for a redundant, 4 DOF, planar manipulator. The manipulator end point trajectory can be specified by either a computer program (robot mode) or by manual input (teleoperator). The approach used expresses end-point error and the location of manipulator joints as fuzzy variables. Joint motions are determined by a fuzzy rule set without requiring solution of the inverse kinematics. Additional rules for sensor data, obstacle avoidance and preferred manipulator configuration, e.g., 'righty' or 'lefty', are easily accommodated. The procedure used to generate the fuzzy rules can be extended to higher DOF systems.

  12. Manipulation of electrostatic and saccharide linker interactions in the design of efficient glycopolypeptide-based cholera toxin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ronak; Levenson, Eric A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-11

    Multivalent, glycopolymer inhibitors designed for the treatment of disease and pathogen infection have shown improvements in binding correlated with general changes in glycopolymer architecture and composition. We have previously demonstrated that control of glycopolypeptide backbone extension and ligand spacing significantly impacts the inhibition of the cholera toxin B subunit pentamer (CT B(5)) by these polymers. In the studies reported here, we elucidate the role of backbone charge and linker length in modulating the inhibition event. Peptides of the sequence AXPXG (where X is a positive, neutral or negative amino acid), equipped with the alkyne functionality of propargyl glycine, were designed and synthesized via solid-phase peptide synthetic methods and glycosylated via Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions. The capacity of the glycopeptides to inhibit the binding of the B(5) subunit of cholera toxin was evaluated. These studies indicated that glycopeptides with a negatively charged backbone show improved inhibition of the binding event relative to the other glycopeptides. In addition, variations in the length of the linker between the peptide and the saccharide ligand also affected the inhibition of CT by the glycopeptides. Our findings suggest that, apart from appropriate saccharide spacing and polypeptide chain extension, saccharide linker conformation and the systematic placement of charges on the polypeptide backbone are also significant variables that can be tuned to improve the inhibitory potencies of glycopolypeptide-based multivalent inhibitors.

  13. Identifying Image Manipulation Software from Image Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    an overview of the DCT based encoding process [5]. When an image is processed by lossless compression, a file’s size is reduced while still...IDENTIFYING IMAGE MANIPULATION SOFTWARE FROM IMAGE FEATURES THESIS Devlin T. Boyter, CPT, USA AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-051 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-051 IDENTIFYING IMAGE MANIPULATION SOFTWARE FROM IMAGE FEATURES THESIS Presented to

  14. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. W...

  15. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  16. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Position-Singularity Analysis of a Class of the 3/6-Gough-Stewart Manipulators based on Singularity-Equivalent-Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2012-03-01

    this class of 3/6‐Gough‐Stewart manipulators for general orientations in parallel principal‐sections are all quadratic expressions, including a parabola, four pairs of intersecting lines and infinite hyperbolas. Finally, the properties of the position‐singularity loci of this class of 3/6‐Gough‐Stewart parallel manipulators in a three‐ dimensional space for all orientations are presented.

  18. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  19. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  20. Genotype-based association models of complex diseases to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong; Manga, Prashiela

    A central problem in genetic epidemiology is to identify and rank genetic markers involved in a disease. Complex diseases, such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, are thought to be caused by an interaction of a panel of genetic factors, that can be identified by markers, which modulate environmental factors. Moreover, the effect of each genetic marker may be small. Hence, the association signal may be missed unless a large sample is considered, or a priori biomedical data are used. Recent advances generated a vast variety of a priori information, including linkage maps and information about gene regulatory dependence assembled into curated pathway databases. We propose a genotype-based approach that takes into account linkage disequilibrium (LD) information between genetic markers that are in moderate LD while modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. A major advantage of our method is that the observed genetic information enters a model directly thus eliminating the need to estimate haplotype-phase. Our approach results in an algorithm that is inexpensive computationally and does not suffer from bias induced by haplotype-phase ambiguity. We investigated our model in a series of simulation experiments and demonstrated that the proposed approach results in estimates that are nearly unbiased and have small variability. We applied our method to the analysis of data from a melanoma case-control study and investigated interaction between a set of pigmentation genes and environmental factors defined by age and gender. Furthermore, an application of our method is demonstrated using a study of Alcohol Dependence.

  1. Identifying glioblastoma gene networks based on hypergeometric test analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Stathias

    Full Text Available Patient specific therapy is emerging as an important possibility for many cancer patients. However, to identify such therapies it is essential to determine the genomic and transcriptional alterations present in one tumor relative to control samples. This presents a challenge since use of a single sample precludes many standard statistical analysis techniques. We reasoned that one means of addressing this issue is by comparing transcriptional changes in one tumor with those observed in a large cohort of patients analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. To test this directly, we devised a bioinformatics pipeline to identify differentially expressed genes in tumors resected from patients suffering from the most common malignant adult brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM. We performed RNA sequencing on tumors from individual GBM patients and filtered the results through the TCGA database in order to identify possible gene networks that are overrepresented in GBM samples relative to controls. Importantly, we demonstrate that hypergeometric-based analysis of gene pairs identifies gene networks that validate experimentally. These studies identify a putative workflow for uncovering differentially expressed patient specific genes and gene networks for GBM and other cancers.

  2. GeneNetwork: framework for web-based genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloan, Zachary; Arends, Danny; Broman, Karl W.; Centeno, Arthur; Furlotte, Nicholas; Nijveen, H.; Yan, Lei; Zhou, Xiang; Williams, Robert W.; Prins, Pjotr

    2016-01-01

    GeneNetwork (GN) is a free and open source (FOSS) framework for web-based genetics that can be deployed anywhere. GN allows biologists to upload high-throughput experimental data, such as expression data from microarrays and RNA-seq, and also `classic' phenotypes, such as disease phenotypes. These p

  3. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  4. Design of wireless video manipulated system based on humanoid robot%基于仿人机器人的无线视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢; 魏衡华

    2014-01-01

    针对仿人机器人的人机交互问题,提出在无线网络下,使用智能手机对配备有摄像头的仿人机器人进行视频监控。基于 Linux 系统,使用 V4L2接口对摄像头视频信息进行采集,并使用JPEG 算法对其进行压缩,使用智能手机的 Web 浏览器显示视频信息,并通过浏览器页面的按钮向机器人发送控制命令。实验结果表明,在无线局域网内,仿人机器人摄像头拍摄到的视频信息可以清晰、稳定、及时地传输到不同系统和品牌的智能手机 Web 浏览器上,用户可根据需要向仿人机器人发送控制命令,操作方便简单,便于使用。%For the problem of humanoid robot interaction , using the smart phone for video manipulation of the humanoid robot equipped with camera via wireless network was proposed . The design used V4L2 interface to collect the information from the camer-a and JPEG algorithm for video compression based on the Linux system , the video could be shown on the browser and the manipu-lation command can send to the robot in the wireless network . Experimental elucidates that the video information can transmit form the humanoid robot camera to the browser on the disparity system and band of smart phone clearly in the wireless local area net-work , user can send command to the robot according to the demand , it demonstrates that the system is compatibility and user friendly .

  5. Empirical study on early warning of stock index futures manipulation based on logistic model%股指期货操纵预警的Logistic模型实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊熊; 张宇; 张维; 张永杰

    2011-01-01

    Most studies on early warning of the security market manipulation only focus on stock market or futures market. With the rapid development of Stock Index Futures, the early warning of Stock Index Futures manipulation becomes very important. This paper, based on Logistic Regression Model, uses the volatility and liquidity indicators to estimate the probability of Stock Index Futures Market manipulation and sets up a early warning model on Stock Index Futures Market manipulation. Further, the inter-day transaction data of Hang Seng Index Futures both during the period of manipulation and the period of non-manipulation are used to test our model. The empirical results show that this model can give good early warning on Stock Index Futures Market manipulation events. We also find that the trading volume and Open-int are significantly different between the manipulation period and non-manipulation period, but the changes of volatility and yield ratio aren't so significant. So we can use the trading volume and Open-int to distinguish the manipulation events. According to our empirical study, we find, during manipulation periods, there are significant changes in the probability of Stock Index Futures Market manipulation. Our' Logistic model can identify the manipulation in Stock Index Futures market effectively.%通过建立Logistic回归模型判别股指期货被操纵的可能性,将股指期货是否被操纵的问题转化为根据一定时期内股指期货市场的波动性以及流动性指标计算股指期货在一定时间内被操纵的概率,建立了股指期货操纵事件的预警模型.选取香港恒生指数期货操纵时段和对应的非操纵时段,进行了预警模型的实证检验,证明了该模型可以对股指期货操纵事件起到较好的预警作用.研究发现,在股指期货市场中,操纵期与非操纵期的交易量和空盘量显著不同,而反映市场波动性的收益率指标的变化并不显著,对操纵行为是否发生

  6. Systematically characterizing and prioritizing chemosensitivity related gene based on Gene Ontology and protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genes that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity of cancer cells is of great importance. Chemosensitivity related genes (CRGs have been widely utilized to guide clinical and cancer chemotherapy decisions. In addition, CRGs potentially share functional characteristics and network features in protein interaction networks (PPIN. Methods In this study, we proposed a method to identify CRGs based on Gene Ontology (GO and PPIN. Firstly, we documented 150 pairs of drug-CCRG (curated chemosensitivity related gene from 492 published papers. Secondly, we characterized CCRGs from the perspective of GO and PPIN. Thirdly, we prioritized CRGs based on CCRGs’ GO and network characteristics. Lastly, we evaluated the performance of the proposed method. Results We found that CCRG enriched GO terms were most often related to chemosensitivity and exhibited higher similarity scores compared to randomly selected genes. Moreover, CCRGs played key roles in maintaining the connectivity and controlling the information flow of PPINs. We then prioritized CRGs using CCRG enriched GO terms and CCRG network characteristics in order to obtain a database of predicted drug-CRGs that included 53 CRGs, 32 of which have been reported to affect susceptibility to drugs. Our proposed method identifies a greater number of drug-CCRGs, and drug-CCRGs are much more significantly enriched in predicted drug-CRGs, compared to a method based on the correlation of gene expression and drug activity. The mean area under ROC curve (AUC for our method is 65.2%, whereas that for the traditional method is 55.2%. Conclusions Our method not only identifies CRGs with expression patterns strongly correlated with drug activity, but also identifies CRGs in which expression is weakly correlated with drug activity. This study provides the framework for the identification of signatures that predict in vitro cellular chemosensitivity and offers a valuable

  7. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  8. TALEN-based gene correction for epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Mark J; Starker, Colby G; McElroy, Amber N; Webber, Beau R; Riddle, Megan J; Xia, Lily; DeFeo, Anthony P; Gabriel, Richard; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Carlson, Daniel F; Maeder, Morgan L; Joung, J Keith; Wagner, John E; Voytas, Daniel F; Blazar, Bruce R; Tolar, Jakub

    2013-06-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is characterized by a functional deficit of type VII collagen protein due to gene defects in the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1). Gene augmentation therapies are promising, but run the risk of insertional mutagenesis. To abrogate this risk, we explored the possibility of using engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) for precise genome editing. We report the ability of TALEN to induce site-specific double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) leading to homology-directed repair (HDR) from an exogenous donor template. This process resulted in COL7A1 gene mutation correction in primary fibroblasts that were subsequently reprogrammed into inducible pluripotent stem cells and showed normal protein expression and deposition in a teratoma-based skin model in vivo. Deep sequencing-based genome-wide screening established a safety profile showing on-target activity and three off-target (OT) loci that, importantly, were at least 10 kb from a coding sequence. This study provides proof-of-concept for TALEN-mediated in situ correction of an endogenous patient-specific gene mutation and used an unbiased screen for comprehensive TALEN target mapping that will cooperatively facilitate translational application.

  9. Construction of coffee transcriptome networks based on gene annotation semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis F; Galeano, Narmer; Isaza, Gustavo A; Gaitán, Alvaro

    2012-07-24

    Gene annotation is a process that encompasses multiple approaches on the analysis of nucleic acids or protein sequences in order to assign structural and functional characteristics to gene models. When thousands of gene models are being described in an organism genome, construction and visualization of gene networks impose novel challenges in the understanding of complex expression patterns and the generation of new knowledge in genomics research. In order to take advantage of accumulated text data after conventional gene sequence analysis, this work applied semantics in combination with visualization tools to build transcriptome networks from a set of coffee gene annotations. A set of selected coffee transcriptome sequences, chosen by the quality of the sequence comparison reported by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and Interproscan, were filtered out by coverage, identity, length of the query, and e-values. Meanwhile, term descriptors for molecular biology and biochemistry were obtained along the Wordnet dictionary in order to construct a Resource Description Framework (RDF) using Ruby scripts and Methontology to find associations between concepts. Relationships between sequence annotations and semantic concepts were graphically represented through a total of 6845 oriented vectors, which were reduced to 745 non-redundant associations. A large gene network connecting transcripts by way of relational concepts was created where detailed connections remain to be validated for biological significance based on current biochemical and genetics frameworks. Besides reusing text information in the generation of gene connections and for data mining purposes, this tool development opens the possibility to visualize complex and abundant transcriptome data, and triggers the formulation of new hypotheses in metabolic pathways analysis.

  10. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  11. Design and Implementation of Visual Dynamic Display Software of Gene Expression Based on GTK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wei; MENG Fanjiang; LI Yong; YU Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The paper presented an implement method for a dynamic gene expression display software based on the GTK. This method established the dynamic presentation system of gene expression which according to gene expression data from gene chip hybridize at different time, adopted a linearity combination model and Pearson correlation coefficient algorithm. The system described the gene expression changes in graphic form, the gene expression changes with time and the changes in characteristics of the gene expression, also the changes in relations of the gene expression and regulation relationships among genes. The system also provided an integrated platform for analysis on gene chips data, especially for the research on the network of gene regulation.

  12. The modelling of industrial robot manipulator vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcham, L.J.; Rao, B.K.N.; Noroozi, S.; Penson, R.P. [Southampton Inst. (United Kingdom). Systems Engineering Research Centre

    1996-11-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the modelling of robot manipulator vibration, with the specific aim of producing a model suitable to be employed within an active compensation controller. An overview of existing work on the modelling of robot dynamics, both mathematically and empirically, is reported. A model of the dynamics of an industrial manipulator, inclusive of vibration, derived using Lagrangian mechanics is presented and further developed through the application of experimental modal analysis, by which the position dependent modal parameters of an industrial robot manipulator are determined. The model results are compared with experimental vibration data taken from the end-effector of a PUMA562C industrial manipulator using laser interferometry. Control of an end-effector located, active compensator for vibration suppression, based upon the derived model is discussed and recommendations which form the basis of further investigations, currently being undertaken, are presented.

  13. LEGO: a novel method for gene set over-representation analysis by incorporating network-based gene weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinran; Hao, Yun; Wang, Xiao; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-11

    Pathway or gene set over-representation analysis (ORA) has become a routine task in functional genomics studies. However, currently widely used ORA tools employ statistical methods such as Fisher's exact test that reduce a pathway into a list of genes, ignoring the constitutive functional non-equivalent roles of genes and the complex gene-gene interactions. Here, we develop a novel method named LEGO (functional Link Enrichment of Gene Ontology or gene sets) that takes into consideration these two types of information by incorporating network-based gene weights in ORA analysis. In three benchmarks, LEGO achieves better performance than Fisher and three other network-based methods. To further evaluate LEGO's usefulness, we compare LEGO with five gene expression-based and three pathway topology-based methods using a benchmark of 34 disease gene expression datasets compiled by a recent publication, and show that LEGO is among the top-ranked methods in terms of both sensitivity and prioritization for detecting target KEGG pathways. In addition, we develop a cluster-and-filter approach to reduce the redundancy among the enriched gene sets, making the results more interpretable to biologists. Finally, we apply LEGO to two lists of autism genes, and identify relevant gene sets to autism that could not be found by Fisher.

  14. 基于灵巧特性的三平动并联机构的尺度综合研究%Dimensional Synthesis Study of 3-DOF Translational Parallel Manipulator Based on Dexterity Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 孙晓红

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3-PUU parallel manipulator considering the mechanism of dexterity property was addressed .Kinematics analy-sis of the parallel manipulator was established , and the inverse solutions of the kinematics of the 3-PUU parallel manipulator were ob-tained.Based on the previous works , the Jacobian matrix of the mechanism was deduced .The kinematic dexterity index was intro-duced, and the dexterity of the parallel manipulator of dimensional synthesis analysis was carried out , which laid the foundation for the design of the parallel manipulator mechanism and the further study .The results show that the parallel manipulator robot has a good prac-tical application prospect .%考虑机构的灵巧性提出一种新型3-PUU并联机器人,对该并联机构进行运动学分析,得到了3-PUU并联机器人的运动学反解,在此基础上,建立了并联机构的雅可比矩阵;引入运动灵巧性指标。对该并联机器人的运动灵巧性进行了尺度综合分析,为并联机构的构型设计和进一步提供了依据。研究结果表明,该种机器人具有较好的实际应用前景。

  15. Comparative GO: a web application for comparative gene ontology and gene ontology-based gene selection in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fruzangohar

    Full Text Available The primary means of classifying new functions for genes and proteins relies on Gene Ontology (GO, which defines genes/proteins using a controlled vocabulary in terms of their Molecular Function, Biological Process and Cellular Component. The challenge is to present this information to researchers to compare and discover patterns in multiple datasets using visually comprehensible and user-friendly statistical reports. Importantly, while there are many GO resources available for eukaryotes, there are none suitable for simultaneous, graphical and statistical comparison between multiple datasets. In addition, none of them supports comprehensive resources for bacteria. By using Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model, we identified and collected GO resources including genes, proteins, taxonomy and GO relationships from NCBI, UniProt and GO organisations. Then, we designed database tables in PostgreSQL database server and developed a Java application to extract data from source files and loaded into database automatically. We developed a PHP web application based on Model-View-Control architecture, used a specific data structure as well as current and novel algorithms to estimate GO graphs parameters. We designed different navigation and visualization methods on the graphs and integrated these into graphical reports. This tool is particularly significant when comparing GO groups between multiple samples (including those of pathogenic bacteria from different sources simultaneously. Comparing GO protein distribution among up- or down-regulated genes from different samples can improve understanding of biological pathways, and mechanism(s of infection. It can also aid in the discovery of genes associated with specific function(s for investigation as a novel vaccine or therapeutic targets.http://turing.ersa.edu.au/BacteriaGO.

  16. Improving Adenovirus Based Gene Transfer: Strategies to Accomplish Immune Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amalfitano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (Ad based gene transfer vectors continue to be the platform of choice for an increasing number of clinical trials worldwide. In fact, within the last five years, the number of clinical trials that utilize Ad based vectors has doubled, indicating growing enthusiasm for the numerous positive characteristics of this gene transfer platform. For example, Ad vectors can be easily and relatively inexpensively produced to high titers in a cGMP compliant manner, can be stably stored and transported, and have a broad applicability for a wide range of clinical conditions, including both gene therapy and vaccine applications. Ad vector based gene transfer will become more useful as strategies to counteract innate and/or pre-existing adaptive immune responses to Ads are developed and confirmed to be efficacious. The approaches attempting to overcome these limitations can be divided into two broad categories: pre-emptive immune modulation of the host, and selective modification of the Ad vector itself. The first category of methods includes the use of immunosuppressive drugs or specific compounds to block important immune pathways, which are known to be induced by Ads. The second category comprises several innovative strategies inclusive of: (1 Ad-capsid-display of specific inhibitors or ligands; (2 covalent modifications of the entire Ad vector capsid moiety; (3 the use of tissue specific promoters and local administration routes; (4 the use of genome modified Ads; and (5 the development of chimeric or alternative serotype Ads. This review article will focus on both the promise and the limitations of each of these immune evasion strategies, and in the process delineate future directions in developing safer and more efficacious Ad-based gene transfer strategies.

  17. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation with gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqiang; Shen, Yanyan; Hu, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative models of gene regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this work, we have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence. The proposed model relies on a continuous time, differential equation description of transcriptional dynamics. The sequence features of the promoter are exploited to derive the binding affinity which is derived based on statistical molecular thermodynamics. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively identify the activity levels of transcription factors and the regulatory parameters. Comparing with the previous models, the proposed model can reveal more biological sense.

  18. Control of alphavirus-based gene expression using engineered riboswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christie L; Yu, Dong; Smolke, Christina D; Geall, Andrew J; Beard, Clayton W; Mason, Peter W

    2015-09-01

    Alphavirus-based replicons are a promising nucleic acid vaccine platform characterized by robust gene expression and immune responses. To further explore their use in vaccination, replicons were engineered to allow conditional control over their gene expression. Riboswitches, comprising a ribozyme actuator and RNA aptamer sensor, were engineered into the replicon 3' UTR. Binding of ligand to aptamer modulates ribozyme activity and, therefore, gene expression. Expression from DNA-launched and VRP-packaged replicons containing riboswitches was successfully regulated, achieving a 47-fold change in expression and modulation of the resulting type I interferon response. Moreover, we developed a novel control architecture where riboswitches were integrated into the 3' and 5' UTR of the subgenomic RNA region of the TC-83 virus, leading to an 1160-fold regulation of viral replication. Our studies demonstrate that the use of riboswitches for control of RNA replicon expression and viral replication holds promise for development of novel and safer vaccination strategies.

  19. Graphlet Based Metrics for the Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alberto J. M.; Dominguez, Calixto; Contreras-Riquelme, Sebastián; Holmes, David S.; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the control of gene expression remains one of the main challenges in the post-genomic era. Accordingly, a plethora of methods exists to identify variations in gene expression levels. These variations underlay almost all relevant biological phenomena, including disease and adaptation to environmental conditions. However, computational tools to identify how regulation changes are scarce. Regulation of gene expression is usually depicted in the form of a gene regulatory network (GRN). Structural changes in a GRN over time and conditions represent variations in the regulation of gene expression. Like other biological networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks called graphlets. As a consequence, two new metrics based on graphlets are proposed in this work: REConstruction Rate (REC) and REC Graphlet Degree (RGD). REC determines the rate of graphlet similarity between different states of a network and RGD identifies the subset of nodes with the highest topological variation. In other words, RGD discerns how th GRN was rewired. REC and RGD were used to compare the local structure of nodes in condition-specific GRNs obtained from gene expression data of Escherichia coli, forming biofilms and cultured in suspension. According to our results, most of the network local structure remains unaltered in the two compared conditions. Nevertheless, changes reported by RGD necessarily imply that a different cohort of regulators (i.e. transcription factors (TFs)) appear on the scene, shedding light on how the regulation of gene expression occurs when E. coli transits from suspension to biofilm. Consequently, we propose that both metrics REC and RGD should be adopted as a quantitative approach to conduct differential analyses of GRNs. A tool that implements both metrics is available as an on-line web server (http://dlab.cl/loto). PMID:27695050

  20. IL4 gene polymorphism and previous malaria experiences manipulate anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibody isotype profiles in complicated and uncomplicated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalambaheti Thareerat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IL4-590 gene polymorphism has been shown to be associated with elevated levels of anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibodies and parasite intensity in the malaria protected Fulani of West Africa. This study aimed to investigate the possible impact of IL4-590C/T polymorphism on anti-P. falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies levels and the alteration of malaria severity in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences. Methods Anti-P.falciparum IgG subclasses and IgE antibodies in plasma of complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients with or without previous malaria experiences were analysed using ELISA. IL4-590 polymorphisms were genotyped using RFLP-PCR. Statistical analyses of the IgG subclass levels were done by Oneway ANOVA. Genotype differences were tested by Chi-squared test. Results The IL4-590T allele was significantly associated with anti-P. falciparum IgG3 antibody levels in patients with complicated (P = 0.031, but not with uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.622. Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying IL4-590TT genotype had significantly lower levels of anti-P. falciparum IgG3 (P = 0.0156, while uncomplicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences carrying the same genotype had significantly higher levels (P = 0.0206 compared to their IL4-590 counterparts. The different anti-P. falciparum IgG1 and IgG3 levels among IL4 genotypes were observed. Complicated malaria patients with previous malaria experiences tended to have lower IgG3 levels in individuals carrying TT when compared to CT genotypes (P = 0.075. In contrast, complicated malaria patients without previous malaria experiences carrying CC genotype had significantly higher anti-P. falciparum IgG1 than those carrying either CT or TT genotypes (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that IL4-590C or T alleles participated differently in the

  1. Ontology-Based Prediction and Prioritization of Gene Functional Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Davide; Masseroli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Genes and their protein products are essential molecular units of a living organism. The knowledge of their functions is key for the understanding of physiological and pathological biological processes, as well as in the development of new drugs and therapies. The association of a gene or protein with its functions, described by controlled terms of biomolecular terminologies or ontologies, is named gene functional annotation. Very many and valuable gene annotations expressed through terminologies and ontologies are available. Nevertheless, they might include some erroneous information, since only a subset of annotations are reviewed by curators. Furthermore, they are incomplete by definition, given the rapidly evolving pace of biomolecular knowledge. In this scenario, computational methods that are able to quicken the annotation curation process and reliably suggest new annotations are very important. Here, we first propose a computational pipeline that uses different semantic and machine learning methods to predict novel ontology-based gene functional annotations; then, we introduce a new semantic prioritization rule to categorize the predicted annotations by their likelihood of being correct. Our tests and validations proved the effectiveness of our pipeline and prioritization of predicted annotations, by selecting as most likely manifold predicted annotations that were later confirmed.

  2. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeinabi, Khadijeh; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2011-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT), Johnson-Kendall-Roberts-Sperling (JKRS), Burnham-Colton-Pollock (BCP), Maugis-Dugdale (MD), Carpick-Ogletree-Salmeron (COS), Pietrement-Troyon (PT), and Sun et al. have been applied as the continuum mechanics approaches at nano-scale. In this article, indentation depth and contact radius between tip and substrate with nano-particle for both spherical and conical tip shape during nano-manipulation process are analyzed and compared by applying theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical nano-contact mechanics models. The effects of adhesion force, as the main contrast point in different nano-contact mechanics models, on nano-manipulation analysis is investigated for different contact radius, and the critical point is discussed for mentioned models.

  3. Computer aided manipulator control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  4. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  5. An overview of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Amit; Bali, Deepika; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2013-07-01

    Gene therapy is a new treatment modality in which new gene is introduced or existing gene is manipulated to cause cancer cell death or slow the growth of the tumor. In this review, we have discussed the different treatment approaches for cancer gene therapy; gene addition therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy using oncolytic viruses, antisense ribonucleic acid (RNA) and RNA interference-based gene therapy. Clinical trials to date in head and neck cancer have shown evidence of gene transduction and expression, mediation of apoptosis and clinical response including pathological complete responses. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current available gene therapies for head and neck cancer.

  6. Intelligent modular manipulation for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, John

    2008-04-01

    As mobile robots continue to gain acceptance across a variety of applications within the defense and civilian markets, the number of tasks that these robot platforms are expected to accomplish are expanding. Robot operators are asked to do more with the same platforms - from EOD missions to reconnaissance and inspection operations. Due to the fact that a majority of missions are dangerous in nature, it is critical that users are able to make remote adjustments to the systems to ensure that they are kept out of harm's way. An efficient way to expand the capabilities of existing robot platforms, improve the efficiency of robot missions, and to ultimately improve the operator's safety is to integrate JAUS-enabled Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads. Intelligent Modular Manipulation payloads include both simple and dexterous manipulator arms with plug-and-play end-effector tools that can be changed based on the specific mission. End-effectors that can be swapped down-range provide an added benefit of decreased time-on-target. The intelligence in these systems comes from semi-autonomous mobile manipulation actions that enable the robot operator to perform manipulation task with the touch of a button on the OCU. RE2 is supporting Unmanned Systems Interoperability by utilizing the JAUS standard as the messaging protocol for all of its manipulation systems. Therefore, they can be easily adapted and integrated onto existing JAUS-enabled robot platforms.

  7. Minimal gene selection for classification and diagnosis prediction based on gene expression profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mehridehnavi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: We have shown that the use of two most significant genes based on their S/N ratios and selection of suitable training samples can lead to classify DLBCL patients with a rather good result. Actually with the aid of mentioned methods we could compensate lack of enough number of patients, improve accuracy of classifying and reduce complication of computations and so running time.

  8. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in res...

  9. 基于 MATLAB/Robotics Toolbox的六自由度机械臂仿真%Simulation of 6-Dof manipulator based on MATLAB/Robotics Toolbox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦璋

    2016-01-01

    设计了一种六自由度的机械臂,用 D-H 法建立数学模型,并运用MATLAB 中的simulink 模块对机械臂的运动学和路径规划问题进行了仿真。给出关节变量值,求解机械臂末端姿态;已知空间姿态,求解关节变量;采用改进点到点的路径规划,得到了仿真时间为2s,间隔为0.025s的机械臂末端运行轨迹图,进而得到机械臂末端在坐标空间的姿态和速度、加速度的关联图形。仿真结果作为机械臂控制系统设计的依据。%A 6-dof manipulator is designed;mathematical model is established by D-H method, and the MATLAB simulink is used to simulate kinematics and path planning of manipulator in this paper .The joint variable values are given and the terminal attitude of manipulator is solved; the joint variables are solved according to the spatial attitude;the operation trajectory graph with the manipulator terminal is ob-tained by using improved point-to-point path plan.Its simulation time is 2s, and interval time is 0.025s, the relating-graph with the attitude and speed and acceleration of the manipulator terminal in coordinate space are obtained .Simulation results are used as design basis of manipulator control system .

  10. Dynamic simulation and modeling of the motion modes produced during the 3D controlled manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles based on the AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraee, Mahdieh B; Korayem, Moharam H

    2015-08-01

    Determining the motion modes and the exact position of a particle displaced during the manipulation process is of special importance. This issue becomes even more important when the studied particles are biological micro/nanoparticles and the goals of manipulation are the transfer of these particles within body cells, repair of cancerous cells and the delivery of medication to damaged cells. However, due to the delicate nature of biological nanoparticles and their higher vulnerability, by obtaining the necessary force of manipulation for the considered motion mode, we can prevent the sample from interlocking with or sticking to the substrate because of applying a weak force or avoid damaging the sample due to the exertion of excessive force. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors and the motion modes of biological micro/nanoparticles such as DNA, yeast, platelet and bacteria due to the 3D manipulation effect have been investigated. Since the above nanoparticles generally have a cylindrical shape, the cylindrical contact models have been employed in an attempt to more precisely model the forces exerted on the nanoparticle during the manipulation process. Also, this investigation has performed a comprehensive modeling and simulation of all the possible motion modes in 3D manipulation by taking into account the eccentricity of the applied load on the biological nanoparticle. The obtained results indicate that unlike the macroscopic scale, the sliding of nanoparticle on substrate in nano-scale takes place sooner than the other motion modes and that the spinning about the vertical and transverse axes and the rolling of nanoparticle occur later than the other motion modes. The simulation results also indicate that the applied force necessary for the onset of nanoparticle movement and the resulting motion mode depend on the size and aspect ratio of the nanoparticle.

  11. Optimization based tumor classification from microarray gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dagliyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important use of data obtained from microarray measurements is the classification of tumor types with respect to genes that are either up or down regulated in specific cancer types. A number of algorithms have been proposed to obtain such classifications. These algorithms usually require parameter optimization to obtain accurate results depending on the type of data. Additionally, it is highly critical to find an optimal set of markers among those up or down regulated genes that can be clinically utilized to build assays for the diagnosis or to follow progression of specific cancer types. In this paper, we employ a mixed integer programming based classification algorithm named hyper-box enclosure method (HBE for the classification of some cancer types with a minimal set of predictor genes. This optimization based method which is a user friendly and efficient classifier may allow the clinicians to diagnose and follow progression of certain cancer types. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We apply HBE algorithm to some well known data sets such as leukemia, prostate cancer, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, small round blue cell tumors (SRBCT to find some predictor genes that can be utilized for diagnosis and prognosis in a robust manner with a high accuracy. Our approach does not require any modification or parameter optimization for each data set. Additionally, information gain attribute evaluator, relief attribute evaluator and correlation-based feature selection methods are employed for the gene selection. The results are compared with those from other studies and biological roles of selected genes in corresponding cancer type are described. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The performance of our algorithm overall was better than the other algorithms reported in the literature and classifiers found in WEKA data-mining package. Since it does not require a parameter optimization and it performs consistently very high prediction rate on

  12. An analysis of the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnow, S; Bergman, H

    1988-01-01

    The Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base is an evaluated source of cancer data on 506 chemicals selected in part for their previous assessment in genetic toxicology bioassays. This data base has been analyzed for the distribution of these chemicals into chemical classes. The major chemical classes (6% or greater of the total data base) are: acyl-, alkyl-, and aryl-halides; alcohols and phenols; aliphatic and aromatic amines, amides, and sulfonamides; benzene-ring-containing chemicals; organo-lead, -mercury, -phosphorous compounds, metals and derivatives, phosphoric acid esters, and phosphoramides; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer studies representing a subset of the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base, 199 chemicals which were rated as Sufficient Positive/Negative or Limited Positive/Negative, were examined for distribution of those studies by animal species, gender, route of chemical administration, duration of study, major tumor sites, and major tumor types. These analyses revealed that the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base contains a large number of lifetime studies involving the rat and mouse treated by oral routes of administration. The major organs that were targets were: liver, lung, skin, forestomach, bladder, and mammary gland, while the major tumor types were: carcinoma, sarcoma, papilloma, and adenoma. Chemicals in the data base have been assessed for species-specific carcinogenic effects, and these results indicate that for mice and rats there is a high correspondence (85%). This number is higher than that (71%) reported by Tennant et al. (1986) based on the recent results of 72 chronic cancer bioassays performed by the National Toxicology Program. This difference is probably based on the nature of the chemicals selected for inclusion in both data bases. Although the absolute value of this correspondence is unknown, it would seem to be within this range. When chemicals in the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base were examined for their previous evaluation in 73

  13. GeneBase 1.1: a tool to summarize data from NCBI gene datasets and its application to an update of human gene statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Allison; Caracausi, Maria; Antonaros, Francesca; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Vitale, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    We release GeneBase 1.1, a local tool with a graphical interface useful for parsing, structuring and indexing data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene data bank. Compared to its predecessor GeneBase (1.0), GeneBase 1.1 now allows dynamic calculation and summarization in terms of median, mean, standard deviation and total for many quantitative parameters associated with genes, gene transcripts and gene features (exons, introns, coding sequences, untranslated regions). GeneBase 1.1 thus offers the opportunity to perform analyses of the main gene structure parameters also following the search for any set of genes with the desired characteristics, allowing unique functionalities not provided by the NCBI Gene itself. In order to show the potential of our tool for local parsing, structuring and dynamic summarizing of publicly available databases for data retrieval, analysis and testing of biological hypotheses, we provide as a sample application a revised set of statistics for human nuclear genes, gene transcripts and gene features. In contrast with previous estimations strongly underestimating the length of human genes, a 'mean' human protein-coding gene is 67 kbp long, has eleven 309 bp long exons and ten 6355 bp long introns. Median, mean and extreme values are provided for many other features offering an updated reference source for human genome studies, data useful to set parameters for bioinformatic tools and interesting clues to the biomedical meaning of the gene features themselves.Database URL: http://apollo11.isto.unibo.it/software/.

  14. GeneBase 1.1: a tool to summarize data from NCBI gene datasets and its application to an update of human gene statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Allison; Caracausi, Maria; Antonaros, Francesca; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Vitale, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    We release GeneBase 1.1, a local tool with a graphical interface useful for parsing, structuring and indexing data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene data bank. Compared to its predecessor GeneBase (1.0), GeneBase 1.1 now allows dynamic calculation and summarization in terms of median, mean, standard deviation and total for many quantitative parameters associated with genes, gene transcripts and gene features (exons, introns, coding sequences, untranslated regions). GeneBase 1.1 thus offers the opportunity to perform analyses of the main gene structure parameters also following the search for any set of genes with the desired characteristics, allowing unique functionalities not provided by the NCBI Gene itself. In order to show the potential of our tool for local parsing, structuring and dynamic summarizing of publicly available databases for data retrieval, analysis and testing of biological hypotheses, we provide as a sample application a revised set of statistics for human nuclear genes, gene transcripts and gene features. In contrast with previous estimations strongly underestimating the length of human genes, a ‘mean’ human protein-coding gene is 67 kbp long, has eleven 309 bp long exons and ten 6355 bp long introns. Median, mean and extreme values are provided for many other features offering an updated reference source for human genome studies, data useful to set parameters for bioinformatic tools and interesting clues to the biomedical meaning of the gene features themselves. Database URL: http://apollo11.isto.unibo.it/software/ PMID:28025344

  15. Manipulating the Electronic Excited State Energies of Pyrimidine-Based Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters To Realize Efficient Deep-Blue Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ryutaro; Ohsawa, Tatsuya; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Nakao, Kohei; Hayasaka, Yuya; Kido, Junji

    2017-02-08

    The development of efficient and robust deep-blue emitters is one of the key issues in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for environmentally friendly, large-area displays or general lighting. As a promising technology that realizes 100% conversion from electrons to photons, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters have attracted considerable attention. However, only a handful of examples of deep-blue TADF emitters have been reported to date, and the emitters generally show large efficiency roll-off at practical luminance over several hundreds to thousands of cd m(-2), most likely because of the long delayed fluorescent lifetime (τd). To overcome this problem, we molecularly manipulated the electronic excited state energies of pyrimidine-based TADF emitters to realize deep-blue emission and reduced τd. We then systematically investigated the relationships among the chemical structure, properties, and device performances. The resultant novel pyrimidine emitters, called Ac-XMHPMs (X = 1, 2, and 3), contain different numbers of bulky methyl substituents at acceptor moieties, increasing the excited singlet (ES) and triplet state (ET) energies. Among them, Ac-3MHPM, with a high ET of 2.95 eV, exhibited a high external quantum efficiency (ηext,max) of 18% and an ηext of 10% at 100 cd m(-2) with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.16, 0.15). These efficiencies are among the highest values to date for deep-blue TADF OLEDs. Our molecular design strategy provides fundamental guidance to design novel deep-blue TADF emitters.

  16. Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators Based on Variable Structure Method%基于变结构方法的机器手臂自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐得志; 王道波; 冯旭刚

    2012-01-01

    针对二自由度机器手臂的轨迹跟踪控制中出现的运动学模型参数可能发生改变以及外部状况变化和负荷变化等不确定因素,提出基于滑模变结构补偿方法的径向基神经网络自调节控制律,其中径向基神经网络抵偿了系统参数不确定性和外部扰动量,滑模变结构方法抵消了径向基神经网络的逼近误差,较好地消除了系统未知不确定性的影响.仿真结果表明,该控制律能保证轨迹跟踪误差的快速收敛性及对参数不确定性和外部扰动的鲁棒性.%In view of the uncertainty factors, such as parameters change of kinematics model, condition change and load change, which are appear in the trajectory tracking control of 2-dof robot manipulators, a self-regulation neural control law based on the slide mode method is presented. The neural network of radial basis function is employed to compensate the parameter uncertainties and external disturbances, in addition, the slide mode variable structure method is used to eliminate the effect of approximation error, and the system uncertainty is overcome effectively. The simulation result shows that the control law can guarantee the fast convergence of trajectory tracking error, as well as the robustness for parameter uncertainties and external disturbances.

  17. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  18. Cell- and gene-based approaches to tendon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alan J; Watts, Ashlee E; Schnabel, Lauren V

    2012-02-01

    Repair of rotator cuff tears in experimental models has been significantly improved by the use of enhanced biologic approaches, including platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate, growth factor supplements, and cell- and gene-modified cell therapy. Despite added complexity, cell-based therapies form an important part of enhanced repair, and combinations of carrier vehicles, growth factors, and implanted cells provide the best opportunity for robust repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells provide a stimulus for repair in flexor tendons, but application in rotator cuff repair has not shown universally positive results. The use of scaffolds such as platelet-rich plasma, fibrin, and synthetic vehicles and the use of gene priming for stem cell differentiation and local anabolic and anti-inflammatory impact have both provided essential components for enhanced tendon and tendon-to-bone repair in rotator cuff disruption. Application of these research techniques in human rotator cuff injury has generally been limited to autologous platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow concentrate, or bone marrow aspirates combined with scaffold materials. Cultured mesenchymal progenitor therapy and gene-enhanced function have not yet reached clinical trials in humans. Research in several animal species indicates that the concept of gene-primed stem cells, particularly embryonic stem cells, combined with effective culture conditions, transduction with long-term integrating vectors carrying anabolic growth factors, and development of cells conditioned by use of RNA interference gene therapy to resist matrix metalloproteinase degradation, may constitute potential advances in rotator cuff repair. This review summarizes cell- and gene-enhanced cell research for tendon repair and provides future directions for rotator cuff repair using biologic composites.

  19. 基于反螺旋理论的2-PTR&PSR并联机器人的奇异位形研究%Singularity analysis of 2-PTR&PSR parallel manipulator based on the reciprocal screw theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永亮; 赵新华; 李彬

    2011-01-01

    运用反螺旋理论的方法,对2-PTR&PSR并联机器人进行奇异位形分析.应用几何法,求解出机构的反螺旋,进一步得到机构的约束雅可比矩阵和驱动雅可比矩阵,以及全雅可比矩阵;通过计算分析,2-PTR&PSR并联机器人无约束奇异,当任意一个支链上的连杆与其联接的移动副轴线垂直时,产生结构奇异;最后通过数值仿真得出机构的奇异位形3维曲面.%This paper studies the singularity of a 2-PTR&PSR parallel manipulator based on the reciprocal screw theory. Firstly, the reciprocal screw of the manipulator is achieved by using geometry mathed, the constraint /actuation Jacobian ma-trix and the overall Jacobian matrix of the mechanism are obtained. Then, through the result of analysis, the 2-PTR&PSR parallel manipulator has no constraint singularity, and the structural singularity happens when the axes of the move function perpendicular to the link of any lamb. Finally, the 3-D curves of the singularity of the manipulator are obtained by numerical example.

  20. A fisheye viewer for microarray-based gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munson Ethan V

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray has been widely used to measure the relative amounts of every mRNA transcript from the genome in a single scan. Biologists have been accustomed to reading their experimental data directly from tables. However, microarray data are quite large and are stored in a series of files in a machine-readable format, so direct reading of the full data set is not feasible. The challenge is to design a user interface that allows biologists to usefully view large tables of raw microarray-based gene expression data. This paper presents one such interface – an electronic table (E-table that uses fisheye distortion technology. Results The Fisheye Viewer for microarray-based gene expression data has been successfully developed to view MIAME data stored in the MAGE-ML format. The viewer can be downloaded from the project web site http://polaris.imt.uwm.edu:7777/fisheye/. The fisheye viewer was implemented in Java so that it could run on multiple platforms. We implemented the E-table by adapting JTable, a default table implementation in the Java Swing user interface library. Fisheye views use variable magnification to balance magnification for easy viewing and compression for maximizing the amount of data on the screen. Conclusion This Fisheye Viewer is a lightweight but useful tool for biologists to quickly overview the raw microarray-based gene expression data in an E-table.

  1. A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao Kaustubh D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.

  2. 基于PLC控制机床搬运机械手的设计%Design of Carrying Machine Manipulator Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华森

    2012-01-01

    通过对机床工件搬运机械手主要结构和运动形式的探究,以及对机械手的工作过程和控制要求分析,根据机械手动作循环图设计液压系统控制图;并采用欧姆龙控制器系统进行电气部分的软硬件设计,绘制了PLC的外部接线图和单循环自动工作状态流程图,将PLC技术应用于机械手具有整体技术及经济效益。%The hydraulic system control was designed according to the cycle operation of manipulator, through the study of main structures and movement forms of the manipulator and the analysis on working processes and control requirements of the manipulator. The software and hardware design for the electrical part was done by using the Omron controller system. The external wiring diagram and automatic single cycle working state flow chart of the PLC were drawn. The application of PLC to manipulator would have technological and economic benefits.

  3. Position Control of Redundant Tetrahedron Variable Geometry Truss Manipulators Based on Neural Network%基于神经网络的冗余度四面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼钜; 雷勇; 等

    2001-01-01

    A position control scheme for redundant tetrahedron based variable geometry truss manipulators is proposed based on two BP neural networks. The constraint conditions that is the minimum of change of joint variables are set and the objective function of optimization is defined. Based on it, the position control model of redundant tetrahedron based variable geometry truss manipulators is established. The simulation study of position control system for a four-celled tetrahedron variable geometry truss manipulator is carried out.%提出了一个基于双重BP神经网络的冗余度四 面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制方案,通过增加关节角变化最小的约束条件,定义了优化的 目标函数,在此基础上建立了冗余度四面体变几何桁架机器人位置控制模型,并以四重四面 体变几何桁架机器人位置控制为例进行了系统仿真。

  4. Genetic Manipulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiges, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    One of the great advantages of embryonic stem (ES) cells over other cell types is their accessibility to genetic manipulation. They can easily undergo genetic modifications while remaining pluripotent, and can be selectively propagated, allowing the clonal expansion of genetically altered cells in culture. Since the first isolation of ES cells in mice, many effective techniques have been developed for gene delivery and manipulation of ES cells. These include transfection, electroporation, and infection protocols, as well as different approaches for inserting, deleting, or changing the expression of genes. These methods proved to be extremely useful in mouse ES cells, for monitoring and directing differentiation, discovering unknown genes, and studying their function, and are now being extensively implemented in human ES cells (HESCs). This chapter describes the different approaches and methodologies that have been applied for the genetic manipulation of HESCs and their applications. Detailed protocols for generating clones of genetically modified HESCs by transfection, electroporation, and infection will be described, with special emphasis on the important technical details that are required for this purpose. All protocols are equally effective in human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  5. Persistent gene expression in mouse nasal epithelia following feline immunodeficiency virus-based vector gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Patrick L; Burnight, Erin R; Hickey, Melissa A; Blissard, Gary W; McCray, Paul B

    2005-10-01

    Gene transfer development for treatment or prevention of cystic fibrosis lung disease has been limited by the inability of vectors to efficiently and persistently transduce airway epithelia. Influenza A is an enveloped virus with natural lung tropism; however, pseudotyping feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector with the hemagglutinin envelope protein proved unsuccessful. Conversely, pseudotyping FIV with the envelope protein from influenza D (Thogoto virus GP75) resulted in titers of 10(6) transducing units (TU)/ml and conferred apical entry into well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoproteins share sequence identity with influenza D GP75 envelope glycoproteins. Pseudotyping FIV with GP64 from three species of baculovirus resulted in titers of 10(7) to 10(9) TU/ml. Of note, GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus resulted in high-titer FIV preparations (approximately 10(9) TU/ml) and conferred apical entry into polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia. Using a luciferase reporter gene and bioluminescence imaging, we observed persistent gene expression from in vivo gene transfer in the mouse nose with A. californica GP64-pseudotyped FIV (AcGP64-FIV). Longitudinal bioluminescence analysis documented persistent expression in nasal epithelia for approximately 1 year without significant decline. According to histological analysis using a LacZ reporter gene, olfactory and respiratory epithelial cells were transduced. In addition, methylcellulose-formulated AcGP64-FIV transduced mouse nasal epithelia with much greater efficiency than similarly formulated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV. These data suggest that AcGP64-FIV efficiently transduces and persistently expresses a transgene in nasal epithelia in the absence of agents that disrupt the cellular tight junction integrity.

  6. Linear- rubbing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Linear-rubbing is a characteristic technique in the academic school of internal exercise massage in Shanghai. It was known as "flat pushing method" in the past times. The academic school of internal exercise Tuina finds, in the clinical practice of flat pushing, that if the internal exercise accumuhtes in the palm and one-way movement is replaced by two-way movement, the kinetic energy may be transformed into heat energy, bringing about a new unique manipulating technique, which is rather different from the usual flat pushing no longer and now called linear-rubbing therapy.

  7. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  8. Informative Gene Selection and Direct Classification of Tumor Based on Chi-Square Test of Pairwise Gene Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In efforts to discover disease mechanisms and improve clinical diagnosis of tumors, it is useful to mine profiles for informative genes with definite biological meanings and to build robust classifiers with high precision. In this study, we developed a new method for tumor-gene selection, the Chi-square test-based integrated rank gene and direct classifier (χ2-IRG-DC. First, we obtained the weighted integrated rank of gene importance from chi-square tests of single and pairwise gene interactions. Then, we sequentially introduced the ranked genes and removed redundant genes by using leave-one-out cross-validation of the chi-square test-based Direct Classifier (χ2-DC within the training set to obtain informative genes. Finally, we determined the accuracy of independent test data by utilizing the genes obtained above with χ2-DC. Furthermore, we analyzed the robustness of χ2-IRG-DC by comparing the generalization performance of different models, the efficiency of different feature-selection methods, and the accuracy of different classifiers. An independent test of ten multiclass tumor gene-expression datasets showed that χ2-IRG-DC could efficiently control overfitting and had higher generalization performance. The informative genes selected by χ2-IRG-DC could dramatically improve the independent test precision of other classifiers; meanwhile, the informative genes selected by other feature selection methods also had good performance in χ2-DC.

  9. Correcting mitochondrial fusion by manipulating mitofusin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonietta; Kitsis, Richard N.; Fleischer, Julie A.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Kornfeld, Opher S.; Gong, Guohua; Biris, Nikolaos; Benz, Ann; Qvit, Nir; Donnelly, Sara K; Chen, Yun; Mennerick, Steven; Hodgson, Louis; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Dorn, Gerald W

    2017-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions. Based on this model we engineered a cell-permeant minipeptide to destabilize fusion-constrained mitofusin and promote the fusion-permissive conformation, reversing mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured fibroblasts and neurons harboring CMT2A gene defects. The relationship between mitofusin conformational plasticity and mitochondrial dynamism uncovers a central mechanism regulating mitochondrial fusion whose manipulation can correct mitochondrial pathology triggered by defective or imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics. PMID:27775718

  10. A Gene-Pool Based Genetic Algorithm for TSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis of previous genetic algo rithms (GAs) for TSP, a novel method called Ge GA is proposed. It combines gene pool and GA so as to direct the evo lution of the whole population. The core of Ge GA is the construction of gene pool and how to apply it to GA. Different from standard GAs, Ge-GA aims to enhance the ability of exploration and exploitation by incorporating global search with local search. On one hand a local search called Ge LocalSearch operator is proposed to improve the solution quality, on the other hand the modified Inver-Over operator called Ge InverOver is considered as a global search mechanism to expand solution space of local minimal. Both of these operators are based on the gene pool. Our algorithm is applied to 11 well-known traveling salesman problems whose numbers of cities are from 70 to 1577 cities. The experiments results indicate that Ge GA has great robustness for TSP. For each test instance, the average value of solution quality, found in accepted time, stays within 0. 001 % from the optimum.

  11. Inference of Gene Regulatory Network Based on Local Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Guo, Wei-Feng; Wei, Ze-Gang; Chen, Luonan

    2016-08-01

    The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from expression data can mine the direct regulations among genes and gain deep insights into biological processes at a network level. During past decades, numerous computational approaches have been introduced for inferring the GRNs. However, many of them still suffer from various problems, e.g., Bayesian network (BN) methods cannot handle large-scale networks due to their high computational complexity, while information theory-based methods cannot identify the directions of regulatory interactions and also suffer from false positive/negative problems. To overcome the limitations, in this work we present a novel algorithm, namely local Bayesian network (LBN), to infer GRNs from gene expression data by using the network decomposition strategy and false-positive edge elimination scheme. Specifically, LBN algorithm first uses conditional mutual information (CMI) to construct an initial network or GRN, which is decomposed into a number of local networks or GRNs. Then, BN method is employed to generate a series of local BNs by selecting the k-nearest neighbors of each gene as its candidate regulatory genes, which significantly reduces the exponential search space from all possible GRN structures. Integrating these local BNs forms a tentative network or GRN by performing CMI, which reduces redundant regulations in the GRN and thus alleviates the false positive problem. The final network or GRN can be obtained by iteratively performing CMI and local BN on the tentative network. In the iterative process, the false or redundant regulations are gradually removed. When tested on the benchmark GRN datasets from DREAM challenge as well as the SOS DNA repair network in E.coli, our results suggest that LBN outperforms other state-of-the-art methods (ARACNE, GENIE3 and NARROMI) significantly, with more accurate and robust performance. In particular, the decomposition strategy with local Bayesian networks not only effectively reduce

  12. Polymorphism of the DNA Base Excision Repair Genes in Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Wojcik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a degenerative corneal disorder for which the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Oxidative stress is reported to be associated with this disease. The stress may damage corneal biomolecules, including DNA, and such damage is primarily removed by base excision repair (BER. Variation in genes encoding BER components may influence the effectiveness of corneal cells to cope with oxidative stress. In the present work we genotyped 5 polymorphisms of 4 BER genes in 284 patients and 353 controls. The A/A genotype of the c.–1370T>A polymorphism of the DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene was associated with increased occurrence of KC, while the A/T genotype was associated with decreased occurrence of KC. The A/G genotype and the A allele of the c.1196A>G polymorphism of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 were associated with increased, and the G/G genotype and the G allele, with decreased KC occurrence. Also, the C/T and T as well as C/C genotypes and alleles of the c.580C>T polymorphism of the same gene displayed relationship with KC occurrence. Neither the g.46438521G>C polymorphism of the Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1 nor the c.2285T>C polymorphism of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 was associated with KC. In conclusion, the variability of the XRCC1 and POLG genes may play a role in KC pathogenesis and determine the risk of this disease.

  13. Incretin manipulation in diabetes management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies have revolutionized the medicalmanagement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)in the 21st century. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)suppresses appetite and gastric motility, and has trophiceffects on pancreas, cardio-protective and renal effects.GLP-1 analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitorsform the incretin-based therapies. Significant reductionof hemoglobin A1c when used as monotherapy andin combination regimens, favorable effects on bodyweight, and low risk of hypoglycemia are their uniquetherapeutic benefits. Their safety and tolerability arecomparable to other anti-diabetic medications. Concernabout elevated risk of pancreatitis has been discardedby two recent meta-analyses. This article discussesthe therapeutic manipulation of incretin system for themanagement of T2DM.

  14. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization grou...

  15. Gene ontology based transfer learning for protein subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shuigeng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein subcellular localization generally involves many complex factors, and using only one or two aspects of data information may not tell the true story. For this reason, some recent predictive models are deliberately designed to integrate multiple heterogeneous data sources for exploiting multi-aspect protein feature information. Gene ontology, hereinafter referred to as GO, uses a controlled vocabulary to depict biological molecules or gene products in terms of biological process, molecular function and cellular component. With the rapid expansion of annotated protein sequences, gene ontology has become a general protein feature that can be used to construct predictive models in computational biology. Existing models generally either concatenated the GO terms into a flat binary vector or applied majority-vote based ensemble learning for protein subcellular localization, both of which can not estimate the individual discriminative abilities of the three aspects of gene ontology. Results In this paper, we propose a Gene Ontology Based Transfer Learning Model (GO-TLM for large-scale protein subcellular localization. The model transfers the signature-based homologous GO terms to the target proteins, and further constructs a reliable learning system to reduce the adverse affect of the potential false GO terms that are resulted from evolutionary divergence. We derive three GO kernels from the three aspects of gene ontology to measure the GO similarity of two proteins, and derive two other spectrum kernels to measure the similarity of two protein sequences. We use simple non-parametric cross validation to explicitly weigh the discriminative abilities of the five kernels, such that the time & space computational complexities are greatly reduced when compared to the complicated semi-definite programming and semi-indefinite linear programming. The five kernels are then linearly merged into one single kernel for

  16. Self mobile space manipulator project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  17. Design of a microchannel-nanochannel-microchannel array based nanoelectroporation system for precise gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Keliang; Li, Lei; He, Lingna; Hinkle, Kevin; Wu, Yun; Ma, Junyu; Chang, Lingqian; Zhao, Xi; Perez, Daniel Gallego; Eckardt, Sigrid; McLaughlin, John; Liu, Boyu; Farson, Dave F; Lee, L James

    2014-03-12

    A micro/nano-fabrication process of a nanochannel electroporation (NEP) array and its application for precise delivery of plasmid for non-viral gene transfection is described. A dip-combing device is optimized to produce DNA nanowires across a microridge array patterned on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with a yield up to 95%. Molecular imprinting based on a low viscosity resin, 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (1,4-BDDA), adopted to convert the microridge-nanowire-microridge array into a microchannel-nanochannel-microchannel (MNM) array. Secondary machining by femtosecond laser ablation is applied to shorten one side of microchannels from 3000 to 50 μm to facilitate cell loading and unloading. The biochip is then sealed in a packaging case with reservoirs and microfluidic channels to enable cell and plasmid loading, and to protect the biochip from leakage and contamination. The package case can be opened for cell unloading after NEP to allow for the follow-up cell culture and analysis. These NEP cases can be placed in a spinning disc and up to ten discs can be piled together for spinning. The resulting centrifugal force can simultaneously manipulate hundreds or thousands of cells into microchannels of NEP arrays within 3 minutes. To demonstrate its application, a 13 kbp OSKM plasmid of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) is injected into mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells (MEFCs). Fluorescence detection of transfected cells within the NEP biochips shows that the delivered dosage is high and much more uniform compared with similar gene transfection carried out by the conventional bulk electroporation (BEP) method.

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 1-based amplicon vectors for fundamental research in neurosciences and gene therapy of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalinsky, Diana; Baez, María Verónica; Epstein, Alberto Luis

    2012-01-01

    Somatic manipulation of the nervous system without the involvement of the germinal line appears as a powerful counterpart of the transgenic strategy. The use of viral vectors to produce specific, transient and localized knockout, knockdown, ectopic expression or overexpression of a gene, leads to the possibility of analyzing both in vitro and in vivo molecular basis of neural function. In this approach, viral particles engineered to carry transgenic sequences are delivered into discrete brain regions, to transduce cells that will express the transgenic products. Amplicons are replication-incompetent helper-dependent vectors derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), with several advantages that potentiate their use in neurosciences: (1) minimal toxicity: amplicons do not encode any virus proteins, are neither toxic for the infected cells nor pathogenic for the inoculated animals and elicit low levels of adaptive immune responses; (2) extensive transgene capacity to carry up to 150-kb of foreign DNA; i.e., entire genes with regulatory sequences could be delivered; (3) widespread cellular tropism: amplicons can experimentally infect several cell types including glial cells, though naturally the virus infects mainly neurons and epithelial cells; (4) since the viral genome does not integrate into cellular chromosomes there is low probability to induce insertional mutagenesis. Recent investigations on gene transfer into the brain using these vectors, have focused on gene therapy of inherited genetic diseases affecting the nervous system, such as ataxias, or on neurodegenerative disorders using experimental models of Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Another group of studies used amplicons to investigate complex neural functions such as neuroplasticity, anxiety, learning and memory. In this short review, we summarize recent data supporting the potential of HSV-1 based amplicon vector model for gene delivery and modulation of gene expression in primary cultures

  19. Type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 李秦川

    2002-01-01

    This paper originally presents a systematic general type synthesis principle of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Based on the properties and geometrical conditions of structure constraint of minor-mobility parallel manipulators, this principle will be a cornerstone in solving the problem of type synthesis of minor-mobility parallel manipulators. Many mechanisms have been synthesized by this principle, which illustrated the validity and universality of this principle.

  20. Manipulation of two α-endo-β-1,4-glucanase genes, AtCel6 and GmCel7, reduces susceptibility to Heterodera glycines in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mi-Ok; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Youssef, Reham M; Kim, Hyunsoon; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2014-12-01

    Plant endo-β-1,4-glucanases (EGases) include cell wall-modifying enzymes that are involved in nematode-induced growth of syncytia (feeding structures) in nematode-infected roots. EGases in the α- and β-subfamilies contain signal peptides and are secreted, whereas those in the γ-subfamily have a membrane-anchoring domain and are not secreted. The Arabidopsis α-EGase At1g48930, designated as AtCel6, is known to be down-regulated by beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) in Arabidopsis roots, whereas another α-EGase, AtCel2, is up-regulated. Here, we report that the ectopic expression of AtCel6 in soybean roots reduces susceptibility to both soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Suppression of GmCel7, the soybean homologue of AtCel2, in soybean roots also reduces the susceptibility to SCN. In contrast, in studies on two γ-EGases, both ectopic expression of AtKOR2 in soybean roots and suppression of the soybean homologue of AtKOR3 had no significant effect on SCN parasitism. Our results suggest that secreted α-EGases are likely to be more useful than membrane-bound γ-EGases in the development of an SCN-resistant soybean through gene manipulation. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that Arabidopsis shares molecular events of cyst nematode parasitism with soybean, and confirms the suitability of the Arabidopsis-H. schachtii interaction as a model for the soybean-H. glycines pathosystem.

  1. Network-based gene prediction for Plasmodium falciparum malaria towards genetics-based drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yang; Xu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is the most deadly parasitic infectious disease. Existing drug treatments have limited efficacy in malaria elimination, and the complex pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. Detecting novel malaria-associated genes not only contributes in revealing the disease pathogenesis, but also facilitates discovering new targets for anti-malaria drugs. Methods In this study, we developed a network-based approach to predict malaria-associated genes. We constructed a cros...

  2. The design of pneumatic manipulator control system based on PLC%浅谈基于PLC的气动机械手控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简智敏

    2016-01-01

    气动机械手具有成本低、控制方便和机构简单等特点,为了确保自动化设备能够满足实际工作的需要,需要确保工作程序的合理性,充分发挥自动化生产设备的应用效果,确保PLC气动机械手控制系统的合理性.%The pneumatic manipulator has the advantages of low cost, convenient control and simple structure characteristics,in order to ensure the automation equipment to meet the needs of actual work,the need to ensure the rationality of working procedures,give full play to the application effect of automated production equipment,to ensure the rationality of PLC pneumatic manipulator control system.

  3. IL-12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Tozon, Natasa

    2012-11-21

    The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.

  4. IL-12 based gene therapy in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Darja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12 displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.

  5. Semantic Search among Heterogeneous Biological Databases Based on Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Liang CAO; Lei QIN; Wei-Zhong HE; Yang ZHONG; Yang-Yong ZHU; Yi-Xue LI

    2004-01-01

    Semantic search is a key issue in integration of heterogeneous biological databases. In thispaper, we present a methodology for implementing semantic search in BioDW, an integrated biological datawarehouse. Two tables are presented: the DB2GO table to correlate Gene Ontology (GO) annotated entriesfrom BioDW data sources with GO, and the semantic similarity table to record similarity scores derived fromany pair of GO terms. Based on the two tables, multifarious ways for semantic search are provided and thecorresponding entries in heterogeneous biological databases in semantic terms can be expediently searched.

  6. 基于触摸屏的模具清扫机械手 PLC 控制系统%PLC Control System Design of Mould Cleaning Manipulator Based on HMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金姣; 吴斌方; 王君明

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种基于触摸屏和可编程序控制器(PLC)的泡沫塑料成型模具清扫机械手控制系统设计方案,详细阐述控制系统硬件组成和软件设计思路,重点介绍 PLC 判定清扫模具的触摸屏界面和梯形图程序。%This paper introduces a control system design of mould cleaning manipulator for foam plastics based on HMI and PLC.It explains in great detail the hardware structure and software design idea of the control system,especially the HMI operation interface and ladder diagram for PLC to determine the next mould,which would be immediately cleaned by the manipulator.

  7. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF REDUNDANT VARIABLE GEOMETRY TRUSS MANIPULATORS BASED ON FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK%基于模糊神经网络的冗余度变几何桁架机器人自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐礼钜; 吴江; 梁尚明

    2000-01-01

    本文提出了一种基于模糊神经网络(FNN)的机器人位置自适应控制方法.利用模糊神经网络模型来辨识冗余度变几何桁架机器人的逆动力学模型,用常规反馈控制器完成外部干扰的补偿和闭环控制.并以四重四面体变几何桁架机器人为例进行仿真计算,表明该控制方法具有良好的轨迹跟踪精度和抗干扰能力.%An adaptive control scheme for redundant variable geometry truss manipulators is proposed,based on fuzzy neural network in this paper. The fuzzy neural network model is used to identify inversedynamic model of redundant variable geometry truss manipulators, and conventional feedback controller isapplied to compensation of external interference and close-loop control. The simulation calculation for a four-celled tetrahedron based variable geometry truss manipulator is give. The method is proved to have goodtrack accuracy and anti-interference characteristics.

  8. Dual-MWCNT Probe Thermal Sensor Assembly and Evaluation Based on Nanorobotic Manipulation inside a Field-Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a thermal sensor composed of two multiwalled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs inside a field-emission-scanning electron microscope. The sensor was assembled using a nanorobotic manipulation system, which was used to construct a probe tip in order to detect the local environment of a single cell. An atomic force microscopy (AFM cantilever was used as a substrate; the cantilever was composed of Si3N4 and both sides were covered with a gold layer. MWCNTs were individually assembled on both sides of the AFM cantilever by employing nanorobotic manipulation. Another AFM cantilever was subsequently used as an end effector to manipulate the MWCNTs to touch each other. Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID was then used to bond the two MWCNTs. The MWCNT probe thermal sensor was evaluated inside a thermostated container in the temperature range from 25°C to 60°C. The experimental results show the positive characteristics of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR.

  9. Concurrent Manipulation of Expanded AVL Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章寅; 许卓群

    1998-01-01

    The concurrent manipulation of an expanded AVL tree(EAVL tree)s considered in this paper.The presented system can support any number of concurrent processes which perform searching,insertion and deletion on the tree.Simulation results indicate the high performance of the system.Elaborate techniques are used to achieve such a system unavailable based on any known algorithms.Methods developed in this paper may provide new insights into other problems in the area of concurrent search structure manipulation.

  10. Manipulation with molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D Barnes

    2002-09-01

    For many years now, researchers in materials and photonics have been keenly interested in the design and fabrication of structures that confine and manipulate electromagnetic fields on length scales comparable to optical wavelengths. The ultimate goal is an all-optical information processing and computation platform using photons in ways analogous to electrons in silicon devices on similar length scales. Specific focus areas such as wafer-scale integration, parallel processing, and frequency management (e.g. add-drop filters, on micron or sub-micron length scales are active areas of photonics research. While a great deal of progress has been made in the burgeoning field of microphotonics, we are still a long way off from realizing important goals such as the optical transistor and all-optical integrated circuits1.

  11. How to manipulate polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balăşescu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every time you open a newspaper, listen to the radio, watch TV or browse the Internet, you will see some numbers and stats. All these numbers come from different sources like a national statistics office, an organization or an individual that has conducted research. These numbers can give a brief overview of the world surrounding us and are often used by people or organizations to strengthen their message. The way experts collect all the raw data to come up with all these clear-cut numbers is an important part of the process. In this respect, an experiment has been designed to see how a person can manipulate a poll to obtain the desired numbers and a lot of ways have been found.

  12. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.;

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...... to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. Based on our experience developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the concurrency requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures...

  13. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  14. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  15. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real- world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  16. The manipulation of online newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    CONSTANTIN SCHIFIRNEŢ

    2008-01-01

    The paper studies the manipulation on comments from generalist online newspapers. It is analysed the contexts of interactivity between online media and public. The forums media are an alternative to tendencies of manipulation exerted by media. At the same time, some comments create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. The tactics of commentators may include the use of logical fallacies and propaganda techniques.They promote a manipulation of opinions, atitudes and be...

  17. Controlled manipulation of nanoparticles with an atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, T.; Deppert, K.; Montelius, L.; Samuelson, L.

    1995-06-01

    We report on the application of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to manipulate and position nanometer-sized particles with nanometer precision. The technique, which can be regarded as a nanometer-scale analogy to atomic level manipulation with the scanning tunneling microscope, allowed us to form arbitrary nanostructures, under ambient conditions, by controlled manipulation of individual 30 nm GaAs particles. A whole new set of nanodevices can be fabricated particle-by-particle for studies of quantum effects and single electron tunneling. We also demonstrate a method, based on the AFM manipulation, to determine the true lateral dimensions of nano-objects, in spite of the tip-sample convolution.

  18. RiceGeneThresher: a web-based application for mining genes underlying QTL in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongjuea, Supat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Bruskiewich, Richard; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2009-01-01

    RiceGeneThresher is a public online resource for mining genes underlying genome regions of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in rice genome. It is a compendium of rice genomic resources consisting of genetic markers, genome annotation, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), protein domains, gene ontology, plant stress-responsive genes, metabolic pathways and prediction of protein-protein interactions. RiceGeneThresher system integrates these diverse data sources and provides powerful web-based applications, and flexible tools for delivering customized set of biological data on rice. Its system supports whole-genome gene mining for QTL by querying using DNA marker intervals or genomic loci. RiceGeneThresher provides biologically supported evidences that are essential for targeting groups or networks of genes involved in controlling traits underlying QTL. Users can use it to discover and to assign the most promising candidate genes in preparation for the further gene function validation analysis. The web-based application is freely available at http://rice.kps.ku.ac.th.

  19. 机械臂轨迹跟踪控制--基于EC-RBF神经网络的机械臂模型参考自适应控制%Trajectory tracking control of robot manipulator-model reference adaptive control for robot manipulator based on EC-RBF neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑锋; 张翠; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    针对机械臂运动轨迹控制中存在的跟踪精度不高的问题,采用了一种基于EC-RBF神经网络的模型参考自适应控制方案对机械臂进行模型辨识与轨迹跟踪控制。该方案采用了两个RBF神经网络,运用EC-RBF学习算法,采用离线与在线相结合的方法来训练神经网络,一个用来实现对机械臂进行模型辨识,一个用来实现对机械臂轨迹跟踪控制。对二自由度机械臂进行仿真,结果表明,使用该控制方案对机械臂进行轨迹跟踪控制具有较高的控制精度,且因采用EC-RBF学习算法使网络具有更快的训练速度,从而使得控制过程较迅速。%According to the problem that the tracking accuracy is not high enough in trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators, a model reference adaptive control scheme based on EC-RBF neural networks is adopted to achieve robot manipulator model identification and trajectory tracking control. This control scheme contains two RBF neural networks which are trained offline and online, using EC-RBF learning algorithm. The one is used to identify the robot manipulator’s model, and the other one is used to achieve its trajectory tracking control. Simulation result of 2-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator demonstrates that using this method for robot manipulator trajectory tracking control has high control accuracy, and the networks which gain high training speed because of the EC-RBF learning algorithm make the control process faster.

  20. Base J represses genes at the end of polycistronic gene clusters in Leishmania major by promoting RNAP II termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David L; Hofmeister, Brigitte T; Cliffe, Laura; Siegel, T Nicolai; Anderson, Britta A; Beverley, Stephen M; Schmitz, Robert J; Sabatini, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The genomes of kinetoplastids are organized into polycistronic gene clusters that are flanked by the modified DNA base J. Previous work has established a role of base J in promoting RNA polymerase II termination in Leishmania spp. where the loss of J leads to termination defects and transcription into adjacent gene clusters. It remains unclear whether these termination defects affect gene expression and whether read through transcription is detrimental to cell growth, thus explaining the essential nature of J. We now demonstrate that reduction of base J at specific sites within polycistronic gene clusters in L. major leads to read through transcription and increased expression of downstream genes in the cluster. Interestingly, subsequent transcription into the opposing polycistronic gene cluster does not lead to downregulation of sense mRNAs. These findings indicate a conserved role for J regulating transcription termination and expression of genes within polycistronic gene clusters in trypanosomatids. In contrast to the expectations often attributed to opposing transcription, the essential nature of J in Leishmania spp. is related to its role in gene repression rather than preventing transcriptional interference resulting from read through and dual strand transcription.

  1. Family genetic algorithms based on gene exchange and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianhua; Ding Xiangqian; Wang Sunan; Yu Qing

    2006-01-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a search techniques based on mechanics of nature selection and have already been successfully applied in many diverse areas. However, increasing samples show that GA's performance is not as good as it was expected to be. Criticism of this algorithm includes the slow speed and premature result during convergence procedure. In order to improve the performance, the population size and individuals' space is emphatically described. The influence of individuals' space and population size on the operators is analyzed. And a novel family genetic algorithm (FGA) is put forward based on this analysis. In this novel algorithm, the optimum solution families closed to quality individuals is constructed, which is exchanged found by a search in the world space. Search will be done in this microspace. The family that can search better genes in a limited period of time would win a new life. At the same time, the best gene of this micro space with the basic population in the world space is exchanged. Finally, the FGA is applied to the function optimization and image matching through several experiments. The results show that the FGA possessed high performance.

  2. Validation of Gene Regulatory Network Inference Based on Controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward eDougherty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two distinct issues regarding network validation: (1 Does an inferred network provide good predictions relative to experimental data? (2 Does a network inference algorithm applied within a certain network model framework yield networks that are accurate relative to some criterion of goodness? The first issue concerns scientific validation and the second concerns algorithm validation. In this paper we consider inferential validation relative to controllability; that is, if an inference procedure is applied to synthetic data generated from a gene regulatory network and an intervention procedure is designed on the inferred network, how well does it perform on the true network? The reasoning behind such a criterion is that, if our purpose is to use gene regulatory networks to design therapeutic intervention strategies, then we are not concerned with network fidelity, per se, but only with our ability to design effective interventions based on the inferred network. We will consider the problem from the perspectives of stationary control, which involves designing a control policy to be applied over time based on the current state of the network, with the decision procedure itself being time independent. {The objective of a control policy is to optimally reduce the total steady-state probability mass of the undesirable states (phenotypes, which is equivalent to optimally increasing the total steady-state mass of the desirable states. Based on this criterion we compare several proposed network inference procedures. We will see that inference procedure psi may perform poorer than inference procedure xi relative to inferring the full network structure but perform better than xi relative to controllability. Hence, when one is aiming at a specific application, it may be wise to use an objective-based measure of inference validity.

  3. Development of gene diagnosis for diabetes and cholecystitis based on gene analysis of CCK-A receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Akira [National Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Base sequence analysis of CCKAR gene (a gene of A-type receptor for cholecystokinin) from OLETF rat, a model rat for insulin-independent diabetes was made based on the base sequence of wild CCKAR gene, which had been clarified in the previous year. From the pancreas of OLETF rat, DNA was extracted and transduced into {lambda}phage after fragmentation to construct the gene library of OLETF. Then, {lambda}phage DNA clone bound with labelled cDNA of CCKAR gene was analyzed and the gene structure was compared with that of the wild gene. It was demonstrated that CCKAR gene of OLETF had a deletion (6800 b.p.) ranging from the promoter region to the Exon 2, suggesting that CCKAR gene is not functional in OLETF rat. The whole sequence of this mutant gene was registered into Japan DNA Bank (D 50610). Then, F{sub 2} offspring rats were obtained through crossing OLETF (female) and F344 (male) and the time course-changes in the blood glucose level after glucose loading were compared among them. The blood glucose level after glucose loading was significantly higher in the homo-mutant F{sub 2} (CCKAR,-/-) as well as the parent OLETF rat than hetero-mutant F{sub 2} (CCKARm-/+) or the wild rat (CCKAR,+/+). This suggests that CCKAR gene might be involved in the control of blood glucose level and an alteration of the expression level or the functions of CCKAR gene might affect the blood glucose level. (M.N.)

  4. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates

  5. Integrating Concrete and Virtual Manipulatives in Early Childhood Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dina; Hoffman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood teachers around the country and the world guide children's mathematical learning through the use of manipulatives--pattern blocks, base blocks, geoboards, Unifx cubes, Cuisenaire rods, coins, clocks, and so on. Manipulatives allow concrete, hands-on exploration and representation of mathematical concepts. In the past few years,…

  6. 基于机械臂的空间水射流切割系统的设计与仿真%Design and simulation of space water jet cutting system based on manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永韦; 雷玉勇; 郭宗环; 陈林

    2012-01-01

    笔者以水射流切割机床机械臂为研究对象,基于SolidWorks软件建立了四轴空间水射流机床机械臂的模型,应用ADAMS软件的运动仿真功能,对4自由度机械臂的运动特性进行了仿真分析。仿真结果表明,应用四轴机械臂的空间水射流切割系统可完成空间复杂曲线运动,从而实现三维加工,如圆锥体、圆锥齿轮及螺纹等。通过增加摆动臂来解决水射流切割过程中的锥度补偿,提高了切割几何精度。%The manipulator of a water jet cutting machine was taken as the study object,the model of the manipulator of a water jet cutting machine with 4-axis space was established based on SolidWorks.The dynamic characteristics of the 4-DOF manipulator were simulated by using ADAMS.The simulation results showed that mapping of complicated space curves could be achieved by the designed 4-DOF manipulator,so as to complete 3D machining of such parts as cone,bevel gear and thread bolts etc.A swing arm was added to achieve the taper compensation during the water jet cutting process,thus the cutting geometric precision was enhanced.

  7. 基于人体动作姿态识别的机器人仿人运动%Humanoid Motion of Manipulator that Based on Human-posture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 卢熙昌; 屠大维; 于远芳; 周华

    2016-01-01

    以关节式机器人为对象,进行机器人仿人运动研究。从人体动作姿态识别、人-机动作映射、机器人运动控制等方面,详细阐述机器人仿人运动算法。提出人体动作姿态识别方法,利用 Kinect 传感器捕获人体运作的关节点位置信息,在建立人体基准坐标系的基础上,为了得到描述肩、肘运动的动作信息,计算人体手臂动作的关节角度,实现人体动作姿态的识别。在分析人体肩、肘等关节和机器人机构差异性的基础上,建立人体手臂与四自由度机械手臂的人-机动作映射规则。针对机器人自由度较少,无法完全复现人体运动的情形,分析、比较不同控制策略的优缺点和适用性,寻求适合机器人操作的复现控制策略。关节式机器人接收运动控制指令,执行相应的关节运动,从而实现机器人仿人运动。相关试验验证了人体动作姿态识别和机器人仿人运动控制算法的有效性。研究成果对于提高机器人控制和操作的简单易用性、提高人机交互能力具有借鉴意义,对于扩展机器人应用领域具有实践意义。%Humanoid motion of manipulator is studied. The problem of human-posture recognition, human-robot motion mapping and humanoid motion control are summarized. A Kinect is used to capture the human body movement. In the coordinate system on the human body, the joint angles of the human arm are calculated to recognize the motion of shoulder joint and elbow joint. By analyzing the difference between the motion of a human arm and that of a four-degree manipulator, the human-robot motion mapping is developed. To deal with the problem of limitation in motion imitation, caused by robot lower-mobility, three method of humanoid control is comparatively analyzed. And the method to maximize the range of motion is selected to control the manipulator. The manipulator would execute the action, according to the

  8. 基于多相机的空间机械臂视觉系统%Multi-camera Based Space Manipulator Vision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 高升; 袁宝峰; 谭启蒙; 杜晓东; 齐哲

    2014-01-01

    Space manipulator is an essential tool for space mission. Vision system is the key part of a space manipulator system, and the normal operation of a space manipulator heavily depends on the guidance and assistance of a vision system except for open-loop control. In this paper, we describe a vision system which meets the practical needs of a space manipulator system. This vision system, which consists of multiple cam-eras located at different positions in space, uses a multi-camera collaboration technique to extend and enhance its capability of the visual surveillance and measurement. The paper focuses on some key aspects of the vision system design including system configuration, operation mode and measurement method. The experiments conducted in a simulation environment show that the measurement error of target 3D pose is approximately linearly proportional to the detection error of visual dots on target, and the detection accuracy of visual dots has great effect on the target pose measurement accuracy. The experiments conducted indoor environment demon-strate that the manipulator is able to locate and capture the target autonomously under the guide of the vision system, which can satisfy the needs of a manipulator for large range movement and precise operation.%视觉系统是空间机械臂的重要组成部分,空间机械臂除开环控制外的所有工作模式都不能离开视觉系统的引导和辅助而独立实现。文章以建立满足空间机械臂实际应用需求的视觉系统为目标,提出通过分布在不同空间位置的多个相机的协同工作扩展并增强视觉系统的监视和测量能力,并从系统组成、工作模式、测量方式等多方面完成空间机械臂视觉系统方案设计。仿真试验结果表明,目标三维位姿的测量误差与视觉标记点检测结果的误差近似成线性关系,视觉标记点检测的准确性对目标位姿测量的精度具有重要影响。室内环境试验结果

  9. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  10. Rapid and sensitive lentivirus vector-based conditional gene expression assay to monitor and quantify cell fusion activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A F V Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell fusion is involved in multiple fundamental biological processes. Prominent examples include osteoclast and giant cell formation, fertilization and skeletal myogenesis which involve macrophage, sperm-egg and myoblast fusion, respectively. Indeed, the importance of cell fusion is underscored by the wide range of homeostatic as well as pathologic processes in which it plays a key role. Therefore, rapid and sensitive systems to trace and measure cell fusion events in various experimental systems are in demand. Here, we introduce a bipartite cell fusion monitoring system based on a genetic switch responsive to the site-specific recombinase FLP. To allow flexible deployment in both dividing as well as non-dividing cell populations, inducer and reporter modules were incorporated in lentivirus vector particles. Moreover, the recombinase-inducible transcription units were designed in such a way as to minimize basal activity and chromosomal position effects in the "off" and "on" states, respectively. The lentivirus vector-based conditional gene expression assay was validated in primary human mesenchymal stem cells and in a differentiation model based on muscle progenitor cells from a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient using reporter genes compatible with live- and single-cell imaging and with whole population measurements. Using the skeletal muscle cell differentiation model, we showed that the new assay displays low background activity, a 2-log dynamic range, high sensitivity and is amenable to the investigation of cell fusion kinetics. The utility of the bipartite cell fusion monitoring system was underscored by a study on the impact of drug- and RNAi-mediated p38 MAPK inhibition on human myocyte differentiation. Finally, building on the capacity of lentivirus vectors to readily generate transgenic animals the present FLP-inducible system should be adaptable, alone or together with Cre/loxP-based assays, to cell lineage tracing and

  11. Kinematic analysis of platform-type robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolun

    New methods are developed for the kinematic analysis of serial and platform-type parallel robotic manipulators, including forward and inverse kinematic solutions, singularity identifications and workspace evaluation. Differences between serial and platform-type parallel manipulators, which can provide substantially improved end-point rigidity compared with the conventional serial robotic arms, are addressed. The problem of determining the screw parameters of rigid body motion from initial and final position data is discussed, as a basis to search for a general and efficient procedure to solve the complex forward kinematics problem of platform-type manipulators. Several Screw-Theory based approaches for solving the inverse instantaneous problem of 6 DOF serial manipulators are studied and compared in terms of their computational efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity to data error and capability of dealing with singularities. A modified Vector Decomposition method is then proposed for solving the IIK problem and for singularity analysis of serial kinematic chains, the method is especially effective when applied to the wrist partitioned serial manipulators, which are essential components to any platform-type parallel manipulators. By using the data of three point positions, velocities, and accelerations of the end effector a general method is developed for solving the forward kinematics problem, including position, velocity and acceleration kinematics, of platform-type manipulators. The solution procedure can be applied to a wide variety of platform-type manipulators such as the 6 DOF Steward Platform manipulator and other models. It is found that while the solution for the forward position kinematics of a platform-type manipulator can be obtained by solving a non-linear system of equations, the closed-form solutions for forward rate and acceleration kinematics can be found by solving a system of linear equations. Based on the proposed kinematic formulations, an algorithm

  12. Two-Way Gene Interaction From Microarray Data Based on Correlation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Majd, Hamid; Talebi, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Khayyer, Nasibeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene networks have generated a massive explosion in the development of high-throughput techniques for monitoring various aspects of gene activity. Networks offer a natural way to model interactions between genes, and extracting gene network information from high-throughput genomic data is an important and difficult task. Objectives The purpose of this study is to construct a two-way gene network based on parametric and nonparametric correlation coefficients. The first step in const...

  13. Gene-based analysis of regionally enriched cortical genes in GWAS data sets of cognitive traits and psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari M Ersland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ (n = 3 samples and bipolar affective disorder (BP (n = 3 samples, to which cognitive impairment is linked. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the single gene level, the temporal cortex enriched gene RAR-related orphan receptor B (RORB showed the strongest overall association, namely to a test of verbal intelligence (Vocabulary, P = 7.7E-04. We also applied gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA to test the candidate genes, as gene sets, for enrichment of association signal in the NCNG GWAS and in GWASs of BP and of SCZ. We found that genes differentially expressed in the temporal cortex showed a significant enrichment of association signal in a test measure of non-verbal intelligence (Reasoning in the NCNG sample. CONCLUSION: Our gene-based approach suggests that RORB could be involved in verbal intelligence differences, while the genes enriched in the temporal cortex might be important to intellectual functions as measured by a test of reasoning in the healthy population. These findings warrant further replication in independent samples on cognitive traits.

  14. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue. Keywords: Manipulation, Discourse, Cognitive, Power Abuse, Persuasion, Social representation, J.R.R. Tolkien

  15. MapGene2Chrom, a tool to draw gene physical map based on Perl and SVG languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiangtao, Chao; Yingzhen, Kong; Qian, Wang; Yuhe, Sun; Daping, Gong; Jing, Lv; Guanshan, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage map is helpful for analysis on heredity of some gene families and map-based gene cloning because of its simple and elegant manifestation. One software is in need to draw a gene physical map, which shows a manner similar to the genetic linkage map, based on the relative physical distance between genes. Although some tools like GBrowse and MapViewer etc. are available to draw gene physical map, there are obvious limitations for them: (1) the data need to be decorated in advance; (2) users can't modify results. Therefore, we developed a bio-assisted mapping software--MapGene2Chrom with PC and web versions, which is based on Perl and SVG languages. The software can be used to draw the corresponding physical map quickly in SVG format based on the input data. It will become a useful tool for drawing gene physical map with the advantages of simple input data format, easily modified output and very good portability.

  16. 基于重力补偿的机械臂PD控制系统研究%Study of Manipulator PD Control System Based on Gravity Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 任思碌; 于宗艳

    2012-01-01

    According to the complexity of mathematical description and the difficulty of kinematics analysis,the robot dual joint manipulator dynamic model was built applying inverse dynamics method and the gravity item of each joint torque in robot arm was made up.The PD control algorithm with accruate estimation of gravity torque was applied to realize manipulator trajectory tracking accurately.The pointing control of the mechanical arm is achieved and the system has such advantages as no over adjusting and small initial torque.Simulation experiment results agree with the theoretical analysis and it shows that the control method is effective.%针对多关节机器人机械臂数学描述复杂、运动学分析困难的问题,采用逆动力学方法建立机器人双关节机械臂的动力学模型,并对重力项进行补偿,采用对重力矩准确估值的PD控制算法实现机械臂运动轨迹准确跟踪,能够满足机械臂定点控制的要求,具有无超调、初始力矩小等特点,通过仿真实验表明与理论分析结果一致,表明此控制方法的有效性。

  17. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  18. Adaptive Control of Flexible Redundant Manipulators Using Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yimin; LI Jianxin; WANG Shiyu; LIU Jianping

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the neural networks based active vibration control of flexible redundant manipulators was conducted.The smart links of the manipulator were synthesized with the flexible links to which were attached piezoceramic actuators and strain gauge sensors.A nonlinear adaptive control strategy named neural networks based indirect adaptive control (NNIAC) was employed to improve the dynamic performance of the manipulator.The mathematical model of the 4-layered dynamic recurrent neural networks (DRNN) was introduced.The neuro-identifier and the neurocontroller featuring the DRNN topology were designed off line so as to enhance the initial robustness of the NNIAC.By adjusting the neuro-identifier and the neuro-controller alternatively,the manipulator was controlled on line for achieving the desired dynamic performance.Finally,a planar 3R redundant manipulator with one smart link was utilized as an illustrative example.The simulation results proved the validity of the control strategy.

  19. Gene-based Association Approach Identify Genes Across Stress Traits in Fruit Flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon; Sarup, Pernille Merete;

    approach grouping variants accordingly to gene position, thus lowering the number of statistical tests performed and increasing the probability of identifying genes with small to moderate effects. Using this approach we identify numerous genes associated with different types of stresses in Drosophila...

  20. WhichGenes: a web-based tool for gathering, building, storing and exporting gene sets with application in gene set enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glez-Peña, Daniel; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Pisano, David G; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino

    2009-07-01

    WhichGenes is a web-based interactive gene set building tool offering a very simple interface to extract always-updated gene lists from multiple databases and unstructured biological data sources. While the user can specify new gene sets of interest by following a simple four-step wizard, the tool is able to run several queries in parallel. Every time a new set is generated, it is automatically added to the private gene-set cart and the user is notified by an e-mail containing a direct link to the new set stored in the server. WhichGenes provides functionalities to edit, delete and rename existing sets as well as the capability of generating new ones by combining previous existing sets (intersection, union and difference operators). The user can export his sets configuring the output format and selecting among multiple gene identifiers. In addition to the user-friendly environment, WhichGenes allows programmers to access its functionalities in a programmatic way through a Representational State Transfer web service. WhichGenes front-end is freely available at http://www.whichgenes.org/, WhichGenes API is accessible at http://www.whichgenes.org/api/.

  1. Kinect平台上使用机器学习的非接触式GUI操控方式%Non-Contact GUI Manipulation Approach Based on Machine Learning and Kinect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾繁江; 李涛; 黎铭

    2014-01-01

    People are gradually abandoning the mouse and keyboard since touch screens come into their lives, however the shortcomings and limitations of touch manipulation emerge subsequently, thus non-contact manipulations are becoming the new trend of human-computer interaction in the future due to its unique advantages. There are many problems in existing non-contact manipulation approaches, e.g. improper definitions of gestures, complex algo-rithms, low recognition accuracy, etc. This paper proposes RemoteControl, a non-contact manipulation approach based on machine learning and the Kinect device. Users can finish most fundamental GUI (graphical user interface) manipulations in the 3-dimensional space by the two actions,“grab”and“put”. RemoteControl utilizes SVM (support vector machine) and random forest to recognize hand shapes in hand images. The experimental results show that RemoteControl achieves high accuracy in hand gesture recognition.%触摸屏的出现使人们逐渐摒弃鼠标和键盘,而触摸操作的不便和局限性也随之显现,非接触式操作凭借其独特的优势正逐渐成为未来人机交互方式的新潮流。针对现有的非接触式操作方式存在的手势定义不合理,方法复杂难解,识别精度低等许多问题,提出了使用“抓”和“放”这两个手势的非接触式操控方式RemoteControl,用户可在三维空间中做出操控动作来完成大部分基础图形用户界面(graphical user interface,GUI)操作。RemoteControl使用支持向量机(support vector machine,SVM)和随机森林来从手部图像中识别出手的形状。实验结果表明RemoteControl的操控动作识别取得了较高的精确度。

  2. Identification of minimal eukaryotic introns through GeneBase, a user-friendly tool for parsing the NCBI Gene databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Allison; Caracausi, Maria; Ricci, Marco; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-01

    We have developed GeneBase, a full parser of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene database, which generates a fully structured local database with an intuitive user-friendly graphic interface for personal computers. Features of all the annotated eukaryotic genes are accessible through three main software tables, including for each entry details such as the gene summary, the gene exon/intron structure and the specific Gene Ontology attributions. The structuring of the data, the creation of additional calculation fields and the integration with nucleotide sequences allow users to make many types of comparisons and calculations that are useful for data retrieval and analysis. We provide an original example analysis of the existing introns across all the available species, through which the classic biological problem of the 'minimal intron' may find a solution using available data. Based on all currently available data, we can define the shortest known eukaryotic GT-AG intron length, setting the physical limit at the 30 base pair intron belonging to the human MST1L gene. This 'model intron' will shed light on the minimal requirement elements of recognition used for conventional splicing functioning. Remarkably, this size is indeed consistent with the sum of the splicing consensus sequence lengths.

  3. Citrus plastid-related gene profiling based on expressed sequence tag analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Calsa Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastid-related sequences, derived from putative nuclear or plastome genes, were searched in a large collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and genomic sequences from the Citrus Biotechnology initiative in Brazil. The identified putative Citrus chloroplast gene sequences were compared to those from Arabidopsis, Eucalyptus and Pinus. Differential expression profiling for plastid-directed nuclear-encoded proteins and photosynthesis-related gene expression variation between Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata, when inoculated or not with Xylella fastidiosa, were also analyzed. Presumed Citrus plastome regions were more similar to Eucalyptus. Some putative genes appeared to be preferentially expressed in vegetative tissues (leaves and bark or in reproductive organs (flowers and fruits. Genes preferentially expressed in fruit and flower may be associated with hypothetical physiological functions. Expression pattern clustering analysis suggested that photosynthesis- and carbon fixation-related genes appeared to be up- or down-regulated in a resistant or susceptible Citrus species after Xylella inoculation in comparison to non-infected controls, generating novel information which may be helpful to develop novel genetic manipulation strategies to control Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC.

  4. Assembly-line manipulation of droplets in microfluidic platform for fluorescence encoding and simultaneous multiplexed DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyang; Zhou, Guohua; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2015-03-01

    In this article, a new mode of droplets manipulation is presented and applied for simultaneous multiplexed DNA detection. We call this droplets manipulation, "assembly-line manipulation of droplets (ALMD)". Firstly, multiple droplets containing the same target mixtures are generated in the microchannel, and then fused with later generated different droplets containing corresponding probes, respectively. Finally, all the fused droplets were fluorescence imaged on-line and real-time. The successful implementation of droplets fluorescence encoding based on ALMD shows the reproducibility and accuracy of this manipulation mode. As a proof-of-concept application, the simultaneous multiplexed DNA detection was carried out through the model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene sequence and variola virus (small pox, VV) gene sequence based on ALMD in the microfluidic system. It is proved that this method achieves simultaneous multiplexed DNA measurements with a significantly time-saving way and without different dye-labelled probes or complex operation procedures. In addition, it reveals the possibility of high-throughput biosensing with simple chip design and detection equipment.

  5. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  6. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2/sup 0/ deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Manipulator control by exact linearization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruetz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

  8. 机械臂变指数趋近律滑模控制律设计%Design of a Sliding Mode Control Scheme Based on Improved Exponent Trending Law for Robotic Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 李小民

    2012-01-01

    A sliding mode control scheme was designed based on an improved trending law to deal with the chattering problem in sliding mode control of robotic manipulators. The traits of sliding mode control method and exponential trending law were analyzed, then a kind of improved exponent trending law was proposed and its trending performance was evaluated. The sliding mode control scheme was designed based on dynamic model of robotic manipulators and the new trending law, and its contrftl effect was validated. The simulation results show that the scheme can control the chattering effectively, guarantee the rapid tracking to the desired trajectory, and enhance the operational performance of the robot manipulators.%针对机械臂滑模控制中存在抖振的问题,采用改进趋近律的思想来设计滑模控制律,以达到有效抑制抖振的目的.在对滑模控制的特点和常用的指数趋近律进行分析的基础上,提出了一种变指数趋近律,并对其趋近性能进行了分析;结合机械臂动力学模型和改进的趋近律设计了相应的滑模控制策略,对其控制效果进行了验证.仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅有效地抑制了系统的抖振,而且保证了机械臂系统对期望轨迹的快速跟踪性,进而提高了机械臂的工作性能.

  9. 基于五次B样条的机械手关节空间平滑轨迹规划%Smooth Trajectory Planning Based on Five Degrees B-spline for Manipulators in Joint Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞; 汪木兰; 刘坤; 蒋荣

    2012-01-01

    An interpolation method based on five degrees B-spline for manipulators trajectory planning in joint space is proposed to accomplish smooth trajectory adjustment. The B-spline interpolation algorithm can ensure the continuous of velocity, acceleration and jerk in joints moving process, also can achieve start and stop velocity, acceleration and jerk be any configuration. The manipulator trajectory is simulated out and the graphs of joints position-time, velocity-time and acceleration-time are drawn out through C + + 6. 0 development platform based on MFC framework class and OpenGL graphics library. Simulation results show that, the proposed algorithm supplied manipulators with smooth adjustment of trajectory and stable movement of joints.%为实现机械手作业轨迹平滑,关节轨迹的速度、加速度、加加速度保持连续,起始和停止的速度、加速度和加加速度可以任意配置,采用5次B样条曲线插值方法构造关节轨迹.推导了B样条曲线插值轨迹算法;通过VC ++6.0开发平台,基于MFC框架类和OpenGL图形库仿真出机械手的运动过程,并绘制出各关节的位置、速度、加速度时间曲线图.仿真结果表明,该方法使机械手关节调整平滑且运动平稳,运动性能显著优于传统的三次样条轨迹规划.

  10. Human-like Manipulation Planning for Articulated Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahui Gan; Xianzhong Dai

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on human-likeness assessment and optimization concept to solve the problem of human-like manipulation planning for articulated robot is proposed in this paper.This method intrinsically formulates the problem as a constrained optimization problem in robot configuration space.The robot configuration space is divided into different subregions by human likeness assessment.A widely used strategy,Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) in applied ergonomics,is adopted here to evaluate the human likeness of robot configuration.A task compatibility measurement of the robot velocity transmission ratio along a specified direction is used as the target function for the optimization problem.Simple illustrative examples of this method applied to a two Degree of Freedom (DOF) planar robot that resembles the upper limb of a human are presented.Further applications to a humanoid industrial robot SDA10D are also presented.The reasonable planning results for these applications assert the effectiveness of our method.

  11. Taking behavioralism seriously: some evidence of market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J D; Kysar, D A

    1999-05-01

    Over the last ten to fifteen years, economists and legal scholars have become increasingly interested in and sensitive to behavioralist insights. In a companion article, Jon Hanson and Douglas Kysar argued that those scholars have nevertheless given short shrift to what is, at least for policymaking purposes, perhaps the most important lesson of the behavioralist research: individuals' perceptions and preferences are highly manipulable. According to Hanson and Kysar, one theoretical implication of that insight for products liability law is that manufacturers and marketers will manipulate the risk perceptions of consumers. Indeed, to survive in a competitive market, manufacturers and marketers must do so. In this Article, Hanson and Kysar present empirical evidence of market manipulation--a previously unrecognized source of market failure. The Article begins by surveying the extensive qualitative and quantitative marketing research and consumer behavioral studies that discern and influence consumer perceptions. It then provides evidence of market manipulation by reviewing common practices in everyday market settings, such as gas stations and supermarkets, and by examining familiar marketing approaches, such as environmentally oriented and fear-based advertising. Although consumers may be well-aware of those practices and approaches, they appear to be generally unaware of the extent to which those tactics are manipulative. The Article then focuses on the industry that has most depended upon market manipulation: the cigarette industry. Through decades of sophisticated marketing and public relations efforts, cigarette manufacturers have heightened consumer demand and lowered consumer risk perceptions. Because consumers are aware that smoking may pose significant health risks, the tobacco industry's success in manipulating risk perceptions constitutes especially strong evidence of the power of market manipulation. The Article concludes by arguing that the evidence of

  12. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information

    CERN Document Server

    Conitzer, Vincent; Xia, Lirong

    2011-01-01

    We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the nonmanipulators. Such partial information is described by an information set, which is the set of profiles of the nonmanipulators that are indistinguishable to the manipulator. Given such an information set, a dominating manipulation is a non-truthful vote that the manipulator can cast which makes the winner at least as preferable (and sometimes more preferable) as the winner when the manipulator votes truthfully. When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results). We show that when the manipulator has no information, there is no dominating manipulation for many common voting rules. When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules. Our results t...

  13. Workspace and Kinematics Analysis of Redundant Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian-xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of tasks in the complex space environment, we designed a kind of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator in this paper. Its 3D modelling is based on SolidWorks 2015. The joint coordinate system of redundant space manipulator is described with the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method. And the kinematic model is established. The direct kinematic equations of redundant space manipulator are derived by the homogeneous coordinate transforming matrices. The workspace is simulated and analysed using the Monte Carlo method. The experimental results showed that the workspace of 7 degrees of freedom redundant space manipulator, which was designed in this paper, changed smoothly. What’s more, it had not the abrupt phenomenon, and the independent part is bigger. Thus it verifies the rationality of our designing about the redundant space manipulator. It provides a good reference for the path planning and obstacle avoidance planning.

  14. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: novel application to dermatological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Winkelmann, Richard R; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-10-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value.

  15. Optimal Kinematic Design of a 2-DOF Planar Parallel Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; LI Tiemin; LIU Xinjun; WANG Liping

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form solutions were developed to optimize kinematics design of a 2-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) planar parallel manipulator. The optimum design based on the workspace was presented. Meanwhile,a global, comprehensive conditioning index was introduced to evaluate the kinematic designs. The optimal parallel manipulator is incorporated into a 5-DOF hybrid machine tool which includes a 2-DOF rotational milling head and a long movement worktable. The results show that the planar parallel manipulator-based machine tool can be successfully used to machine blades and guide vanes for a hydraulic turbine.

  16. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample...

  17. A PLSPM-based test statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association in genome-wide association study with case-control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Fangyu; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhao, Jinghua; Xue, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    For genome-wide association data analysis, two genes in any pathway, two SNPs in the two linked gene regions respectively or in the two linked exons respectively within one gene are often correlated with each other. We therefore proposed the concept of gene-gene co-association, which refers to the effects not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. Furthermore, we constructed a novel statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association based on Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLSPM). Through simulation, the relationship between traditional interaction and co-association was highlighted under three different types of co-association. Both simulation and real data analysis demonstrated that the proposed PLSPM-based statistic has better performance than single SNP-based logistic model, PCA-based logistic model, and other gene-based methods.

  18. Magnus force effect in optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipparrone, Gabriella; Hernandez, Raul Josue; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Provenzano, Clementina

    2011-07-01

    The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  19. Recent advances in the rational design of silica-based nanoparticles for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niut, Yuting; Popatt, Amirali; Yu, Meihua; Karmakar, Surajit; Gu, Wenyi; Yu, Chengzhong

    2012-10-01

    Gene therapy has attracted much attention in modern society and provides a promising approach for treating genetic disorders, diseases and cancers. Safe and effective vectors are vital tools to deliver genetic molecules to cells. This review summarizes recent advances in the rational design of silica-based nanoparticles and their applications in gene therapy. An overview of different types of genetic agents available for gene therapy is provided. The engineering of various silica nanoparticles is described, which can be used as versatile complexation tools for genetic agents and advanced gene therapy. Several challenges are raised and future research directions in the area of gene therapy using silica-based nanoparticles are proposed.

  20. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  1. 改进幂次趋近律的机械臂滑模控制律设计%Design of Sliding Mode Control Scheme Based on Improved Idempotent Trending Law For Robotic Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席雷平; 陈自力; 张世华

    2012-01-01

    针对机械臂滑模控制中存在的抖振问题,采用趋近律的方法来进行改善,在对机械臂的控制特点和常用的滑模趋近律进行分析的基础上,针对幂次趋近律的缺点,提出了一种改进的幂次趋近律,并对其趋近性能进行了分析;根据机械臂动力学模型和改进的幂次趋近律设计了相应的滑模控制策略,对其控制策略的位置跟踪特性和抖振消除能力等进行了验证;仿真结果表明,该控制策略不仅有效地抑制了机械臂滑模控制中的抖振问题,而且保证了机械臂系统对期望轨迹的快速跟踪性,具有更好的趋近特性和收敛特性.%The trending law is used to resolve the problem of chattering in sliding mode control for robotic manipulators. The control trait of robot manipulators and common trending law are analyzed, a new trending law is proposed and its trending performance is evaluated. The correlative sliding mode control scheme based on dynamic model of robotic manipulators and new trending law is designed. Then its position tracking and chattering control performances are validated. The simulation results show that the new scheme can not only control the chattering effectively but also achieve a fast and accurate position tracking, which is of better reaching and astringency performance.

  2. 基于CAD变量几何法的并联机构静力学分析%Static Analysis of the Parallel Manipulator based on CAD Variable Geometry Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勇

    2012-01-01

    以虚功原理为基础,利用CAD变量几何法,求解空间并联机构各分支的驱动力和约束力.以3- RPS并联机构为例,首先构造含有欧拉角的该机构的模拟机构,在此基础上进一步构造F/T(力/力矩)模拟机构,得到其驱动力和约束力解.当改变驱动参数时,F/T(力/力矩)模拟机构随之变化,驱动力和约束力自动求解和动态显示.结果表明,CAD变量几何法不仅快速直观,而且准确可靠.%Based on the virtual work theory as the foundations, the active and constraint forces of each limb of the parallel manipulator are solved. Tacking the spatial 3 - EPS parallel manipulator as research object, a simulation mechanism of the parallel manipulator with Euler angles was created firstly. Then the force/torque simulation mechanisms were created. Modifying the driving dimension, the configuration of the simulation mechanisms were varied cor-respondingly, and the active and constraint forces were solved automatically and visualized dynamically. The results show that the CAD variation geometry is fairly quick and straightforward, and is also advantageous from viewpoint of accuracy and reliability.

  3. Analysis of Active Force and Constraint Force of Parallel Manipulator Based on Virtual Work Theory%基于虚功原理的并联机构驱动力和约束力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the virtual work theory, the active and constraint forces of each limb of the parallel manipulator are solved. Taking the 2SPS + 2UPU spatial parallel manipulator as research object, a simulation mechanism of the parallel manipulator with Euler angles was created firstly. Then the force/torque simulation mechanisms were created. When modifying the driving dimension, the configuration of the simulation mechanisms were varied correspondingly, and the active and constraint forces were solved automatically and visualized dynamically. The results show that the CAD variation geometry is fairly quick and straightforward, and is also advantageous from viewpoint of accuracy and reliability.%以虚功原理为基础,利用CAD变量几何法,求解空间并联机构各分支的驱动力和约束力.以一种空间2SPS+ 2UPU并联机构为例,首先构造含有欧拉角的该机构的模拟机构,在此基础上进一步构造F/T(力/力矩)模拟机构,得到其驱动力和约束力解.当改变驱动参数时,F/T(力/力矩)模拟机构随之变化,驱动力和约束力自动求解和动态显示.结果表明CAD变量几何法不仅快速直观,而且准确可靠.

  4. Comparative study between recent methods manipulating ratio spectra and classical methods based on two-wavelength selection for the determination of binary mixture of antazoline hydrochloride and tetryzoline hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Lamia M.; Abd-El Rahman, Mohamed K.; Ramadan, Nesrin K.; EL Sanabary, Hoda F. A.; Salem, Maissa Y.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study was developed between two classical spectrophotometric methods (dual wavelength method and Vierordt's method) and two recent methods manipulating ratio spectra (ratio difference method and first derivative of ratio spectra method) for simultaneous determination of Antazoline hydrochloride (AN) and Tetryzoline hydrochloride (TZ) in their combined pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative without preliminary separation. The dual wavelength method depends on choosing two wavelengths for each drug in a way so that the difference in absorbance at those two wavelengths is zero for the other drug. While Vierordt's method, is based upon measuring the absorbance and the absorptivity values of the two drugs at their λmax (248.0 and 219.0 nm for AN and TZ, respectively), followed by substitution in the corresponding Vierordt's equation. Recent methods manipulating ratio spectra depend on either measuring the difference in amplitudes of ratio spectra between 255.5 and 269.5 nm for AN and 220.0 and 273.0 nm for TZ in case of ratio difference method or computing first derivative of the ratio spectra for each drug then measuring the peak amplitude at 250.0 nm for AN and at 224.0 nm for TZ in case of first derivative of ratio spectrophotometry. The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing different laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. All methods were applied successfully for the determination of the selected drugs in their combined dosage form proving that the classical spectrophotometric methods can still be used successfully in analysis of binary mixture using minimal data manipulation rather than recent methods which require relatively more steps. Furthermore, validation of the proposed methods was performed according to ICH guidelines; accuracy, precision and repeatability are found to be within the acceptable limits. Statistical studies showed that the methods can be

  5. The Correlation-Base-Selection Algorithm for Diagnostic Schizophrenia Based on Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Xie, Ziyang; Yang, Yuwen; Zhao, Yizhen

    2017-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression is often used to diagnose different types of disease. Many studies report remarkable achievements in nervous system disease. Clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) still depends on doctors' experience, which is unreliable and needs to be more objective and quantified. To solve this problem, we collected whole blood gene expression data from four studies, including 152 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 138 normal controls in different regions. The correlation-based feature selection (CFS, one of the machine learning methods) algorithm was applied in this study, and 103 significantly differentially expressed genes between patients and controls, called “feature genes,” were selected; then, a model for SCZ diagnosis was built. The samples were subdivided into 10 groups, and cross-validation showed that the model we constructed achieved nearly 100% classification accuracy. Mathematical evaluation of the datasets before and after data processing proved the effectiveness of our algorithm. Feature genes were enriched in Parkinson's disease, oxidative phosphorylation, and TGF-beta signaling pathways, which were previously reported to be associated with SCZ. These results suggest that the analysis of gene expression in whole blood by our model could be a useful tool for diagnosing SCZ. PMID:28280741

  6. Kinematic Determination of an Unmodeled Serial Manipulator by Means of an IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Constance A.

    Kinematic determination for an unmodeled manipulator is usually done through a-priori knowledge of the manipulator physical characteristics or external sensor information. The mathematics of the kinematic estimation, often based on Denavit- Hartenberg convention, are complex and have high computation requirements, in addition to being unique to the manipulator for which the method is developed. Analytical methods that can compute kinematics on-the fly have the potential to be highly beneficial in dynamic environments where different configurations and variable manipulator types are often required. This thesis derives a new screw theory based method of kinematic determination, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU), for use with any serial, revolute manipulator. The method allows the expansion of reconfigurable manipulator design and simplifies the kinematic process for existing manipulators. A simulation is presented where the theory of the method is verified and characterized with error. The method is then implemented on an existing manipulator as a verification of functionality.

  7. Gene expression-based biomarkers for discriminating early and late stage of clear cell renal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Sherry; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Sehgal, Manika; Kaur, Harpreet; Sharma, Suresh; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to identify expression-based gene biomarkers that can discriminate early and late stage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. We have analyzed the gene expression of 523 samples to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the early and late stage of ccRCC. First, a threshold-based method has been developed, which attained a maximum accuracy of 71.12% with ROC 0.67 using single gene NR3C2. To improve the performance of threshold-based method, we combined two or more genes and achieved maximum accuracy of 70.19% with ROC of 0.74 using eight genes on the validation dataset. These eight genes include four underexpressed (NR3C2, ENAM, DNASE1L3, FRMPD2) and four overexpressed (PLEKHA9, MAP6D1, SMPD4, C11orf73) genes in the late stage of ccRCC. Second, models were developed using state-of-art techniques and achieved maximum accuracy of 72.64% and 0.81 ROC using 64 genes on validation dataset. Similar accuracy was obtained on 38 genes selected from subset of genes, involved in cancer hallmark biological processes. Our analysis further implied a need to develop gender-specific models for stage classification. A web server, CancerCSP, has been developed to predict stage of ccRCC using gene expression data derived from RNAseq experiments. PMID:28349958

  8. TXTGate: profiling gene groups with text-based information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenisson, P.; Coessens, B.; Van Vooren, S.

    2004-01-01

    We implemented a framework called TXTGate that combines literature indices of selected public biological resources in a flexible text-mining system designed towards the analysis of groups of genes. By means of tailored vocabularies, term-as well as gene-centric views are offered on selected textual...

  9. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka P. Gooneratne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs, and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device.

  10. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Kodzius, Rimantas; Li, Fuquan; Foulds, Ian G; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads(®) demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead(®) SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads(®) travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device.

  11. On-Chip Magnetic Bead Manipulation and Detection Using a Magnetoresistive Sensor-Based Micro-Chip: Design Considerations and Experimental Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2016-08-26

    The remarkable advantages micro-chip platforms offer over cumbersome, time-consuming equipment currently in use for bio-analysis are well documented. In this research, a micro-chip that includes a unique magnetic actuator (MA) for the manipulation of superparamagnetic beads (SPBs), and a magnetoresistive sensor for the detection of SPBs is presented. A design methodology, which takes into account the magnetic volume of SPBs, diffusion and heat transfer phenomena, is presented with the aid of numerical analysis to optimize the parameters of the MA. The MA was employed as a magnetic flux generator and experimental analysis with commercially available COMPEL™ and Dynabeads® demonstrated the ability of the MA to precisely transport a small number of SPBs over long distances and concentrate SPBs to a sensing site for detection. Moreover, the velocities of COMPEL™ and Dynabead® SPBs were correlated to their magnetic volumes and were in good agreement with numerical model predictions. We found that 2.8 μm Dynabeads® travel faster, and can be attracted to a magnetic source from a longer distance, than 6.2 μm COMPEL™ beads at magnetic flux magnitudes of less than 10 mT. The micro-chip system could easily be integrated with electronic circuitry and microfluidic functions, paving the way for an on-chip biomolecule quantification device

  12. A Novel Oil-Filling and Coupling Method Based on Phase Manipulation for Electrofluidic Displays%基于相变操控的电润湿显示油墨填充与封装工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彪; 蒋洪伟; 郭媛媛; Robert A.HAYES; 周国富

    2016-01-01

    Color oil filling and coupling are critical parts of electrofluidic display fabrication process.How to im-prove the uniformity and efficiency of the filling process is still a critical challenge for electrofluidic displays tech-nology.A novel oil filling and coupling approach based on phase manipulation is proposed in this paper, which al-lows the filling conducting in the atmospheric environment, while carrying out the coupling in the liquid environ-ment with the oil in frozen condition.The complexity caused by oil/water/solid interface manipulation in traditional filling method is avoided in this proposed approach, which improves the stability and compatibility of the filling process.The oil thickness analysis indicates the phased manipulation filling method giving a better controllability compared to traditional self-assembly method.The electro-optical response performance of the display device using phase manipulating method is comparable with that using normal process.This work provides a powerful method for overcoming the filling and coupling bottleneck in electrofluidic display manufacturing, and will accelerate the com-mercialization of electrofluidic display technology.%文章提出一种基于相变操控的电润湿显示油墨创新填充和封装方法,即在空气环境中完成油墨液相填充,经低温凝固后投入液体环境完成封装。该方法有效规避了在传统液下环境中填充涉及的油/水/固三相界面操控的复杂性,提高了填充工艺的兼容性和稳定性。对油墨厚度的分析结果表明,基于相变操控填充油墨厚度与像素墙高度的相关性更好,较传统自组装填充具有更好的膜厚控制性。相变操控填充电润湿显示器件的光电响应处于合理水平。该研究有效解决了电润湿显示油墨填充的技术瓶颈,对推进电润湿显示技术的应用具有重要意义。

  13. Targeted delivery of genes to endothelial cells and cell- and gene-based therapy in pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Colin M; Mei, Shirley H J; Kugathasan, Lakshmi; Stewart, Duncan J

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that, despite significant advances in medical therapies over the last several decades, continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Gene therapy is a method to deliver therapeutic genes to replace defective or mutant genes or supplement existing cellular processes to modify disease. Over the last few decades, several viral and nonviral methods of gene therapy have been developed for preclinical PAH studies with varying degrees of efficacy. However, these gene delivery methods face challenges of immunogenicity, low transduction rates, and nonspecific targeting which have limited their translation to clinical studies. More recently, the emergence of regenerative approaches using stem and progenitor cells such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have offered a new approach to gene therapy. Cell-based gene therapy is an approach that augments the therapeutic potential of EPCs and MSCs and may deliver on the promise of reversal of established PAH. These new regenerative approaches have shown tremendous potential in preclinical studies; however, large, rigorously designed clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety.

  14. Environment-sensitive manipulator control. [real time, decision making computer aided control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Environment-sensitive manipulator control (control systems capable of controlling manipulator motion based on real-time response to sensor data obtained during the attempt to perform a requested task) is described, and experiments on (1) proximity control in manipulation and (2) application of an articulated and adaptively controlled hand-to-environment-sensitive manipulator control are reported. The efficiency of such systems is determined by the separation of control and data processing functions between operator and computer.

  15. Osiris: a medical image-manipulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Y; Ratib, O; Logean, M; Girard, C

    1994-01-01

    We designed a general-purpose computer program, Osiris, for the display, manipulation, and analysis of digital medical images. The program offers an intuitive, window-based interface with direct access to generic tools. Characterized by user-friendliness, portability, and extensibility, Osiris is compatible with both Unix-based and Macintosh-based platforms. It is readily modified and can be used to develop new tools. It is able to monitor the entries made during a work session and thus provide data on its use. Osiris and its source code are being distributed, free of charge, to universities and research groups around the world.

  16. Tracking control of robot manipulators via output feedback linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Yue-nong; Wu Qing-hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robot manipulator tracking controller based on output feedback linearization.A sliding mode perturbation observer (SPO) is designed to estimate unmeasurable states and system perturbations that involve system nonlinearities,disturbances and unmodelled dynamics.The use of SPO allows to input/output linearize and decouple the strongly coupled nonlinear robot manipulator system merely by the feedback of joint angles.The controller design does not need an accurate model of the robot manipulator.Simulation studies are undertaken based on a two-link robot manipulator to evaluate the proposed approach.The simulation results show that the proposed controller has more superior tracking control performance,with payload changing in a wide range,in comparison with a sliding mode controller (SMC) designed based on state feedback linearization with full states available.

  17. Repetitive motion planning and control of redundant robot manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunong

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive Motion Planning and Control of Redundant Robot Manipulators presents four typical motion planning schemes based on optimization techniques, including the fundamental RMP scheme and its extensions. These schemes are unified as quadratic programs (QPs), which are solved by neural networks or numerical algorithms. The RMP schemes are demonstrated effectively by the simulation results based on various robotic models; the experiments applying the fundamental RMP scheme to a physical robot manipulator are also presented. As the schemes and the corresponding solvers presented in the book have solved the non-repetitive motion problems existing in redundant robot manipulators, it is of particular use in applying theoretical research based on the quadratic program for redundant robot manipulators in industrial situations. This book will be a valuable reference work for engineers, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in robotics fields. Yunong Zhang is a professor at The School of Informa...

  18. Tendon-driven manipulators: Analysis, synthesis, and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Jone

    As the development of light-weight, small volume, and versatile manipulators has grown in the field of robotics, the need for more efficient and relevant power transmission systems in the manipulators has become increasingly apparent. It is clear that the advent of efficient, low friction, and backlash-free actuation systems promises to provide significant gains in manipulator performance. Tendon transmission has been widely used to actuate small volume and light-weight articulated manipulators, such as dextrous mechanical hands, for it permits actuators to be installed remotely from the end-effector, thus reducing the bulk and inertia of the manipulator system. Current research on such actuation systems is accomplished on the basis of specialized designs. The lack of systematic approaches has limited our scope in realizing performance of such transmission systems. Therefore, when associated with systematic methodologies, the study of tendon-driven manipulators promises to be of major importance in the field of robotics. This dissertation is concerned with four issues to enhance our use and understanding of tendon-driven manipulators. First, a systematic approach for the kinematics analysis of tendon-driven manipulators is established. A graph is used to represent the kinematic structure of tendon-driven manipulators. It is shown that the kinematic structure of tendon-driven manipulators is in every way similar to that of epicyclic gear trains. The fundamental circuit equation developed for the kinematic analysis of epicyclic gear trains can thus be applied to this type of mechanism. The displacement equation governing joint angle space and tendon space can easily be obtained. Secondly, the concept of structural isomorphism and the structural characteristics of tendon-driven manipulators are investigated. Based on the explored properties, a methodology for the enumeration of tendon-driven manipulators is developed. By applying the methodology, a class of kinematic

  19. Gene-Based Analysis of Regionally Enriched Cortical Genes in GWAS Data Sets of Cognitive Traits and Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersland, Kari M; Christoforou, Andrea; Stansberg, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ) (n......Despite its estimated high heritability, the genetic architecture leading to differences in cognitive performance remains poorly understood. Different cortical regions play important roles in normal cognitive functioning and impairment. Recently, we reported on sets of regionally enriched genes...... in three different cortical areas (frontomedial, temporal and occipital cortices) of the adult rat brain. It has been suggested that genes preferentially, or specifically, expressed in one region or organ reflect functional specialisation. Employing a gene-based approach to the analysis, we used...

  20. A Rough Set based Gene Expression Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Emilyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Microarray technology helps in monitoring the expression levels of thousands of genes across collections of related samples. Approach: The main goal in the analysis of large and heterogeneous gene expression datasets was to identify groups of genes that get expressed in a set of experimental conditions. Results: Several clustering techniques have been proposed for identifying gene signatures and to understand their role and many of them have been applied to gene expression data, but with partial success. The main aim of this work was to develop a clustering algorithm that would successfully indentify gene patterns. The proposed novel clustering technique (RCGED provides an efficient way of finding the hidden and unique gene expression patterns. It overcomes the restriction of one object being placed in only one cluster. Conclusion/Recommendations: The proposed algorithm is termed intelligent because it automatically determines the optimum number of clusters. The proposed algorithm was experimented with colon cancer dataset and the results were compared with Rough Fuzzy K Means algorithm.

  1. A Design of Truss Manipulator Monitoring System Based on MAP library functions%基于西门子MAP库的桁架机械手监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仙珍; 徐进富

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring system of truss manipulator based on S7-200 PLC and Kingview software is designed for digital flexible manufacturing line in this paper. MAP library functions are applied to control the manipulator X axis and Z axis servo motion, so as to accomplish accurate positioning control of material handling. The experi⁃mental results show that the designed system is accurate and stable, which can realize parameter setting, control mode switching and real-time dynamic monitoring, so it meets the design requirements.%以数字化柔性制造生产线中的桁架机械手为控制对象,基于S7-200PLC和组态王软件设计了机械手监控系统。采用MAP库函数控制桁架机械手x轴、z轴的伺服运动,从而实现物料加工搬运的精确定位。运行结果表明,桁架机械手运行准确可靠,可以实现参数设置及系统运行状态的实时、动态监控,达到了设计要求。

  2. Repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahsani Tehrani, Hojjat; Karbassi, Seyed Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a novel robust discrete repetitive control of electrically driven robot manipulators for tracking of a periodic trajectory. We propose a novel model, which presents the highly non-linear dynamics of robot manipulator in the form of linear discrete-time time-varying system. Based on the proposed model, we develop a two-term control law. The first term is an ordinary time-optimal and minimum-norm (TOMN) control by employing parametric controllers to guarantee stability. The second term is a novel robust control to improve the control performance in the face of uncertainties. The robust control estimates and compensates uncertainties including the parametric uncertainty, unmodelled dynamics and external disturbances. Performance of the proposed method is compared with two discrete methods, namely the TOMN control and an adaptive iterative learning (AIL) control. Simulation results confirm superiority of the proposed method in terms of the convergence speed and precision.

  3. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  4. Manipulator Controlled since a Smartphone by Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Niño, F.; Rodríguez Pedroza, G.; Castillo Baldivia, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the design of transmitter interface of data between a microcontroller and Smartphone to control a robot. We used a Bluetooth module to send the commands to control the moving of the manipulator. The system is formed by three parts: the first part, the program made in Android. It is run on the Smartphone that controls the position of the robot. The second part is the reception board based in the PIC18F4550 that energizes the joints of the manipulator. The last part is the driver. It use an integrated circuit L293D that is configured in two full bridges H. This system is a good tool for learning of programing, sensors, actuators, robotic, electronic and design electronic.

  5. 基于RBF的机械手建模误差补偿自适应控制%Self-adaptive Control of Robotic Manipulator Based on Modeling Error Compensated by RBF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 杨开明; 朱煜

    2012-01-01

    According to the modeling error in the dynamical model of robotic manipulators, a new self-adaptive control strategy based on modeling error compensated by RBF neural network was proposed. By means of Computed Torque control method based on inverse dynamics, and through input torque and desired trajectory corrected, two self-adaptive control schemes based on error compensated were developed. The correction terms were learned on-line by RBF neural network, and the adaptive learning law of network weights was developed based on Lyapunov stability theory, therefore the convergence and stability were guaranteed. Simulations are presented for a planner manipulator with two joints, the trajectory tracking results show that the modeling error can be effectively approximated and compensated, the RBF neural network improves the performance and makes the controller have robustness to the parameter perturbations, and it can be applied to the control for robotic manipulators.%针对机械手动力学建模误差,提出了基于RBF神经网络误差补偿的自适应控制策略。在基于逆动力学的计算力矩控制方法的基础上,对系统输入与目标轨迹进行修正,设计了两种误差补偿自适应控制器。利用RBF神经网络对修正项在线自学习,并根据Lyapunov稳定性理论建立了网络权重自适应学习律,保证了跟踪误差的收敛及系统的稳定。以平面转动双臂机械手轨迹跟踪为例进行仿真,结果表明该方法能够有效地补偿建模误差,提高了系统的控制性能并使控制系统具有对参数摄动的鲁棒性,对于机械手自适应控制具有一定的可行性。

  6. Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast amount of large-scale and genome-wide time-resolved data is becoming increasing available, which provides the golden opportunity to unravel the challenging reverse-engineering problem of time-delayed gene regulatory networks. Results In particular, this methodological paper aims to reconstruct regulatory networks from temporal gene expression data by using delayed correlations between genes, i.e., pairwise overlaps of expression levels shifted in time relative each other. We have thus developed a novel model-free computational toolbox termed TdGRN (Time-delayed Gene Regulatory Network to address the underlying regulations of genes that can span any unit(s of time intervals. This bioinformatics toolbox has provided a unified approach to uncovering time trends of gene regulations through decision analysis of the newly designed time-delayed gene expression matrix. We have applied the proposed method to yeast cell cycling and human HeLa cell cycling and have discovered most of the underlying time-delayed regulations that are supported by multiple lines of experimental evidence and that are remarkably consistent with the current knowledge on phase characteristics for the cell cyclings. Conclusion We established a usable and powerful model-free approach to dissecting high-order dynamic trends of gene-gene interactions. We have carefully validated the proposed algorithm by applying it to two publicly available cell cycling datasets. In addition to uncovering the time trends of gene regulations for cell cycling, this unified approach can also be used to study the complex

  7. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-Induced Hyperactivity Is a Conserved Strategy of a Subset of BaculoViruses to Manipulate Lepidopteran Host Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houte, van S.; Ros, V.I.D.; Mastenbroek, T.G.; Vendrig, N.J.; Hoover, K.; Spitzen, J.; Oers, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Many parasites manipulate host behavior to increase the probability of transmission. To date, direct evidence for parasitic genes underlying such behavioral manipulations is scarce. Here we show that the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) induces hyperactive behavior

  8. 基于LMI方法的机器人LPV鲁棒H∞控制器设计%Robot Manipulator LPV Robust H∞ Controller Design Based on LMI Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞忠伟; 陈辉堂; 王月娟

    2001-01-01

    对平面两关节直接驱动机器人,提出一种同时将闭环极点配置到满足动态响应区域内的变增益LPV鲁棒H∞控制器设计新方法。利用LPV的凸分解方法,将机器人模型化为具有凸多面体结构的LPV模型,然后利用LMI技术对凸多面体各顶点分别设计满足H∞性能和闭环极点配置的反馈增益,再利用各顶点设计的反馈控制器综合得到具有凸多面体结构的LPV控制器。仿真结果验证了该控制器可使机器人随关节位置变化始终具有良好的控制性能。%A new approach to design robust H∞ contr ollers for a two-jointdirect drive planar manipulator is presented. The time- varying nonlinear model of robot is translated into a linear parameter varyin g(LPV) system with convex polytopic version via the LPV convex decomposition tec h nique. State feedback controllers satisfying H∞ performance and pole plac ement at every vertex of convex polyhedron parameter space are designed via line ar matrix inequalities(LMIs) approach. Using these designed controllers at every vertex, a LPV controller with smaller on-line calculating capacity is synthesi zed via convex decomposition techniques. Simulation results prove that the robot with the LPV controller has good performance as the joint angles vary.

  9. Stiffness of serial and quasi-serial manipulators: comparison analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimchik Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with comparison analysis of serial and quasi-serial manipulators. It shows a difference between stiffness behaviours of corresponding industrial robots under external loading, which is caused by machining process. The analysis is based on the estimation of compliance errors induced by cutting forces that are applied to the manipulator end-effector. We demonstrate that the quasi-seral manipulators are preferable for large-dimensional tasks while the quasi-serial ones better suit small size tasks.

  10. The Isoconditioning Loci of Planar Three-DOF Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe; Angeles, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a special class of parallel manipulators. First, we analyze a family of three-degree-of-freedom manipulators. Two Jacobian matrices appear in the kinematic relations between the joint-rate and the Cartesian-velocity vectors, which are called the "inverse kinematics" and the "direct kinematics" matrices. The singular configurations of these matrices are studied. The isotropic configurations are then studied based on the characteristic length of this manipulator. The isoconditioning loci of all Jacobian matrices are computed to define a global performance index to compare the different working modes.

  11. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devjak R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  12. Thermoelectrical manipulation of nanomagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Andersson, Sebastian; Radic, D.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.; Korenivski, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between the thermodynamic properties and spin-dependent transport in a mesoscopic device based on a magnetic multilayer (F/f/F), in which two strongly ferromagnetic layers (F) are exchange-coupled through a weakly ferromagnetic spacer (f) with the Curie temperature in the vicinity of room temperature. We show theoretically that the Joule heating produced by the spin-dependent current allows a spin-thermoelectronic control of the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic (f/N)...

  13. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  14. Advanced manipulation for autonomous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Killough, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development, mechanical configuration, and control system architecture of a lightweight, high performance, seven-degree-of-freedom manipulator at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). Current activities focusing on modeling and parameter identification will provide a well-characterized manipulator for analytical and experimental research in manipulator dynamics and controls, coordinated manipulation, and autonomous mobile robotics.

  15. Quantitative gene-gene and gene-environment mapping for leaf shape variation using tree-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf shape traits have long been a focus of many disciplines, but searching for complex genetic and environmental interactive mechanisms regulating leaf shape variation has not yet been well developed. The question of the respective roles of gene and environment and how they interplay to modulate l...

  16. Adaptive output stabilization of manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Barany, E. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the position regulation problem for rigid robots for the case in which only joint position measurements are available, and proposes two adaptive controllers as solutions to this problem. The first controller is developed by assuming that the structure of the vector of gravity torques is known, but that the inertial parameters for the manipulator and payload are unknown; it is shown that this scheme ensures semiglobal stability and convergence of the position error to zero. Alternatively, the second adaptive strategy is derived under the assumption that no information is available concerning the manipulator model, and in this case it is shown that the controller provides uniform boundedness of all signals and exponential convergence of the position error to a set which can be made arbitrarily small. Experimental results are presented for a Zebra Zero manipulator and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a simple and effective means of obtaining high performance position regulation.

  17. Drift compensation and faulty display correction in robotic nano manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian-qing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yue-chao; Dong, Zai-li

    2010-11-01

    Random drift and faulty visual display are the main problems in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based robotic nanomanipulation. As far as we know, there are no effective methods available to solve these problems. In this paper, an On-line Sensing and Display (OSD) method is proposed to solve these problems. The OSD method mainly includes two subprocesses: Local-Scan-Before-Manipulation (LSBM) and Local-Scan-After-Manipulation (LSAM). During manipulation, LSBM and LSAM are on-line performed for random drift compensation and faulty visual display correction respectively. Through this way, the bad influence aroused from random drift and faulty visual display can be eliminated in real time. The visual feedback keeps consistent with the true environment changes during the process of manipulation, which makes several operations being finished without an image scan in between. Experiments show the increased effectiveness and efficiency of AFM based nanomanipulation.

  18. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information.

  19. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  20. Meta-analysis based variable selection for gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Yu, Menggang; Shao, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Recent advance in biotechnology and its wide applications have led to the generation of many high-dimensional gene expression data sets that can be used to address similar biological questions. Meta-analysis plays an important role in summarizing and synthesizing scientific evidence from multiple studies. When the dimensions of datasets are high, it is desirable to incorporate variable selection into meta-analysis to improve model interpretation and prediction. According to our knowledge, all existing methods conduct variable selection with meta-analyzed data in an "all-in-or-all-out" fashion, that is, a gene is either selected in all of studies or not selected in any study. However, due to data heterogeneity commonly exist in meta-analyzed data, including choices of biospecimens, study population, and measurement sensitivity, it is possible that a gene is important in some studies while unimportant in others. In this article, we propose a novel method called meta-lasso for variable selection with high-dimensional meta-analyzed data. Through a hierarchical decomposition on regression coefficients, our method not only borrows strength across multiple data sets to boost the power to identify important genes, but also keeps the selection flexibility among data sets to take into account data heterogeneity. We show that our method possesses the gene selection consistency, that is, when sample size of each data set is large, with high probability, our method can identify all important genes and remove all unimportant genes. Simulation studies demonstrate a good performance of our method. We applied our meta-lasso method to a meta-analysis of five cardiovascular studies. The analysis results are clinically meaningful.