WorldWideScience

Sample records for based energy scores

  1. Physics-based scoring of protein-ligand interactions: explicit polarizability, quantum mechanics and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict the interaction of a ligand with its receptor is a key limitation in computer-aided drug design approaches such as virtual screening and de novo design. In this article, we examine current strategies for a physics-based approach to scoring of protein-ligand affinity, as well as outlining recent developments in force fields and quantum chemical techniques. We also consider advances in the development and application of simulation-based free energy methods to study protein-ligand interactions. Fuelled by recent advances in computational algorithms and hardware, there is the opportunity for increased integration of physics-based scoring approaches at earlier stages in computationally guided drug discovery. Specifically, we envisage increased use of implicit solvent models and simulation-based scoring methods as tools for computing the affinities of large virtual ligand libraries. Approaches based on end point simulations and reference potentials allow the application of more advanced potential energy functions to prediction of protein-ligand binding affinities. Comprehensive evaluation of polarizable force fields and quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical and QM methods in scoring of protein-ligand interactions is required, particularly in their ability to address challenging targets such as metalloproteins and other proteins that make highly polar interactions. Finally, we anticipate increasingly quantitative free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods that are practical for optimization of hits obtained from screened ligand libraries.

  2. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  3. The relationship between appetite scores and subsequent energy intake: an analysis based on 23 randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, Bastien C; Schuring, Ewoud A H; Mela, David J; Peters, Harry P F

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have assessed relationships of self-reported appetite (eating motivations, mainly by Visual Analogue Scales, VAS) with subsequent energy intake (EI), though usually in small data sets with limited power and variable designs. The objectives were therefore to better quantify the relationships of self-reports (incorporating subject characteristics) to subsequent EI, and to estimate the quantitative differences in VAS corresponding to consistent, significant differences in EI. Data were derived from an opportunity sample of 23 randomized controlled studies involving 549 subjects, testing the effects of various food ingredients in meal replacers or 100-150 ml mini-drinks. In all studies, scores on several VAS were recorded for 30 min to 5 h post-meal, when EI was assessed by ad libitum meal consumption. The relationships between pre-meal VAS scores and EI were examined using correlation, linear models (including subject characteristics) and a cross-validation procedure. VAS correlations with subsequent EI were statistically significant, but of low magnitude, up to r = 0.26. Hunger, age, gender, body weight and estimated basal metabolic rate explained 25% of the total variance in EI. Without hunger the prediction of EI was modestly but significantly lower (19%, P < 0.001). A change of ≥15-25 mm on a 100 mm VAS was the minimum effect consistently corresponding to a significant change in subsequent EI, depending on the starting VAS level. Eating motivations add in a small but consistently significant way to other known predictors of acute EI. Differences of about 15 mm on a 100 mm VAS appear to be the minimum effect expected to result in consistent, significant differences in subsequent EI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of several two-step scoring functions based on linear interaction energy, effective ligand size, and empirical pair potentials for prediction of protein-ligand binding geometry and free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Estrada, Trilce P; Doren, Douglas J; Taufer, Michela; Brooks, Charles L; Armen, Roger S

    2011-09-26

    The performances of several two-step scoring approaches for molecular docking were assessed for their ability to predict binding geometries and free energies. Two new scoring functions designed for "step 2 discrimination" were proposed and compared to our CHARMM implementation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) approach using the Generalized-Born with Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvation model. A scoring function S1 was proposed by considering only "interacting" ligand atoms as the "effective size" of the ligand and extended to an empirical regression-based pair potential S2. The S1 and S2 scoring schemes were trained and 5-fold cross-validated on a diverse set of 259 protein-ligand complexes from the Ligand Protein Database (LPDB). The regression-based parameters for S1 and S2 also demonstrated reasonable transferability in the CSARdock 2010 benchmark using a new data set (NRC HiQ) of diverse protein-ligand complexes. The ability of the scoring functions to accurately predict ligand geometry was evaluated by calculating the discriminative power (DP) of the scoring functions to identify native poses. The parameters for the LIE scoring function with the optimal discriminative power (DP) for geometry (step 1 discrimination) were found to be very similar to the best-fit parameters for binding free energy over a large number of protein-ligand complexes (step 2 discrimination). Reasonable performance of the scoring functions in enrichment of active compounds in four different protein target classes established that the parameters for S1 and S2 provided reasonable accuracy and transferability. Additional analysis was performed to definitively separate scoring function performance from molecular weight effects. This analysis included the prediction of ligand binding efficiencies for a subset of the CSARdock NRC HiQ data set where the number of ligand heavy atoms ranged from 17 to 35. This range of ligand heavy atoms is where improved accuracy of predicted ligand

  5. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  6. Credit Scoring Problem Based on Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khassawneh, Bashar Suhil Jad Allah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an explanatory introduction to the regression models of data mining and contains basic definitions of key terms in the linear, multiple and logistic regression models. Meanwhile, the aim of this study is to illustrate fitting models for the credit scoring problem using simple linear, multiple linear and logistic regression models and also to analyze the found model functions by statistical tools. Keywords: Data mining, linear regression, logistic regression....

  7. Calcium scoring with dual-energy CT in men and women: an anthropomorphic phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Liu, Songtao; Myers, Kyle; Gavrielides, Marios A.; Zeng, Rongping; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to quantify and compare the potential impact of gender differences on coronary artery calcium scoring with dual-energy CT. An anthropomorphic thorax phantom with four synthetic heart vessels (diameter 3-4.5 mm: female/male left main and left circumflex artery) were scanned with and without female breast plates. Ten repeat scans were acquired in both single- and dual-energy modes and reconstructed at six reconstruction settings: two slice thicknesses (3 mm, 0.6 mm) and three reconstruction algorithms (FBP, IR3, IR5). Agatston and calcium volume scores were estimated from the reconstructed data using a segmentation-based approach. Total calcium score (summation of four vessels), and male/female calcium scores (summation of male/female vessels scanned in phantom without/with breast plates) were calculated accordingly. Both Agatston and calcium volume scores were found comparable between single- and dual-energy scans (Pearson r= 0.99, pwomen and men in calcium scoring, and for standardizing imaging protocols for improved gender-specific calcium scoring.

  8. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Romania Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects

  9. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  10. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  11. Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  12. dBBQs: dataBase of Bacterial Quality scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchai, Visanu; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Nookaew, Intawat; Ussery, David

    2017-12-28

    It is well-known that genome sequencing technologies are becoming significantly cheaper and faster. As a result of this, the exponential growth in sequencing data in public databases allows us to explore ever growing large collections of genome sequences. However, it is less known that the majority of available sequenced genome sequences in public databases are not complete, drafts of varying qualities. We have calculated quality scores for around 100,000 bacterial genomes from all major genome repositories and put them in a fast and easy-to-use database. Prokaryotic genomic data from all sources were collected and combined to make a non-redundant set of bacterial genomes. The genome quality score for each was calculated by four different measurements: assembly quality, number of rRNA and tRNA genes, and the occurrence of conserved functional domains. The dataBase of Bacterial Quality scores (dBBQs) was designed to store and retrieve quality scores. It offers fast searching and download features which the result can be used for further analysis. In addition, the search results are shown in interactive JavaScript chart framework using DC.js. The analysis of quality scores across major public genome databases find that around 68% of the genomes are of acceptable quality for many uses. dBBQs (available at http://arc-gem.uams.edu/dbbqs ) provides genome quality scores for all available prokaryotic genome sequences with a user-friendly Web-interface. These scores can be used as cut-offs to get a high-quality set of genomes for testing bioinformatics tools or improving the analysis. Moreover, all data of the four measurements that were combined to make the quality score for each genome, which can potentially be used for further analysis. dBBQs will be updated regularly and is freely use for non-commercial purpose.

  13. Prediction of trypsin/molecular fragment binding affinities by free energy decomposition and empirical scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Mark L.; Faver, John C.; Ucisik, Melek N.; Dashti, Danial S.; Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Two families of binding affinity estimation methodologies are described which were utilized in the SAMPL3 trypsin/fragment binding affinity challenge. The first is a free energy decomposition scheme based on a thermodynamic cycle, which included separate contributions from enthalpy and entropy of binding as well as a solvent contribution. Enthalpic contributions were estimated with PM6-DH2 semiempirical quantum mechanical interaction energies, which were modified with a statistical error correction procedure. Entropic contributions were estimated with the rigid-rotor harmonic approximation, and solvent contributions to the free energy were estimated with several different methods. The second general methodology is the empirical score LISA, which contains several physics-based terms trained with the large PDBBind database of protein/ligand complexes. Here we also introduce LISA+, an updated version of LISA which, prior to scoring, classifies systems into one of four classes based on a ligand's hydrophobicity and molecular weight. Each version of the two methodologies (a total of 11 methods) was trained against a compiled set of known trypsin binders available in the Protein Data Bank to yield scaling parameters for linear regression models. Both raw and scaled scores were submitted to SAMPL3. Variants of LISA showed relatively low absolute errors but also low correlation with experiment, while the free energy decomposition methods had modest success when scaling factors were included. Nonetheless, re-scaled LISA yielded the best predictions in the challenge in terms of RMS error, and six of these models placed in the top ten best predictions by RMS error. This work highlights some of the difficulties of predicting binding affinities of small molecular fragments to protein receptors as well as the benefit of using training data.

  14. Are the MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores clinically applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkos, Attila; Kovács, Márton; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Harmat, Márk; Janszky, József; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2018-02-28

    The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) is a powerful clinical outcome measure. To evaluate the feasibility of various MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores and determine their minimal clinically important difference threshold values. Overall, 1,113 paired investigations of 452 patients were reviewed implementing three different techniques simultaneously. Based on the ordinal regression modeling, the MDS-UPDRS II+III, MDS-UPDRS I+II+III, and the total score of MDS-UPDRS are clinically applicable outcome measures. Any improvement greater than 4.9 points or any worsening more than 4.2 points on MDS-UPDRS II+III represent a minimal, yet clinically meaningful, change. In reference to MDS-UPDRS I+II+III, the smallest changes considered clinically relevant were 6.7 and 5.2 points for improvement and deterioration, respectively. The thresholds for the total score of MDS-UPDRS were 7.1 points for improvement and 6.3 points for worsening. Our findings support the application of various MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG:SCORE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sandor; H, Aurlien,; JC, Brøgger,

    2013-01-01

    process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice...... in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings....... SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make possible the build-up of a multinational database, and it will help in training young neurophysiologists....

  16. Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG: SCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Martins-da-Silva, António; Trinka, Eugen; Visser, Gerhard; Rubboli, Guido; Hjalgrim, Helle; Stefan, Hermann; Rosén, Ingmar; Zarubova, Jana; Dobesberger, Judith; Alving, Jørgen; Andersen, Kjeld V; Fabricius, Martin; Atkins, Mary D; Neufeld, Miri; Plouin, Perrine; Marusic, Petr; Pressler, Ronit; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Hopfengärtner, Rüdiger; Emde Boas, Walter; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) signal has a high complexity, and the process of extracting clinically relevant features is achieved by visual analysis of the recordings. The interobserver agreement in EEG interpretation is only moderate. This is partly due to the method of reporting the findings in free-text format. The purpose of our endeavor was to create a computer-based system for EEG assessment and reporting, where the physicians would construct the reports by choosing from predefined elements for each relevant EEG feature, as well as the clinical phenomena (for video-EEG recordings). A working group of EEG experts took part in consensus workshops in Dianalund, Denmark, in 2010 and 2011. The faculty was approved by the Commission on European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The working group produced a consensus proposal that went through a pan-European review process, organized by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. The Standardised Computer-based Organised Reporting of EEG (SCORE) software was constructed based on the terms and features of the consensus statement and it was tested in the clinical practice. The main elements of SCORE are the following: personal data of the patient, referral data, recording conditions, modulators, background activity, drowsiness and sleep, interictal findings, “episodes” (clinical or subclinical events), physiologic patterns, patterns of uncertain significance, artifacts, polygraphic channels, and diagnostic significance. The following specific aspects of the neonatal EEGs are scored: alertness, temporal organization, and spatial organization. For each EEG finding, relevant features are scored using predefined terms. Definitions are provided for all EEG terms and features. SCORE can potentially improve the quality of EEG assessment and reporting; it will help incorporate the results of computer-assisted analysis into the report, it will make

  17. INNOVATION ANALYSIS BASED ON SCORES AT THE FIRM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin George ALEXE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation analysis based on scores (Innovation Scorecard is a simple way to get a quick diagnosis on the potential of innovation of a firm in its intention to achieve the innovation capability. It aims to identify and remedy the deficient aspects related to innovation management being used as a measuring tool for the innovation initiatives over time within the innovation audit. The paper aims to present the advantages and disadvantages of using the method, and the three approaches developed over time. Therefore, the model proposed by the consulting firm Arthur D. Little in collaboration with the European Business School, Eckelmann's model and AGGB's local model are summarized and compared. At the end of the paper, several possible solutions are proposed to improve the way of analysis based on scores.

  18. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. From scores to face templates: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pranab; Sarkar, Sudeep; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-12-01

    Regeneration of templates from match scores has security and privacy implications related to any biometric authentication system. We propose a novel paradigm to reconstruct face templates from match scores using a linear approach. It proceeds by first modeling the behavior of the given face recognition algorithm by an affine transformation. The goal of the modeling is to approximate the distances computed by a face recognition algorithm between two faces by distances between points, representing these faces, in an affine space. Given this space, templates from an independent image set (break-in) are matched only once with the enrolled template of the targeted subject and match scores are recorded. These scores are then used to embed the targeted subject in the approximating affine (non-orthogonal) space. Given the coordinates of the targeted subject in the affine space, the original template of the targeted subject is reconstructed using the inverse of the affine transformation. We demonstrate our ideas using three, fundamentally different, face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Mahalanobis cosine distance measure, Bayesian intra-extrapersonal classifier (BIC), and a feature-based commercial algorithm. To demonstrate the independence of the break-in set with the gallery set, we select face templates from two different databases: Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) Database (FERET). With an operational point set at 1 percent False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and 99 percent True Acceptance Rate (TAR) for 1,196 enrollments (FERET gallery), we show that at most 600 attempts (score computations) are required to achieve a 73 percent chance of breaking in as a randomly chosen target subject for the commercial face recognition system. With similar operational set up, we achieve a 72 percent and 100 percent chance of breaking in for the Bayesian and PCA based face recognition systems, respectively. With

  20. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score System: Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2013-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system that includes an energy asset score tool to help building owners evaluate their buildings with respect to the score system. The goal of the energy asset score system is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrade progress over time. The system can also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building operators, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from their operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset score tool. This report also describes alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach. Finally, this report describes a few features of the program where alternative approaches are still under evaluation.

  1. Virtual non-contrast CT using dual energy spectral CT: Feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Lee, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC

  2. Virtual non-contrast CT using dual energy spectral CT: Feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Measured coronary calcium volumes from VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p < 0.001 for all pairs). Among the three VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p < 0.001 for all pairs). The use of VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.

  3. The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to estimate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual

  4. Robust LOD scores for variance component-based linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangero, J; Williams, J T; Almasy, L

    2000-01-01

    The variance component method is now widely used for linkage analysis of quantitative traits. Although this approach offers many advantages, the importance of the underlying assumption of multivariate normality of the trait distribution within pedigrees has not been studied extensively. Simulation studies have shown that traits with leptokurtic distributions yield linkage test statistics that exhibit excessive Type I error when analyzed naively. We derive analytical formulae relating the deviation from the expected asymptotic distribution of the lod score to the kurtosis and total heritability of the quantitative trait. A simple correction constant yields a robust lod score for any deviation from normality and for any pedigree structure, and effectively eliminates the problem of inflated Type I error due to misspecification of the underlying probability model in variance component-based linkage analysis.

  5. Computerized summary scoring: crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Cai, Zhiqiang; Graesser, Arthur C

    2017-11-03

    In this study we developed and evaluated a crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis (LSA) approach to computerized summary scoring (CSS). LSA is a frequently used mathematical component in CSS, where LSA similarity represents the extent to which the to-be-graded target summary is similar to a model summary or a set of exemplar summaries. Researchers have proposed different formulations of the model summary in previous studies, such as pregraded summaries, expert-generated summaries, or source texts. The former two methods, however, require substantial human time, effort, and costs in order to either grade or generate summaries. Using source texts does not require human effort, but it also does not predict human summary scores well. With human summary scores as the gold standard, in this study we evaluated the crowdsourcing LSA method by comparing it with seven other LSA methods that used sets of summaries from different sources (either experts or crowdsourced) of differing quality, along with source texts. Results showed that crowdsourcing LSA predicted human summary scores as well as expert-good and crowdsourcing-good summaries, and better than the other methods. A series of analyses with different numbers of crowdsourcing summaries demonstrated that the number (from 10 to 100) did not significantly affect performance. These findings imply that crowdsourcing LSA is a promising approach to CSS, because it saves human effort in generating the model summary while still yielding comparable performance. This approach to small-scale CSS provides a practical solution for instructors in courses, and also advances research on automated assessments in which student responses are expected to semantically converge on subject matter content.

  6. Association of a Dietary Score with Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia J Dominguez

    Full Text Available Strong evidence supports that dietary modifications may decrease incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Numerous diabetes risk models/scores have been developed, but most do not rely specifically on dietary variables or do not fully capture the overall dietary pattern. We prospectively assessed the association of a dietary-based diabetes-risk score (DDS, which integrates optimal food patterns, with the risk of developing T2DM in the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" longitudinal study.We assessed 17,292 participants initially free of diabetes, followed-up for a mean of 9.2 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was administered at baseline. Taking into account previous literature, the DDS positively weighted vegetables, fruit, whole cereals, nuts, coffee, low-fat dairy, fiber, PUFA, and alcohol in moderate amounts; while it negatively weighted red meat, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. Energy-adjusted quintiles of each item (with exception of moderate alcohol consumption that received either 0 or 5 points were used to build the DDS (maximum: 60 points. Incident T2DM was confirmed through additional detailed questionnaires and review of medical records of participants. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, health-related habits, and clinical variables to estimate hazard ratios (HR of T2DM.We observed 143 T2DM confirmed cases during follow-up. Better baseline conformity with the DDS was associated with lower incidence of T2DM (multivariable-adjusted HR for intermediate (25-39 points vs. low (11-24 category 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.21, 0.89]; and for high (40-60 vs. low category 0.32 [95% CI: 0.14, 0.69]; p for linear trend: 0.019.The DDS, a simple score exclusively based on dietary components, showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. This score may be applicable in clinical practice to improve dietary habits of subjects at high risk of T2DM

  7. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score Program Overview and Technical Protocol (Version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Goel, Supriya; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2013-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a voluntary national scoring system for commercial buildings to help building owners and managers assess a building’s energy-related systems independent of operations. The goal of the score is to facilitate cost-effective investment in energy efficiency improvements of commercial buildings. The system, known as the Commercial Building Energy Asset Score, will allow building owners and managers to compare their building infrastructure against peers and track building upgrades over time. The system will also help other building stakeholders (e.g., building investors, tenants, financiers, and appraisers) understand the relative efficiency of different buildings in a way that is independent from operations and occupancy. This report outlines the technical protocol used to generate the energy asset score, explains the scoring methodology, and provides additional details regarding the energy asset scoring tool. The alternative methods that were considered prior to developing the current approach are described in the Program Overview and Technical Protocol Version 1.0.

  8. Evaluation of the Home Energy Score: An Experiment with New Jersey Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittel, Christopher [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Wolfran, Catherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gandhi, Raina [Evoworx Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of climate plans rely on energy efficiency to generate energy and carbon emissions reductions, but conventional wisdom holds that consumers have historically underinvested in energy efficiency upgrades. This underinvestment may occur for a variety of reasons, one of which is that consumers are not adequately informed about the benefits to energy efficiency. To address this, the U.S. Department of Energy created a tool called the Home Energy Score (HEScore) to act as a simple, low-cost means to provide clear information about a home’s energy efficiency and motivate homeowners and homebuyers to invest in energy efficiency. The Department of Energy is in the process of conducting four evaluations assessing the impact of the Home Energy Score on residential energy efficiency investments and program participation. This paper describes one of these evaluations: a randomized controlled trial conducted in New Jersey in partnership with New Jersey Natural Gas. The evaluation randomly provides homeowners who have received an audit, either because they have recently replaced their furnace, boiler, and/or gas water heater with a high-efficiency model and participated in a free audit to access an incentive, or because they requested an independent audit3, between May 2014 and October 2015, with the Home Energy Score.

  9. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  10. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Total Performance Score

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their Clinical Process of Care domain scores, Patient Experience of Care dimension scores, and...

  11. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MedusaScore: An accurate force field-based scoring function for virtual drug screening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yin, S.; Biedermannová, Lada; Vondrášek, Jiří; Dokholyan, N. V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 8 (2008), s. 1656-1662 ISSN 1549-9596 Grant - others:NIH(US) RO1-GM080742 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : free-energy calculation * protein-ligand complex * binding-affinity * flexible docking * molecular recognition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.643, year: 2008

  13. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Heart Failure Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their performance rates and scores for the Clinical Process of Care Heart Failure measures.

  15. Virtual Non-Contrast CT Using Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Feasibility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inyoung; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated V...

  16. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  17. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  18. Building an Image-Based System to automatically Score psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G{'o}mez, D. Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the medical tracking of dermatological diseases is imprecise. The main reason is the lack of suitable objective methods to evaluate the lesion. The severity of the disease is scored by doctors just through their visual examination. In this work, a system to take accurate images of dermat......Nowadays the medical tracking of dermatological diseases is imprecise. The main reason is the lack of suitable objective methods to evaluate the lesion. The severity of the disease is scored by doctors just through their visual examination. In this work, a system to take accurate images...

  19. An application of dichotomous and polytomous Rasch models for scoring energy insecurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Anthony G.; Mills, Bradford F.

    2012-01-01

    Household food security in the United States has been extensively researched and a number of indexes have been generated. However, household energy security has been largely ignored even though low-income households spend almost equal income shares on food and energy. This paper uses Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. The analysis yields several important findings for the generation of policy relevant household energy insecurity indexes. Questions that indicate reduction of basic expenditures, such as food, clothing, and shelter, are easiest for households to affirm implying low exposure to energy insecurity. Conversely, questions that concern households leaving the residence due to extreme temperatures consistently imply high exposure to energy insecurity. Households that score in the top decile of the energy insecurity index are more likely to be headed by single-females, be younger, and have a Black household head. Rasch models also identify flaws within survey. Particularly, the scope of the questions is quite broad and a refinement of the survey questions to focus on specific attributes of energy insecurity would likely improve future energy security indexes. - Highlights: ► A novel household energy insecurity index is generated for low-income U.S. families. ► Severely energy insecure households have unique characteristics. ► Energy insecure households are more likely to participate in LIHEAP. ► RECS survey questions should be modified for an improved energy insecurity index.

  20. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yong-Z; Zhang, Jian-Y; Zhao, Li-H; Ma, Qiu-G; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  1. SIGI: score-based identification of genomic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl Rainer

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic islands can be observed in many microbial genomes. These stretches of DNA have a conspicuous composition with regard to sequence or encoded functions. Genomic islands are assumed to be frequently acquired via horizontal gene transfer. For the analysis of genome structure and the study of horizontal gene transfer, it is necessary to reliably identify and characterize these islands. Results A scoring scheme on codon frequencies Score_G1G2(cdn = log(f_G2(cdn / f_G1(cdn was utilized. To analyse genes of a species G1 and to test their relatedness to species G2, scores were determined by applying the formula to log-odds derived from mean codon frequencies of the two genomes. A non-redundant set of nearly 400 codon usage tables comprising microbial species was derived; its members were used alternatively at position G2. Genes having at least one score value above a species-specific and dynamically determined cut-off value were analysed further. By means of cluster analysis, genes were identified that comprise clusters of statistically significant size. These clusters were predicted as genomic islands. Finally and individually for each of these genes, the taxonomical relation among those species responsible for significant scores was interpreted. The validity of the approach and its limitations were made plausible by an extensive analysis of natural genes and synthetic ones aimed at modelling the process of gene amelioration. Conclusions The method reliably allows to identify genomic island and the likely origin of alien genes.

  2. Optimal protein library design using recombination or point mutations based on sequence-based scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazes, Robert J; Saraf, Manish C; Maranas, Costas D

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce and test two new sequence-based protein scoring systems (i.e. S1, S2) for assessing the likelihood that a given protein hybrid will be functional. By binning together amino acids with similar properties (i.e. volume, hydrophobicity and charge) the scoring systems S1 and S2 allow for the quantification of the severity of mismatched interactions in the hybrids. The S2 scoring system is found to be able to significantly functionally enrich a cytochrome P450 library over other scoring methods. Given this scoring base, we subsequently constructed two separate optimization formulations (i.e. OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO) for optimally designing protein combinatorial libraries involving recombination or mutations, respectively. Notably, two separate versions of OPTCOMB are generated (i.e. model M1, M2) with the latter allowing for position-dependent parental fragment skipping. Computational benchmarking results demonstrate the efficacy of models OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO to generate high scoring libraries of a prespecified size.

  3. dBBQs: dataBase of Bacterial Quality scores

    OpenAIRE

    Wanchai, Visanu; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Nookaew, Intawat; Ussery, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well-known that genome sequencing technologies are becoming significantly cheaper and faster. As a result of this, the exponential growth in sequencing data in public databases allows us to explore ever growing large collections of genome sequences. However, it is less known that the majority of available sequenced genome sequences in public databases are not complete, drafts of varying qualities. We have calculated quality scores for around 100,000 bacterial genomes from al...

  4. Distribution of model-based multipoint heterogeneity lod scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chao; Morris, Nathan; Xing, Guan

    2010-12-01

    The distribution of two-point heterogeneity lod scores (HLOD) has been intensively investigated because the conventional χ(2) approximation to the likelihood ratio test is not directly applicable. However, there was no study investigating th e distribution of the multipoint HLOD despite its wide application. Here we want to point out that, compared with the two-point HLOD, the multipoint HLOD essentially tests for homogeneity given linkage and follows a relatively simple limiting distribution ½χ²₀+ ½χ²₁, which can be obtained by established statistical theory. We further examine the theoretical result by simulation studies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Natural history of alkaptonuria revisited: analyses based on scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Cox, Trevor F

    2011-12-01

    Increased circulating homogentisic acid in body fluids occurs in alkaptonuria (AKU) due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to conversion of HGA to a pigmented melanin-like polymer, known as ochronosis. The tissue damage in AKU is due to ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, deploying nitisinone effectively requires its administration at the most optimal time in the natural history. AKU has a long apparent latent period before overt ochronosis develops. The rate of change of ochronosis and its consequences over time following its recognition has not been fully described in any quantitative manner. Two potential tools are described that were used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires in 44 people with AKU. Analysis of the data reveals distinct phases of the disease, a pre-ochronotic phase and an ochronotic phase. The ochronotic phase appears to demonstrate an earlier slower progression followed by a rapidly progressive phase. The rate of change of the disease will have implications for monitoring the course of the disease as well as decide on the most appropriate time that treatment should be started for it to be effective either in prevention or arrest of the disease.

  6. Ultra-high energy gamma-ray astronomy. From Tunka-HiSCORE to TAIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tluczykont, Martin [Hamburg Univ., Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: TAIGA collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In the past 3 years, the Tunka-HiSCORE collaboration has installed HiSCORE timing air Cherenkov detectors in the Tunka valley in Siberia. Since October 2013, a 9-station prototype array is in operation. These activities have merged into the recently founded TAIGA collaboration, which is currently building a non-imaging air Cherenkov array consisting today of 29 stations, which will be upgraded to 1 square-km. Furthermore, the deployment of a 4m diameter imaging air Cherenkov telescope is planned within 2015. Our aim is to combine the timing and imaging techniques on a large scale in order to optimize the air Cherenkov detection technique for energies above 10 TeV and up to several 100 TeV. Simulations show a clear potential of the planned hybrid event reconstruction. The status of our experiment and our future plans are presented.

  7. Dialysis Malnutrition and Malnutrition Inflammation Scores: screening tools for prediction of dialysis-related protein-energy wasting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvinder, Gilcharan Singh; Swee, Winnie Chee Siew; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Sahathevan, Sharmela; Chinna, Karuthan; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Goh, Bak Leong

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in Malaysian dialysis patients and there is a need for a valid screening tool for early identification and management. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the sensitivity of the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) tools in predicting protein-energy wasting (PEW) among Malaysian dialysis patients. A total of 155 haemodialysis (HD) and 90 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were screened for risk of malnutrition using DMS and MIS and comparisons were made with established guidelines by International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) for PEW. MIS cut-off score of >=5 indicated presence of malnutrition in all patients. A total of 59% of HD and 83% of PD patients had PEW by ISRNM criteria. Based on DMS, 73% of HD and 71% of PD patients exhibited moderate malnutrition, whilst using MIS, 88% and 90%, respectively were malnourished. DMS and MIS correlated significantly in HD (r2=0.552, pmalnutrition classification were established (score >=5) for use amongst Malaysian dialysis patients. Both DMS and MIS are valid tools to be used for nutrition screening of dialysis patients especially those undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The DMS may be a more practical and simpler tool to be utilized in the Malaysian dialysis settings as it does not require laboratory markers.

  8. Level of energy restriction alters body condition score and morphometric profile in obese Shetland ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynsteen, L; Moons, C P H; Janssens, G P J; Harris, P A; Vandevelde, K; Lefère, L; Duchateau, L; Hesta, M

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high prevalence of obesity in some horses and ponies (especially in the leisure horse sector), effective and safe weight loss strategies are required. The present study evaluated the effect of two different energy restriction rates on physical, morphometric and welfare parameters in 18 obese (body condition score [BCS] 7-9/9) Shetland geldings. The trial was divided into three periods: (1) a 4 week adaptation period, during which the maintenance energy intakes to maintain a stable obese bodyweight were determined (100% MERob); (2) a 16.5-week weight loss period during which the ponies were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group) comprising a control group (CONTROL), moderate energy restricted (MOD), and severe energy restricted (SEV) groups that were respectively fed at 100%, 80% and 60% of their individual MERob; and (3) a 3 week follow up period in which the ponies were again fed at their outset individual 100% MERob. Between the start and end of the weight loss period, significant pairwise differences between the three treatment groups were seen for bodyweight, BCS, heart girth, belly girth, and relative ultrasound fat depth at the level of loin and ribs at several time points (P < 0.05). The higher energy restriction was associated with a faster decrease in BCS, tail head, and heart plus belly girth, but no gastric ulcers or stereotypic behaviours were seen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual Non-Contrast CT Using Dual-Energy Spectral CT: Feasibility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inyoung; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of coronary artery calcium scoring based on three virtual noncontrast-enhanced (VNC) images derived from single-source spectral dual-energy CT (DECT) as compared with true noncontrast-enhanced (TNC) images. This prospective study was conducted with the approval of our Institutional Review Board. Ninety-seven patients underwent noncontrast CT followed by contrast-enhanced chest CT using single-source spectral DECT. Iodine eliminated VNC images were reconstructed using two kinds of 2-material decomposition algorithms (material density iodine-water pair [MDW], material density iodine-calcium pair [MDC]) and a material suppressed algorithm (material suppressed iodine [MSI]). Two readers independently quantified calcium on VNC and TNC images. The Spearman correlation coefficient test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analyses. Coronary artery calcium scores from all three VNC images showed excellent correlation with those from the TNC images (Spearman's correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.94, 0.88, and 0.89 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p VNC images also correlated well with those from TNC images (ρ = 0.92, 0.87, and 0.91 for MDW, MDC, and MSI, respectively; p VNC images, coronary calcium from MDW correlated best with that from TNC. The coronary artery calcium scores and volumes were significantly lower from the VNC images than from the TNC images (p VNC images from contrast-enhanced CT using dual-energy material decomposition/suppression is feasible for coronary calcium scoring. The absolute value from VNC tends to be smaller than that from TNC.

  10. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  11. The association of energy intake bias with psychological scores of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, D L; Tobar, M; Hill, A; Howell, W; Shisslak, C; Bell, I; Ritenbaugh, C

    1999-07-01

    Assess the association between reporting bias of dietary energy intake and the behavioral and psychological profiles in women. At baseline a series of questionnaires were administered to 37 women, (the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Restraint Scale and Sorensen-Stunkard's silhouettes). Subjects received training on how to record dietary records. Subjects recorded three days of dietary records to measure energy intake (EI) during a study to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labeled water. Reporting accuracy (RA = EI/TEE x 100) was determined for each subject. Statistical analysis of the data used a mixed effects model accounting for within subject variability to determine if the psychological scores were associated with reporting accuracy. Women were recruited with local advertisements in Tucson, Arizona. The women had a mean ( +/- 1 s.d.) age of 43.6 +/- 9.3 yrs, body mass index (BMI) of 28.7 +/- 8.5 kg/m2 and total body fat (%TBF) of 31.9 +/- 7.3%. Age and %TBF were significantly and inversely associated with RA. Furthermore, Social Desirability was negatively associated with RA. Body dissatisfaction and associating a smaller body size than one's own as being more healthy were also associated with a lower RA. These results suggest that Social Desirability and self image of body shape are associated with RA. Modifications in subject training may reduce the effect of these factors on RA.

  12. The high-density lipoprotein-adjusted SCORE model worsens SCORE-based risk classification in a contemporary population of 30 824 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    .8 years of follow-up, 339 individuals died of CVD. In the SCORE target population (age 40-65; n = 30,824), fewer individuals were at baseline categorized as high risk (≥5% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) using SCORE-HDL compared with SCORE (10 vs. 17% in men, 1 vs. 3% in women). SCORE-HDL did not improve...... with SCORE, but deteriorated risk classification based on NRI. Future guidelines should consider lower decision thresholds and prioritize CVD morbidity and people above age 65....

  13. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  14. Recurrence risk of low Apgar score among term singletons: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the risk of recurrence of low Apgar score in a subsequent term singleton pregnancy. Population-based cohort study. The Netherlands. A total of 190,725 women with two subsequent singleton term live births between 1999 and 2007. We calculated the recurrence risk of low Apgar score after

  15. The difference of scoring dose to water or tissues in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low energy brachytherapy photon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this work is to compare D(m,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D(w,m) (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether ap plying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D(w,m) over D(m,m) are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using 103Pd) and prostate (using 125I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D90 values are compared for D(w,m) and D(m,m). (1) Differences (D(w,m)/D(m,m)-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D(w,m)/D(m,m) is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D90(w,m) over D90(m,m) for clinical implants matches D(w,m)/D(m,m) at 1 cm from the single point sources, Given

  16. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound score for tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, Esperanza; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Wakefield, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based scoring systems for ultrasound (US) tenosynovitis and to assess the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of these scoring systems in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We undertook a Delphi process on US-defined tenosynovitis and US scoring system...... recruited. Ten rheumatologists expert in MSUS blindly, independently and consecutively scored for tenosynovitis in B-mode and PD mode three wrist extensor compartments, two finger flexor tendons and two ankle tendons of each patient in two rounds in a blinded fashion. Intraobserver reliability was assessed...... Doppler signal within the synovial sheath. The intraobserver reliability for tenosynovitis scoring on B-mode and PD mode was good (κ value 0.72 for B-mode; κ value 0.78 for PD mode). Interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values for PD tenosynovitis scoring (first round, 0.64; second round, 0...

  17. Naive scoring of human sleep based on a hidden Markov model of the electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghouby, Farid; Modur, Pradeep; Sunderam, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Clinical sleep scoring involves tedious visual review of overnight polysomnograms by a human expert. Many attempts have been made to automate the process by training computer algorithms such as support vector machines and hidden Markov models (HMMs) to replicate human scoring. Such supervised classifiers are typically trained on scored data and then validated on scored out-of-sample data. Here we describe a methodology based on HMMs for scoring an overnight sleep recording without the benefit of a trained initial model. The number of states in the data is not known a priori and is optimized using a Bayes information criterion. When tested on a 22-subject database, this unsupervised classifier agreed well with human scores (mean of Cohen's kappa > 0.7). The HMM also outperformed other unsupervised classifiers (Gaussian mixture models, k-means, and linkage trees), that are capable of naive classification but do not model dynamics, by a significant margin (p < 0.05).

  18. Feature and score fusion based multiple classifier selection for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rabiul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  19. Machine Learning Consensus Scoring Improves Performance Across Targets in Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, Spencer S; Wu, Haozhen; Zhang, Huikun; Michael, Lauren A; Newton, Michael A; Hoffmann, F Michael; Wildman, Scott A

    2017-07-24

    In structure-based virtual screening, compound ranking through a consensus of scores from a variety of docking programs or scoring functions, rather than ranking by scores from a single program, provides better predictive performance and reduces target performance variability. Here we compare traditional consensus scoring methods with a novel, unsupervised gradient boosting approach. We also observed increased score variation among active ligands and developed a statistical mixture model consensus score based on combining score means and variances. To evaluate performance, we used the common performance metrics ROCAUC and EF1 on 21 benchmark targets from DUD-E. Traditional consensus methods, such as taking the mean of quantile normalized docking scores, outperformed individual docking methods and are more robust to target variation. The mixture model and gradient boosting provided further improvements over the traditional consensus methods. These methods are readily applicable to new targets in academic research and overcome the potentially poor performance of using a single docking method on a new target.

  20. An Enhanced Rule-Based Web Scanner Based on Similarity Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an enhanced rule-based web scanner in order to get better accuracy in detecting web vulnerabilities than the existing tools, which have relatively high false alarm rate when the web pages are installed in unconventional directory paths. Using the proposed matching method based on similarity score, the proposed scheme can determine whether two pages have the same vulnerabilities or not. With this method, the proposed scheme is able to figure out the target web pages are vulnerable by comparing them to the web pages that are known to have vulnerabilities. We show the proposed scanner reduces 12% false alarm rate compared to the existing well-known scanner through the performance evaluation via various experiments. The proposed scheme is especially helpful in detecting vulnerabilities of the web applications which come from well-known open-source web applications after small customization, which happens frequently in many small-sized companies.

  1. Slit Lamp-Based Ocular Scoring Systems in Toxicology and Drug Development: A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Joshua Seth; Miller, Paul E; Bentley, Ellison; Thomasy, Sara M; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    To present a survey of the features of published slit lamp-based scoring systems and their applicability in the context of modern ocular toxicology and drug development. References describing original or modified slit lamp-based scoring systems for human or veterinary clinical patients or in investigative or toxicologic research were collected following a comprehensive literature review using textbooks and online publication searches. Each system's indications and features were compiled to facilitate comparison. Literature review identified 138 original or modified scoring systems. Most (48%) were published for evaluation of the ocular surface, 34% for the general anterior segment, and 18% for the lens. Most systems were described for assessment of human patients (50%) and small albino laboratory species such as rabbits (19%), rats (12%), and mice (8%). Systems described for pigmented laboratory species and for larger species such as dogs, cats, pigs, and nonhuman primates (NHPs) were comparatively underrepresented. No systems described a lens scoring scheme specific to the dog, cat, pig, or NHP. Scoring schemes for aqueous and vitreous cells were infrequently described for laboratory species. Many slit lamp-based scoring systems have been published, but the features of each differ and complicate translation of findings between different species. Use and interpretation of any scoring system in toxicology and drug development must be done with awareness of the limitations of the system being used.

  2. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG SCORE - Second version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se......Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted...... in the second, revised version of SCORE (Standardized Computer-based Organized Reporting of EEG), which is presented in this paper. The revised terminology was implemented in a software package (SCORE EEG), which was tested in clinical practice on 12,160 EEG recordings. Standardized terms implemented in SCORE....... In the end, the diagnostic significance is scored, using a standardized list of terms. SCORE has specific modules for scoring seizures (including seizure semiology and ictal EEG patterns), neonatal recordings (including features specific for this age group), and for Critical Care EEG Terminology. SCORE...

  3. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, L M; Winkvist, A; Eliasson, M; Jansson, J-H; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Lindahl, B; Lenner, P; Van Guelpen, B

    2012-06-01

    Long-term effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets are unclear. We examined a low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to mortality. This is a population-based cohort study on adults in the northern Swedish county of Västerbotten. In 37,639 men (1460 deaths) and 39,680 women (923 deaths) from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program, deciles of energy-adjusted carbohydrate (descending) and protein (ascending) intake were added to create an LCHP score (2-20 points). Sex-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by Cox regression. Median intakes of carbohydrates, protein and fat in subjects with LCHP scores 2-20 ranged from 61.0% to 38.6%, 11.3% to 19.2% and 26.6% to 41.5% of total energy intake, respectively. High LCHP score (14-20 points) did not predict all-cause mortality compared with low LCHP score (2-8 points), after accounting for saturated fat intake and established risk factors (men: HR for high vs low 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.20), P for continuous = 0.721; women: HR for high vs low 1.10 (95% CI 0.91-1.32), P for continuous = 0.229). For cancer and cardiovascular disease, no clear associations were found. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, though only statistically significant in women (multivariate HR per decile increase 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.99), P = 0.010). Our results do not support a clear, general association between LCHP score and mortality. Studies encompassing a wider range of macronutrient consumption may be necessary to detect such an association.

  4. Energy efficacy used to score organic refuse pretreatment processes for hydrogen anaerobic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Bernardo; Luongo Malave, Andrea C; Bernardi, Milena; Fino, Debora

    2013-11-01

    The production of hydrogen through Anaerobic Digestion (AD) has been investigated to verify the efficacy of several pretreatment processes. Three types of waste with different carbon structures have been tested to obtain an extensive representation of the behavior of the materials present in Organic Waste (OW). The following types of waste were selected: Sweet Product Residue (SPR), i.e., confectionary residue removed from the market after the expiration date, Organic Waste Market (OWM) refuse from a local fruit and vegetable market, and Coffee Seed Skin (CSS) waste from a coffee production plant. Several pretreatment processes have been applied, including physical, chemical, thermal, and ultrasonic processes and a combination of these processes. Two methods have been used for the SPR to remove the packaging, manual (SPR) and mechanical (SPRex). A pilot plant that is able to extrude the refuse to 200atm was utilized. Two parameters have been used to score the different pretreatment processes: efficiency (ξ), which takes into account the amount of energy produced in the form of hydrogen compared with the available energy embedded in the refuse, and efficacy (η), which compares the efficiency obtained using the pretreated refuse with that obtained using the untreated refuse. The best result obtained for the SPR was the basic pretreatment, with η=6.4, whereas the thermal basic pretreatment gave the highest value, η=17.0 for SPRex. The best result for the OWM was obtained through a combination of basic/thermal pretreatments with η=9.9; lastly, the CSS residue with ultrasonic pretreatment produced the highest quantity of hydrogen, η=5.2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) (Ik-TSP) method was presented in this study for the classification and prediction of human cancers based on gene-expression data. We compared Ik-TSP classifiers with 5 different machine learning methods and the k-TSP method based on 3 different feature selection ...

  6. Graphene-based energy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, A Rashid bin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    This first book dedicated to the topic provides an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers for robust, workable energy generation and storage devices. Following a brief overview of the fundamentals of graphene, including the main synthesis techniques, characterization methods and properties, the first part goes on to deal with graphene for energy storage applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. The second part is concerned with graphene-based energy-generation devices, in particular conventional as well as microbial and enzymatic f

  7. Accounting for Intraligand Interactions in Flexible Ligand Docking with a PMF-Based Scoring Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A Y; Gonchar, A L; Zaitseva, N I; Zosimov, V V

    2015-10-26

    We analyzed the frequency with which intraligand contacts occurred in a set of 1300 protein-ligand complexes [ Plewczynski et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011 , 32 , 742 - 755 .]. Our analysis showed that flexible ligands often form intraligand hydrophobic contacts, while intraligand hydrogen bonds are rare. The test set was also thoroughly investigated and classified. We suggest a universal method for enhancement of a scoring function based on a potential of mean force (PMF-based score) by adding a term accounting for intraligand interactions. The method was implemented via in-house developed program, utilizing an Algo_score scoring function [ Ramensky et al. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Genet. 2007 , 69 , 349 - 357 .] based on the Tarasov-Muryshev PMF [ Muryshev et al. J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des. 2003 , 17 , 597 - 605 .]. The enhancement of the scoring function was shown to significantly improve the docking and scoring quality for flexible ligands in the test set of 1300 protein-ligand complexes [ Plewczynski et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011 , 32 , 742 - 755 .]. We then investigated the correlation of the docking results with two parameters of intraligand interactions estimation. These parameters are the weight of intraligand interactions and the minimum number of bonds between the ligand atoms required to take their interaction into account.

  8. Developing points-based risk-scoring systems in the presence of competing risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fine, Jason P

    2016-09-30

    Predicting the occurrence of an adverse event over time is an important issue in clinical medicine. Clinical prediction models and associated points-based risk-scoring systems are popular statistical methods for summarizing the relationship between a multivariable set of patient risk factors and the risk of the occurrence of an adverse event. Points-based risk-scoring systems are popular amongst physicians as they permit a rapid assessment of patient risk without the use of computers or other electronic devices. The use of such points-based risk-scoring systems facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making. There is a growing interest in cause-specific mortality and in non-fatal outcomes. However, when considering these types of outcomes, one must account for competing risks whose occurrence precludes the occurrence of the event of interest. We describe how points-based risk-scoring systems can be developed in the presence of competing events. We illustrate the application of these methods by developing risk-scoring systems for predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Code in the R statistical programming language is provided for the implementation of the described methods. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of prepartal body condition score and peripartal energy supply of dairy cows on postpartal lipolysis, energy balance and ketogenesis: an animal model to investigate subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Reiche, Dania; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Subclinical ketosis is a metabolic disorder which often goes undiagnosed and leads to constricted performance and an impairment of general condition. In the current study subclinical ketosis was characterised by a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of >1·2 mmol/l in blood serum. To generate this metabolic situation, an animal model was created. The model, based on group-specific interaction of dietary energy supply and body condition, is appropriate for testing the medical effectiveness of treating this kind of ketosis and its concomitants. During the trial, 18 dairy cows (primiparous and pluriparous) were assigned, according to their body condition score (BCS) 6 weeks before expected parturition, to a normal [6.78 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter; 20% concentrate] or to a high-energy feeding group (7·71 MJ NEL/kg dry matter; 60% concentrate). Therefore cows with the highest BCS were allocated to the high-energy group to enhance the contrast with the control group. Statistical analysis was done using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Effects were declared significant when P-values were ⩽0.05. Owing to the higher energy concentration and dry matter intake, the energy intake and balance was significantly higher in the high-energy feeding group, with strong effects on lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver post partum. Within the first 2 weeks after calving, 8 out of 9 cows (89%) of the high-energy group had BHB values indicative of subclinical ketosis. These cows also had significantly higher values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) post partum, as well as a raised total lipid content of the liver. RQUICKI, a calculated parameter which is based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and NEFA to assess the insulin sensitivity, was not affected by treatment. Therefore, RQUICKI does not seem to be the right parameter for diagnosing decreased insulin sensitivity in cows

  10. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  11. Food-based diet quality score in relation to depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.

  12. Microscopically Based Nuclear Energy Functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of the SciDAC project 'Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional' is to develop next-generation nuclear energy density functionals that give controlled extrapolations away from stability with improved performance across the mass table. One strategy is to identify missing physics in phenomenological Skyrme functionals based on our understanding of the underlying internucleon interactions and microscopic many-body theory. In this contribution, I describe ongoing efforts to use the density matrix expansion of Negele and Vautherin to incorporate missing finite-range effects from the underlying two- and three-nucleon interactions into phenomenological Skyrme functionals.

  13. MRI-based radiologic scoring system for extent of brain injury in children with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, S I; Weinstein, M; Sirota-Cohen, C; Myers, V; Ben Bashat, D; Fattal-Valevski, A; Green, D; Schertz, M

    2014-12-01

    Brain MR imaging is recommended in children with cerebral palsy. Descriptions of MR imaging findings lack uniformity, due to the absence of a validated quantitative approach. We developed a quantitative scoring method for brain injury based on anatomic MR imaging and examined the reliability and validity in correlation to motor function in children with hemiplegia. Twenty-seven children with hemiplegia underwent MR imaging (T1, T2-weighted sequences, DTI) and motor assessment (Manual Ability Classification System, Gross Motor Functional Classification System, Assisting Hand Assessment, Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function, and Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire). A scoring system devised in our center was applied to all scans. Radiologic score covered 4 domains: number of affected lobes, volume and type of white matter injury, extent of gray matter damage, and major white matter tract injury. Inter- and intrarater reliability was evaluated and the relationship between radiologic score and motor assessments determined. Mean total radiologic score was 11.3 ± 4.5 (range 4-18). Good inter- (ρ = 0.909, P classification systems (ρ = 0.708, P high inter- and intrarater reliability and significant associations with manual ability classification systems and motor evaluations. This score provides a standardized radiologic assessment of brain injury extent in hemiplegic patients with predominantly unilateral injury, allowing comparison between groups, and providing an additional tool for counseling families. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. Novel, customizable scoring functions, parameterized using N-PLS, for structure-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cornel; Stouten, Pieter F W

    2007-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict biological affinity on the basis of in silico docking to a protein target remains a challenging goal in the CADD arena. Typically, "standard" scoring functions have been employed that use the calculated docking result and a set of empirical parameters to calculate a predicted binding affinity. To improve on this, we are exploring novel strategies for rapidly developing and tuning "customized" scoring functions tailored to a specific need. In the present work, three such customized scoring functions were developed using a set of 129 high-resolution protein-ligand crystal structures with measured Ki values. The functions were parametrized using N-PLS (N-way partial least squares), a multivariate technique well-known in the 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship field. A modest correlation between observed and calculated pKi values using a standard scoring function (r2 = 0.5) could be improved to 0.8 when a customized scoring function was applied. To mimic a more realistic scenario, a second scoring function was developed, not based on crystal structures but exclusively on several binding poses generated with the Flo+ docking program. Finally, a validation study was conducted by generating a third scoring function with 99 randomly selected complexes from the 129 as a training set and predicting pKi values for a test set that comprised the remaining 30 complexes. Training and test set r2 values were 0.77 and 0.78, respectively. These results indicate that, even without direct structural information, predictive customized scoring functions can be developed using N-PLS, and this approach holds significant potential as a general procedure for predicting binding affinity on the basis of in silico docking.

  15. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  16. Sample size calculation to externally validate scoring systems based on logistic regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazón-Bru

    Full Text Available A sample size containing at least 100 events and 100 non-events has been suggested to validate a predictive model, regardless of the model being validated and that certain factors can influence calibration of the predictive model (discrimination, parameterization and incidence. Scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models are a specific type of predictive model.The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm to determine the sample size for validating a scoring system based on a binary logistic regression model and to apply it to a case study.The algorithm was based on bootstrap samples in which the area under the ROC curve, the observed event probabilities through smooth curves, and a measure to determine the lack of calibration (estimated calibration index were calculated. To illustrate its use for interested researchers, the algorithm was applied to a scoring system, based on a binary logistic regression model, to determine mortality in intensive care units.In the case study provided, the algorithm obtained a sample size with 69 events, which is lower than the value suggested in the literature.An algorithm is provided for finding the appropriate sample size to validate scoring systems based on binary logistic regression models. This could be applied to determine the sample size in other similar cases.

  17. Feature and Score Fusion Based Multiple Classifier Selection for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a new feature and score fusion based iris recognition approach where voting method on Multiple Classifier Selection technique has been applied. Four Discrete Hidden Markov Model classifiers output, that is, left iris based unimodal system, right iris based unimodal system, left-right iris feature fusion based multimodal system, and left-right iris likelihood ratio score fusion based multimodal system, is combined using voting method to achieve the final recognition result. CASIA-IrisV4 database has been used to measure the performance of the proposed system with various dimensions. Experimental results show the versatility of the proposed system of four different classifiers with various dimensions. Finally, recognition accuracy of the proposed system has been compared with existing N hamming distance score fusion approach proposed by Ma et al., log-likelihood ratio score fusion approach proposed by Schmid et al., and single level feature fusion approach proposed by Hollingsworth et al.

  18. A Comparison of Systemic Inflammation-Based Prognostic Scores in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores have prognostic power in patients with cancer, independently of tumor stage and site. Although inflammatory status is associated with mortality in hemodialysis (HD patients, it remains to be determined as to whether these composite scores are useful in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods: We calculated the 6 prognostic scores [Glasgow prognostic score (GPS, modified GPS (mGPS, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, prognostic index (PI and prognostic nutritional index (PNI], which have been established as a useful scoring system in cancer patients. We enrolled 339 patients on regular HD (age: 64 ± 13 years; time on HD: 129 ± 114 months; males/females = 253/85 and followed them for 42 months. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was used to determine which scoring system was more predictive of mortality. Results: Elevated GPS, mGPS, NLR, PLR, PI and PNI were all associated with total mortality, independent of covariates. If GPS was raised, mGPS, NLR, PLR and PI were also predictive of all-cause mortality and/or hospitalization. GPS and PNI were associated with poor nutritional status. Using overall mortality as an endpoint, the area under the curve (AUC was significant for a GPS of 0.701 (95% CI: 0.637-0.765; p Conclusion: GPS, based on serum albumin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein, has the most prognostic power for mortality prediction among the prognostic scores in HD patients. However, as the determination of serum albumin reflects mortality similarly to GPS, other composite combinations are needed to provide additional clinical utility beyond that of albumin alone in HD patients.

  19. A urinary biomarker-based risk score correlates with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rianne J; van der Leest, Marloes M G; Dijkstra, Siebren; Barentsz, Jelle O; Van Criekinge, Wim; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Schalken, Jack A; Mulders, Peter F A; van Oort, Inge M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics would greatly benefit from more accurate, non-invasive techniques for the detection of clinically significant disease, leading to a reduction of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a novel urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx), multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) outcomes, and biopsy results for PCa detection. This retrospective observational study used data from the validation study of the SelectMDx score, in which urine was collected after digital rectal examination from men undergoing prostate biopsies. A subset of these patients also underwent a mpMRI scan of the prostate. The indications for performing mpMRI were based on persistent clinical suspicion of PCa or local staging after PCa was found upon biopsy. All mpMRI images were centrally reviewed in 2016 by an experienced radiologist blinded for the urine test results and biopsy outcome. The PI-RADS version 2 was used. In total, 172 patients were included for analysis. Hundred (58%) patients had PCa detected upon prostate biopsy, of which 52 (52%) had high-grade disease correlated with a significantly higher SelectMDx score (P < 0.01). The median SelectMDx score was significantly higher in patients with a suspicious significant lesion on mpMRI compared to no suspicion of significant PCa (P < 0.01). For the prediction of mpMRI outcome, the area-under-the-curve of SelectMDx was 0.83 compared to 0.66 for PSA and 0.65 for PCA3. There was a positive association between SelectMDx score and the final PI-RADS grade. There was a statistically significant difference in SelectMDx score between PI-RADS 3 and 4 (P < 0.01) and between PI-RADS 4 and 5 (P < 0.01). The novel urinary biomarker-based SelectMDx score is a promising tool in PCa detection. This study showed promising results regarding the correlation between the SelectMDx score and mpMRI outcomes, outperforming PCA3. Our results suggest that this risk

  20. Non-localization and localization ROC analyses using clinically based scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquerault, Sophie; Samuelson, Frank W.; Myers, Kyle J.; Smith, Robert C.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the potential for differences in study conclusions when assessing the estimated impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system on readers' performance. The data utilized in this investigation were derived from a multi-reader multi-case observer study involving one hundred mammographic background images to which fixed-size and fixed-intensity Gaussian signals were added, generating a low- and high-intensity signal sets. The study setting allowed CAD assessment in two situations: when CAD sensitivity was 1) superior or 2) lower than the average reader. Seven readers were asked to review each set in the unaided and CAD-aided reading modes, mark and rate their findings. Using this data, we studied the effect on study conclusion of three clinically-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scoring definitions. These scoring definitions included both location-specific and non-location-specific rules. The results showed agreement in the estimated impact of CAD on the overall reader performance. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is superior to the average reader, the mean difference in AUC between the CAD-aided read and unaided read was 0.049 (95%CIs: -0.027; 0.130) for the image scoring definition that is based on non-location-specific rules, and 0.104 (95%CIs: 0.036; 0.174) and 0.090 (95%CIs: 0.031; 0.155) for image scoring definitions that are based on location-specific rules. The increases in AUC were statistically significant for the location-specific scoring definitions. It was further observed that the variance on these estimates was reduced when using the location-specific scoring definitions compared to that using a non-location-specific scoring definition. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is equivalent or lower than the average reader, the mean differences in AUC are slightly above 0.01 for all image scoring definitions. These increases in AUC were not statistical significant for any of the image scoring definitions

  1. Workplace-based assessments of junior doctors: do scores predict training difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colin; Bhat, Sarita; Herbert, Anne; Baker, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Workplace-based assessment (WPBA) is an increasingly important part of postgraduate medical training and its results may be used as evidence of professional competence. This study evaluates the ability of WPBA to distinguish UK Foundation Programme (FP) doctors with training difficulties and its effectiveness as a surrogate marker for deficiencies in professional competence. We conducted a retrospective observational study using anonymised records for 1646 trainees in a single UK postgraduate deanery. Data for WPBAs conducted from August 2005 to April 2009 were extracted from the e-portfolio database. These data included all scores submitted by trainees in FP years 1 and 2 on mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX), case-based discussion (CbD), direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) and mini-peer assessment tool (mini-PAT) assessments. Records of trainees in difficulty, as identified by their educational supervisors, were tagged as index cases. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (ORs) for associations between mean WPBA scores and training difficulties. Further analyses by the reported aetiology of the training difficulty (health-, conduct- or performance-related) were performed. Of the 1646 trainees, 92 had been identified as being in difficulty. Mean CbD and mini-CEX scores were lower for trainees in difficulty and an association was found between identified training difficulties and average scores on the mini-CEX (OR = 0.54; p = 0.034) and CbD (OR = 0.39; p = 0.002). A receiver operator characteristic curve analysis of mean WPBA scores for diagnosing 'in difficulty' status yielded an area under the curve of 0.64, indicating weak predictive value. There was no statistical evidence that mean scores on DOPS and mini-PAT assessments differed between the two groups. Analysis of a large dataset of WPBA scores revealed significant associations between training difficulties and lower mean scores on both the mini-CEX and CbD. Models show that using WPBA

  2. Detecting determinism with improved sensitivity in time series: rank-based nonlinear predictability score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Daniel; Rummel, Christian; Schindler, Kaspar; Andrzejak, Ralph G

    2014-09-01

    The rank-based nonlinear predictability score was recently introduced as a test for determinism in point processes. We here adapt this measure to time series sampled from time-continuous flows. We use noisy Lorenz signals to compare this approach against a classical amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. Both measures show an almost identical robustness against Gaussian white noise. In contrast, when the amplitude distribution of the noise has a narrower central peak and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the rank-based nonlinear predictability score outperforms the amplitude-based nonlinear prediction error. For this type of noise, the nonlinear predictability score has a higher sensitivity for deterministic structure in noisy signals. It also yields a higher statistical power in a surrogate test of the null hypothesis of linear stochastic correlated signals. We show the high relevance of this improved performance in an application to electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from epilepsy patients. Here the nonlinear predictability score again appears of higher sensitivity to nonrandomness. Importantly, it yields an improved contrast between signals recorded from brain areas where the first ictal EEG signal changes were detected (focal EEG signals) versus signals recorded from brain areas that were not involved at seizure onset (nonfocal EEG signals).

  3. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Assessing pediatric ileocolonic Crohn's disease activity based on global MR enterography scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio; Zuliani, Monica; Giorgi, Benedetta; Muzzio, Pier Carlo [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Al Bunni, Faise [Rovigo Hospital, Radiology Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia, Rovigo (Italy); Guariso, Graziella; Gasparetto, Marco; Cananzi, Mara [University of Padova, Department of Women and Child Health, Padova (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed at correlating a magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and a magnetic resonance enterography global score (MEGS) with activity indexes in a paediatric population with Crohn's disease (CD). This retrospective study included 32 paediatric patients (median age 14.5 years, 18 male) with proven CD who underwent magnetic resonance enterography (MRE). A correlation analysis was performed on the MRE-based scores, the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD), the paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Based on PCDAI, comparison of both global MaRIA and MEGS was made between patients with mild and moderate/severe disease activity. Global MaRIA correlated with SES-CD (r = 0.70, p = 0.001) and PCDAI (r = 0.42, p = 0.016). MEGS correlated with PCDAI (r = 0.46, p = 0.007) and CRP levels (r = 0.35, p = 0.046). MEGS differed significantly (p = 0.027) between patients grouped by clinical disease severity. MRE-based global scores correlated with clinical indexes of CD activity. Therefore, they represent a potential useful tool to predict CD activity and severity, as well as a possible promising alternative to endoscopy, to monitor paediatric patients with CD during their follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Associations of genetic risk scores based on adult adiposity pathways with childhood growth and adiposity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Monnereau, Claire; Vogelezang, Suzanne; Kruithof, Claudia J.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified many loci and biological pathways that influence adult body mass index (BMI). We aimed to identify if biological pathways related to adult BMI also affect infant growth and childhood adiposity measures. Methods We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,975 children with a mean age of 6?years. Genetic risk scores were constructed based on the 97 SNPs associated with adult BMI previously identi...

  6. ACCURATUM: improved calcium volume scoring using a mesh-based algorithm - a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Szekely, Gabor; Alkadhi, Hatem; Desbiolles, Lotus; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the classical volume scoring method for quantifying coronary calcifications, including accuracy, variability between examinations, and dependency on plaque density and acquisition parameters, a mesh-based volume measurement method has been developed. It was evaluated and compared with the classical volume scoring method for accuracy, i.e., the normalized volume (measured volume/ground-truthed volume), and for variability between examinations (standard deviation of accuracy). A cardiac computed-tomography (CT) phantom containing various cylindrical calcifications was scanned using different tube voltages and reconstruction kernels, at various positions and orientations on the CT table and using different slice thicknesses. Mean accuracy for all plaques was significantly higher (p<0.0001) for the proposed method (1.220±0.507) than for the classical volume score (1.896±1.095). In contrast to the classical volume score, plaque density (p=0.84), reconstruction kernel (p=0.19), and tube voltage (p=0.27) had no impact on the accuracy of the developed method. In conclusion, the method presented herein is more accurate than classical calcium scoring and is less dependent on tube voltage, reconstruction kernel, and plaque density. (orig.)

  7. Genetic parameters for energy balance, fat /protein ratio, body condition score and disease traits in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttchereit, N; Stamer, E; Junge, W; Thaller, G

    2012-08-01

    Various health problems in dairy cows have been related to the magnitude and duration of the energy deficit post partum. Energy balance indicator traits like fat/protein ratio in milk and body condition score could be used in selection programmes to help predicting breeding values for health traits, but currently there is a lack of appropriate genetic parameters. Therefore, genetic correlations among energy balance, fat/protein ratio, and body condition score, and mastitis, claw and leg diseases, and metabolic disorders were estimated using linear and threshold models on data from 1693 primiparous cows recorded within the first 180 days in milk. Average daily energy balance, milk fat/protein ratio and body condition score were 8 MJ NEL, 1.13 and 2.94, respectively. Disease frequencies (% cows with at least one case) were 24.6% for mastitis, 9.7% for metabolic disorders and 28.2% for claw and leg diseases. Heritability estimates were 0.06, 0.30 and 0.34 for energy balance, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, respectively. For the disease traits, heritabilities ranged between 0.04 and 0.15. The genetic correlations were, in general, associated with large standard errors, but, although not significant, the results suggest that an improvement of overall health can be expected if energy balance traits are included into future breeding programmes. A low fat/protein ratio might serve as an indicator for metabolic stability and health of claw and legs. Between body condition and mastitis, a significant negative correlation of -0.40 was estimated. The study provides a new insight into the role energy balance traits can play as auxiliary traits for robustness of dairy cows. It was concluded that both, fat/protein ratio and body condition score, are potential variables to describe how well cows can adapt to the challenge of early lactation. However, the genetic parameters should be re-estimated on a more comprehensive data set. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  9. Effects of nutrient profiling and price changes based on NuVal® scores on food purchasing in an online experimental supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katz, David L; Jankowiak, Noelle; Pudlewski, Corrin; Paluch, Rocco A

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to apply experimental economic methods in an online supermarket to examine the effects of nutrient profiling, and differential pricing based on the nutrient profile, on the overall diet quality, energy and macronutrients of the foods purchased, and diet cost. Participants were provided nutrient profiling scores or price adjustments based on nutrient profile scores while completing a hypothetical grocery shopping task. Prices of foods in the top 20 % of nutrient profiling scores were reduced (subsidized) by 25 % while those in the bottom 20 % of scores were increased (taxed) by 25 %. We evaluated the independent and interactive effects of nutrient profiling or price adjustments on overall diet quality of foods purchased as assessed by the NuVal® score, energy and macronutrients purchased and diet cost in a 2×2 factorial design. A large (>10 000 food items) online experimental supermarket in the USA. Seven hundred and eighty-one women. Providing nutrient profiling scores improved overall diet quality of foods purchased. Price changes were associated with an increase in protein purchased, an increase in energy cost, and reduced carbohydrate and protein costs. Price changes and nutrient profiling combined were associated with no unique benefits beyond price changes or nutrient profiling alone. Providing nutrient profile score increased overall NuVal® score without a reduction in energy purchased. Combining nutrient profiling and price changes did not show an overall benefit to diet quality and may be less useful than nutrient profiling alone to consumers who want to increase overall diet quality of foods purchased.

  10. AUC-based biomarker ensemble with an application on gene scores predicting low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X G; Dai, W; Li, Y; Tian, L

    2011-11-01

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), long regarded as a 'golden' measure for the predictiveness of a continuous score, has propelled the need to develop AUC-based predictors. However, the AUC-based ensemble methods are rather scant, largely due to the fact that the associated objective function is neither continuous nor concave. Indeed, there is no reliable numerical algorithm identifying optimal combination of a set of biomarkers to maximize the AUC, especially when the number of biomarkers is large. We have proposed a novel AUC-based statistical ensemble methods for combining multiple biomarkers to differentiate a binary response of interest. Specifically, we propose to replace the non-continuous and non-convex AUC objective function by a convex surrogate loss function, whose minimizer can be efficiently identified. With the established framework, the lasso and other regularization techniques enable feature selections. Extensive simulations have demonstrated the superiority of the new methods to the existing methods. The proposal has been applied to a gene expression dataset to construct gene expression scores to differentiate elderly women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and those with normal BMD. The AUCs of the resulting scores in the independent test dataset has been satisfactory. Aiming for directly maximizing AUC, the proposed AUC-based ensemble method provides an efficient means of generating a stable combination of multiple biomarkers, which is especially useful under the high-dimensional settings. lutian@stanford.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. A Web-based Peer Assessment System for Assigning Student Scores in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Sukstrienwong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Working in groups has become increasingly important in order to develop students' skills. However, it can be more successful when peers cooperate and are involved in the assigned tasks. However, several educators firmly show disadvantages when all peers received the same reward, regardless of individual contribution. Some teachers also considering peer assessment to be time and effort consuming because preparation and monitoring are needed. In order to overcome these problems, we have developed a web-based peer assessment referred to as the ‘Scoring by Peer Assessment System’ (SPAS that allows teachers to set up the process of peer assessment, in order to assign scores that reflect the contribution of each student. Moreover, a web-based application allows students to evaluate their peers regarding their individual contribution where cooperative learning and peer assessment are used. The paper describes the system design and the implementation of our peer assessment application.

  12. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score within a population-based representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Kuss, O; Tiller, D; Greiser, K H; Schulze, M B; Dierkes, J; Werdan, K; Haerting, J; Kluttig, A

    2013-09-01

    To validate the German Diabetes Risk Score within the population-based cohort of the Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) study. The sample included 582 women and 719 men, aged 45-83 years, who did not have diabetes at baseline. The individual risk of every participant was calculated using the German Diabetes Risk Score, which was modified for 4 years of follow-up. Predicted probabilities and observed outcomes were compared using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests and receiver-operator characteristic analyses. Changes in prediction power were investigated by expanding the German Diabetes Risk Score to include metabolic variables and by subgroup analyses. We found 58 cases of incident diabetes. The median 4-year probability of developing diabetes based on the German Diabetes Risk Score was 6.5%. The observed and predicted probabilities of developing diabetes were similar, although estimation was imprecise owing to the small number of cases, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test returned a poor correlation (chi-squared = 55.3; P = 5.8*10⁻¹²). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.77), and after excluding participants ≥66 years old, the AUC increased to 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.84). Consideration of glycaemic diagnostic variables, in addition to self-reported diabetes, reduced the AUC to 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.71). A new model that included the German Diabetes Risk Score and blood glucose concentration (AUC 0.81; 95% CI 0.76-0.86) or HbA(1c) concentration (AUC 0.84; 95% CI 0.80-0.91) was found to peform better. Application of the German Diabetes Risk Score in the CARLA cohort did not reproduce the findings in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam study, which may be explained by cohort differences and model overfit in the latter; however, a high score does provide an indication of increased risk of diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes

  13. Randomized clinical trial of Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score-based management of patients with suspected appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M; Kolodziej, B; Andersson, R E

    2017-10-01

    The role of imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis is controversial. This prospective interventional study and nested randomized trial analysed the impact of implementing a risk stratification algorithm based on the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score, and compared routine imaging with selective imaging after clinical reassessment. Patients presenting with suspicion of appendicitis between September 2009 and January 2012 from age 10 years were included at 21 emergency surgical centres and from age 5 years at three university paediatric centres. Registration of clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes started during the baseline period. The AIR score-based algorithm was implemented during the intervention period. Intermediate-risk patients were randomized to routine imaging or selective imaging after clinical reassessment. The baseline period included 1152 patients, and the intervention period 2639, of whom 1068 intermediate-risk patients were randomized. In low-risk patients, use of the AIR score-based algorithm resulted in less imaging (19·2 versus 34·5 per cent; P appendicitis (6·8 versus 9·7 per cent; P = 0·034). Intermediate-risk patients randomized to the imaging and observation groups had the same proportion of negative appendicectomies (6·4 versus 6·7 per cent respectively; P = 0·884), number of admissions, number of perforations and length of hospital stay, but routine imaging was associated with an increased proportion of patients treated for appendicitis (53·4 versus 46·3 per cent; P = 0·020). AIR score-based risk classification can safely reduce the use of diagnostic imaging and hospital admissions in patients with suspicion of appendicitis. Registration number: NCT00971438 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. C. Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein docking (PPD predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions.

  15. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  16. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  17. Combined time-varying forecast based on the proper scoring approach for wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xingying; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with traditional point forecasts, combined forecast have been proposed as an effective method to provide more accurate forecasts than individual model. However, the literature and research focus on wind-power combined forecasts are relatively limited. Here, based on forecasting error...... distribution, a proper scoring approach is applied to combine plausible models to form an overall time-varying model for the next day forecasts, rather than weights-based combination. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, real data of 3 years were used for testing. Simulation results...... demonstrate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of overall forecasts, even compared with a numerical weather prediction....

  18. For a rational energy transition based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmin, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concept of energy transition, and stated that this concept is a fuzzy one, this paper addresses the issue of the future of energy through the concept of Energy returned on Energy invested (EROI). It discusses this approach by outlining that energy is the initial driver of economy, and by showing that only hydroelectricity, coal, nuclear and wind energy have a sufficient return rate, and that shale gas is an energy source for the short and medium term. Then, based on data related to world energy resources and consumption, to electric power production from various sources, to pollution health impacts, to electricity prices for industries and for households, it discusses the sustainability of the energy mix regarding energy reserves, health issues, and economic issues. Some examples (Spain, Germany) illustrate economic problems faced by some renewable energies. Finally, the authors outline that, thanks to its nuclear policy, France is the western country which is the most committed in energy transition. Some proposals are made to support nuclear energy, to reduce the use of fossil energies, to launch an ambitious research policy (on energy storage, on photovoltaic energy, on CO 2 hydrogenation, on hydrogen as a fuel), in favour of energy mixes decided at national levels in Europe

  19. Advanced Fibre Based Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel Oliver

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into many fabrics and clothes, further boosting their potential for use in wearable devices. Electrically conducting fibres were produced from a dispersion of carbon nanomaterials in a room temperature ionic liquid. Coagulation of this dispersion was achieved through manual injection into aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. The limitations of this method are highlighted by very low ultimate tensile strengths of these fibres, in the order of 3 MPa, with high variation within all of the fibres. Fibres were also produced via scrolling of bi-component films containing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Chemical treatments were employed to impart water compatibility to these fibres, and their electrochemical, physical and electrical properties were analysed. Fibres were wet spun from two PEDOT:PSS sources, in several fibre diameters. The effect of chemical treatments on the fibres were investigated and compared. Short 5 min treatment times with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on 20 mum fibres produced from Clevios PH1000 were found to produce the best overall treatment. Up to a six-fold increase in electrical conductivity resulted, reaching 800 S cm-1, with up to 40 % increase in specific capacitance and no loss of mechanical strength (55 F g-1 and 150 MPa recorded). A wet spinning system to produce PEDOT:PSS fibres containing functionalised graphenes and carbon nanotubes, as well as birnessite nanotubes was subsequently developed

  20. Continuing Medical Education Speakers with High Evaluation Scores Use more Image-based Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although continuing medical education (CME presentations are common across health professions, it is unknown whether slide design is independently associated with audience evaluations of the speaker. Based on the conceptual framework of Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning, this study aimed to determine whether image use and text density in presentation slides are associated with overall speaker evaluations. This retrospective analysis of six sequential CME conferences (two annual emergency medicine conferences over a three-year period used a mixed linear regression model to assess whether postconference speaker evaluations were associated with image fraction (percentage of image-based slides per presentation and text density (number of words per slide. A total of 105 unique lectures were given by 49 faculty members, and 1,222 evaluations (70.1% response rate were available for analysis. On average, 47.4% (SD=25.36 of slides had at least one educationally-relevant image (image fraction. Image fraction significantly predicted overall higher evaluation scores [F(1, 100.676=6.158, p=0.015] in the mixed linear regression model. The mean (SD text density was 25.61 (8.14 words/slide but was not a significant predictor [F(1, 86.293=0.55, p=0.815]. Of note, the individual speaker [χ2 (1=2.952, p=0.003] and speaker seniority [F(3, 59.713=4.083, p=0.011] significantly predicted higher scores. This is the first published study to date assessing the linkage between slide design and CME speaker evaluations by an audience of practicing clinicians. The incorporation of images was associated with higher evaluation scores, in alignment with Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning. Contrary to this theory, however, text density showed no significant association, suggesting that these scores may be multifactorial. Professional development efforts should focus on teaching best practices in both slide design and presentation skills.

  1. Population-based metabolic syndrome risk score and its determinants: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetSy, an important predisposing factor for the most of noncommunicable diseases, has become a global pandemic. Given different definitions used for the MetSy, recently using a score termed "continuous MetSy risk score (CMetSyS" is recommended. The aim of this study was to provide a CMetSyS in a population-based sample of Iranian adults and to assess its determinants. Materials and Methods: We used the data of the baseline survey of a community trial entitled "the Isfahan health heart program." The MetSy was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All probable predictive models and their predictive performance were provided using leave-one-out cross-validated logistic regression and the receiver operation characteristic curve methods. Multiple linear regression was performed to assess factors associated with the CMetSyS. Results: The study population consisted of 8313 persons (49.9% male, mean age 38.54 ± 15.86 years. The MetSy was documented in 1539 persons (21.86%. Triglycerides and waist circumference were the best predictive components, and fasting plasma glucose had the lowest area under curve (AUC. The AUC for our best model was 95.36 (94.83-95.83%. The best predictive cutoff for this risk score was −1.151 with 89% sensitivity and 87.93% specificity. Conclusion: We provided four population-based leave-one-out cross-validated risk score models, with moderate to perfect predictive performance to identify the MetSy in Iranian adults. The CMetSyS had significant associations with high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index, leisure time, and workplace physical activity as well as age and gender.

  2. Continuing Medical Education Speakers with High Evaluation Scores Use more Image-based Slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian; Phillips, Andrew W; Lin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Although continuing medical education (CME) presentations are common across health professions, it is unknown whether slide design is independently associated with audience evaluations of the speaker. Based on the conceptual framework of Mayer's theory of multimedia learning, this study aimed to determine whether image use and text density in presentation slides are associated with overall speaker evaluations. This retrospective analysis of six sequential CME conferences (two annual emergency medicine conferences over a three-year period) used a mixed linear regression model to assess whether post-conference speaker evaluations were associated with image fraction (percentage of image-based slides per presentation) and text density (number of words per slide). A total of 105 unique lectures were given by 49 faculty members, and 1,222 evaluations (70.1% response rate) were available for analysis. On average, 47.4% (SD=25.36) of slides had at least one educationally-relevant image (image fraction). Image fraction significantly predicted overall higher evaluation scores [F(1, 100.676)=6.158, p=0.015] in the mixed linear regression model. The mean (SD) text density was 25.61 (8.14) words/slide but was not a significant predictor [F(1, 86.293)=0.55, p=0.815]. Of note, the individual speaker [χ 2 (1)=2.952, p=0.003] and speaker seniority [F(3, 59.713)=4.083, p=0.011] significantly predicted higher scores. This is the first published study to date assessing the linkage between slide design and CME speaker evaluations by an audience of practicing clinicians. The incorporation of images was associated with higher evaluation scores, in alignment with Mayer's theory of multimedia learning. Contrary to this theory, however, text density showed no significant association, suggesting that these scores may be multifactorial. Professional development efforts should focus on teaching best practices in both slide design and presentation skills.

  3. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  4. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, Hans P

    2017-11-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Prognostic Score, Based on Preoperative Nutritional Status, Predicts Outcomes of Patients after Curative Resection for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Xu, Dazhi; Li, Wei; Zhan, Youqing; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yingbo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether preoperative nutritional status (PNS) was a valuable predictor of outcome in patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 1320 patients with GC undergoing curative resection. The PNS score was constructed based on four objective and easily measurable criteria: prognostic nutritional index (PNI) score 1, serum albumin nutritional-based prognostic score, is independently associated with OS in GC. Prospective studies are needed to validate its clinical utility.

  6. Face Recognition Performance Improvement using a Similarity Score of Feature Vectors based on Probabilistic Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIKOTE, G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved performance algorithm of face recognition to identify two face mismatch pairs in cases of incorrect decisions. The primary feature of this method is to deploy the similarity score with respect to Gaussian components between two previously unseen faces. Unlike the conventional classical vector distance measurement, our algorithms also consider the plot of summation of the similarity index versus face feature vector distance. A mixture of Gaussian models of labeled faces is also widely applicable to different biometric system parameters. By comparative evaluations, it has been shown that the efficiency of the proposed algorithm is superior to that of the conventional algorithm by an average accuracy of up to 1.15% and 16.87% when compared with 3x3 Multi-Region Histogram (MRH direct-bag-of-features and Principal Component Analysis (PCA-based face recognition systems, respectively. The experimental results show that similarity score consideration is more discriminative for face recognition compared to feature distance. Experimental results of Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW data set demonstrate that our algorithms are suitable for real applications probe-to-gallery identification of face recognition systems. Moreover, this proposed method can also be applied to other recognition systems and therefore additionally improves recognition scores.

  7. An Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS Method Based on an Improved Score Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yong Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved score function for the effective ranking order of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs and an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS method based on the score function to solve multicriteria decision-making problems in which all the preference information provided by decision-makers is expressed as interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision matrices where each of the elements is characterized by IVIFS value and the information about criterion weights is known. We apply the proposed score function to calculate the separation measures of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions to determine the relative closeness coefficients. According to the values of the closeness coefficients, the alternatives can be ranked and the most desirable one(s can be selected in the decision-making process. Finally, two illustrative examples for multicriteria fuzzy decision-making problems of alternatives are used as a demonstration of the applications and the effectiveness of the proposed decision-making method.

  8. The inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score predicts survival in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polterauer, Stephan; Grimm, Christoph; Seebacher, Veronika; Rahhal, Jasmin; Tempfer, Clemens; Reinthaller, Alexander; Hefler, Lukas

    2010-08-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) is known to reflect the degree of tumor-associated cachexia and inflammation and is associated with survival in various malignancies. We investigated the value of the GPS in patients with cervical cancer. We included 244 consecutive patients with cervical cancer in our study. The pretherapeutic GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein serum levels (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were allocated a score of 2, and patients with 1 or no abnormal value were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively. The association between GPS and survival was evaluated by univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models. The GPS was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters as shown by performing chi2 tests. In univariate analyses, GPS (P GPS (P = 0.03, P = 0.04), FIGO stage (P = 0.006, P = 0.006), and lymph node involvement (P = 0.003, P = 0.002), but not patients' age (P = 0.5, P = 0.5), histological grade (P = 0.7, P = 0.6), and histological type (P = 0.4, P = 0.6) were associated with disease-free and overall survival, respectively. The GPS was associated with FIGO stage (P GPS can be used as an inflammation-based predictor for survival in patients with cervical cancer.

  9. Countries’ Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country’s research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level. PMID:26401263

  10. Methods of Implementation of Evidence-Based Stroke Care in Europe: European Implementation Score Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Antonio; Pezzella, Francesca Romana; Fraser, Alec; Bovis, Francesca; Baeza, Juan; McKevitt, Chris; Boaz, Annette; Heuschmann, Peter; Wolfe, Charles D A; Inzitari, Domenico

    2015-08-01

    Differences in stroke care and outcomes reported in Europe may reflect different degrees of implementation of evidence-based interventions. We evaluated strategies for implementing research evidence into stroke care in 10 European countries. A questionnaire was developed and administered through face-to-face interviews with key informants. Implementation strategies were investigated considering 3 levels (macro, meso, and micro, eg, policy, organization, patients/professionals) identified by the framing analysis, and different settings (primary, hospital, and specialist) of stroke care. Similarities and differences among countries were evaluated using the categorical principal components analysis. Implementation methods reported by ≥7 countries included nonmandatory policies, public financial incentives, continuing professional education, distribution of educational material, educational meetings and campaigns, guidelines, opinion leaders', and stroke patients associations' activities. Audits were present in 6 countries at national level; national and regional regulations in 4 countries. Private financial incentives, reminders, and educational outreach visits were reported only in 2 countries. At national level, the first principal component of categorical principal components analysis separated England, France, Scotland, and Sweden, all with positive object scores, from the other countries. Belgium and Lithuania obtained the lowest scores. At regional level, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden had positive scores in the first principal component, whereas Belgium, Lithuania, Poland, and Scotland showed negative scores. Spain was in an intermediate position. We developed a novel method to assess different domains of implementation in stroke care. Clear variations were observed among European countries. The new tool may be used elsewhere for future contributions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Fierrez, J.; Li, S.Z.; Ross, A.; Veldhuis, R.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Bigun, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  12. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  13. Development and Reliability of the OMERACT Thumb Base Osteoarthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Féline P B; Conaghan, Philip G; Foltz, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    : The TOMS assessed the first carpometacarpal (CMC-1) and scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joints for synovitis, subchondral bone defects (including erosions, cysts, and bone attrition), osteophytes, cartilage, and bone marrow lesions on a 0-3 scale (normal to severe). Subluxation was evaluated only in the CMC......, with better performance for subchondral bone defects, subluxation, and bone marrow lesions. CONCLUSION: A thumb base OA MRI scoring system has been developed. The OMERACT TOMS demonstrated good intrareader and interreader reliability. Longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate reliability of change...

  14. A novel ultrasound-based vascular calcification score (CALCS) to detect subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, R; Zocco, M A; Ainora, M E; Fonnesu, C; Nesci, A; Gasbarrini, A; Ponziani, F R

    2018-02-01

    To quantify non-coronary vascular calcifications (VC) in asymptomatic patients at low-intermediate cardiovascular risk by a new color Doppler ultrasound (DUS)-based score (the carotid, aortic, lower limbs calcium score, CALCs), and to correlate this score with classical parameters associated with cardiovascular risk [carotid intima media thickness (IMT), and arterial stiffness (AS)]. All consecutive asymptomatic patients who underwent a screening DUS of non-coronary circulation were evaluated and patients at low-intermediate cardiovascular risk were selected according to Framingham risk score (FRS). Among them, we enrolled 70 patients with US evidence of VC and 71 age, sex and FRS matched controls. The presence of VC was correlated with classical markers of cardiovascular risk, such as AS and intima-media thickness (IMT). AS, expressed as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial distensibility, carotid IMT and CALCs were measured for both groups. AS and c-IMT were assessed by a new Radio-Frequency (RF) DUS-based method. CALCs was generated by our previously described B-mode DUS-based method according to number/size of VC in 11 non-coronary segments (range 0-33). Patients with VC presented higher AS and IMT values than controls (PWV 8.34±0.98 m/s vs. 6.74±0.68 m/s, p<0.0001; arterial distensibility 267±12 mm vs. 315±65 mm, p=0.001; IMT 687±132 mm vs. 572±91 mm, p<0.0001). Mean CALCs of patients with VC was 8.41±7.78. CALCs were significantly correlated with c-IMT (p<0.0001; r=0.3), PWV (p<0.0001; r=0.4) and arterial distensibility (p=0.002; r=-0.1). DUS-based CALCs is highly correlated with other validated markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, such as c-IMT and AS. Our results demonstrated the ability of CALCs to identify individual predictive factors beyond the traditional risk factors by quantifying an interesting and novel step of the atherogenic process. Future studies on larger series and with adequate follow up are necessary to confirm these results and

  15. Non-laboratory-based self-assessment screening score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: development, validation and comparison with other scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ho Lee

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a prevalent and rapidly increasing disease worldwide; however, no widely accepted screening models to assess the risk of NAFLD are available. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for NAFLD in the general population using two independent cohorts.The development cohort comprised 15676 subjects (8313 males and 7363 females who visited the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea in 2008-2010. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were examined during regular health check-ups and fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prevalent NAFLD and to derive risk scores/models. We validated our models and compared them with other existing methods using an external cohort (N = 66868.The simple self-assessment score consists of age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index, history of diabetes and dyslipidemia, alcohol intake, physical activity and menopause status, which are independently associated with NAFLD, and has a value of 0-15. A cut-off point of ≥ 8 defined 58% of males and 36% of females as being at high-risk of NAFLD, and yielded a sensitivity of 80% in men (77% in women, a specificity of 67% (81%, a positive predictive value of 72% (63%, a negative predictive value of 76% (89% and an AUC of 0.82 (0.88. Comparable results were obtained using the validation dataset. The comprehensive NAFLD score, which includes additional laboratory parameters, has enhanced discrimination ability, with an AUC of 0.86 for males and 0.91 for females. Both simple and comprehensive NAFLD scores were significantly increased in subjects with higher fatty liver grades or severity of liver conditions (e.g., simple steatosis, steatohepatitis.The new non-laboratory-based self-assessment score may be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk of NAFLD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate

  16. Neutrosophic Similarity Score Based Weighted Histogram for Robust Mean-Shift Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual object tracking is a critical task in computer vision. Challenging things always exist when an object needs to be tracked. For instance, background clutter is one of the most challenging problems. The mean-shift tracker is quite popular because of its efficiency and performance in a range of conditions. However, the challenge of background clutter also disturbs its performance. In this article, we propose a novel weighted histogram based on neutrosophic similarity score to help the mean-shift tracker discriminate the target from the background. Neutrosophic set (NS is a new branch of philosophy for dealing with incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information. In this paper, we utilize the single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS, which is a subclass of NS to improve the mean-shift tracker. First, two kinds of criteria are considered as the object feature similarity and the background feature similarity, and each bin of the weight histogram is represented in the SVNS domain via three membership functions T(Truth, I(indeterminacy, and F(Falsity. Second, the neutrosophic similarity score function is introduced to fuse those two criteria and to build the final weight histogram. Finally, a novel neutrosophic weighted mean-shift tracker is proposed. The proposed tracker is compared with several mean-shift based trackers on a dataset of 61 public sequences. The results revealed that our method outperforms other trackers, especially when confronting background clutter.

  17. Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jin; Jang, Hye Min; Lee, Youngjo; Lee, Donghwan; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-04-25

    The associations of Internet addiction (IA) and smartphone addiction (SA) with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU) groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p smartphone use.

  18. A powerful score-based test statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Yuan, Zhongshang; Ji, Jiadong; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Li, Hongkai; Wu, Xuesen; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2016-01-29

    The genetic variants identified by Genome-wide association study (GWAS) can only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. The existence of gene-gene joint effects which contains the main effects and their co-association is one of the possible explanations for the "missing heritability" problems. Gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differ from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between genes. Generally, genes tend to work collaboratively within specific pathway or network contributing to the disease and the specific disease-associated locus will often be highly correlated (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium). Therefore, we proposed a novel score-based statistic (SBS) as a gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association. Various simulations illustrate that, under different sample sizes, marginal effects of causal SNPs and co-association levels, the proposed SBS has the better performance than other existed methods including single SNP-based and principle component analysis (PCA)-based logistic regression model, the statistics based on canonical correlations (CCU), kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCU), partial least squares path modeling (PLSPM) and delta-square (δ (2)) statistic. The real data analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) further confirmed its advantages in practice. SBS is a powerful and efficient gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association.

  19. Scoring relevancy of features based on combinatorial analysis of Lasso with application to lymphoma diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Habil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One challenge in applying bioinformatic tools to clinical or biological data is high number of features that might be provided to the learning algorithm without any prior knowledge on which ones should be used. In such applications, the number of features can drastically exceed the number of training instances which is often limited by the number of available samples for the study. The Lasso is one of many regularization methods that have been developed to prevent overfitting and improve prediction performance in high-dimensional settings. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for feature selection based on the Lasso and our hypothesis is that defining a scoring scheme that measures the "quality" of each feature can provide a more robust feature selection method. Our approach is to generate several samples from the training data by bootstrapping, determine the best relevance-ordering of the features for each sample, and finally combine these relevance-orderings to select highly relevant features. In addition to the theoretical analysis of our feature scoring scheme, we provided empirical evaluations on six real datasets from different fields to confirm the superiority of our method in exploratory data analysis and prediction performance. For example, we applied FeaLect, our feature scoring algorithm, to a lymphoma dataset, and according to a human expert, our method led to selecting more meaningful features than those commonly used in the clinics. This case study built a basis for discovering interesting new criteria for lymphoma diagnosis. Furthermore, to facilitate the use of our algorithm in other applications, the source code that implements our algorithm was released as FeaLect, a documented R package in CRAN.

  20. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning material recommendation based on case-based reasoning similarity scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mona; Mokmin, Nur Azlina Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    A personalized learning material recommendation is important in any Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Case-based Reasoning (CBR) is an Artificial Intelligent Algorithm that has been widely used in the development of ITS applications. This study has developed an ITS application that applied the CBR algorithm in the development process. The application has the ability to recommend the most suitable learning material to the specific student based on information in the student profile. In order to test the ability of the application in recommending learning material, two versions of the application were created. The first version displayed the most suitable learning material and the second version displayed the least preferable learning material. The results show the application has successfully assigned the students to the most suitable learning material.

  2. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  3. A Network-Based Data Envelope Analysis Model in a Dynamic Balanced Score Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Akbarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance assessment during the time and along with strategies is the most important requirements of top managers. To assess the performance, a balanced score card (BSC along with strategic goals and a data envelopment analysis (DEA are used as powerful qualitative and quantitative tools, respectively. By integrating these two models, their strengths are used and their weaknesses are removed. In this paper, an integrated framework of the BSC and DEA models is proposed for measuring the efficiency during the time and along with strategies based on the time delay of the lag key performance indicators (KPIs of the BSC model. The causal relationships during the time among perspectives of the BSC model are drawn as dynamic BSC at first. Then, after identifying the network-DEA structure, a new objective function for measuring the efficiency of nine subsidiary refineries of the National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company (NIORDC during the time and along with strategies is developed.

  4. A robust background regression based score estimation algorithm for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Du, Bo; Zhang, Liangpei; Zhang, Lefei

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly detection has become a hot topic in the hyperspectral image analysis and processing fields in recent years. The most important issue for hyperspectral anomaly detection is the background estimation and suppression. Unreasonable or non-robust background estimation usually leads to unsatisfactory anomaly detection results. Furthermore, the inherent nonlinearity of hyperspectral images may cover up the intrinsic data structure in the anomaly detection. In order to implement robust background estimation, as well as to explore the intrinsic data structure of the hyperspectral image, we propose a robust background regression based score estimation algorithm (RBRSE) for hyperspectral anomaly detection. The Robust Background Regression (RBR) is actually a label assignment procedure which segments the hyperspectral data into a robust background dataset and a potential anomaly dataset with an intersection boundary. In the RBR, a kernel expansion technique, which explores the nonlinear structure of the hyperspectral data in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, is utilized to formulate the data as a density feature representation. A minimum squared loss relationship is constructed between the data density feature and the corresponding assigned labels of the hyperspectral data, to formulate the foundation of the regression. Furthermore, a manifold regularization term which explores the manifold smoothness of the hyperspectral data, and a maximization term of the robust background average density, which suppresses the bias caused by the potential anomalies, are jointly appended in the RBR procedure. After this, a paired-dataset based k-nn score estimation method is undertaken on the robust background and potential anomaly datasets, to implement the detection output. The experimental results show that RBRSE achieves superior ROC curves, AUC values, and background-anomaly separation than some of the other state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, and is easy to implement

  5. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  6. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  7. Recalibration of the ACC/AHA Risk Score in Two Population-Based German Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras Gala, Tonia; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Baumert, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Meisinger, Christine; Mahabadi, Amir Abbas; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines introduced an algorithm for risk assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) within 10 years. In Germany, risk assessment with the ESC SCORE is limited to cardiovascular mortality. Applicability of the novel ACC/AHA risk score to the German population has not yet been assessed. We therefore sought to recalibrate and evaluate the ACC/AHA risk score in two German cohorts and to compare it to the ESC SCORE. We studied 5,238 participants from the KORA surveys S3 (1994-1995) and S4 (1999-2001) and 4,208 subjects from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (2000-2003). There were 383 (7.3%) and 271 (6.4%) first non-fatal or fatal ASCVD events within 10 years in KORA and in HNR, respectively. Risk scores were evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination performance. The original ACC/AHA risk score overestimated 10-year ASCVD rates by 37% in KORA and 66% in HNR. After recalibration, miscalibration diminished to 8% underestimation in KORA and 12% overestimation in HNR. Discrimination performance of the ACC/AHA risk score was not affected by the recalibration (KORA: C = 0.78, HNR: C = 0.74). The ESC SCORE overestimated by 5% in KORA and by 85% in HNR. The corresponding C-statistic was 0.82 in KORA and 0.76 in HNR. The recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score showed strongly improved calibration compared to the original ACC/AHA risk score. Predicting only cardiovascular mortality, discrimination performance of the commonly used ESC SCORE remained somewhat superior to the ACC/AHA risk score. Nevertheless, the recalibrated ACC/AHA risk score may provide a meaningful tool for estimating 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease in Germany.

  8. Operational Energy Base Camp Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    project for the rehabilitation of an Afghan Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) biogas plant, which broke ground on 13 December 10. Plant...for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for Headquarters, US Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project ...recommendation or category of recommendations. In this initial stage of work, the Project Delivery Team (PDT) performed a literature review to identify the

  9. Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score for Predicting Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Su

    Full Text Available We developed a novel inflammation-based model (NPS, which consisted of a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet count (PC, for assessing the prognostic role in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC.We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic UC who underwent systemic chemotherapy between January 1997 and December 2014 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The defined cutoff values for the NLR and PC were 3.0 and 400 × 103/μL, respectively. Patients were scored 1 for either an elevated NLR or PC, and 0 otherwise. The NPS was calculated by summing the scores, ranging from 0 to 2. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS by using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify the independent prognostic factors for OS.In total, 256 metastatic UC patients were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed that patients with either a high NLR or PC had a significantly shorter survival rate compared with those with a low NLR (P = .001 or PC (P < .0001. The median OS in patients with NPS 0, 1, and 2 was 19.0, 12.8, and 9.3 months, respectively (P < .0001. Multivariate analysis revealed that NPS, along with the histologic variant, liver metastasis, age, and white cell count, was an independent factor facilitating OS prediction (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.20-2.24, P = .002.The NLR and PC are independent prognostic factors for OS in patients with metastatic UC. The NPS model has excellent discriminant ability for OS.

  10. Virtual screening approach to identifying influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors using molecular docking combined with machine-learning-based scoring function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Ai, Hai-Xin; Li, Shi-Meng; Qi, Meng-Yuan; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hong-Sheng

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, an epidemic of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus has persisted in China, with a high mortality rate. To develop novel anti-influenza therapies, we have constructed a machine-learning-based scoring function (RF-NA-Score) for the effective virtual screening of lead compounds targeting the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein. RF-NA-Score is more accurate than RF-Score, with a root-mean-square error of 1.46, Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.707, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.707 in a 5-fold cross-validation study. The performance of RF-NA-Score in a docking-based virtual screening of NA inhibitors was evaluated with a dataset containing 281 NA inhibitors and 322 noninhibitors. Compared with other docking-rescoring virtual screening strategies, rescoring with RF-NA-Score significantly improved the efficiency of virtual screening, and a strategy that averaged the scores given by RF-NA-Score, based on the binding conformations predicted with AutoDock, AutoDock Vina, and LeDock, was shown to be the best strategy. This strategy was then applied to the virtual screening of NA inhibitors in the SPECS database. The 100 selected compounds were tested in an in vitro H7N9 NA inhibition assay, and two compounds with novel scaffolds showed moderate inhibitory activities. These results indicate that RF-NA-Score improves the efficiency of virtual screening for NA inhibitors, and can be used successfully to identify new NA inhibitor scaffolds. Scoring functions specific for other drug targets could also be established with the same method.

  11. Energy Flexometer: Transactive Energy-Based Internet of Things Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Babar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective Energy Management with an active Demand Response (DR is crucial for future smart energy system. Increasing number of Distributed Energy Resources (DER, local microgrids and prosumers have an essential and real influence on present power distribution system and generate new challenges in power, energy and demand management. A relatively new paradigm in this field is transactive energy (TE, with its value and market-based economic and technical mechanisms to control energy flows. Due to a distributed structure of present and future power system, the Internet of Things (IoT environment is needed to fully explore flexibility potential from the end-users and prosumers, to offer a bid to involved actors of the smart energy system. In this paper, new approach to connect the market-driven (bottom-up DR program with current demand-driven (top-down energy management system (EMS is presented. Authors consider multi-agent system (MAS to realize the approach and introduce a concept and standardize the design of new Energy Flexometer. It is proposed as a fundamental agent in the method. Three different functional blocks have been designed and presented as an IoT platform logical interface according to the LonWorks technology. An evaluation study has been performed as well. Results presented in the paper prove the proposed concept and design.

  12. Validity and predictive ability of the juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on CRP versus ESR in a Nordic population-based setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, E B; Zak, M; Aalto, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting.......To compare the juvenile arthritis disease activity score (JADAS) based on C reactive protein (CRP) (JADAS-CRP) with JADAS based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (JADAS-ESR) and to validate JADAS in a population-based setting....

  13. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  14. Evaluation of a novel scoring and grading model for VP-based exams in postgraduate nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Elenita; Ziegert, Kristina; Hult, Håkan; Fors, Uno

    2015-12-01

    For Virtual Patient-based exams, several scoring and grading methods have been proposed, but none have yet been validated. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new scoring and grading model for VP-based exams in postgraduate paediatric nurse education. The same student group of 19 students performed a VP-based exam in three consecutive courses. When using the scoring and grading assessment model, which contains a deduction system for unnecessary or unwanted actions, a progression was found in the three courses: 53% of the students passed the first exam, 63% the second and 84% passed the final exam. The most common reason for deduction of points was due to students asking too many interview questions or ordering too many laboratory tests. The results showed that the new scoring model made it possible to judge the students' clinical reasoning process as well as their progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fuzzy weighted average based on left and right scores in Malaysia tourism industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Abdullah, Kamilah; Zulkifli, Muhammad Hazim; Sahlan, Shahrazali; Mohd Yunus, Syaizzal

    2013-04-01

    Tourism is known as an important sector to the Malaysian economy including economic generator, creating business and job offers. It is reported to bring in almost RM30 billion of the national income, thanks to intense worldwide promotion by Tourism Malaysia. One of the well-known attractions in Malaysia is our beautiful islands. The islands continue to be developed into tourist spots and attracting a continuous number of tourists. Chalets, luxury bungalows and resorts quickly develop along the coastlines of popular islands like Tioman, Redang, Pangkor, Perhentian, Sibu and so many others. In this study, we applied Fuzzy Weighted Average (FWA) method based on left and right scores in order to determine the criteria weights and to select the best island in Malaysia. Cost, safety, attractive activities, accommodation and scenery are five main criteria to be considered and five selected islands in Malaysia are taken into accounts as alternatives. The most important criteria that have been considered by the tourist are defined based on criteria weights ranking order and the best island in Malaysia is then determined in terms of FWA values. This pilot study can be used as a reference to evaluate performances or solving any selection problems, where more criteria, alternatives and decision makers will be considered in the future.

  16. Identification of altered pathways in breast cancer based on individualized pathway aberrance score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Jing; Sun, Long

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify altered pathways in breast cancer based on the individualized pathway aberrance score (iPAS) method combined with the normal reference (nRef). There were 4 steps to identify altered pathways using the iPAS method: Data preprocessing conducted by the robust multi-array average (RMA) algorithm; gene-level statistics based on average Z ; pathway-level statistics according to iPAS; and a significance test dependent on 1 sample Wilcoxon test. The altered pathways were validated by calculating the changed percentage of each pathway in tumor samples and comparing them with pathways from differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 688 altered pathways with Ppathways were involved in the total 688 altered pathways, which may validate the present results. In addition, there were 324 DEGs and 155 common genes between DEGs and pathway genes. DEGs and common genes were enriched in the same 9 significant terms, which also were members of altered pathways. The iPAS method was suitable for identifying altered pathways in breast cancer. Altered pathways (such as KIF and PLK mediated events) were important for understanding breast cancer mechanisms and for the future application of customized therapeutic decisions.

  17. Effects of Internet and Smartphone Addictions on Depression and Anxiety Based on Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jin Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The associations of Internet addiction (IA and smartphone addiction (SA with mental health problems have been widely studied. We investigated the effects of IA and SA on depression and anxiety while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. In this study, 4854 participants completed a cross-sectional web-based survey including socio-demographic items, the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction, the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90 Items-Revised. The participants were classified into IA, SA, and normal use (NU groups. To reduce sampling bias, we applied the propensity score matching method based on genetics matching. The IA group showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.207; p < 0.001 and anxiety (relative risk 1.264; p < 0.001 compared to NUs. The SA group also showed an increased risk of depression (relative risk 1.337; p < 0.001 and anxiety (relative risk 1.402; p < 0.001 compared to NCs. These findings show that both, IA and SA, exerted significant effects on depression and anxiety. Moreover, our findings showed that SA has a stronger relationship with depression and anxiety, stronger than IA, and emphasized the need for prevention and management policy of the excessive smartphone use.

  18. Generalized composite multiscale permutation entropy and Laplacian score based rolling bearing fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinde; Pan, Haiyang; Yang, Shubao; Cheng, Junsheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiscale permutation entropy (MPE) is a recently proposed nonlinear dynamic method for measuring the randomness and detecting the nonlinear dynamic change of time series and can be used effectively to extract the nonlinear dynamic fault feature from vibration signals of rolling bearing. To solve the drawback of coarse graining process in MPE, an improved MPE method called generalized composite multiscale permutation entropy (GCMPE) was proposed in this paper. Also the influence of parameters on GCMPE and its comparison with the MPE are studied by analyzing simulation data. GCMPE was applied to the fault feature extraction from vibration signal of rolling bearing and then based on the GCMPE, Laplacian score for feature selection and the Particle swarm optimization based support vector machine, a new fault diagnosis method for rolling bearing was put forward in this paper. Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze the experimental data of rolling bearing. The analysis results show that the proposed method can effectively realize the fault diagnosis of rolling bearing and has a higher fault recognition rate than the existing methods.

  19. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Performance of machine-learning scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Ballester, Pedro J; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2017-04-25

    Classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their performance in virtual screening and binding affinity prediction. Recently, machine-learning scoring functions trained on protein-ligand complexes have shown great promise in small tailored studies. They have also raised controversy, specifically concerning model overfitting and applicability to novel targets. Here we provide a new ready-to-use scoring function (RF-Score-VS) trained on 15 426 active and 893 897 inactive molecules docked to a set of 102 targets. We use the full DUD-E data sets along with three docking tools, five classical and three machine-learning scoring functions for model building and performance assessment. Our results show RF-Score-VS can substantially improve virtual screening performance: RF-Score-VS top 1% provides 55.6% hit rate, whereas that of Vina only 16.2% (for smaller percent the difference is even more encouraging: RF-Score-VS top 0.1% achieves 88.6% hit rate for 27.5% using Vina). In addition, RF-Score-VS provides much better prediction of measured binding affinity than Vina (Pearson correlation of 0.56 and -0.18, respectively). Lastly, we test RF-Score-VS on an independent test set from the DEKOIS benchmark and observed comparable results. We provide full data sets to facilitate further research in this area (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs) as well as ready-to-use RF-Score-VS (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs_binary).

  1. A prospective observational study comparing a physiological scoring system with time-based discharge criteria in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, James; Forrest, Helen; Crawford, Mark W

    2015-10-01

    Discharge criteria based on physiological scoring systems can be used in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to fast-track patients after ambulatory surgery; however, studies comparing physiological scoring systems with traditional time-based discharge criteria are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare PACU discharge readiness times using physiological vs time-based discharge criteria in pediatric ambulatory surgical patients. We recorded physiological observations from consecutive American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III patients aged 1-18 yr who were admitted to the PACU after undergoing ambulatory surgery in a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. The physiological score was a combination of the Aldrete and Chung systems. Scores were recorded every 15 min starting upon arrival in the PACU. Patients were considered fit for discharge once they attained a score ≥12 (maximum score, 14), provided no score was zero, with the time to achieve a score ≥12 defining the criteria-based discharge (CBD) time. Patients were discharged from the PACU when both the CBD and the existing time-based discharge (TBD) criteria were met. The CBD and TBD data were compared using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis. Observations from 506 children are presented. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 5.5 [2.8-9.9] yr. Median [IQR] CBD and TBD PACU discharge readiness times were 30 [15-45] min and 60 [45-60] min, respectively. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier curves indicated a significant difference in discharge times using the different criteria (hazard ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 4.51 to 6.53; P < 0.001). All patients were discharged home without incident. This prospective study suggests that discharge decisions based on physiological criteria have the potential for significantly speeding the transit of children through the PACU, thereby enhancing PACU efficiency and resource utilization.

  2. Comparison of Duke ergo-metric score and of the classification based on scintigraphic data in the stratification of coronaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouhayoun, E.; Coca, F.J.; Payoux, P.; Tafani, J.A.M.; Esquerre, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Stratification of risk (sudden death and infarction) remains a major problem of the way the coronaries are cared. Since 1987, a score based on the test-to-effort data was proposed by Mark and coll. of 'Duke University' team. They tried to demonstrate that this score provides a reliable classification of patients. We have compared the results obtained by using this score with those issued from the simultaneous analysis of the left ventricle (LV) function and LV perfusion. A hundred patients afflicted with coronaries (stenoses > 50%) benefited by a coupled study of the LV function and perfusion at rest and under effort made by means of MIBI scintigraphy. The effort test allowed calculating the 'Duke' score by means of a formula in terms of the angor index defined as follows: 0 for absence, 1 for angor and 2 for angor motivating cessation. According to Duke score three classes can be defined: patients of low risk, score ≥ 5; patients of intermediate risk, score in between 5 and -10; patients of high risk, score ≤ -10. Ejection fraction at effort acme was measured in every patient as well as the extension of perfusion defect, evaluated semi-quantitatively at effort and rest on the basis of bull's eye. Three groups of patients were created according to the results of perfusion+function couple): (A)- normal perfusion and function, the case of good prognostication; (B)- patients slightly afflicted (FEV effort > 50% and in-effort defect extension effort 50%). The last criteria were proved by several studies as bad prognostication. A table presents the risks according the Duke score for the three classes. One can observe that one third of the patients severely afflicted by confirmed ischemia are classified in the low-risk class. Besides, the majority of patients are ranked with intermediary risk, independently of scintigraphic results. In conclusion, these results concerning the stratification of coronaries show the superiority of the criteria based on scintigraphy over

  3. Energy budgets’ formation based on incomplete data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvak Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal technique of the current energy budget calculation is recommended for several periods of time. Basing on the data of annual energy budget and considering the plant’s features, social, climatic and other conditions, correcting factors are calculated to estimate energy resources consumption for the day, week, month and year. Shortterm current energy budget supports important financial, trade, logistic, organizational and other control directions. The developed technique is applicable for subnational entities and industrial enterprises in order to increase level of energy resources consumption planning and forecasting as well as bills’ optimization.

  4. Avoiding and Correcting Bias in Score-Based Latent Variable Regression with Discrete Manifest Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland

    2008-01-01

    This article considers models involving a single structural equation with latent explanatory and/or latent dependent variables where discrete items are used to measure the latent variables. Our primary focus is the use of scores as proxies for the latent variables and carrying out ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on such scores to estimate…

  5. Analysis of Low Appropriateness Score Exam Trends in Decision Support-based Radiology Order Entry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Klein, Kandace; Singh, Anand H; Thrall, James H

    2017-05-01

    Awareness of imaging utilization increased after implementation of Radiology Order Entry with decision support systems (ROE-DS). Our hypothesis is few exams with low Clinical Appropriateness Score (CAS) on ROE-DS are performed. Clinical indications of exams with CAS less than 3 (9-point scale) were re-reviewed and reports analyzed. Structured Query Language-based query retrieved exams with CAS less than 3 in ROE-DS from January 2007 to December 2011. Reasons provided by physicians for ordering these exams and reports of exams performed were analyzed. For each indication, number of exams ordered and performed was calculated. Statistical significance was assessed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis (P < .05). From 445,984 exams, 12,615 exams (2.8%) had CAS less than 3, and 7,956 exams (63%) were performed. Reasons for ordering of 12,615 low CAS exams were as follows: Requests by physician specialists without further explanation (4,516 = 35.8%), notation of special clinical circumstances (2,877 = 22.8%), requests by nonphysician staff without further explanation (1,383 = 10.9%), absence of suspected finding on previous modality (1,099 = 8.7%), patient preference (737 = 5.8%), and requests based on radiologists' recommendations (706 = 5.6%). Difference between male and female (male < female) preferences for low CAS exams was statistically significant (P < .01). Imaging outcome was highest for extremity MRI cases (66.7%; P < .01). Less than 3% of exams ordered had low CAS and about two-thirds of these were performed. Most common indication for ordering these exams was physician specialist request based on opinion of medical necessity without specification. Extremity MRI constituted the highest positive findings for low CAS exams performed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Machine-learning scoring functions to improve structure-based binding affinity prediction and virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurrat Ul; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; Roessler, Florian D; Ballester, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Docking tools to predict whether and how a small molecule binds to a target can be applied if a structural model of such target is available. The reliability of docking depends, however, on the accuracy of the adopted scoring function (SF). Despite intense research over the years, improving the accuracy of SFs for structure-based binding affinity prediction or virtual screening has proven to be a challenging task for any class of method. New SFs based on modern machine-learning regression models, which do not impose a predetermined functional form and thus are able to exploit effectively much larger amounts of experimental data, have recently been introduced. These machine-learning SFs have been shown to outperform a wide range of classical SFs at both binding affinity prediction and virtual screening. The emerging picture from these studies is that the classical approach of using linear regression with a small number of expert-selected structural features can be strongly improved by a machine-learning approach based on nonlinear regression allied with comprehensive data-driven feature selection. Furthermore, the performance of classical SFs does not grow with larger training datasets and hence this performance gap is expected to widen as more training data becomes available in the future. Other topics covered in this review include predicting the reliability of a SF on a particular target class, generating synthetic data to improve predictive performance and modeling guidelines for SF development. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:405-424. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1225 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho  = 0.669, p < 0.0001). The present study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  8. Histopathological Validation of the Surface-Intermediate-Base Margin Score for Standardized Reporting of Resection Technique during Nephron Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Andrea; Campi, Riccardo; Kutikov, Alexander; Montagnani, Ilaria; Sessa, Francesco; Serni, Sergio; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Carini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The surface-intermediate-base margin score is a novel standardized reporting system of resection techniques during nephron sparing surgery. We validated the surgeon assessed surface-intermediate-base score with microscopic histopathological assessment of partial nephrectomy specimens. Between June and August 2014 data were prospectively collected from 40 consecutive patients undergoing nephron sparing surgery. The surface-intermediate-base score was assigned to all cases. The score specific areas were color coded with tissue margin ink and sectioned for histological evaluation of healthy renal margin thickness. Maximum, minimum and mean thickness of healthy renal margin for each score specific area grade (surface [S] = 0, S = 1 ; intermediate [I] or base [B] = 0, I or B = 1, I or B = 2) was reported. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the thickness of healthy renal margin in S = 0 vs 1 and I or B = 0 vs 1 vs 2 grades, respectively. Maximum, minimum and mean thickness of healthy renal margin was significantly different among score specific area grades S = 0 vs 1, and I or B = 0 vs 1, 0 vs 2 and 1 vs 2 (p <0.001). The main limitations of the study are the low number of the I or B = 1 and I or B = 2 samples and the assumption that each microscopic slide reflects the entire score specific area for histological analysis. The surface-intermediate-base scoring method can be readily harnessed in real-world clinical practice and accurately mirrors histopathological analysis for quantification and reporting of healthy renal margin thickness removed during tumor excision. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  10. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  11. An image based system to automatically and objectivelly score the degreeof redness and scaling in psoriasi lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a combined statistical and image analysis method to automatically evaluate the severity of scaling in psoriasis lesions is proposed. The method separates the different regions of the disease in the image and scores the degree of scaling based on the properties of these areas. The pr...... that the obtained scores are highly correlated with scores made by doctors. This and the fact that the obtained measures are continuous indicate the proposed method is a suitable tool to evaluate the lesion and to track the evolution of dermatological diseases....

  12. Reconstruction based finger-knuckle-print verification with score level adaptive binary fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, David

    2013-12-01

    Recently, a new biometrics identifier, namely finger knuckle print (FKP), has been proposed for personal authentication with very interesting results. One of the advantages of FKP verification lies in its user friendliness in data collection. However, the user flexibility in positioning fingers also leads to a certain degree of pose variations in the collected query FKP images. The widely used Gabor filtering based competitive coding scheme is sensitive to such variations, resulting in many false rejections. We propose to alleviate this problem by reconstructing the query sample with a dictionary learned from the template samples in the gallery set. The reconstructed FKP image can reduce much the enlarged matching distance caused by finger pose variations; however, both the intra-class and inter-class distances will be reduced. We then propose a score level adaptive binary fusion rule to adaptively fuse the matching distances before and after reconstruction, aiming to reduce the false rejections without increasing much the false acceptances. Experimental results on the benchmark PolyU FKP database show that the proposed method significantly improves the FKP verification accuracy.

  13. Weighted score-level feature fusion based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory for action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoliang; Jia, Songmin; Li, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Xiangyin

    2018-01-01

    The majority of human action recognition methods use multifeature fusion strategy to improve the classification performance, where the contribution of different features for specific action has not been paid enough attention. We present an extendible and universal weighted score-level feature fusion method using the Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory based on the pipeline of bag-of-visual-words. First, the partially distinctive samples in the training set are selected to construct the validation set. Then, local spatiotemporal features and pose features are extracted from these samples to obtain evidence information. The DS evidence theory and the proposed rule of survival of the fittest are employed to achieve evidence combination and calculate optimal weight vectors of every feature type belonging to each action class. Finally, the recognition results are deduced via the weighted summation strategy. The performance of the established recognition framework is evaluated on Penn Action dataset and a subset of the joint-annotated human metabolome database (sub-JHMDB). The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed feature fusion method can adequately exploit the complementarity among multiple features and improve upon most of the state-of-the-art algorithms on Penn Action and sub-JHMDB datasets.

  14. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  15. Construction of an Exome-Wide Risk Score for Schizophrenia Based on a Weighted Burden Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David

    2018-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores obtained as a weighted sum of associated variants can be used to explore association in additional data sets and to assign risk scores to individuals. The methods used to derive polygenic risk scores from common SNPs are not suitable for variants detected in whole exome sequencing studies. Rare variants, which may have major effects, are seen too infrequently to judge whether they are associated and may not be shared between training and test subjects. A method is proposed whereby variants are weighted according to their frequency, their annotations and the genes they affect. A weighted sum across all variants provides an individual risk score. Scores constructed in this way are used in a weighted burden test and are shown to be significantly different between schizophrenia cases and controls using a five-way cross-validation procedure. This approach represents a first attempt to summarise exome sequence variation into a summary risk score, which could be combined with risk scores from common variants and from environmental factors. It is hoped that the method could be developed further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  16. Prehospital score for acute disease: a community-based observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiwara Hidekazu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulance usage in Japan has increased consistently because it is free under the national health insurance system. The introduction of refusal for ambulance transfer is being debated nationally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between prehospital data and hospitalization outcome for acute disease patients, and to develop a simple prehospital evaluation tool using prehospital data for Japan's emergency medical service system. Methods The subjects were 9,160 consecutive acute disease patients aged ≥ 15 years who were transferred to hospital by Kishiwada City Fire Department ambulance between July 2004 and March 2006. The relationship between prehospital data (age, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, level of consciousness, SpO2 level and ability to walk and outcome (hospitalization or non-hospitalization was analyzed using logistic regression models. The prehospital score component of each item of prehospital data was determined by beta coefficients. Eligible patients were scored retrospectively and the distribution of outcome was examined. For patients transported to the two main hospitals, outcome after hospitalization was also confirmed. Results A total of 8,330 (91% patients were retrospectively evaluated using a prehospital score with a maximum value of 14. The percentage of patients requiring hospitalization rose from 9% with score = 0 to 100% with score = 14. With a cut-off point score ≥ 2, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97%, 16%, 39% and 89%, respectively. Among the 6,498 patients transported to the two main hospitals, there were no deaths at scores ≤ 1 and the proportion of non-hospitalization was over 90%. The proportion of deaths increased rapidly at scores ≥ 11. Conclusion The prehospital score could be a useful tool for deciding the refusal of ambulance transfer in Japan's emergency medical

  17. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...... on underlying basic assumptions, such as diffuse fields, high modal overlap, resonant field being dominant, etc., and the consequences of these in terms of limitations in the theory and in the practical use of the models....

  18. Low Apgar score, neonatal encephalopathy and epidural analgesia during labour: a Swedish registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnell, S; Ekéus, C; Hultin, M; Håkansson, S; Thunberg, J; Högberg, U

    2015-04-01

    Maternal intrapartum fever (MF) is associated with neonatal sequelae, and women in labour who receive epidural analgesia (EA) are more likely to develop hyperthermia. The aims of this study were to investigate if EA and/or a diagnosis of MF were associated to adverse neonatal outcomes at a population level. Population-based register study with data from the Swedish Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register, including all nulliparae (n=294,329) with singleton pregnancies who gave birth at term in Sweden 1999-2008. Neonatal outcomes analysed were Apgar score (AS)neonatal encephalopathy (e.g. convulsions or neonatal cerebral ischaemia). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). EA was used in 44% of the deliveries. Low AS or encephalopathy was found in 1.26% and 0.39% of the children in the EA group compared with 0.80% and 0.29% in the control group. In multivariate analysis, EA was associated with increased risk with low AS, AOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.39), but not with diagnosis of encephalopathy, 1.11 (0.96-1.29). A diagnosis of MF was associated with increased risk for both low AS, 2.27 (1.71-3.02), and of neonatal encephalopathy, 1.97 (1.19-3.26). Diagnosis of MF was associated with low AS and neonatal encephalopathy, whereas EA was only associated with low AS and not with neonatal encephalopathy. The found associations might be a result of confounding by indication, which is difficult to assess in a registry-based population study. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  20. A STUDY ON RANKING METHOD IN RETRIEVING WEB PAGES BASED ON CONTENT AND LINK ANALYSIS: COMBINATION OF FOURIER DOMAIN SCORING AND PAGERANK SCORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Purwitasari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranking module is an important component of search process which sorts through relevant pages. Since collection of Web pages has additional information inherent in the hyperlink structure of the Web, it can be represented as link score and then combined with the usual information retrieval techniques of content score. In this paper we report our studies about ranking score of Web pages combined from link analysis, PageRank Scoring, and content analysis, Fourier Domain Scoring. Our experiments use collection of Web pages relate to Statistic subject from Wikipedia with objectives to check correctness and performance evaluation of combination ranking method. Evaluation of PageRank Scoring show that the highest score does not always relate to Statistic. Since the links within Wikipedia articles exists so that users are always one click away from more information on any point that has a link attached, it it possible that unrelated topics to Statistic are most likely frequently mentioned in the collection. While the combination method show link score which is given proportional weight to content score of Web pages does effect the retrieval results.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF THE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARD A WHOLE-LANGUAGEAPPROACH-BASED LECTURE USING SCORE QUESTIONNAIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamuddin Sadiq

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective was to investigate students’ attitude toward the implementation of a whole language approach on Reading and Writing for Occupational Purposes Course in the academic year of 2013/2014. The approaches employed were phonological and phoneme awareness, phonic and word study, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension skills and strategies, and writing. The participants were 15 students of the English Language Education Department, Universitas Islam Indonesia. SCORE questionnaire using the Likert’s scale was the instrument. Calculation was to find out score index and categorization by following Riduwan’s (2007 score interpretation criteria. The findings showed that in the simple category, two of ten questions were agreed absolutely (100%, in the clear category, all questions were agreed for 80 %, in the original category, five of thirteen questions reached majority of agreement (100%, in the relevant category, one of five questions was agreed absolutely (100%, and in the enjoyable category, all questions were agreed by 93%. Keywords: a whole language approach, SCORE, score interpretation criteria PENGUKURAN SIKAP MAHASISWA TENTANG PERKULIAHAN BERBASIS A WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH DENGAN KUESIONER SCORE Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengukur sikap mahasiswa terhadap pelaksanaan a whole language approach dalam perkuliahan Reading and Writing for Occupational Purposes Course tahun akademik 2013/2014. Pendekatan yang diterapkan adalah kesadaran fonetik dan fonemik, pelafalan dan kata, kelancaran, kosakata, keterampilan dan strategi membaca komprehensif, dan menulis. Responden penelitian ini adalah 15 maahsiswa Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Islam Indonesia. Kuesioner SCOREs dengan skala Likert sebagai instrumen. Penghitungan ditujukan kepada skor indeks dan kategorisasi mengikuti criteria interpretasi skor Riduwan (2007. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa pada kategori simple, dua pertanyaan disetujui mutlak (100%, pada kategori

  2. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pichonnaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC, minimal clinically important improvement (MCII, and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients.

  3. Measurement Properties of the Smartphone-Based B-B Score in Current Shoulder Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichonnaz, Claude; Duc, Cyntia; Gleeson, Nigel; Ancey, Céline; Jaccard, Hervé; Lécureux, Estelle; Farron, Alain; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the measurement properties of the shoulder function B-B Score measured with a smartphone. This score measures the symmetry between sides of a power-related metric for two selected movements, with 100% representing perfect symmetry. Twenty healthy participants, 20 patients with rotator cuff conditions, 23 with fractures, 22 with capsulitis, and 23 with shoulder instabilities were measured twice across a six-month interval using the B-B Score and shoulder function questionnaires. The discriminative power, responsiveness, diagnostic power, concurrent validity, minimal detectable change (MDC), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII), and patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) were evaluated. Significant differences with the control group and significant baseline—six-month differences were found for the rotator cuff condition, fracture, and capsulitis patient groups. The B-B Score was responsive and demonstrated excellent diagnostic power, except for shoulder instability. The correlations with clinical scores were generally moderate to high, but lower for instability. The MDC was 18.1%, the MCII was 25.2%, and the PASS was 77.6. No floor effect was observed. The B-B Score demonstrated excellent measurement properties in populations with rotator cuff conditions, proximal humerus fractures, and capsulitis, and can thus be used as a routine test to evaluate those patients. PMID:26506355

  4. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  5. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  6. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  7. Energy Information Data Base: serial titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Department of Energy Technical Information Center (TIC) is responsible for creating bibliographic data bases that are used in the announcement and retrieval of publications dealing with all phases of energy. The TIC interactive information processing system makes use of a number of computerized authorities so that consistency can be maintained and indexes can be produced. One such authority is the Energy Information Data Base: Serial Titles. This authority contains the full and abbreviated journal title, country of publication, CODEN, and certain codes. This revision replaces previous revisions of this document

  8. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  9. Scores of a web-based version of the seasonal pattern assessment questionnaire in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD is a proposed mental disorder still controversial. This condition is prevalent in northern latitudes, but few studies have been conducted at locations in the southern hemisphere. It is usually assessed by the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. This study aimed to evaluate, through on-line questionnaire, the hypothesis that, in the Brazilian population, latitude and longitude influence SPAQ scores. Methods: An advertisement was posted on a sleep medicine website inviting visitors to investigate seasonal patterns of behavior and mood, using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SPAQ. The geographic coordinates of the place of residence of each respondent were analyzed as a continuous variable or distributed in quartiles of latitude and longitude. The psychometric properties of the SPAQ were assessed by reliability and factor analyses. Results: Answers from 1001 respondents out of 1045 were considered eligible. High SPAQ scores were observed in 287 respondents, equally distributed among all latitude and longitude quartiles. Data collected in different seasons and during daylight saving time did not differ significantly in any of the scores for SPAQ dimensions. No correlations between SPAQ scores and latitude or longitude were observed. Psychometric properties of the SPAQ were preserved in all geographic locations. Conclusion: The finding of similar SPAQ scores at a wide latitude range defies the concept of SAD symptoms as latitude or longitude-dependent phenomena.

  10. Prediction of acute pancreatitis risk based on PIP score in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, V; Tosco, A; Tomaiuolo, R; Sepe, A; Amato, N; Casale, A; Mercogliano, C; De Gregorio, F; Improta, F; Elce, A; Castaldo, G; Raia, V

    2014-09-01

    Currently no tools to predict risk of acute (AP) and recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are available. We assessed the prevalence of AP/ARP and tested the potential role of Pancreatic Insufficiency Prevalence (PIP) score in a cohort of children with CF. We identified two groups of children, on the basis of presence/absence of AP/ARP, who were compared for age at diagnosis, clinical features, genotypes and sweat chloride level. PIP score was calculated for each patient. 10/167 (5.9%) experienced at least one episode of AP during follow up; 10/10 were pancreatic sufficient (PS). Patients with AP/ARP showed a PIP score ≤0.25 more frequently (6/10) than patients without AP/ARP. The odds ratio (95% CI) of developing pancreatitis was 4.54 (1.22-16.92) for patients with PIP 0.25 (p 0.0151). PIP score was correlated with sweat chloride test (p < 0.01). PIP score, PS status and normal/borderline sweat chloride levels could be applied to predict pancreatitis development in children with CF. ARP could lead to pancreatic insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of an imaging based cardiovascular risk score in a Scottish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Jairam, Pushpa M; Murchison, John T; Debray, Thomas P A; Mirsadraee, Saeed; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Jong, Pim A de; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2018-01-01

    A radiological risk score that determines 5-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using routine care CT and patient information readily available to radiologists was previously developed. External validation in a Scottish population was performed to assess the applicability and validity of the risk score in other populations. 2915 subjects aged ≥40 years who underwent routine clinical chest CT scanning for non-cardiovascular diagnostic indications were followed up until first diagnosis of, or death from, CVD. Using a case-cohort approach, all cases and a random sample of 20% of the participant's CT examinations were visually graded for cardiovascular calcifications and cardiac diameter was measured. The radiological risk score was determined using imaging findings, age, gender, and CT indication. Performance on 5-year CVD risk prediction was assessed. 384 events occurred in 2124 subjects during a mean follow-up of 4.25 years (0-6.4 years). The risk score demonstrated reasonable performance in the studied population. Calibration showed good agreement between actual and 5-year predicted risk of CVD. The c-statistic was 0.71 (95%CI:0.67-0.75). The radiological CVD risk score performed adequately in the Scottish population offering a potential novel strategy for identifying patients at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease using routine care CT data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Web-Based Education Prior to Outpatient Orthopaedic Surgery Enhances Early Patient Satisfaction Scores: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola F; Toor, Aneet; Banffy, Michael B; Gambardella, Ralph A

    2018-01-01

    A good patient-surgeon relationship relies on adequate preoperative education and counseling. Several multimedia resources, such as web-based education tools, have become available to enhance aspects of perioperative care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an interactive web-based education tool on perioperative patient satisfaction scores after outpatient orthopaedic surgery. It was hypothesized that web-based education prior to outpatient orthopaedic surgery enhances patient satisfaction scores. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. All patients undergoing knee arthroscopy with meniscectomy, chondroplasty, or anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or shoulder arthroscopy with rotator cuff repair were eligible for inclusion and were randomized to the study or control group. The control group received routine education by the surgeon, whereas the study group received additional web-based education. At the first postoperative visit, all patients completed the OAS CAHPS (Outpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey. Differences in patient satisfaction scores between the study and control groups were determined with an independent t test. A total of 177 patients were included (104 [59%] males; mean age, 42 ± 14 years); 87 (49%) patients were randomized to receive additional web-based education. Total patient satisfaction score was significantly higher in the study group (97 ± 5) as compared with the control group (94 ± 8; P = .019), specifically for the OAS CAHPS core measure "recovery" (92 ± 13 vs 82 ± 23; P = .001). Age, sex, race, workers' compensation status, education level, overall health, emotional health, procedure type and complexity, and addition of a video did not influence patient satisfaction scores. Supplemental web-based patient education prior to outpatient orthopaedic surgery enhances patient satisfaction scores.

  13. Key performance indicators score (KPIs-score) based on clinical and laboratorial parameters can establish benchmarks for internal quality control in an ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, José G; Petersen, Claudia G; Mauri, Ana L; Vagnini, Laura D; Renzi, Adriana; Petersen, Bruna; Mattila, M C; Comar, Vanessa A; Ricci, Juliana; Dieamant, Felipe; Oliveira, João Batista A; Baruffi, Ricardo L R

    2017-06-01

    KPIs have been employed for internal quality control (IQC) in ART. However, clinical KPIs (C-KPIs) such as age, AMH and number of oocytes collected are never added to laboratory KPIs (L-KPIs), such as fertilization rate and morphological quality of the embryos for analysis, even though the final endpoint is the evaluation of clinical pregnancy rates. This paper analyzed if a KPIs-score strategy with clinical and laboratorial parameters could be used to establish benchmarks for IQC in ART cycles. In this prospective cohort study, 280 patients (36.4±4.3years) underwent ART. The total KPIs-score was obtained by the analysis of age, AMH (AMH Gen II ELISA/pre-mixing modified, Beckman Coulter Inc.), number of metaphase-II oocytes, fertilization rates and morphological quality of the embryonic lot. The total KPIs-score (C-KPIs+L-KPIs) was correlated with the presence or absence of clinical pregnancy. The relationship between the C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores was analyzed to establish quality standards, to increase the performance of clinical and laboratorial processes in ART. The logistic regression model (LRM), with respect to pregnancy and total KPIs-score (280 patients/102 clinical pregnancies), yielded an odds ratio of 1.24 (95%CI = 1.16-1.32). There was also a significant difference (pclinical pregnancies (total KPIs-score=20.4±3.7) and the group without clinical pregnancies (total KPIs-score=15.9±5). Clinical pregnancy probabilities (CPP) can be obtained using the LRM (prediction key) with the total KPIs-score as a predictor variable. The mean C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores obtained in the pregnancy group were 11.9±2.9 and 8.5±1.7, respectively. Routinely, in all cases where the C-KPIs score was ≥9, after the procedure, the L-KPIs score obtained was ≤6, a revision of the laboratory procedure was performed to assess quality standards. This total KPIs-score could set up benchmarks for clinical pregnancy. Moreover, IQC can use C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores to detect problems

  14. Fast index based algorithms and software for matching position specific scoring matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homann Robert

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biological sequence analysis, position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs are widely used to represent sequence motifs in nucleotide as well as amino acid sequences. Searching with PSSMs in complete genomes or large sequence databases is a common, but computationally expensive task. Results We present a new non-heuristic algorithm, called ESAsearch, to efficiently find matches of PSSMs in large databases. Our approach preprocesses the search space, e.g., a complete genome or a set of protein sequences, and builds an enhanced suffix array that is stored on file. This allows the searching of a database with a PSSM in sublinear expected time. Since ESAsearch benefits from small alphabets, we present a variant operating on sequences recoded according to a reduced alphabet. We also address the problem of non-comparable PSSM-scores by developing a method which allows the efficient computation of a matrix similarity threshold for a PSSM, given an E-value or a p-value. Our method is based on dynamic programming and, in contrast to other methods, it employs lazy evaluation of the dynamic programming matrix. We evaluated algorithm ESAsearch with nucleotide PSSMs and with amino acid PSSMs. Compared to the best previous methods, ESAsearch shows speedups of a factor between 17 and 275 for nucleotide PSSMs, and speedups up to factor 1.8 for amino acid PSSMs. Comparisons with the most widely used programs even show speedups by a factor of at least 3.8. Alphabet reduction yields an additional speedup factor of 2 on amino acid sequences compared to results achieved with the 20 symbol standard alphabet. The lazy evaluation method is also much faster than previous methods, with speedups of a factor between 3 and 330. Conclusion Our analysis of ESAsearch reveals sublinear runtime in the expected case, and linear runtime in the worst case for sequences not shorter than |A MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92Aae

  15. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  16. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  17. An Assessment of Statistical Process Control-Based Approaches for Charting Student Evaluation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Wardell, Don; Verma, Rohit

    2006-01-01

    We compare three control charts for monitoring data from student evaluations of teaching (SET) with the goal of improving student satisfaction with teaching performance. The two charts that we propose are a modified "p" chart and a z-score chart. We show that these charts overcome some of the shortcomings of the more traditional charts…

  18. Difference of achalasia subtypes based on clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and stasis scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meillier

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Achalasia subtypes had similar clinical symptoms, except for increased vomiting severity in subtype i. The maximum esophageal diameter in subtype ii was significantly greater than in subtype iii. Esophageal stasis scores were similar. Thus, high-resolution esophageal manometry remains essential in assessing achalasia subtypes.

  19. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...... supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most...... environmental impacts in the 2050 scenarios, in particular upstream impacts from land use changes (LUCs), fertilizer use and NOx emissions from the transport sector were critical. Land occupation (including LUC effects) caused by energy crop production increased to a range of 600–2100 × 106 m2/PJ depending...

  20. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J; Vilkko, M; Antila, H; Lautala, P [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  2. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  3. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...

  4. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  5. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  6. Laboratory-based and office-based risk scores and charts to predict 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease in 182 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueda, Peter; Woodward, Mark; Lu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide implementation of risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention requires risk prediction tools that are contemporarily recalibrated for the target country and can be used where laboratory measurements are unavailable. We present two cardiovascular risk scores, with and ...

  7. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  8. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  9. Evaluating score- and feature-based likelihood ratio models for multivariate continuous data: applied to forensic MDMA comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolck, A.; Ni, H.; Lopatka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Likelihood ratio (LR) models are moving into the forefront of forensic evidence evaluation as these methods are adopted by a diverse range of application areas in forensic science. We examine the fundamentally different results that can be achieved when feature- and score-based methodologies are

  10. The impact of a revised EQ-5D population scoring on preference-based utility scores in an inflammatory arthritis cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adams, Roisin

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is well established that there are problems with the EQ-5D. This is due to the original scoring methods used and how negative time trade-off (TTO) values were treated. A revised scoring method has been published. This article applies this to an inflammatory arthritis cohort. The objective is to examine the impact of a revised scoring system for the EQ-5D (UK) TTO on the utility estimates and in the case of rheumatoid arthritis, to explore the impact of using different utility metrics on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) results of an economic model. METHODS: A total of 504 patients with inflammatory arthritis were rescored using revised EQ-5D scoring, which uses an episodic random utility model to deal with negative TTO values. Differences in utility scores were compared and the new mapping coefficients were obtained. These were then used in an economic model to examine the impact on the ICER. RESULTS: In rheumatoid arthritis, the overall change is less for the revised EQ-5D scoring than with the original EQ-5D (TTO) but greater than the SF-6D: EQ-5D UK -0.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.30 to -0.15), revised EQ-5D UK -0.16 (95% CI -0.21 to -0.10) and SF-6D -0.08 (95% CI -0.11 to -0.05). A similar trend is seen in the psoriatic arthritis group. The economic model produced different ICERs, when different utility measures were used; EQ-5D (TTO) euro42,402, SF-6D euro111,788, and revised EQ-5D (TTO) euro57,747. CONCLUSION: In the context of inflammatory arthritis, this article demonstrates that a revised scoring for EQ-5D may have a significant impact on utility estimates and on the output of the economic model.

  11. Determination of an effective scoring function for RNA-RNA interactions with a physics-based double-iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yumeng; Wen, Zeyu; Zhang, Di; Huang, Sheng-You

    2018-05-18

    RNA-RNA interactions play fundamental roles in gene and cell regulation. Therefore, accurate prediction of RNA-RNA interactions is critical to determine their complex structures and understand the molecular mechanism of the interactions. Here, we have developed a physics-based double-iterative strategy to determine the effective potentials for RNA-RNA interactions based on a training set of 97 diverse RNA-RNA complexes. The double-iterative strategy circumvented the reference state problem in knowledge-based scoring functions by updating the potentials through iteration and also overcame the decoy-dependent limitation in previous iterative methods by constructing the decoys iteratively. The derived scoring function, which is referred to as DITScoreRR, was evaluated on an RNA-RNA docking benchmark of 60 test cases and compared with three other scoring functions. It was shown that for bound docking, our scoring function DITScoreRR obtained the excellent success rates of 90% and 98.3% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 63.3% and 71.7% for van der Waals interactions, 45.0% and 65.0% for ITScorePP, and 11.7% and 26.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. For unbound docking, DITScoreRR achieved the good success rates of 53.3% and 71.7% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 13.3% and 28.3% for van der Waals interactions, 11.7% and 26.7% for our ITScorePP, and 3.3% and 6.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. DITScoreRR also performed significantly better in ranking decoys and obtained significantly higher score-RMSD correlations than the other three scoring functions. DITScoreRR will be of great value for the prediction and design of RNA structures and RNA-RNA complexes.

  12. Graphene-Based Systems for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Phillips, James, III; Hogue, Michael; Kaner, Richard B.; El-Kady, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Development of graphene-based energy storage devices based on the Laser Scribe system developed by the University of California Los Angeles. These devices These graphene-based devices store charge on graphene sheets and take advantage of the large accessible surface area of graphene (2,600 m2g) to increase the electrical energy that can be stored. The proposed devices should have the electrical storage capacity of thin-film-ion batteries but with much shorter charge discharge cycle times as well as longer lives The proposed devices will be carbon-based and so will not have the same issues with flammability or toxicity as the standard lithium-based storage cells.

  13. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Linear discriminant analysis (LDA is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA, which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  14. Effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on memory scores and state anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Shirley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest (called cyclic meditation was previously shown to improve performance in attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana. This was ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed. Methods In fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age ± S.D., 26.6 ± 4.5 years the immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i Cyclic meditation (CM practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii an equal duration of Supine rest (SR or the corpse posture (shavasana, on another day. Sections of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS were used to assess; (i attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward, and (ii associate learning. State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results There was a significant improvement in the scores of all sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for either session. Conclusion A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana.

  15. AN EXCEL-BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR SCORING AND RANKING PROPOSED R&D PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ANNE DE PIANTE HENRIKSEN; SUSAN W. PALOCSAY

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of technology management is the selection of research and development (R&D) projects from among a group of proposals. This paper introduces an interactive, user-friendly decision support system for evaluating and ranking R&D projects and demonstrates its application on an example R&D program. It employs the scoring methodology developed by Henriksen and Traynor to provide a practical technique that considers both project merit and project cost in the evalua...

  16. Association of cerebral palsy with Apgar score in low and normal birthweight infants: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøholt, Else-Karin; Eskild, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association of Apgar score 5 minutes after birth with cerebral palsy in both normal weight and low birthweight children, and also the association with the cerebral palsy subdiagnoses of quadriplegia, diplegia, and hemiplegia. Design Population based cohort study. Setting The Medical Birth Registry of Norway was used to identify all babies born between 1986 and 1995. These data were linked to the Norwegian Registry of Cerebral Palsy in Children born 1986-95, which was established on the basis of discharge diagnoses at all paediatric departments in Norway. Population All singletons without malformations born in Norway during 1986-95 and who survived the first year of life (n=543 064). Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Results 988 children (1.8 in 1000) were diagnosed with cerebral palsy before the age of 5 years. In total, 11% (39/369) of the children with Apgar score of less than 3 at birth were diagnosed with cerebral palsy, compared with only 0.1% (162/179 515) of the children with Apgar score of 10 (odds ratio (OR) 53, 95% CI 35 to 80 after adjustment for birth weight). In children with a birth weight of 2500 g or more, those with an Apgar score of less than 4 were much more likely to have cerebral palsy than those who had an Apgar score of more than 8 (OR 125, 95% confidence interval 91 to 170). The corresponding OR in children weighing less than 1500 g was 5 (95% CI 2 to 9). Among children with Apgar score of less than 4, 10-17% in all birthweight groups developed cerebral palsy. Low Apgar score was strongly associated with each of the three subgroups of spastic cerebral palsy, although the association was strongest for quadriplegia (adjusted OR 137 for Apgar score 8, 95% CI 77 to 244). Conclusions Low Apgar score was strongly associated with cerebral palsy. This association was high in children with normal birth weight and modest in children with low birth weight. The strength of the

  17. Chest computed tomography-based scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis: Inter-rater reliability of CT abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvel, D.A.V. den; Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, J.P. van; Spee, M. [St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zanen, P.; Grutters, J.C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Division Heart and Lungs, Utrecht (Netherlands); St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Center of Interstitial Lung Diseases, Department of Pulmonology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    To determine inter-rater reliability of sarcoidosis-related computed tomography (CT) findings that can be used for scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis. CT images of 51 patients with sarcoidosis were scored by five chest radiologists for various abnormal CT findings (22 in total) encountered in thoracic sarcoidosis. Using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis, inter-rater reliability was analysed and reported according to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) criteria. A pre-specified sub-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of training. Scoring was trained in a distinct set of 15 scans in which all abnormal CT findings were represented. Median age of the 51 patients (36 men, 70 %) was 43 years (range 26 - 64 years). All radiographic stages were present in this group. ICC ranged from 0.91 for honeycombing to 0.11 for nodular margin (sharp versus ill-defined). The ICC was above 0.60 in 13 of the 22 abnormal findings. Sub-analysis for the best-trained observers demonstrated an ICC improvement for all abnormal findings and values above 0.60 for 16 of the 22 abnormalities. In our cohort, reliability between raters was acceptable for 16 thoracic sarcoidosis-related abnormal CT findings. (orig.)

  18. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Chest computed tomography-based scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis: Inter-rater reliability of CT abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, D.A.V. den; Es, H.W. van; Heesewijk, J.P. van; Spee, M.; Jong, P.A. de; Zanen, P.; Grutters, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    To determine inter-rater reliability of sarcoidosis-related computed tomography (CT) findings that can be used for scoring of thoracic sarcoidosis. CT images of 51 patients with sarcoidosis were scored by five chest radiologists for various abnormal CT findings (22 in total) encountered in thoracic sarcoidosis. Using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis, inter-rater reliability was analysed and reported according to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) criteria. A pre-specified sub-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of training. Scoring was trained in a distinct set of 15 scans in which all abnormal CT findings were represented. Median age of the 51 patients (36 men, 70 %) was 43 years (range 26 - 64 years). All radiographic stages were present in this group. ICC ranged from 0.91 for honeycombing to 0.11 for nodular margin (sharp versus ill-defined). The ICC was above 0.60 in 13 of the 22 abnormal findings. Sub-analysis for the best-trained observers demonstrated an ICC improvement for all abnormal findings and values above 0.60 for 16 of the 22 abnormalities. In our cohort, reliability between raters was acceptable for 16 thoracic sarcoidosis-related abnormal CT findings. (orig.)

  20. Scoring protein interaction decoys using exposed residues (SPIDER): a novel multibody interaction scoring function based on frequent geometric patterns of interfacial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Raed; Zheng, Weifan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Accurate prediction of the structure of protein-protein complexes in computational docking experiments remains a formidable challenge. It has been recognized that identifying native or native-like poses among multiple decoys is the major bottleneck of the current scoring functions used in docking. We have developed a novel multibody pose-scoring function that has no theoretical limit on the number of residues contributing to the individual interaction terms. We use a coarse-grain representation of a protein-protein complex where each residue is represented by its side chain centroid. We apply a computational geometry approach called Almost-Delaunay tessellation that transforms protein-protein complexes into a residue contact network, or an undirectional graph where vertex-residues are nodes connected by edges. This treatment forms a family of interfacial graphs representing a dataset of protein-protein complexes. We then employ frequent subgraph mining approach to identify common interfacial residue patterns that appear in at least a subset of native protein-protein interfaces. The geometrical parameters and frequency of occurrence of each "native" pattern in the training set are used to develop the new SPIDER scoring function. SPIDER was validated using standard "ZDOCK" benchmark dataset that was not used in the development of SPIDER. We demonstrate that SPIDER scoring function ranks native and native-like poses above geometrical decoys and that it exceeds in performance a popular ZRANK scoring function. SPIDER was ranked among the top scoring functions in a recent round of CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions) blind test of protein-protein docking methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS): Development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Hargraves, Heather; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Flodrowski, Les

    2016-07-01

    Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers. Results suggested that: (a) MBAS are internally consistent across bell rings; (b) MBAS total scores exhibit a non-normal distribution identifying subgroups of participants with particularly poor or robust FA during meditation; (c) MBAS decrease linearly with the duration of meditation practices, indicating that participants tend to experience less FA later as opposed to earlier in the meditation; (d) in the case of eyes-open meditation, MBAS are higher when the amount of time between bells is shorter; (e) MBAS correlate with various self-reported subjective experiences occurring during meditation; and (f) MBAS are weakly associated with higher trait mindful "acting with awareness," lesser ADHD-related symptoms of inattentiveness, and estimated minutes of meditation practiced in the past month. In sum, results provide further support for the construct validity of MBAS and serve to further characterize the dynamics of individual differences in FA during meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. DOE's energy data base (EDB) versus other energy-related data bases: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.; Hu, M.

    1981-02-01

    The release of the DOE Energy Data Base to commercial services in 1980 raised an immediate question in the minds of some searchers: how does this new data base fit into the spectrum of already-available data bases. Because the authors have been closely associated with the Department of Energy's RECON system and its data bases for several years, as trainers and as editor of the DOE/RECON Newsletter, the question was of great interest and we decided to investigate it

  3. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M.; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N.; Guzzetta, Andrea; Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas; Gal, Yaniv

    2016-01-01

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Guzzetta, Andrea; Doecke, James; Gal, Yaniv; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach.

  5. Optimization of MRI-based scoring scales of brain injury severity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M. [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Fiori, Simona [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); Boyd, Roslyn N. [The University of Queensland, Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Medicine, Brisbane (Australia); Guzzetta, Andrea [Stella Maris Scientific Institute, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Doecke, James; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas [Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, CSIRO Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, The Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [The University of Queensland, Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    Several scoring systems for measuring brain injury severity have been developed to standardize the classification of MRI results, which allows for the prediction of functional outcomes to help plan effective interventions for children with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to use statistical techniques to optimize the clinical utility of a recently proposed template-based scoring method by weighting individual anatomical scores of injury, while maintaining its simplicity by retaining only a subset of scored anatomical regions. Seventy-six children with unilateral cerebral palsy were evaluated in terms of upper limb motor function using the Assisting Hand Assessment measure and injuries visible on MRI using a semiquantitative approach. This cohort included 52 children with periventricular white matter injury and 24 with cortical and deep gray matter injuries. A subset of the template-derived cerebral regions was selected using a data-driven region selection algorithm. Linear regression was performed using this subset, with interaction effects excluded. Linear regression improved multiple correlations between MRI-based and Assisting Hand Assessment scores for both periventricular white matter (R squared increased to 0.45 from 0, P < 0.0001) and cortical and deep gray matter (0.84 from 0.44, P < 0.0001) cohorts. In both cohorts, the data-driven approach retained fewer than 8 of the 40 template-derived anatomical regions. The equal or better prediction of the clinically meaningful Assisting Hand Assessment measure using fewer anatomical regions highlights the potential of these developments to enable enhanced quantification of injury and prediction of patient motor outcome, while maintaining the clinical expediency of the scoring approach. (orig.)

  6. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  7. Sustainable urban regeneration based on energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Zwetsloot, J.; Brezet, H.; Silvester, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming

  8. Sustainable Urban Regeneration Based on Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Silvester

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of the use and integration of decentralized energy systems and storage devices in an urban renewal area. First the general context of a different approach based on 'rethinking' and the incorporation of ongoing integration of coming economical and environmental interests on infrastructure, in relation to the sustainable urban development and regeneration from the perspective of the tripod people, technology and design is elaborated. However, this is at different scales, starting mainly from the perspective of the urban dynamics. This approach includes a renewed look at the ‘urban metabolism’ and the role of environmental technology, urban ecology and environment behavior focus. Second, the potential benefits of strategic and balanced introduction and use of decentralized devices and electric vehicles (EVs, and attached generation based on renewables are investigated in more detail in the case study of the ‘Merwe-Vierhaven’ area (MW4 in the Rotterdam city port in the Netherlands. In order to optimize the energy balance of this urban renewal area, it is found to be impossible to do this by tuning the energy consumption. It is more effective to change the energy mix and related infrastructures. However, the problem in existing urban areas is that often these areas are restricted to a few energy sources due to lack of available space for integration. Besides this, energy consumption in most cases is relatively concentrated in (existing urban areas. This limits the potential of sustainable urban regeneration based on decentralized systems, because there is no balanced choice regarding the energy mix based on renewables and system optimization. Possible solutions to obtain a balanced energy profile can come from either the choice to not provide all energy locally, or by adding different types of storage devices to the systems. The use of energy balance based on renewables as a

  9. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  10. Tractography-Based Score for Learning Effective Connectivity From Multimodal Imaging Data Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun K

    2018-05-01

    Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally active segregated regions of the brain. By definition EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modeling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We aim to propose a unified probabilistic framework that combines information from both sources to learn EC using dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). DBNs are probabilistic graphical temporal models that learn EC in an exploratory fashion. Specifically, we propose a novel anatomically informed (AI) score that evaluates fitness of a given connectivity structure to both DTI and fMRI data simultaneously. The AI score is employed in structure learning of DBN given the data. Experiments with synthetic-data demonstrate the face validity of structure learning with our AI score over anatomically uninformed counterpart. Moreover, real-data results are cross-validated by performing classification-experiments. EC inferred on real fMRI-DTI datasets is found to be consistent with previous literature and show promising results in light of the AC present as compared to other classically used techniques such as Granger-causality. Multimodal analyses provide a more reliable basis for differentiating brain under abnormal/diseased conditions than the single modality analysis.

  11. Scoring system based on electrocardiogram features to predict the type of heart failure in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Purnasidha Bagaswoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heart failure is divided into heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF. Additional studies are required to distinguish between these two types of HF. A previous study showed that HFrEF is less likely when ECG findings are normal. This study aims to create a scoring system based on ECG findings that will predict the type of HF. We performed a cross-sectional study analyzing ECG and echocardiographic data from 110 subjects. HFrEF was defined as an ejection fraction ≤40%. Fifty people were diagnosed with HFpEF and 60 people suffered from HFrEF. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed certain ECG variables that were independent predictors of HFrEF i.e., LAH, QRS duration >100 ms, RBBB, ST-T segment changes and prolongation of the QT interval. Based on ROC curve analysis, we obtained a score for HFpEF of -1 to +3, while HFrEF had a score of +4 to +6 with 76% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 95% positive predictive value, an 80% negative predictive value and an accuracy of 86%. The scoring system derived from this study, including the presence or absence of LAH, QRS duration >100 ms, RBBB, ST-T segment changes and prolongation of the QT interval can be used to predict the type of HF with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity

  12. Ultrasound-based scores as predictors for nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiasda, Jill; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Müller, Jörg A; Serttas, Michaela; Scheumann, Georg W F; Schrem, Harald; Jäger, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Former studies evaluated echostructural and vascular patterns in ultrasound of the parathyroid gland to identify nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease. This prospective study aims to externally validate suggested ultrasound classifications. Parathyroid glands of 27 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy were prospectively analyzed. Ultrasound including Doppler imaging was performed 1 day prior to surgery. Ultrasound data were available for 70 parathyroid glands. Echostructural and vascular scores according to previous studies were applied calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Overall correctness, sensitivity, and specificity of the investigated scores were assessed with the Youden index method. The Doppler score introduced by Vulpio and colleagues based on characteristic blood flow patterns in parathyroid glands showed an AUROC of 0.749 for the prediction of nodular hyperplasia with an overall correctness of 72.8%. Other ultrasound classifications based on blood flow patterns, as well as echostructure of the parathyroid gland displayed AUROCs of secondary hyperparathyroidism was externally validated for the first time. Other ultrasound scores fail as prognostic models in this study population. Doppler sonography of the parathyroid gland has prognostic capability to identify nodular hyperplasia as surrogate marker for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism indicating the need for ablative or surgical treatment when failing conservative therapy.

  13. A point-based prediction model for cardiovascular risk in orthotopic liver transplantation: The CAR-OLT score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWagner, Lisa B; Ning, Hongyan; Whitsett, Maureen; Levitsky, Josh; Uttal, Sarah; Wilkins, John T; Abecassis, Michael M; Ladner, Daniela P; Skaro, Anton I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). There is currently no preoperative risk-assessment tool that allows physicians to estimate the risk for CVD events following OLT. We sought to develop a point-based prediction model (risk score) for CVD complications after OLT, the Cardiovascular Risk in Orthotopic Liver Transplantation risk score, among a cohort of 1,024 consecutive patients aged 18-75 years who underwent first OLT in a tertiary-care teaching hospital (2002-2011). The main outcome measures were major 1-year CVD complications, defined as death from a CVD cause or hospitalization for a major CVD event (myocardial infarction, revascularization, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism, and/or stroke). The bootstrap method yielded bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals for the regression coefficients of the final model. Among 1,024 first OLT recipients, major CVD complications occurred in 329 (32.1%). Variables selected for inclusion in the model (using model optimization strategies) included preoperative recipient age, sex, race, employment status, education status, history of hepatocellular carcinoma, diabetes, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, pulmonary or systemic hypertension, and respiratory failure. The discriminative performance of the point-based score (C statistic = 0.78, bias-corrected C statistic = 0.77) was superior to other published risk models for postoperative CVD morbidity and mortality, and it had appropriate calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.33). The point-based risk score can identify patients at risk for CVD complications after OLT surgery (available at www.carolt.us); this score may be useful for identification of candidates for further risk stratification or other management strategies to improve CVD outcomes after OLT. (Hepatology 2017;66:1968-1979). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  14. [Collateral score based on CT perfusion can predict the prognosis of patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke after thrombectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Meixia; Chen, Zhicai; Lou, Min

    2017-07-25

    To evaluate the value of collateral score based on CT perfusion (CTP-CS) in predicting the clinical outcome of patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke after thrombectomy. Clinical data of acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior artery occlusion undergoing endovascular treatment in the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine during October 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Collateral scores were assessed based on CTP and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images, respectively. And DSA-CS or CTP-CS 3-4 was defined as good collateral vessels. Good clinical outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤ 2 at 3 months after stroke. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the correlation between the collateral score and clinical outcome, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the value of DSA-CS and CTP-CS in predicting the clinical outcome. Among 40 patients, 33 (82.5%) acquired recanalization and 16 (40.0%) got good outcome. Compared with poor outcome group, the collateral score (all P collateral vessels were higher in good outcome group (all P collateral vessels were independent factor of good outcome (CTP-CS: OR =48.404, 95% CI :1.373-1706.585, P Collateral scores based on CTP and DSA had good consistency ( κ =0.697, P <0.01), and ROC curve showed that the predictive value of CTP-CS and DSA-CS were comparable (both AUC=0.726, 95% CI :0.559-0.893, P <0.05). CTP-CS can predict the clinical outcome of patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke after thrombectomy.

  15. From clinical to tissue-based dual TIA: Validation and refinement of ABCD3-I score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiliang; Sun, Wen; Xiong, Yunyun; Hankey, Graeme J; Xiao, Lulu; Zhu, Wusheng; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Wenhua; Liu, Dezhi; Cai, Qiankun; Han, Yunfei; Duan, Lihui; Chen, Xiangliang; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-04-07

    To investigate whether dual tissue-defined ischemic attacks, defined as multiple diffusion-weighted imaging lesions of different age and/or arterial territory (dual DWI), are an independent and stronger predictor of 90-day stroke than dual clinical TIAs (dual TIA). Consecutive patients with clinically defined TIA were enrolled and assessed clinically and by MRI within 3 days. The predictive ability of the ABCD clinical factors, dual TIA, and dual DWI was evaluated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Among 658 patients who were included in the study and completed 90 days of follow-up, a total of 70 patients (10.6%) experienced subsequent stroke by 90 days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that dual DWI was an independent predictor for subsequent stroke (odds ratio 4.64, 95% confidence interval 2.15-10.01), while dual TIA was not (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.69-2.01). C statistics was higher when the item of dual TIA in ABCD3-I score was replaced by dual DWI (0.759 vs 0.729, p = 0.035). The net reclassification value for 90-day stroke risk was also improved (continuous net reclassification improvement 0.301, p = 0.017). Dual DWI independently predicted future stroke in patients with TIA. A new ABCD3-I score with dual DWI instead of dual clinical TIA may improve risk stratification for early stroke risk after TIA. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Statin Selection in Qatar Based on Multi-indication Pharmacotherapeutic Multi-criteria Scoring Model, and Clinician Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Fahey, Michael; Alabbadi, Ibrahim; Al-Khal, Abdullatif; Zaidan, Manal

    2015-12-01

    Statin selection for the largest hospital formulary in Qatar is not systematic, not comparative, and does not consider the multi-indication nature of statins. There are no reports in the literature of multi-indication-based comparative scoring models of statins or of statin selection criteria weights that are based primarily on local clinicians' preferences and experiences. This study sought to comparatively evaluate statins for first-line therapy in Qatar, and to quantify the economic impact of this. An evidence-based, multi-indication, multi-criteria pharmacotherapeutic model was developed for the scoring of statins from the perspective of the main health care provider in Qatar. The literature and an expert panel informed the selection criteria of statins. Relative weighting of selection criteria was based on the input of the relevant local clinician population. Statins were comparatively scored based on literature evidence, with those exceeding a defined scoring threshold being recommended for use. With 95% CI and 5% margin of error, the scoring model was successfully developed. Selection criteria comprised 28 subcriteria under the following main criteria: clinical efficacy, best publish evidence and experience, adverse effects, drug interaction, dosing time, and fixed dose combination availability. Outcome measures for multiple indications were related to effects on LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Atorvastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin exceeded defined pharmacotherapeutic thresholds. Atorvastatin and pravastatin were recommended as first-line use and rosuvastatin as a nonformulary alternative. It was estimated that this would produce a 17.6% cost savings in statins expenditure. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the evaluation's outcomes against input uncertainties. Incorporating a comparative evaluation of statins in Qatari practices based on a locally developed, transparent, multi

  17. Agent based modeling of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez de Durana, José María; Barambones, Oscar; Kremers, Enrique; Varga, Liz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new approach for energy network modeling is designed and tested. • The agent-based approach is general and no technology dependent. • The models can be easily extended. • The range of applications encompasses from small to large energy infrastructures. - Abstract: Attempts to model any present or future power grid face a huge challenge because a power grid is a complex system, with feedback and multi-agent behaviors, integrated by generation, distribution, storage and consumption systems, using various control and automation computing systems to manage electricity flows. Our approach to modeling is to build upon an established model of the low voltage electricity network which is tested and proven, by extending it to a generalized energy model. But, in order to address the crucial issues of energy efficiency, additional processes like energy conversion and storage, and further energy carriers, such as gas, heat, etc., besides the traditional electrical one, must be considered. Therefore a more powerful model, provided with enhanced nodes or conversion points, able to deal with multidimensional flows, is being required. This article addresses the issue of modeling a local multi-carrier energy network. This problem can be considered as an extension of modeling a low voltage distribution network located at some urban or rural geographic area. But instead of using an external power flow analysis package to do the power flow calculations, as used in electric networks, in this work we integrate a multiagent algorithm to perform the task, in a concurrent way to the other simulation tasks, and not only for the electric fluid but also for a number of additional energy carriers. As the model is mainly focused in system operation, generation and load models are not developed

  18. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  19. AP Potential™ Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT® and SAT® Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales. Statistical Report 2016-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP® Exam--based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  20. AP Potential Expectancy Tables Based on PSAT/NMSQT and SAT Scores on the 2015-16 Redesigned Scales Using Final Concordance Tables. Statistical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Maureen; Wyatt, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Historically, AP Potential™ has used PSAT/NMSQT® scores to identify students who are likely to earn a 3 or higher on a specific AP Exam based on research showing moderate to strong relationships between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam scores (Camara & Millsap, 1998; Ewing, Camara, & Millsap, 2006; Zhang, Patel, & Ewing, 2014a). For most…

  1. MRI assessment of knee osteoarthritis: Knee Osteoarthritis Scoring System (KOSS) - inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility of a compartment-based scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Ceulemans, Ruth Y.T.; Kroon, Herman M.; Bloem, Johan L.; Riyazi, Naghmeh; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Carter, Wayne O.; Woodworth, Thasia G.

    2005-01-01

    To develop a scoring system for quantifying osteoarthritic changes of the knee as identified by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to determine its inter- and intra-observer reproducibility, in order to monitor medical therapy in research studies. Two independent observers evaluated 25 consecutive MR examinations of the knee in patients with previously defined clinical symptoms and radiological signs of osteoarthritis. We acquired on a 1.5 T system: coronal and sagittal proton density- and T2-weighted dual spin echo (SE) images, sagittal three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient echo (GE) images with fat suppression, and axial dual turbo SE images with fat suppression. Images were scored for the presence of cartilaginous lesions, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, bone marrow edema, and for meniscal abnormalities. Presence and size of effusion, synovitis and Baker's cyst were recorded. All parameters were ranked on a previously defined, semiquantitative scale, reflecting increasing severity of findings. Kappa, weighted kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to determine inter- and intra-observer variability. Inter-observer reproducibility was good (ICC value 0.77). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility for individual parameters was good to very good (inter-observer ICC value 0.63-0.91; intra-observer ICC value 0.76-0.96). The presented comprehensive MR scoring system for osteoarthritic changes of the knee has a good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility. Thus the score form with its definitions can be used for standardized assessment of osteoarthritic changes to monitor medical therapy in research studies. (orig.)

  2. Energy Information Augmented Community-Based Energy Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rembert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available More than one-half of all U.S. states have instituted energy efficiency mandates requiring utilities to reduce energy use. To achieve these goals, utilities have been permitted rate structures to help them incentivize energy reduction projects. This strategy is proving to be only modestly successful in stemming energy consumption growth. By the same token, community energy reduction programs have achieved moderate to very significant energy reduction. The research described here offers an important tool to strengthen the community energy reduction efforts—by providing such efforts energy information tailored to the energy use patterns of each building occupant. The information provided most importantly helps each individual energy customer understand their potential for energy savings and what reduction measures are most important to them. This information can be leveraged by the leading community organization to prompt greater action in its community. A number of case studies of this model are shown. Early results are promising.

  3. Another procedure for the preliminary ordering of loci based on two point lod scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D

    1994-01-01

    Because of the difficulty of performing full likelihood analysis over multiple loci and the large numbers of possible orders, a number of methods have been proposed for quickly evaluating orders and, to a lesser extent, for generating good orders. A new method is proposed which uses a function which is moderately laborious to compute, the sum of lod scores between all pairs of loci. This function can be smoothly minimized by initially allowing the loci to be placed anywhere in space, and only subsequently constraining them to lie along a one-dimensional map. Application of this approach to sample data suggests that it has promise and might usefully be combined with other methods when loci need to be ordered.

  4. AN IMPLEMENTATION OF VIBRATION-BASED AUTOMATIC SCORE-KEEPING SYSTEM FOR TABLE TENNIS GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem YAVUZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sport tournaments human factor plays an important role to evaluate the game. Table tennis is an example of this kind of sports. In order to avoid erroneous human decisions and to enhance referees’ decisions an automatic score-keeping system for table tennis game is designed and implemented with low cost vibration sensors attached underside of the tennis table. The purpose of using vibration sensors is to detect ball colliding with the surface. An additional vibration sensor is also used to detect ball touching the net, determining let state in the game. Petri net scheme is used to model the operation of the system, making it easy to visualize its operation. We believe that the proposed system will contribute much to better evaluate the various phases of table tennis games and to aid the referees to make better decisions.

  5. An inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score system in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jia; Lu, Suying; Zhen, Zijun; Wang, Juan; Huang, Junting; Ding, Zonghui; Zeng, Musheng; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-02

    Systemic inflammatory parameters are associated with poor outcomes in malignant patients. Several inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score systems were established for various solid tumors. However, there is few inflammation based cumulative prognostic score system for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively reviewed 564 adult DLBCL patients who had received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) therapy between Nov 1 2006 and Dec 30 2013 and assessed the prognostic significance of six systemic inflammatory parameters evaluated in previous studies by univariate and multivariate analysis:C-reactive protein(CRP), albumin levels, the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR), the platelet-lymphocyte ratio(PLR)and fibrinogen levels. Multivariate analysis identified CRP, albumin levels and the LMR are three independent prognostic parameters for overall survival (OS). Based on these three factors, we constructed a novel inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score (ICPS) system. Four risk groups were formed: group ICPS = 0, ICPS = 1, ICPS = 2 and ICPS = 3. Advanced multivariate analysis indicated that the ICPS model is a prognostic score system independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) for both progression-free survival (PFS) (p systemic inflammatory status was associated with clinical outcomes of patients with DLBCL in rituximab era. The ICPS model was shown to classify risk groups more accurately than any single inflammatory prognostic parameters. These findings may be useful for identifying candidates for further inflammation-related mechanism research or novel anti-inflammation target therapies.

  6. Evaluation of Carcass Production of PO Cattle Based on Heart Girth Measurement, Body Condition Score and Slaughter Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Haryoko, I; Suparman, P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate of carcass production of PO beef cattle based on measurement of heart girth, body condition score (BCS), and slaughter weight. It was conducted in the slaughtering house at Mersi Purwokerto city. The materials for this study were 60 heads of male PO breed cattle. Simple random sampling was used for taking samples. Data was analyzed by using multiple regression equation to determine the effects of heart girth, BCS, and slaughter weight on carcass weig...

  7. The Laboratory-Based Intermountain Validated Exacerbation (LIVE Score Identifies Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients at High Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denitza P. Blagev

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying COPD patients at high risk for mortality or healthcare utilization remains a challenge. A robust system for identifying high-risk COPD patients using Electronic Health Record (EHR data would empower targeting interventions aimed at ensuring guideline compliance and multimorbidity management. The purpose of this study was to empirically derive, validate, and characterize subgroups of COPD patients based on routinely collected clinical data widely available within the EHR.Methods: Cluster analysis was used in 5,006 patients with COPD at Intermountain to identify clusters based on a large collection of clinical variables. Recursive Partitioning (RP was then used to determine a preferred tree that assigned patients to clusters based on a parsimonious variable subset. The mortality, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidity profile of the identified groups were examined. The findings were validated in an independent Intermountain cohort and in external cohorts from the United States Veterans Affairs (VA and University of Chicago Medicine systems.Measurements and Main Results: The RP algorithm identified five LIVE Scores based on laboratory values: albumin, creatinine, chloride, potassium, and hemoglobin. The groups were characterized by increasing risk of mortality. The lowest risk, LIVE Score 5 had 8% 4-year mortality vs. 56% in the highest risk LIVE Score 1 (p < 0.001. These findings were validated in the VA cohort (n = 83,134, an expanded Intermountain cohort (n = 48,871 and in the University of Chicago system (n = 3,236. Higher mortality groups also had higher COPD exacerbation rates and comorbidity rates.Conclusions: In large clinical datasets across different organizations, the LIVE Score utilizes existing laboratory data for COPD patients, and may be used to stratify risk for mortality and COPD exacerbations.

  8. DeepSleepNet: A Model for Automatic Sleep Stage Scoring Based on Raw Single-Channel EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratak, Akara; Dong, Hao; Wu, Chao; Guo, Yike

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a deep learning model, named DeepSleepNet, for automatic sleep stage scoring based on raw single-channel EEG. Most of the existing methods rely on hand-engineered features, which require prior knowledge of sleep analysis. Only a few of them encode the temporal information, such as transition rules, which is important for identifying the next sleep stages, into the extracted features. In the proposed model, we utilize convolutional neural networks to extract time-invariant features, and bidirectional-long short-term memory to learn transition rules among sleep stages automatically from EEG epochs. We implement a two-step training algorithm to train our model efficiently. We evaluated our model using different single-channel EEGs (F4-EOG (left), Fpz-Cz, and Pz-Oz) from two public sleep data sets, that have different properties (e.g., sampling rate) and scoring standards (AASM and R&K). The results showed that our model achieved similar overall accuracy and macro F1-score (MASS: 86.2%-81.7, Sleep-EDF: 82.0%-76.9) compared with the state-of-the-art methods (MASS: 85.9%-80.5, Sleep-EDF: 78.9%-73.7) on both data sets. This demonstrated that, without changing the model architecture and the training algorithm, our model could automatically learn features for sleep stage scoring from different raw single-channel EEGs from different data sets without utilizing any hand-engineered features.

  9. Prealbumin/CRP Based Prognostic Score, a New Tool for Predicting Metastasis in Patients with Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a considerable dissimilarity in the survival duration of the patients with gastric cancer. We aimed to assess the systemic inflammatory response (SIR and nutritional status of these patients before the commencement of chemotherapy to find the appropriate prognostic factors and define a new score for predicting metastasis. Methods. SIR was assessed using Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS. Then a score was defined as prealbumin/CRP based prognostic score (PCPS to be compared with GPS for predicting metastasis and nutritional status. Results. 71 patients with gastric cancer were recruited in the study. 87% of patients had malnutrition. There was a statistical difference between those with metastatic (n=43 and those with nonmetastatic (n=28 gastric cancer according to levels of prealbumin and CRP; however they were not different regarding patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA and GPS. The best cut-off value for prealbumin was determined at 0.20 mg/dL and PCPS could predict metastasis with 76.5% sensitivity, 63.6% specificity, and 71.4% accuracy. Metastatic and nonmetastatic gastric cancer patients were different in terms of PCPS (P=0.005. Conclusion. PCPS has been suggested for predicting metastasis in patients with gastric cancer. Future studies with larger sample size have been warranted.

  10. Inflammation-based prognostic score and number of lymph node metastases are independent prognostic factors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Kaneko, Susumu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have investigated whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is useful for postoperative prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein level (>10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0. A new scoring system was constructed using independent prognostic variables and was evaluated on whether it could be used to dictate the choice of clinical options. 65 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases were found to be independent prognostic variables. The scoring system comprising GPS and the number of lymph node metastases was found to be effective in the prediction of a long-term outcome (p GPS may be useful for postoperative prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. GPS and the number of lymph node metastases could be used to identify a subgroup of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who are eligible for radical resection but show poor prognosis.

  11. Ferrofluid based micro-electrical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Viswas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Jena, Grishma; Mishra, Madhusha; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Innovations in energy harvesting have seen a quantum leap in the last decade. With the introduction of low energy devices in the market, micro energy harvesting units are being explored with much vigor. One of the recent areas of micro energy scavenging is the exploitation of existing vibrational energy and the use of various mechanical motions for the same, useful for low power consumption devices. Ferrofluids are liquids containing magnetic materials having nano-scale permanent magnetic dipoles. The present work explores the possibility of the use of this property for generation of electricity. Since the power generation is through a liquid material, it can take any shape as well as response to small acceleration levels. In this work, an electromagnet-based micropower generator is proposed to utilize the sloshing of the ferrofluid within a controlled chamber which moves to different low frequencies. As compared to permanent magnet units researched previously, ferrofluids can be placed in the smallest of containers of different shapes, thereby giving an output in response to the slightest change in motion. Mechanical motion from 1- 20 Hz was able to give an output voltage in mV's. In this paper, the efficiency and feasibility of such a system is demonstrated.

  12. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanghavi, R.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)]. E-mail: sanghavirr@yahoo.co.uk; Kamale, P.J. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shaikh, M.A.R. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Shelar, S.D. [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Kumar, K. Sunil [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India); Singh, Amarjit [High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune 411021 (India)

    2007-05-08

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 deg. C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 {mu}m HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  13. Comparison of malnutrition inflammation score, anthropometry and biochemical parameters in assessing the difference in protein-energy wasting between normal weight and obese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Elham; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges S

    2017-07-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis. This case-control study investigated 52 normal weight (18.5 < body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 ) and 48 obese (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ) patients on regular haemodialysis. PEW was assessed based on anthropometric and biochemical factors, recent weight changes, appetite, anorexia, dietary intake and MIS. Obese patients had better MIS compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.001), although varying degrees of wasting were prevalent among this group too (75% mild and 25% moderate wasting). The obese group had less significant weight loss (4.2 vs 8%) and anorexia and better appetite. However, a considerable percentage of patients in both groups showed muscle (94.6% of normal weight and 19.5% of obese) and peripheral fat tissue (89.2% of normal weight and 31.7% of obese) losses compared to the 50th percentile. Biochemical parameters were not significantly different between groups except for triglyceride (P = 0.001), transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.028). MIS was significantly better in obese patients; however, both groups showed degrees of wasting based on MIS and other PEW parameters. Nutritional status of obese haemodialysis patients should be monitored regularly because of high risk of PEW like other BMI categories. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Mobile Phone-Based Questionnaire for Assessing 3 Months Modified Rankin Score After Acute Stroke: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Charith; Matusevicius, Marius; Wahlgren, Nils; Ahmed, Niaz

    2015-10-01

    In many countries, a majority of stroke patients are not assessed for long-term functional outcome owing to limited resources and time. We investigated whether automatic assessment of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) based on a mobile phone questionnaire may serve as an alternative to mRS assessments at clinical visits after stroke. We enrolled 62 acute stroke patients admitted to our stroke unit during March to May 2014. Forty-eight patients completed the study. During the stay, patients and/or caregivers were equipped with a mobile phone application in their personal mobile phones. The mobile phone application contained a set of 20 questions, based on the Rankin Focused Assessment, which we previously tested in a pilot study. Three months after inclusion, the mobile phone application automatically prompted the study participants to answer the mRS questionnaire in the mobile phones. Each question or a group of questions in the questionnaire corresponded to a certain mRS score. Using a predefined protocol, the highest mRS score question where the study participant had answered yes was deemed the final mobile mRS score. A few days later, a study personnel performed a clinical visit mRS assessment. The 2 assessments were compared using quadratic weighing κ-statistics. Mean age was 67 years (38% females), and median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 5 (interquartile range 2-10.5, range 0-23). Median and mean clinical visit mRS at 3 months was 2 and 2.3, respectively. We found a 62.5% agreement between clinical visit and mobile mRS assessment, weighted kappa 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82-0.96), and unweighted kappa 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.70). Dichotomized mRS outcome separating functionally independent (mRS score 0-2) from dependent (mRS score 3-5) showed 83% agreement and unweighted kappa of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.87). Mobile phone-based automatic assessments of mRS performed well in comparison with

  15. Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Andersen, Lene F; Birkeland, Kåre I; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1-3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6-43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

  16. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... be expressed as a function of two parameters representing the energy performance and two parameters representing the geometry of the window. The two energy performance parameters are the net energy gain per area of the glazing unit and the sum of the heat losses through the frame and the assembly per length...... of the frame. The two geometry numbers are the area of the glazing unit relative to the window area and the length of the frame profiles relative to the window area. Requirements and classes for the energy performance of the window can be given by assigning values to the two energy performance parameters...

  18. Technological change of the energy innovation system: From oil-based to bio-based energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonglimpiyarat, Jarunee

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the structural developments and the direction of technological change of the energy innovation system, based on the studies of Kuhn's model of scientific change and Schumpeter's model of technological change. The paper uses the case study of Thai government agencies for understanding the way governments can facilitate technological innovation. The analyses are based on a pre-foresight exercise to examine the potential of the bio-based energy and investigate a set of development policies necessary for the direction of energy system development. The results have shown that bio-based energy is seen as the next new wave for future businesses and one of the solutions to the problem of high oil prices to improve the world's economic security and sustainable development. (author)

  19. A new symmetry-based scoring method for posture assessment: evaluation of the effect of insoles with mineral derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, M; Gaillardetz, C; Cron, C; Abribat, T

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for a validated rapid procedure for the evaluation of posture, defined as lateral balance/imbalance at the pelvic, shoulder, and neck levels. This would enable clinicians to determine the importance of symmetry in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders and to assess the efficacy of devices and treatments claiming to normalize or improve posture. In this investigation, the efficacy of such a device, a set of insoles with a hypothesized proprioceptive-like action, was evaluated through use of the described procedure. To develop a new scoring system to evaluate body posture on the basis of symmetry and to use this scoring system to investigate the efficacy of insoles containing a combination of mineral derivatives designed to balance posture through a neurophysiological effect. The posture score was based on the evaluation of 4 postural parameters: pelvic and shoulder lateral balance/imbalance, static shoulder rotation, and amplitude of head rotation. In the placebo-controlled study, 32 patients were tested in a double-blind fashion, either with placebo insoles or with insoles containing mineral derivatives. The same study was repeated in unblind conditions in 137 patients selected from 2 chiropractic clinics in an open-label protocol. A crossover placebo-controlled, double-blind study and a multicenter, large-scale, open-label study in patients selected from chiropractic clinics. A basal postural evaluation in 137 patients revealed that no patient had a perfect symmetry-ie, a perfectly or nearly perfectly balanced posture. The insoles with mineral derivatives induced a highly significant and similar improvement in the postural score in both the crossover double-blind study (32 patients; 56.7% improvement) and the open-label study (137 patients; 60.7% improvement, P postural imbalances according to the newly developed scoring method, and this method was successful in assessing the efficacy of insoles exerting a profound and immediate postural

  20. Sequence analysis of annually normalized citation counts: an empirical analysis based on the characteristic scores and scales (CSS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz; Ye, Adam Y; Ye, Fred Y

    2017-01-01

    In bibliometrics, only a few publications have focused on the citation histories of publications, where the citations for each citing year are assessed. In this study, therefore, annual categories of field- and time-normalized citation scores (based on the characteristic scores and scales method: 0 = poorly cited, 1 = fairly cited, 2 = remarkably cited, and 3 = outstandingly cited) are used to study the citation histories of papers. As our dataset, we used all articles published in 2000 and their annual citation scores until 2015. We generated annual sequences of citation scores (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and compared the sequences of annual citation scores of six broader fields (natural sciences, engineering and technology, medical and health sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences, and humanities). In agreement with previous studies, our results demonstrate that sequences with poorly cited (0) and fairly cited (1) elements dominate the publication set; sequences with remarkably cited (3) and outstandingly cited (4) periods are rare. The highest percentages of constantly poorly cited papers can be found in the social sciences; the lowest percentages are in the agricultural sciences and humanities. The largest group of papers with remarkably cited (3) and/or outstandingly cited (4) periods shows an increasing impact over the citing years with the following orders of sequences: [Formula: see text] (6.01%), which is followed by [Formula: see text] (1.62%). Only 0.11% of the papers ( n  = 909) are constantly on the outstandingly cited level.

  1. Inflammation-based prognostic score, prior to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, predicts postoperative outcome in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hozumi; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed that Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is associated with poor outcome in a variety of tumors. However, few studies have investigated whether GPS measured prior to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is useful for postoperative prognosis of patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with both an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminaemia (L) were allocated a GPS score of 2. Patients in whom only 1 of these biochemical abnormalities was present were allocated a GPS score of 1, and patients with a normal C-reactive protein and albumin were allocated a score of 0. All patients underwent radical en-bloc resection 3-4 weeks after nCRT. A total of 48 patients with clinical TNM stage II/III were enrolled. Univariate analyses revealed that there were significant differences in cancer-specific survival in relation to grade of response to nCRT (P = .004), lymph node status (P = .0065), lymphatic invasion (P = .0002), venous invasion (P = .0001), pathological TNM classification (P = .015), and GPS (P GPS classification showed a close relationship with lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and number of lymph node (P = .0292, .0473, and .0485, respectively). GPS was found to be the only independent predictor of cancer-specific survival (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.52; P = .0019). GPS, measured prior to nCRT, is an independent novel predictor of postoperative outcome in patients with advanced ESCC.

  2. Image Features Based on Characteristic Curves and Local Binary Patterns for Automated HER2 Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Mukundan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel feature descriptors and classification algorithms for the automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI of breast cancer histology slides. Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level and to use simple, yet robust feature descriptors that can provide accurate classification of the slides. We propose two types of feature descriptors that encode important information about staining patterns and the percentage of staining present in ImmunoHistoChemistry (IHC-stained slides. The first descriptor is called a characteristic curve, which is a smooth non-increasing curve that represents the variation of percentage of staining with saturation levels. The second new descriptor introduced in this paper is a local binary pattern (LBP feature curve, which is also a non-increasing smooth curve that represents the local texture of the staining patterns. Both descriptors show excellent interclass variance and intraclass correlation and are suitable for the design of automatic HER2 classification algorithms. This paper gives the detailed theoretical aspects of the feature descriptors and also provides experimental results and a comparative analysis.

  3. Representability of algebraic topology for biomolecules in machine learning based scoring and virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Zixuan; Mu, Lin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2018-01-01

    This work introduces a number of algebraic topology approaches, including multi-component persistent homology, multi-level persistent homology, and electrostatic persistence for the representation, characterization, and description of small molecules and biomolecular complexes. In contrast to the conventional persistent homology, multi-component persistent homology retains critical chemical and biological information during the topological simplification of biomolecular geometric complexity. Multi-level persistent homology enables a tailored topological description of inter- and/or intra-molecular interactions of interest. Electrostatic persistence incorporates partial charge information into topological invariants. These topological methods are paired with Wasserstein distance to characterize similarities between molecules and are further integrated with a variety of machine learning algorithms, including k-nearest neighbors, ensemble of trees, and deep convolutional neural networks, to manifest their descriptive and predictive powers for protein-ligand binding analysis and virtual screening of small molecules. Extensive numerical experiments involving 4,414 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBBind database and 128,374 ligand-target and decoy-target pairs in the DUD database are performed to test respectively the scoring power and the discriminatory power of the proposed topological learning strategies. It is demonstrated that the present topological learning outperforms other existing methods in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction and ligand-decoy discrimination.

  4. Representability of algebraic topology for biomolecules in machine learning based scoring and virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This work introduces a number of algebraic topology approaches, including multi-component persistent homology, multi-level persistent homology, and electrostatic persistence for the representation, characterization, and description of small molecules and biomolecular complexes. In contrast to the conventional persistent homology, multi-component persistent homology retains critical chemical and biological information during the topological simplification of biomolecular geometric complexity. Multi-level persistent homology enables a tailored topological description of inter- and/or intra-molecular interactions of interest. Electrostatic persistence incorporates partial charge information into topological invariants. These topological methods are paired with Wasserstein distance to characterize similarities between molecules and are further integrated with a variety of machine learning algorithms, including k-nearest neighbors, ensemble of trees, and deep convolutional neural networks, to manifest their descriptive and predictive powers for protein-ligand binding analysis and virtual screening of small molecules. Extensive numerical experiments involving 4,414 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBBind database and 128,374 ligand-target and decoy-target pairs in the DUD database are performed to test respectively the scoring power and the discriminatory power of the proposed topological learning strategies. It is demonstrated that the present topological learning outperforms other existing methods in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction and ligand-decoy discrimination. PMID:29309403

  5. ELUCIDATING BRAIN CONNECTIVITY NETWORKS IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER USING CLASSIFICATION-BASED SCORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-04-01

    Graph theory is increasingly used in the field of neuroscience to understand the large-scale network structure of the human brain. There is also considerable interest in applying machine learning techniques in clinical settings, for example, to make diagnoses or predict treatment outcomes. Here we used support-vector machines (SVMs), in conjunction with whole-brain tractography, to identify graph metrics that best differentiate individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) from nondepressed controls. To do this, we applied a novel feature-scoring procedure that incorporates iterative classifier performance to assess feature robustness. We found that small-worldness , a measure of the balance between global integration and local specialization, most reliably differentiated MDD from nondepressed individuals. Post-hoc regional analyses suggested that heightened connectivity of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) in MDDs contributes to these differences. The current study provides a novel way to assess the robustness of classification features and reveals anomalies in large-scale neural networks in MDD.

  6. Meaning-Based Scoring: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Model for Automated Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to language teaching that emphasize the importance of speaking (e.g., task-based language teaching) require innovative and evidence-based means of assessing oral language. Nonetheless, research has yet to produce an adequate assessment model for oral language (Chun 2006; Downey et al. 2008). Limited by automatic speech…

  7. Improved performance in CAPRI round 37 using LZerD docking and template-based modeling with combined scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    We report our group's performance for protein-protein complex structure prediction and scoring in Round 37 of the Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI), an objective assessment of protein-protein complex modeling. We demonstrated noticeable improvement in both prediction and scoring compared to previous rounds of CAPRI, with our human predictor group near the top of the rankings and our server scorer group at the top. This is the first time in CAPRI that a server has been the top scorer group. To predict protein-protein complex structures, we used both multi-chain template-based modeling (TBM) and our protein-protein docking program, LZerD. LZerD represents protein surfaces using 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a mathematical series expansion of a 3D function. Because 3DZD are a soft representation of the protein surface, LZerD is tolerant to small conformational changes, making it well suited to docking unbound and TBM structures. The key to our improved performance in CAPRI Round 37 was to combine multi-chain TBM and docking. As opposed to our previous strategy of performing docking for all target complexes, we used TBM when multi-chain templates were available and docking otherwise. We also describe the combination of multiple scoring functions used by our server scorer group, which achieved the top rank for the scorer phase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An Automatic Assessment System of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Based on Wound Area Determination, Color Segmentation, and Healing Score Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Pedersen, Peder C; Strong, Diane M; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Ignotz, Ron; He, Qian

    2015-08-07

    For individuals with type 2 diabetes, foot ulcers represent a significant health issue. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a wound assessment system to help wound clinics assess patients with foot ulcers in a way that complements their current visual examination and manual measurements of their foot ulcers. The physical components of the system consist of an image capture box, a smartphone for wound image capture and a laptop for analyzing the wound image. The wound image assessment algorithms calculate the overall wound area, color segmented wound areas, and a healing score, to provide a quantitative assessment of the wound healing status both for a single wound image and comparisons of subsequent images to an initial wound image. The system was evaluated by assessing foot ulcers for 12 patients in the Wound Clinic at University of Massachusetts Medical School. As performance measures, the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value for the wound area determination algorithm tested on 32 foot ulcer images was .68. The clinical validity of our healing score algorithm relative to the experienced clinicians was measured by Krippendorff's alpha coefficient (KAC) and ranged from .42 to .81. Our system provides a promising real-time method for wound assessment based on image analysis. Clinical comparisons indicate that the optimized mean-shift-based algorithm is well suited for wound area determination. Clinical evaluation of our healing score algorithm shows its potential to provide clinicians with a quantitative method for evaluating wound healing status. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts

  10. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  11. Reliable Change Indices and Standardized Regression-Based Change Score Norms for Evaluating Neuropsychological Change in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M.; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable change index scores (RCIs) and standardized regression-based change score norms (SRBs) permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRBs for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range 6–16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice adjusted RCIs and SRBs were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children’s Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. RCIs and SRBs for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRBs for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. PMID:26043163

  12. Aggregate risk score based on markers of inflammation, cell stress, and coagulation is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Patel, Riyaz S; Hammadah, Muhammad; Veledar, Emir; Wassel, Christina; Nanjundappa, Ravi A; Sikora, Sergey; Malayter, Dylan; Wilson, Peter W F; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Epstein, Stephen E

    2013-07-23

    This study sought to determine an aggregate, pathway-specific risk score for enhanced prediction of death and myocardial infarction (MI). Activation of inflammatory, coagulation, and cellular stress pathways contribute to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. We hypothesized that an aggregate risk score comprised of biomarkers involved in these different pathways-high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrin degradation products (FDP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels-would be a powerful predictor of death and MI. Serum levels of CRP, FDP, and HSP70 were measured in 3,415 consecutive patients with suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing cardiac catheterization. Survival analyses were performed with models adjusted for established risk factors. Median follow-up was 2.3 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause death and MI based on cutpoints were as follows: CRP ≥3.0 mg/l, HR: 1.61; HSP70 >0.625 ng/ml, HR; 2.26; and FDP ≥1.0 μg/ml, HR: 1.62 (p statistic and net reclassification improved (p < 0.0001) with the addition of the biomarker score. An aggregate score based on serum levels of CRP, FDP, and HSP70 is a predictor of future risk of death and MI in patients with suspected or known CAD. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. COMMUNITY BASED HOME ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Smart Grid (SG scenario, domestic consumers can gain cost reduction benefit by scheduling their Appliance Activation Time (AAT towards the slots of low charge. Minimization in cost is essential in Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS to induce consumers acceptance for power scheduling to accommodate for a Demand Response (DR at peak hours. Despite the fact that many algorithms address the power scheduling for HEMS, community based optimization has not been the focus. This paper presents an algorithm that targets the minimization of energy costs of whole community while keeping a low Peak to Average Ratio (PAR and smooth Power Usage Pattern (PUP. Objective of cost reduction is accomplished by finding most favorable AAT by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in conjunction with Inclined Block Rate (IBR approach and Circular Price Shift (CPS. Simulated numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CPS to assist the merger of PSO & IBR to enhance the reduction/stability of PAR and cost reduction.

  14. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  15. Using net energy output as the base to develop renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Daigee; Hung Mingfeng; Lin Yihao

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.

  16. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  17. Standardized computer-based organized reporting of EEG SCORE - Second version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Aurlien, Harald; Brøgger, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Standardized terminology for computer-based assessment and reporting of EEG has been previously developed in Europe. The International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology established a taskforce in 2013 to develop this further, and to reach international consensus. This work resulted in the se...

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Constructivist Teaching Scores Based on Their Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-service teachers' constructivist teaching and their learning styles based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory. The Learning Styles Inventory-3 was administered at the beginning of the semester to determine preferred learning style. The Constructivist Teaching Evaluation Form was filled out by…

  19. Development of a "Myeloma Risk Score" using a population-based registry on paraproteinemia and myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, F; Hermans, J; Noordijk, E M; De Kieviet, W; Seelen, P J; Wijermans, P W; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic systems for monoclonal gammopathies use bone marrow and X-ray examinations to exclude multiple myeloma (MM). Data from a population-based registry of unselected patients with paraproteinemia indicate that these tests are often done only when MM is suspected. We used 441 randomly selected

  20. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  1. Spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease: a population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T-S; Huang, Y-P; Wang, H-I; Pan, S-L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). A population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up cohort study. The study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A total of 10 125 patients with at least 2 ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were enrolled in the SCI group. The non-SCI group comprised 10 125 propensity score-matched patients without SCI. The propensity scores were computed using a logistic regression model that included age, sex, comorbidities and socioeconomic status. The PD-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effect of SCI on subsequent occurrence of PD. During the 3-year follow-up period, 99 subjects in the SCI group and 59 in the non-SCI group developed PD. The hazard ratio of PD for the SCI group compared with the non-SCI group was 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.33, P=0.0049). The PD-free survival rate for the SCI group was lower than that for the non-SCI group (P=0.0017). This study shows that SCI is associated with a subsequent increased risk of PD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying this association.

  2. Inflammation-based prognostic score is a useful predictor of postoperative outcome in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Yukio; Sasaki, Ryoko; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Tadashi; Oda, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score, is useful for predicting outcome in a variety of cancers. This study sought to investigate the significance of GPS for prognostication of patients who underwent surgery with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 62 patients who underwent resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We calculated the GPS as follows: patients with both an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were allocated a score of 2; patients with one or none of these abnormalities were allocated a s ore of 1 or 0, respectively. Prognostic significance was analyzed by the log-rank test and a Cox proportional hazards model. Overall survival rate was 25.5 % at 5 years for all 62 patients. Venous invasion (p = 0.01), pathological primary tumor category (p = 0.013), lymph node metastasis category (p GPS (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with survival by univariate analysis. A Cox model demonstrated that increased GPS was an independent predictive factor with poor prognosis. The preoperative GPS is a useful predictor of postoperative outcome in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  3. GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/.

  4. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Bonde Jensen, Anders; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Morbidity is an important issue in cancer research. The observer-based toxicity scoring system used by DAHANCA (the Danish head and neck cancer study group) has proved itself sensitive to differences in toxicity in a large randomised study, but like other toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely, the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the two methods of side effect recording. Patients and methods: One hundred and sixteen recurrence free patients with laryngeal (n=44), pharyngeal (n=34) and oral cavity (n=38) cancer attending follow-up after radiotherapy (n=83) or surgery (n=33) completed EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function and EORTC H and N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity scores on the same patients. Results: The DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC QLQ correlated with several clinical endpoints. The conceptually similar endpoints of the two methods correlated significantly. The objective endpoints of the DAHANCA scoring system were only correlated with quality of life endpoints to a very low degree. The DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints. A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had a higher tendency to fail could not be detected. Conclusion: The DAHANCA toxicity score is an effective instrument in assessing objective treatment induced toxicity in head and neck cancer patients but insensitive and non-specific with regard to patient assessed subjective endpoints. This

  5. Developing an international scoring system for a consensus-based social cognition measure: MSCEIT-managing emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemann, G S; Green, M F; Kern, R S; Sitarenios, G; Nuechterlein, K H

    2017-10-01

    Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries. We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms. This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.

  6. National energy balance - 1992 - Based on 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This National Energy Balance covers since 1976 to 1991, showing the supply and demand for each type of energy; the energy consumption by each economic sector; the external market of energy; the resources and reserves and some information about state and regional energy balance. (C.G.C.)

  7. Value of the energy data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  8. Risk of future trauma based on alcohol screening scores: A two-year prospective cohort study among US veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    for trauma at all levels of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C 5–8 and 9–12). These findings may be used as part of an evidence-based brief intervention for alcohol use disorders. More research is needed to understand the relationship between AUDIT-C scores and risk of trauma in women. PMID:22966411

  9. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  10. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  11. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Sistem Scoring Conversion TOEFL Paper Based Test (PBT Politeknik Negeri Cilacap Menggunakan Metode User Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Vikasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komputer interaktif untuk dipakai oleh useruntuk mendukung pekerjannya. User merupakan object yang penting didalam pengembangan dan pembangun sistem. User adalah personal-personal yang terlibat langsung dalam pemakaian aplikasi. Konsep dari UCD adalah user sebagai pusat dari proses pengembangan sistem, dan tujuan/sifat-sifat, konteks dan lingkungan sistem semua didasarkan dari pengalaman pengguna Pembangunan sistem skoring test TOEFL paper based test (PBT di UPT bahasa politeknik negeri cilacapmenggunakan metode UCD. Dengan menggunakan metode UCD sistem dapat   mempermudah dan mempercepat pendaftaran oleh calon pendaftar dengan tampilan antarmuka yang user friendly , mempermudah proses pengelolaan data dan rekap data pendaftar, mempermudah pengkonversian skor TOEFL yang dilakukan secara otomatis, serta  meminimalisir terjadinya kesalahan, duplikasi data dan duplikasi kegiatan.

  13. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  14. Identifications of Putative PKA Substrates with Quantitative Phosphoproteomics and Primary-Sequence-Based Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Haruna; Wagih, Omar; Niinae, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Beltrao, Pedro; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2017-04-07

    Protein kinase A (PKA or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. To better understand the functions of PKA, it is necessary to elucidate the direct interplay between PKA and their substrates in living human cells. To identify kinase target substrates in a high-throughput manner, we first quantified the change of phosphoproteome in the cells of which PKA activity was perturbed by drug stimulations. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 2755 and 3191 phosphopeptides from experiments with activator or inhibitor of PKA. To exclude potential indirect targets of PKA, we built a computational model to characterize the kinase sequence specificity toward the substrate target site based on known kinase-substrate relationships. Finally, by combining the sequence recognition model with the quantitative changes in phosphorylation measured in the two drug perturbation experiments, we identified 29 reliable candidates of PKA targeting residues in living cells including 8 previously known substrates. Moreover, 18 of these sites were confirmed to be site-specifically phosphorylated in vitro. Altogether this study proposed a confident list of PKA substrate candidates, expanding our knowledge of PKA signaling network.

  15. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Karen A; Balwan, Sandy; Cacace, Frank; Katona, Kyle; Sunday, Suzanne; Chaudhry, Saima

    2014-01-01

    As graduate medical education (GME) moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS), programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS. We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of house staff completed by faculty for academic years 2010-2011 (pre-Dreyfus model) and 2011-2012 (post-Milestone model) in one large university-based internal medicine residency training program. Main measures included change in PGY-level average score; slope, range, and separation of average scores across all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. Transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model to a Milestone-based model resulted in a larger separation in the scores between our three post-graduate year classes, a steeper progression of scores in the PGY-1 class, a wider use of the 5-point scale on our global end of rotation evaluation form, and a downward shift in the PGY-1 scores and an upward shift in the PGY-3 scores. For faculty trained in both models of assessment, the Milestone-based model had greater discriminatory ability as evidenced by the larger separation in the scores for all the classes, in particular the PGY-1 class.

  16. Score-based prediction of genomic islands in prokaryotic genomes using hidden Markov models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovcik Katharina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is considered a strong evolutionary force shaping the content of microbial genomes in a substantial manner. It is the difference in speed enabling the rapid adaptation to changing environmental demands that distinguishes HGT from gene genesis, duplications or mutations. For a precise characterization, algorithms are needed that identify transfer events with high reliability. Frequently, the transferred pieces of DNA have a considerable length, comprise several genes and are called genomic islands (GIs or more specifically pathogenicity or symbiotic islands. Results We have implemented the program SIGI-HMM that predicts GIs and the putative donor of each individual alien gene. It is based on the analysis of codon usage (CU of each individual gene of a genome under study. CU of each gene is compared against a carefully selected set of CU tables representing microbial donors or highly expressed genes. Multiple tests are used to identify putatively alien genes, to predict putative donors and to mask putatively highly expressed genes. Thus, we determine the states and emission probabilities of an inhomogeneous hidden Markov model working on gene level. For the transition probabilities, we draw upon classical test theory with the intention of integrating a sensitivity controller in a consistent manner. SIGI-HMM was written in JAVA and is publicly available. It accepts as input any file created according to the EMBL-format. It generates output in the common GFF format readable for genome browsers. Benchmark tests showed that the output of SIGI-HMM is in agreement with known findings. Its predictions were both consistent with annotated GIs and with predictions generated by different methods. Conclusion SIGI-HMM is a sensitive tool for the identification of GIs in microbial genomes. It allows to interactively analyze genomes in detail and to generate or to test hypotheses about the origin of acquired

  17. From free energy to expected energy: Improving energy-based value function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Stefan; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Free-energy based reinforcement learning (FERL) was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state and action spaces. However, the FERL method does only really work well with binary, or close to binary, state input, where the number of active states is fewer than the number of non-active states. In the FERL method, the value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). In our earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of the FERL method can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that RBM function approximation can be further improved by approximating the value function by the negative expected energy (EERL), instead of the negative free energy, as well as being able to handle continuous state input. We validate our proposed method by demonstrating that EERL: (1) outperforms FERL, as well as standard neural network and linear function approximation, for three versions of a gridworld task with high-dimensional image state input; (2) achieves new state-of-the-art results in stochastic SZ-Tetris in both model-free and model-based learning settings; and (3) significantly outperforms FERL and standard neural network function approximation for a robot navigation task with raw and noisy RGB images as state input and a large number of actions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the dynamic cellular facility layout for manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2017-11-01

    The dynamic cellular facility layout problem (DCFLP) is a well-known NP-hard problem. It has been estimated that the efficient design of DCFLP reduces the manufacturing cost of products by maintaining the minimum material flow among all machines in all cells, as the material flow contributes around 10-30% of the total product cost. However, being NP hard, solving the DCFLP optimally is very difficult in reasonable time. Therefore, this article proposes a novel similarity score-based two-phase heuristic approach to solve the DCFLP optimally considering multiple products in multiple times to be manufactured in the manufacturing layout. In the first phase of the proposed heuristic, a machine-cell cluster is created based on similarity scores between machines. This is provided as an input to the second phase to minimize inter/intracell material handling costs and rearrangement costs over the entire planning period. The solution methodology of the proposed approach is demonstrated. To show the efficiency of the two-phase heuristic approach, 21 instances are generated and solved using the optimization software package LINGO. The results show that the proposed approach can optimally solve the DCFLP in reasonable time.

  19. Using Closed-Set Speaker Identification Score Confidence to Enhance Audio-Based Collaborative Filtering for Multiple Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize a closed-set speaker-identification approach to convey the ratings needed for collaborative filtering-based recommendation. Instead of explicitly providing a rating for a given program, users use a speech interface to dictate the desired rating after watching a movie. Due...... to the inaccuracies that may be imposed by a state-of-the-art speaker identification system, it is possible to mistake a user for another user in the household, especially when the users exhibit similar or identical age and gender demographics. This leads to the undesirable effect of injecting unwanted ratings...... into the collaborative rating matrix, and when the users have different tastes, can result in the recommendation of undesirable items. We therefore propose a simple confidence-based heuristic that utilizes the log-likelihood scores from the speaker identification front-end. The algorithm limits the degree to which...

  20. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    the performance of our estimated EBalbody against the traditional EBalinout method. From 76 Danish Holstein and Jersey cows, parity 1 or 2+, on a glycogenic or ketogenic TMR, BW was measured automatically at each milking, using a weighing platform installed in an automated milking system. From within milking......, the FEC profile did not suggest any systematic bias in EBalbody with stage of lactation. Moreover we successfully modeled EBalbody differences between breeds, parities and diets. For the farmer, the ability to predict energy balance for individual cows on-farm without having to measure feed intake would...

  1. "What is the score?" A review of football-based public mental health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Bettina; Mason, Oliver John

    2017-01-01

    information and often the aims of the interventions are vague or not stated at all. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies and relative scarcity of evaluation projects on football interventions for people with mental health problems, the authors could not conduct an in-depth systematic review. Furthermore, the information on methods was often unsatisfying and despite efforts to get more detailed input from the authors of cited papers, those gaps could not always be filled. Instead of coming up with a crystal-clear summary of whether and how football interventions work for everybody, topics were identified that need to be addressed in the planning of interventions, in evaluation studies, in implementation efforts and in the theoretical discourse. This paper constitutes a helpful overview for everybody who is interested in the theoretical background of football interventions for people with mental health problems, for people who are planning to develop respective interventions, for researchers who engage in evaluation projects that look into the effectiveness of football interventions (or similar exercise interventions) as well as for the people who are interested in how football interventions can be implemented. This paper is likely to make a contribution to the advancement of alternative exercise interventions that aim at improving mental, physical and social health in people with mental health problems. This paper will help putting the topic of football interventions (and similar, alternative exercise interventions) further up on the public health agenda by providing an overview of the empirical evidence at hand and by specifying advantages of the approach as well as pointing out actions that need to be taken to make football a recognised, evidence based and viable option for adjunct mental health treatment that is attractive to potential participants as well as funders as well as to the potential participants. There is no comprehensive summary to date that provides a

  2. Vaginal rejuvenation using energy-based devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Karcher, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in a woman’s life, such as childbirth, weight fluctuations, and hormonal changes due to aging and menopause, may alter the laxity of the vaginal canal, damage the pelvic floor, and devitalize the mucosal tone of the vaginal wall. These events often lead to the development of genitourinary conditions such as stress urinary incontinence; vaginal atrophy; dryness; and physiologic distress affecting a woman’s quality of life, self-confidence, and sexuality. Various treatment modalities are currently available to manage these indications, varying from invasive vaginal surgery to more benign treatments like topical vaginal hormonal gels or hormone-replacement therapy. A new trend gaining momentum is the advent of energy-based devices for vaginal rejuvenation that apply thermal or nonthermal energy to the various layers of the vaginal tissue, stimulating collagen regeneration contracture of elastin fibers, neovascularization, and improved vaginal lubrication. This review aims to present the available technologies offering vaginal rejuvenation and the scientific evidence that underlines their safety and efficacy for this indication.

  3. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  4. Long term energy system analysis of Japan based on 'options for energy and environment' by the energy and environmental council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Naoto; Kurosawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Implications to Japanese energy system are discussed especially in terms of primary energy supply and power generation portfolio, using sensitivity analysis results by an optimization type energy model based on TIMES modeling framework. We updated energy service demand, efficiency in energy conversion and consumption, and power generation costs based on the recent energy policy document called 'Options for Energy and Environment'. The time horizon of the model is 2050. The sensitivity analysis results are presented for 'Three scenarios for 2030' including nuclear phase out scenarios with/without CO 2 emission constraint. The results are compared with 'Options for Energy and Environment'. (author)

  5. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188

  6. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  7. The relationship between observer-based toxicity scoring and patient assessed symptom severity after treatment for head and neck cancer. A correlative cross sectional study of the DAHANCA toxicity scoring system and the EORTC quality of life questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Bonde Jensen, Anders; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

          toxicity scoring systems it has not been formally validated. Conversely,       the EORTC quality of life questionnaire (QLQ) has been validated as a tool       for collecting information about the consequences of disease and treatment       on the well being of cancer patients. The purpose of this study......) completed       EORTC C30, the core questionnaire concerning general symptoms and function       and EORTC H&N35 the head and neck specific questionnaire. The attending       physicians in the follow-up clinic evaluated and recorded DAHANCA toxicity       scores on the same patients. RESULTS: The DAHANCA...... low degree. The       DAHANCA toxicity scores had a low sensitivity (0.48-0.74) in detecting       equivalent subjective complaints from the questionnaires and the       observer-based scoring system severely underestimated patient complaints.       A specific patient group where the DAHANCA score had...

  8. [Analysis of the pediatric trauma score in patients wounded with shrapnel; the effect of explosives with high kinetic energy: results of the first intervention center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Hüseyin; Mesci, Ayhan; Demirbağ, Suzi; Eryılmaz, Mehmet; Yiğit, Taner; Peker, Yusuf

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to assess the pediatric trauma score analysis in pediatric trauma cases due to shrapnel effect of explosives material with high kinetic energy. The data of 17 pediatric injuries were reviewed retrospectively between February 2002 and August 2005. The information about age, gender, trauma-hospital interval, trauma mechanism, the injured organs, pediatric Glasgow coma score (PGCS), pediatric trauma score (PTS), hemodynamic parameters, blood transfusion, interventions and length of hospital stay (LHS) were investigated. While all patients suffered from trauma to the extremities, only four patients had traumatic lower-limb amputation. Transportation time was 1 hour in 65% of cases. While PTS was found as 8 (p=0.007). Morbidity rates of PTS 8 cases were 29.4% and 5.9%, respectively (p=0.026). While LHS was 22.8 days in PTS LHS was found to be only 4 days in PTS >8 cases. This difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.001). PTS is very efficient and a time-saving procedure to assess the severity of trauma caused by the shrapnel effect. The median heart rate, morbidity, and LHS increased significantly in patients with PTS <=8.

  9. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and an increase in BMI z-score in young children predisposed to overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangan, A.; Zheng, M.; Olsen, N. J.

    2018-01-01

    in a group of young obesity-predisposed children, and to assess whether intakes of energy or macronutrients mediate this relationship. Methods: Participants included 368 Danish children aged 2–6 years from the Healthy Start Study, a 1.3 year randomised controlled intervention trial. Sleep habits were...... was 10.7 h (range 8.8–12.5 h). After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association between nighttime sleep duration and ΔBMI z-score (β=−0.090, P=0.046) was observed. This relationship was mediated by energy intake, with all macronutrients contributing to this mediation effect...

  10. Population-based study of ABCD2 score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for early stroke prediction after transient ischemic attack: the North Dublin TIA study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheehan, Orla C

    2010-05-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) etiologic data and the ABCD(2) score may improve early stroke risk prediction, but studies are required in population-based cohorts. We investigated the external validity of the ABCD(2) score, carotid stenosis, and atrial fibrillation for prediction of early recurrent stroke after TIA.

  11. Development of a food group-based diet score and its association with bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de E.A.L.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F.

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the

  12. An inflammation based score can optimize the selection of patients with advanced cancer considered for early phase clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Pinato

    Full Text Available Adequate organ function and good performance status (PS are common eligibility criteria for phase I trials. As inflammation is pathogenic and prognostic in cancer we investigated the prognostic performance of inflammation-based indices including the neutrophil (NLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR.We studied inflammatory scores in 118 unselected referrals. NLR normalization was recalculated at disease reassessment. Each variable was assessed for progression-free (PFS and overall survival (OS on uni- and multivariate analyses and tested for 90 days survival (90DS prediction using receiving operator curves (ROC.We included 118 patients with median OS 4.4 months, 23% PS>1. LDH≥450 and NLR≥5 were multivariate predictors of OS (p<0.001. NLR normalization predicted for longer OS (p<0.001 and PFS (p<0.05. PS and NLR ranked as most accurate predictors of both 90DS with area under ROC values of 0.66 and 0.64, and OS with c-score of 0.69 and 0.60. The combination of NLR+PS increased prognostic accuracy to 0.72. The NLR was externally validated in a cohort of 126 subjects.We identified the NLR as a validated and objective index to improve patient selection for experimental therapies, with its normalization following treatment predicting for a survival benefit of 7 months. Prospective validation of the NLR is warranted.

  13. Development of a biological dosimeter for translocation scoring based on two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosome subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, S; Cremer, T [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Human Genetics and Anthropology

    1992-03-01

    Recently fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols have been developed which allow the paining of individual chromosomes using DNA-libraries from sorted human chromosomes. This approach has the particular advantage that radiation induced chromosome translocations can be easily detected, if chromosomes of distinctly different colors take part in the translocation event. To enhance the sensitivity of this approach two metaphase chromosome subsets A and B (A: chromosome 1, 2, 4, 8, 16; B: 3, 5, 9, 10, 13) were simultaneously painted in green and red color. Counterstaining of the chromosomes with DAPI resulted in a third subset which exhibited blue fluorescence only. Green-red, green-blue and red-blue translocation chromosomes could be easily detected after irradiation of lymphocyte cultures with {sup 137}Cs-{gamma}-rays. Analyses of painted chromosomes can be combined with conventional GTG-banding analyses. This new biological dosimeter should become useful to monitor both long term effects of single irradiation events and the cumulative effects of multiple or chronic irradiation exposure. In contrast to translocation scoring based on the analysis of banded chromosomes, this new approach has the particular advantage that a rapid, automated scoring of translocations can now be envisaged. (author).

  14. A Rapid Method to Score Stream Reaches Based on the Overall Performance of Their Main Ecological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David K.; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John; Collier, Kevin; Hatton, Chris; Joy, Michael K.; Maxted, John; Moore, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    A method was developed to score the ecological condition of first- to third-order stream reaches in the Auckland region of New Zealand based on the performance of their key ecological functions. Such a method is required by consultants and resource managers to quantify the reduction in ecological condition of a modified stream reach relative to its unmodified state. This is a fundamental precursor for the determination of fair environmental compensation for achieving no-net-loss in overall stream ecological value. Field testing and subsequent use of the method indicated that it provides a useful measure of ecological condition related to the performance of stream ecological functions. It is relatively simple to apply compared to a full ecological study, is quick to use, and allows identification of the degree of impairment of each of the key ecological functions. The scoring system was designed so that future improvements in the measurement of stream functions can be incorporated into it. Although the methodology was specifically designed for Auckland streams, the principles can be readily adapted to other regions and stream types.

  15. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment. PMID:27008710

  16. A scoring system based on artificial neural network for predicting 10-year survival in stage II A colon cancer patients after radical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Hong; Fang, Yu-Jing; Li, Cai-Xia; Ou, Qing-Jian; Jiang, Wu; Lu, Shi-Xun; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Li, Pei-Xing; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Rong-Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De Sen

    2016-04-19

    Nearly 20% patients with stage II A colon cancer will develop recurrent disease post-operatively. The present study aims to develop a scoring system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for predicting 10-year survival outcome. The clinical and molecular data of 117 stage II A colon cancer patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were used for training set and test set; poor pathological grading (score 49), reduced expression of TGFBR2 (score 33), over-expression of TGF-β (score 45), MAPK (score 32), pin1 (score 100), β-catenin in tumor tissue (score 50) and reduced expression of TGF-β in normal mucosa (score 22) were selected as the prognostic risk predictors. According to the developed scoring system, the patients were divided into 3 subgroups, which were supposed with higher, moderate and lower risk levels. As a result, for the 3 subgroups, the 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 16.7%, 62.9% and 100% (P < 0.001); and the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 16.7%, 61.8% and 98.8% (P < 0.001) respectively. It showed that this scoring system for stage II A colon cancer could help to predict long-term survival and screen out high-risk individuals for more vigorous treatment.

  17. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p Polytrauma patients had a 1.9-fold higher odds of mortality than non-polytrauma patients (95% CI 1.38-2.49; p polytrauma patients, polytrauma patients had a substantially longer hospital length of stay (LOS). In addition, a higher proportion of polytrauma patients were admitted to the intensive

  18. Use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, the trabecular bone score and quantitative computed tomography in the evaluation of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    In subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who suffer a minimal trauma fracture, the problem is to differentiate between osteoporosis and the various forms of renal bone disease associated with CKD-mineral and bone disorder. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that renal osteodystrophy may coexist with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization's bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteopenia ( -2.5 < T-score < -1.0) and osteoporosis (a T-score ≤ -2.5) may be used in patients with CKD stages 1-3. In CKD stages 4-5, BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is less predictive and may underestimate fracture risk. The development of absolute fracture risk (AFR) algorithms, such as FRAX® and the Garvan absolute fracture risk calculator, to predict risk of fracture over a given time (usually 10 years) aims to incorporate non-BMD risk factors into the clinical assessment. FRAX® has been shown to be useful to assess fracture risk in CKD but may underestimate fracture risk in advanced CKD. The trabecular bone score is a measure of grey scale homogeneity obtained from spine DXA, which correlates to trabecular microarchitecture and is an independent risk factor for fracture. Recent data demonstrate the potential utility of the trabecular bone score adjustment of AFR through the FRAX® algorithm in subjects with CKD. Parameters of bone microarchitecture using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or high-resolution pQCT are also able to discriminate fracture status in subjects with CKD. However, there are at present no convincing data that the addition of pQCT or high-resolution pQCT parameters to DXA BMD improves fracture discrimination. More advanced estimates of bone strength derived from measurements of micro-architecture, by QCT-derived finite element analysis may be incorporated into AFR algorithms in the future. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY AND CALCULATED FRAX RISK SCORES MAY UNDERESTIMATE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURE RISK IN VITAMIN D-DEFICIENT VETERANS WITH HIV INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kelly I; Rubinsztain, Leon; Payan, John; Rentsch, Chris; Rimland, David; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the utility of the World Health Organization (WHO) Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) in assessing fracture risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and vitamin D deficiency. This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients with co-existing vitamin D deficiency at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and the 10-year fracture risk was calculated by the WHO FRAX algorithm. Two independent radiologists reviewed lateral chest radiographs for the presence of subclinical vertebral fractures. We identified 232 patients with HIV and vitamin D deficiency. Overall, 15.5% of patients met diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis on DEXA, and 58% had low BMD (T-score between -1 and -2.5). The median risk of any major osteoporotic and hip fracture by FRAX score was 1.45 and 0.10%, respectively. Subclinical vertebral fractures were detected in 46.6% of patients. Compared to those without fractures, those with fractures had similar prevalence of osteoporosis (15.3% versus 15.7%; P>.999), low BMD (53.2% versus 59.3%; P = .419), and similar FRAX hip scores (0.10% versus 0.10%; P = .412). While the FRAX major score was lower in the nonfracture group versus fracture group (1.30% versus 1.60%; P = .025), this was not clinically significant. We found a high prevalence of subclinical vertebral fractures among vitamin D-deficient HIV patients; however, DEXA and FRAX failed to predict those with fractures. Our results suggest that traditional screening tools for fragility fractures may not be applicable to this high-risk patient population.

  20. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment Score (PANDORA: Development of a Simple Predictive Risk Score for 30-Day In-Hospital Mortality Based on Demographics, Clinical Observation, and Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hiesmayr

    Full Text Available To develop a simple scoring system to predict 30 day in-hospital mortality of in-patients excluding those from intensive care units based on easily obtainable demographic, disease and nutrition related patient data.Score development with general estimation equation methodology and model selection by P-value thresholding based on a cross-sectional sample of 52 risk indicators with 123 item classes collected with questionnaires and stored in an multilingual online database.Worldwide prospective cross-sectional cohort with 30 day in-hospital mortality from the nutritionDay 2006-2009 and an external validation sample from 2012.We included 43894 patients from 2480 units in 32 countries. 1631(3.72% patients died within 30 days in hospital. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment (PANDORA score predicts 30-day hospital mortality based on 7 indicators with 31 item classes on a scale from 0 to 75 points. The indicators are age (0 to 17 points, nutrient intake on nutritionDay (0 to 12 points, mobility (0 to 11 points, fluid status (0 to 10 points, BMI (0 to 9 points, cancer (9 points and main patient group (0 to 7 points. An appropriate model fit has been achieved. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality prediction was 0.82 in the development sample and 0.79 in the external validation sample.The PANDORA score is a simple, robust scoring system for a general population of hospitalised patients to be used for risk stratification and benchmarking.

  1. Energy-based and biomimetic robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    All physical systems interact by exchanging power, or energy. This energy can be explicitly taken into account when designing robotic systems, in dynamic models of systems and controllers, leading to more insight in energy-related effects. In this thesis, a biomimetic cheetah robot is developed, by

  2. Investigating the relationship between outsourcing and performance based on Balanced Score Card (Case study Ilam Post Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Khalili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, outsourcing can play a crucial role in satisfying customers and meeting their requirements; therefore post office has devoted some of its services and supports for improving the performance, reducing the expenses, and modifying the organizational structure. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between outsourcing and the performance based on Balanced Score Card (Ilam Post Office in 2013. This study was a descriptive-survey and it utilized a questionnaire for collecting data. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Useable data were gathered from 18 managers and assistants. T-student and correlation method was used for data analysis. The results showed that there are a strong and positive relationship between outsourcing post office activities and performance management in three aspects of financial, customers and internal processes; however there was a positive and weak relationship between the aspect of learning and outsourcing.

  3. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  4. Citation analytics: Data exploration and comparative analyses of CiteScores of Open Access and Subscription-Based publications indexed in Scopus (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atayero, Aderemi A; Popoola, Segun I; Egeonu, Jesse; Oludayo, Olumuyiwa

    2018-08-01

    Citation is one of the important metrics that are used in measuring the relevance and the impact of research publications. The potentials of citation analytics may be exploited to understand the gains of publishing scholarly peer-reviewed research outputs in either Open Access (OA) sources or Subscription-Based (SB) sources in the bid to increase citation impact. However, relevant data required for such comparative analysis must be freely accessible for evidence-based findings and conclusions. In this data article, citation scores ( CiteScores ) of 2542 OA sources and 15,040 SB sources indexed in Scopus from 2014 to 2016 were presented and analyzed based on a set of five inclusion criteria. A robust dataset, which contains the CiteScores of OA and SB publication sources included, is attached as supplementary material to this data article to facilitate further reuse. Descriptive statistics and frequency distributions of OA CiteScores and SB CiteScores are presented in tables. Boxplot representations and scatter plots are provided to show the statistical distributions of OA CiteScores and SB CiteScores across the three sub-categories (Book Series, Journal, and Trade Journal). Correlation coefficient and p-value matrices are made available within the data article. In addition, Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of OA CiteScores and SB CiteScores are computed and the results are presented using tables and graphs. Furthermore, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are conducted to understand the statistical difference (and its significance, if any) in the citation impact of OA publication sources and SB publication source based on CiteScore . In the long run, the data provided in this article will help policy makers and researchers in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to identify the appropriate publication source type and category for dissemination of scholarly research findings with

  5. A new extranodal scoring system based on the prognostically relevant extranodal sites in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified treated with chemoimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hee Sang; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2016-08-01

    Extranodal involvement is a well-known prognostic factor in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Nevertheless, the prognostic impact of the extranodal scoring system included in the conventional international prognostic index (IPI) has been questioned in an era where rituximab treatment has become widespread. We investigated the prognostic impacts of individual sites of extranodal involvement in 761 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy. Subsequently, we established a new extranodal scoring system based on extranodal sites, showing significant prognostic correlation, and compared this system with conventional scoring systems, such as the IPI and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-IPI (NCCN-IPI). An internal validation procedure, using bootstrapped samples, was also performed for both univariate and multivariate models. Using multivariate analysis with a backward variable selection, we found nine extranodal sites (the liver, lung, spleen, central nervous system, bone marrow, kidney, skin, adrenal glands, and peritoneum) that remained significant for use in the final model. Our newly established extranodal scoring system, based on these sites, was better correlated with patient survival than standard scoring systems, such as the IPI and the NCCN-IPI. Internal validation by bootstrapping demonstrated an improvement in model performance of our modified extranodal scoring system. Our new extranodal scoring system, based on the prognostically relevant sites, may improve the performance of conventional prognostic models of DLBCL in the rituximab era and warrants further external validation using large study populations.

  6. Performance scores in general practice: a comparison between the clinical versus medication-based approach to identify target populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Saint-Lary

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: From one country to another, the pay-for-performance mechanisms differ on one significant point: the identification of target populations, that is, populations which serve as a basis for calculating the indicators. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus medication-based identification of populations of patients with diabetes and hypertension over the age of 50 (for men or 60 (for women, and any consequences this may have on the calculation of P4P indicators. METHODS: A comparative, retrospective, observational study was carried out with clinical and prescription data from a panel of general practitioners (GPs, the Observatory of General Medicine (OMG for the year 2007. Two indicators regarding the prescription for statins and aspirin in these populations were calculated. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 21.690 patients collected by 61 GPs via electronic medical files. Following the clinical-based approach, 2.278 patients were diabetic, 8,271 had hypertension and 1.539 had both against respectively 1.730, 8.511 and 1.304 following the medication-based approach (% agreement = 96%, kappa = 0.69. The main reasons for these differences were: forgetting to code the morbidities in the clinical approach, not taking into account the population of patients who were given life style and diet rules only or taking into account patients for whom morbidities other than hypertension could justify the use of antihypertensive drugs in the medication-based approach. The mean (confidence interval per doctor was 33.7% (31.5-35.9 for statin indicator and 38.4% (35.4-41.4 for aspirin indicator when the target populations were identified on the basis of clinical criteria whereas they were 37.9% (36.3-39.4 and 43.8% (41.4-46.3 on the basis of treatment criteria. CONCLUSION: The two approaches yield very "similar" scores but these scores cover different realities and offer food for thought on the possible usage of these indicators in the

  7. Proposing melasma severity index: A new, more practical, office-based scoring system for assessing the severity of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI, for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p 2 l + 0.4 (a × p 2 r + 0.2 (a × p 2 n where "a" stands for area, "p" for pigmentation, "l" for left face, "r" for right face, and "n" for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6 th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955 as compared to MASI (0.816. Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman′s correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma.

  8. A study of the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuang-Tao; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-10-25

    The effect of visual arts interventions on development of empathy has not been quantitatively investigated. A study was conducted on the effect of a visual arts-based program on the scores of the Jefferson Scale for Physician Empathy (JSPE). A total of 110 clerks (n = 92) and first-year postgraduate residents (PGY1s) (n = 18) participating in the program were recruited into this study. The 4-hr program covered the subjects of learning to interpret paintings, interpreting paintings relating to medicine, illness and human suffering, the related-topics of humanitarianism and the other humanities fields and values and meaning. The JSPE was completed at the beginning (pretest) and the end (posttest) of the program. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest JSPE scores. The average of the scores for the pretest was lower in the subgroup of PGY1s than the subgroup of clerks (p = 0.0358). An increased but not significantly mean posttest JESPE score was noted for the subgroup of PGY1s. Neither the females nor the males had higher posttest JSPE scores than the pretest scores. Although using a structured visual arts-based program as an intervention may be useful to enhance medical students' empathy, our results failed to show a positive effect on the JSPE Scores for a group of clerks and PGY1s. This suggests that further experimental studies are needed if quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of visual-arts based programs on empathy is to be investigated.

  9. Alignment-independent comparison of binding sites based on DrugScore potential fields encoded by 3D Zernike descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisius, Britta; Gohlke, Holger

    2012-09-24

    Analyzing protein binding sites provides detailed insights into the biological processes proteins are involved in, e.g., into drug-target interactions, and so is of crucial importance in drug discovery. Herein, we present novel alignment-independent binding site descriptors based on DrugScore potential fields. The potential fields are transformed to a set of information-rich descriptors using a series expansion in 3D Zernike polynomials. The resulting Zernike descriptors show a promising performance in detecting similarities among proteins with low pairwise sequence identities that bind identical ligands, as well as within subfamilies of one target class. Furthermore, the Zernike descriptors are robust against structural variations among protein binding sites. Finally, the Zernike descriptors show a high data compression power, and computing similarities between binding sites based on these descriptors is highly efficient. Consequently, the Zernike descriptors are a useful tool for computational binding site analysis, e.g., to predict the function of novel proteins, off-targets for drug candidates, or novel targets for known drugs.

  10. Item hierarchy-based analysis of the Rivermead Mobility Index resulted in improved interpretation and enabled faster scoring in patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roorda, Leo D; Green, John R; Houwink, Annemieke; Bagley, Pam J; Smith, Jane; Molenaar, Ivo W; Geurts, Alexander C

    2012-06-01

    To enable improved interpretation of the total score and faster scoring of the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) by studying item ordering or hierarchy and formulating start-and-stop rules in patients after stroke. Cohort study. Rehabilitation center in the Netherlands; stroke rehabilitation units and the community in the United Kingdom. Item hierarchy of the RMI was studied in an initial group of patients (n=620; mean age ± SD, 69.2±12.5y; 297 [48%] men; 304 [49%] left hemisphere lesion, and 269 [43%] right hemisphere lesion), and the adequacy of the item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules was checked in a second group of patients (n=237; mean age ± SD, 60.0±11.3y; 139 [59%] men; 103 [44%] left hemisphere lesion, and 93 [39%] right hemisphere lesion) undergoing rehabilitation after stroke. Not applicable. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate the fit of the double monotonicity model, indicating hierarchical item ordering. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the scores based on the start-and-stop rules were calculated to check the adequacy of these rules. The RMI had good fit of the double monotonicity model (coefficient H(T)=.87). The interpretation of the total score improved. Item hierarchy-based start-and-stop rules were formulated. The percentages of patients with a difference between the RMI total score and the score based on the recommended start-and-stop rules were 3% and 5%, respectively. Ten of the original 15 items had to be scored after applying the start-and-stop rules. Item hierarchy was established, enabling improved interpretation and faster scoring of the RMI. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Venous thromboembolism after induced abortion: a population-based, propensity-score-matched cohort study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-06-08

    A woman's risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy is estimated to be two-to-six times higher than her risk when she is not pregnant. Such risk estimates are largely based on pregnancies that result in delivery of a newborn baby; no estimates exist for the risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion, another common pregnancy outcome. To fill this knowledge gap, we aimed to assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion. We did this propensity score-matched cohort study using data from the universal health-care system of Ontario, Canada. We included primigravid women who had an induced abortion between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2015, and used a propensity score to match them to primigravid women who had a livebirth (1:1) or nulligravid women who were not pregnant on the procedure date of their matched counterpart and who did not conceive within 1 year afterwards (5:1). We excluded from our analysis women younger than 15 years or older than 49 years and individuals who had missing or invalid information about their sex, area of residence, residential income, or world region of origin. The primary outcome was risk of any venous thromboembolism within 42 days of the index date (defined as the date of an induced abortion, delivery date for livebirth, or for non-pregnant women the induced abortion date of their matched counterpart). We compared the rate of venous thromboembolism in primigravid women who had an induced abortion with the rate of venous thromboembolism in propensity-score-matched non-pregnant women and propensity-score-matched primigravid women whose pregnancy ended with a livebirth. We generated hazard ratios (HRs) of 42-day risk of venous thromboembolism after induced abortion using Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 194 086 eligible women whose first pregnancy ended with induced abortion, of whom 176 001 (90·7%) could be matched with women whose first pregnancy ended in

  12. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Friedman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As graduate medical education (GME moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS, programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS. Method: We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of house staff completed by faculty for academic years 2010–2011 (pre-Dreyfus model and 2011–2012 (post-Milestone model in one large university-based internal medicine residency training program. Main measures included change in PGY-level average score; slope, range, and separation of average scores across all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME competencies. Results: Transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model to a Milestone-based model resulted in a larger separation in the scores between our three post-graduate year classes, a steeper progression of scores in the PGY-1 class, a wider use of the 5-point scale on our global end of rotation evaluation form, and a downward shift in the PGY-1 scores and an upward shift in the PGY-3 scores. Conclusions: For faculty trained in both models of assessment, the Milestone-based model had greater discriminatory ability as evidenced by the larger separation in the scores for all the classes, in particular the PGY-1 class.

  13. Demonstrating sustainable energy: A review-based model of sustainable energy demonstration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a model of sustainable energy demonstration projects, based on a review of 229 scientific publications on demonstrations in renewable and sustainable energy. The model addresses the basic organizational characteristics (aim, cooperative form, and physical location) and learning

  14. A Study of the Correlation of the Improvement of Teaching Evaluation Scores Based on Student Performance Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi Yuan; Wang, Shu-Yin; Yang, Yi-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the influence of teaching evaluations on teachers in that they might try to please their students by giving higher grades in order to get higher teaching evaluation scores. To achieve this purpose, the study analyzed the correlations between teaching evaluation scores, student's final grades and course fail…

  15. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...

  16. Energy consumption-based accounts: A comparison of results using different energy extension vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, A; Brockway, P; Brand-Correa, L; Bunse, L; Sakai, M; Barrett, J

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focussed on the use of consumption-based approaches to energy accounting via input-output (IO) methods. Of particular interest is the examination of energy supply chains, given the associated risks from supply-chain issues, including availability shocks, taxes on fossil fuels and fluctuating energy prices. Using a multiregional IO (MRIO) database to calculate energy consumption-based accounts (CBA) allows analysts to both determine the quantity and source of ener...

  17. Development of an antibiotic spectrum score based on veterans affairs culture and susceptibility data for the purpose of measuring antibiotic de-escalation: a modified Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras-Kelly, Karl; Jones, Makoto; Remington, Richard; Hill, Nicole; Huttner, Benedikt; Samore, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    Development of a numerical score to measure the microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens (spectrum score) and method to identify antibiotic de-escalation events based on application of the score. Web-based modified Delphi method. Physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewards practicing in the United States recruited through infectious diseases-focused listservs. Three Delphi rounds investigated: organisms and antibiotics to include in the spectrum score, operationalization of rules for the score, and de-escalation measurement. A 4-point ordinal scale was used to score antibiotic susceptibility for organism-antibiotic domain pairs. Antibiotic regimen scores, which represented combined activity of antibiotics in a regimen across all organism domains, were used to compare antibiotic spectrum administered early (day 2) and later (day 4) in therapy. Changes in spectrum score were calculated and compared with Delphi participants' judgments on de-escalation with 20 antibiotic regimen vignettes and with non-Delphi steward judgments on de-escalation of 300 pneumonia regimen vignettes. Method sensitivity and specificity to predict expert de-escalation status were calculated. Twenty-four participants completed all Delphi rounds. Expert support for concepts utilized in metric development was identified. For vignettes presented in the Delphi, the sign of change in score correctly classified de-escalation in all vignettes except those involving substitution of oral antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of the method to identify de-escalation events as judged by non-Delphi stewards were 86.3% and 96.0%, respectively. Identification of de-escalation events based on an algorithm that measures microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens generally agreed with steward judgments of de-escalation status.

  18. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  19. Smart Home Energy Management Based on Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    E.Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Today organizations use IEEE 802.15&Zigbee to effectively deliver solutions for a variety of areas including consumer electronic device control, energy management and efficiency home and commercial building automation as well as industrial plant management. The smart home energy network has gained widespread attentions due to its flexible integrati- ion into everyday life. This next generation green home system transparently unifies various home appliances smart sensors &wireless communicati...

  20. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  1. Accuracy and Efficiency of Recording Pediatric Early Warning Scores Using an Electronic Physiological Surveillance System Compared With Traditional Paper-Based Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton, Gerri; Lane, Steven; Killen, Roger; Black, Stuart; Lyon, Max; Ampah, Pearl; Sproule, Cathryn; Loren-Gosling, Dominic; Richards, Caitlin; Spinty, Jean; Holloway, Colette; Davies, Coral; Wilson, April; Chean, Chung Shen; Carter, Bernie; Carrol, E D

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled study of documentation using five clinical vignettes. We measured the accuracy of vital sign recording, score calculation, and time taken to complete documentation using a handheld electronic physiological surveillance system, VitalPAC Pediatric, compared with traditional paper-based charts. We explored the user acceptability of both methods using a Web-based survey. Twenty-three staff participated in the controlled study. The electronic physiological surveillance system improved the accuracy of vital sign recording, 98.5% versus 85.6%, P < .02, Pediatric Early Warning Score calculation, 94.6% versus 55.7%, P < .02, and saved time, 68 versus 98 seconds, compared with paper-based documentation, P < .002. Twenty-nine staff completed the Web-based survey. They perceived that the electronic physiological surveillance system offered safety benefits by reducing human error while providing instant visibility of recorded data to the entire clinical team.

  2. Technology assessment in energy landscapes. Agent-based modeling of energy conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, Juergen; Link, P. Michael; Shaaban, Mostafa; Suesser, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The risks and conflicts of the fossil-nuclear age are in contrast to the effects of renewable energies which appear in a largely positive light. However, the transformation towards a low-carbon energy supply creates new energy landscapes with a high demand for suitable land areas - which may also provoke energy conflicts. Technology assessment can contribute to reducing such energy conflicts and increasing public acceptance by using spatial agent-based models that represent dynamic decisions and interactions of stakeholders regarding energy alternatives and land-use options. Northern Germany serves as a case study region where farmers and communities are local actors of the energy transition.

  3. Predictive value of semi-quantitative MRI-based scoring systems for future knee replacement: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour; Zikria, Bashir; Carrino, John A.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition

  4. Predictive value of semi-quantitative MRI-based scoring systems for future knee replacement: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Eng, John; Demehri, Shadpour [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zikria, Bashir [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate, in a confirmatory fashion, whether baseline and change from baseline to 24-month follow-up in cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions and meniscal damage are predictors of knee replacement (KR) in subjects with a high risk of osteoarthritis (OA), independent of the level of physical activity, symptom severity and radiographic abnormalities. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative's (OAI) baseline and 24-month follow-up knee MRIs of 115 patients (age range: 45-78 years; 48 % female; BMI: 20.9-48.7) were analyzed. Cartilage, bone marrow and menisci were semi-quantitatively scored according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) systems in all compartments. Baseline and 24-month interval changes in structural tissue damage assessed by BLOKS and WORMS were used as predictors of KR independent of clinical and radiographic parameters using Cox hazard analysis. Adjustments were performed for age, gender, BMI and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly: PASE), Western Ontario and McMaster Questionnaire (WOMAC) total score and radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score. BLOKS and WORMS baseline cartilage scores were predictors of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. One score increase in the average baseline BLOKS full-thickness cartilage defect score was associated with a [hazard ratio (95 % CI)] 13.55 (3.61-50.89) times greater risk of KR independent of the PASE, WOMAC and KL score. Net reclassification improvements (NRIs) of the additional evaluation of 24-month follow-up MRI scores and assessment of changes were not significant for prediction of KR (NRI range: - 7.23 - 24.8 %). The BLOKS cartilage score for full-thickness cartilage defects had the highest hazard for KR. Follow-up MRI changes in structural tissue damage, detected by BLOKS and WORMS cartilage, bone marrow or meniscus scores (up to 24 months) had no significant predictive value in addition

  5. Anomalous diffusion in the evolution of soccer championship scores: Real data, mean-field analysis, and an agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Gonçalves, Sebastián; Paula, Felipe S. F.

    2013-08-01

    Statistics of soccer tournament scores based on the double round robin system of several countries are studied. Exploring the dynamics of team scoring during tournament seasons from recent years we find evidences of superdiffusion. A mean-field analysis results in a drift velocity equal to that of real data but in a different diffusion coefficient. Along with the analysis of real data we present the results of simulations of soccer tournaments obtained by an agent-based model which successfully describes the final scoring distribution [da Silva , Comput. Phys. Commun.CPHCBZ0010-465510.1016/j.cpc.2012.10.030 184, 661 (2013)]. Such model yields random walks of scores over time with the same anomalous diffusion as observed in real data.

  6. Comparison of Alzheimer's disease with vascular dementia and non-dementia using specific voxel-based Z score maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shirou; Shishido, Fumio; Miyajima, Masayuki; Sakuma, Koutarou; Shigihara, Takeshi; Tameta, Tadanobu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and between AD and non-dementia using the program ''easy Z score imaging system'' (eZIS) developed by Matsuda et al., for the diagnosis of very early AD. Of 201 patients, we investigated 12 patients with AD, 10 with VaD, and 9 with non-dementia, who underwent brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) between February 2005 and September 2006. The sensitivity and specificity of the indicators of specific volume of interest (VOI) analysis, namely, severity, extent, and ratio were evaluated for the distinction of AD from VaD and non-dementia. There was a significant difference in all the criteria for severity, extent, and ratio between AD and non-dementia cases and in the ratio between AD and VaD. Between AD and non-dementia, the sensitivity and specificity of severity were 100% and 45%, respectively, using the cutoff value of 1.19. When using the cutoff value of 14.2 for extent, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 100% were demonstrated. When comparing AD with VaD, using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 100%, respectively. Using the cutoff value of 1.5 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity between AD and VaD were 92% and 80%, respectively, thereby showing the best results. The specific VOI analysis program of AD using specific voxel-based Z score maps is not influenced by interobserver differences among radiologists and is useful to discriminate AD from VaD and non-dementia. However, the setting of the cutoff value at each institution and comparison with original and eZIS images are suggested to distinguish better AD from VaD. (author)

  7. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  8. The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Linna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock rule changes were introduced in the 2006 season with the goal of reducing the average duration of the game; these changes were reversed in 2007. In addition, in 2007 the kickoff rule was changed to create more excitement and potentially more scoring. We examine what happened to actual and expected scoring during these National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA football seasons. The clock rule change in 2006 led to lower scoring which was not fully encompassed in the betting market, leading to significant returns to betting the under. Multiple rule changes in 2007 led to volatility in the betting market that subsided by season’s end.

  9. A feature alignment score for online cone-beam CT-based image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Catriona; Deegan, Timothy; Poulsen, Michael; Bednarz, Tomasz; Harden, Fiona; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2018-05-17

    To develop a method for scoring online cone-beam CT (CBCT)-to-planning CT image feature alignment to inform prostate image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) decision-making. The feasibility of incorporating volume variation metric thresholds predictive of delivering planned dose into weighted functions, was investigated. Radiation therapists and radiation oncologists participated in workshops where they reviewed prostate CBCT-IGRT case examples and completed a paper-based survey of image feature matching practices. For 36 prostate cancer patients, one daily CBCT was retrospectively contoured then registered with their plan to simulate delivered dose if (a) no online setup corrections and (b) online image alignment and setup corrections, were performed. Survey results were used to select variables for inclusion in classification and regression tree (CART) and boosted regression trees (BRT) modeling of volume variation metric thresholds predictive of delivering planned dose to the prostate, proximal seminal vesicles (PSV), bladder, and rectum. Weighted functions incorporating the CART and BRT results were used to calculate a score of individual tumor and organ at risk image feature alignment (FAS TV _ OAR ). Scaled and weighted FAS TV _ OAR were then used to calculate a score of overall treatment compliance (FAS global ) for a given CBCT-planning CT registration. The FAS TV _ OAR were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power. FAS global thresholds indicative of high, medium, or low overall treatment plan compliance were determined using coefficients from multiple linear regression analysis. Thirty-two participants completed the prostate CBCT-IGRT survey. While responses demonstrated consensus of practice for preferential ranking of planning CT and CBCT match features in the presence of deformation and rotation, variation existed in the specified thresholds for observed volume differences requiring patient repositioning or repeat bladder and bowel

  10. A comparison of four scoring methods based on the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as used in the Dutch preventive child health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treffers Philip DA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for the identification of psychosocial problems among children aged 7–12 by the PCH. Methods We included 711 (of 814 children (response: 87% aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS, parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods. Results The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods. Conclusion The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.

  11. Effect of diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on vaginal discharge score grading system in postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hiroaki; Fujikura, Atsushi; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka M P; Vos, Peter L A M; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-12

    In this study, the prevalence, effectiveness of diagnosis, and treatment based on vaginal discharge score (VDS) of clinical endometritis in cattle were evaluated. To detect clinical endometritis and classify its severity, vaginoscopy was performed during 21 to 60 days postpartum in 164 Holstein cows consisting of 229 lactations. Groups were defined using the 4-point VDS scale. Study groups included the following: non-endometritis (VDS=0; no/clear mucus; NEM group; n=168); mild endometritis, no treatment (VDS=1; mucus containing flecks of white/off-white pus; NTR group; n=30); and severe endometritis, treated with PGF2α (VDS≥2; discharge containing 50% pus, and fluid or uterine horn asymmetry; TEM group; n=31). Cows treated with PGF2α that did not recover (VDS≥1, n=5) received intrauterine procaine penicillin and streptomycin. Prevalence of clinical endometritis (VDS≥1) was 26.6%. The NTR group required significantly more artificial inseminations per pregnancy than NEM and TEM groups (2.8 ± 1.8 vs 2.0 ± 1.3, 1.9 ± 0.8, Pcows was higher in the NTR group compared to the NEM (P=0.012) and TEM (P=0.076) groups. In the TEM group, calving to first artificial insemination interval tended to be higher in cows treated 41 to 60 days postpartum than cows treated 29 to 40 days postpartum (97.2 ± 27.1 vs 74.4 ± 19.7, P=0.084). Our study suggests that cows with VDS=1 may require treatment to recover fertility. Diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis based on a VDS grading system may improve dairy herd reproductive performance.

  12. Evaluating energy efficiency for airlines: An application of Virtual Frontier Dynamic Slacks Based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Qiang; Li, Ye; Yu, Chen-lu; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The fast growing Revenue Passenger Kilometers and the relatively lagged energy supply of aviation industry impels the airlines to improve energy efficiency. In this paper, we focus on evaluating and analyzing influencing factors for airline energy efficiency. Number of employees and aviation kerosene are chosen as the inputs. Revenue Ton Kilometers, Revenue Passenger Kilometers and total business income are the outputs. Capital stock is selected as the dynamic factor. A new model, Virtual Frontier Dynamic Slacks Based Measure, is proposed to calculate the energy efficiencies of 21 airlines from 2008 to 2012. We verify two important properties to manifest the advantages of the new model. Then a regression is run to analyze the influencing factors of airline energy efficiency. The main findings are: 1. The overall energy efficiency of Malaysia Airlines is the highest during 2008–2012.2. Per capita Gross Domestic Product, the average service age of fleet size and average haul distance have significant impacts on the efficiency score. 3. The difference between full-service carriers and low-cost carriers has no significant effects on airline energy efficiency. - Highlights: • A Virtual Frontier Dynamic Slacks Based Measure is developed. • 21 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Malaysia Airlines has the highest overall energy efficiency. • Three explanatory variables have significant impacts.

  13. Conceptual study on deep-underground energy generation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, M.; Okawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. (MAPI) and Taisei Corporation have started a conceptual study on a deep-underground energy generation base for future cities in the 21st century around the metropolitan area, which will be increasingly important from viewpoints of the autonomy and sharing of the energy supply to the future cities. The energy generation base consists of a gas cooled reactor with naturally safety features as the energy source, an electric generation base using the Alkali Metal Thermo-electric Converter (AMTEC), a hydrogen production plant with the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE), a hydrogen storage plant with the Metal Hydride (MH), and a desalination plant. This paper describes a concept of the energy generation base and the structure in the deep-underground, in soft soil, then the basic system of each plant, and finally discusses the feasibility of the deep-underground energy generation base. (author)

  14. An agent-based model for energy service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Marguerite; Varga, Liz; Allen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An agent-based model for household energy efficiency upgrades is considered. • Energy service companies provide an alternative to traditional utility providers. • Household self-financing is a limiting factor to widespread efficiency upgrading. • Longer term service contracts can lead to reduced household energy costs. • Future energy price increases enable service providers to retain their customer base. - Abstract: The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy accounting for approximately one third of carbon emissions in the United Kingdom. Achieving a sustainable, low-carbon infrastructure necessitates a reduced and more efficient use of domestic energy supplies. Energy service companies offer an alternative to traditional providers, which supply a single utility product to satisfy the unconstrained demand of end users, and have been identified as a potentially important actor in sustainable future economies. An agent-based model is developed to examine the potential of energy service companies to contribute to the large scale upgrading of household energy efficiency, which would ultimately lead to a more sustainable and secure energy infrastructure. The migration of households towards energy service companies is described by an attractiveness array, through which potential customers can evaluate the future benefits, in terms of household energy costs, of changing provider. It is shown that self-financing is a limiting factor to the widespread upgrading of residential energy efficiency. Greater reductions in household energy costs could be achieved by committing to longer term contracts, allowing upgrade costs to be distributed over greater time intervals. A steadily increasing cost of future energy usage lends an element of stability to the market, with energy service companies displaying the ability to retain customers on contract expiration. The model highlights how a greater focus on the provision of energy services, as

  15. SYNTAX score based on coronary computed tomography angiography may have a prognostic value in patients with complex coronary artery disease: An observational study from a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Han, Kyunghwa; Chang, Suyon; Kim, Jin Young; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-09-01

    The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score is an invasive coronary angiography (ICA)-based score for quantifying the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although the SYNTAX score was originally developed based on ICA, recent publications have reported that coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a feasible modality for the estimation of the SYNTAX score.The aim of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of the SYNTAX score, based on CCTA for the prediction of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients with complex CAD.The current study was approved by the institutional review board of our institution, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective cohort study. We included 251 patients (173 men, mean age 66.0 ± 9.29 years) who had complex CAD [3-vessel disease or left main (LM) disease] on CCTA. SYNTAX score was obtained on the basis of CCTA. Follow-up clinical outcome data regarding composite MACCEs were also obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict the risk of MACCEs based on clinical variables, treatment, and computed tomography (CT)-SYNTAX scores.During the median follow-up period of 1517 days, there were 48 MACCEs. Univariate Cox hazards models demonstrated that MACCEs were associated with advanced age, low body mass index (BMI), and dyslipidemia (P < .2). In patients with LM disease, MACCEs were associated with a higher SYNTAX score. In patients with CT-SYNTAX score ≥23, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention had significantly lower hazard ratios than patients who were treated with medication alone. In multivariate Cox hazards model, advanced age, low BMI, and higher SYNTAX score showed an increased hazard ratio for MACCE, while treatment with CABG showed a lower hazard ratio (P < .2).On the basis of our results, CT-SYNTAX score

  16. The Effects of Video Game Experience on Computer-Based Air Traffic Controller Specialist, Air Traffic Scenario Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    application with a strong resemblance to a video game , concern has been raised that prior video game experience might have a moderating effect on scores. Much...such as spatial ability. The effects of computer or video game experience on work sample scores have not been systematically investigated. The purpose...of this study was to evaluate the incremental validity of prior video game experience over that of general aptitude as a predictor of work sample test

  17. MEMS-Based Waste Vibrational Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    MEMS energy- harvesting device. Although PZT is used more prevalently due to its higher piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant, AlN has...7 1. Lead Zirconium Titanate ( PZT ) .........................................................7 2. Aluminum...Laboratory PiezoMUMPS Piezoelectric Multi-User MEMS Processes PZT Lead Zirconate Titanate SEM Scanning Electron Microscopy SiO2 Silicon

  18. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  19. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  20. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting: With Thermodynamic-Based Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Mohammadi; Akram Khodayari

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations using ferroelectric materials as a microgenerator. The previous researches show that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting is not effective, whereas thermodynamic-based cycles give higher energy. Also, at different temperatures some thermodynamic cycles exhibit different behaviours. In this paper pyroelectric energy harvesting using Lenoir and Ericsson thermodynamic cycles has been studied numerically and the two cycles were c...

  1. School-based assessments in high-stakes examinations in Bhutan: a question of trust? : exploring inconsistencies between external exam scores, school-based assessments, detailed teacher ratings, and student self-ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE)

  2. Normed kernel function-based fuzzy possibilistic C-means (NKFPCM) algorithm for high-dimensional breast cancer database classification with feature selection is based on Laplacian Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, A. W.; Rustam, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, breast cancer has become the focus of world attention as this disease is one of the primary leading cause of death for women. Therefore, it is necessary to have the correct precautions and treatment. In previous studies, Fuzzy Kennel K-Medoid algorithm has been used for multi-class data. This paper proposes an algorithm to classify the high dimensional data of breast cancer using Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means (FPCM) and a new method based on clustering analysis using Normed Kernel Function-Based Fuzzy Possibilistic C-Means (NKFPCM). The objective of this paper is to obtain the best accuracy in classification of breast cancer data. In order to improve the accuracy of the two methods, the features candidates are evaluated using feature selection, where Laplacian Score is used. The results show the comparison accuracy and running time of FPCM and NKFPCM with and without feature selection.

  3. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  4. Lymphocyte-Related Inflammation and Immune-Based Scores Predict Prognosis of Chordoma Patients After Radical Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of malignancies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of lymphocyte-related inflammation and immune-based prognostic scores in patients with chordoma after radical resection, including the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR, and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII. A total of 172 consecutive patients with chordoma who underwent radical resection were reviewed. R software was used to randomly select 86 chordoma patients as a training set and 86 chordoma patients as a validation set. Potential prognostic factors were also identified, including age, sex, tumor localization, KPS, Enneking stage, tumor size, and tumor metastasis. Overall survival (OS was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analyses. NLR, PLR, SII, Enneking stage, tumor differentiation and tumor metastasis were identified as significant factors from the univariate analysis in both the training and validation sets and were subjected to multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. The univariate analysis showed that NLR ≥1.65, PLR ≥121, and SII ≥370×109/L were significantly associated with poor OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, SII, Enneking stage and tumor metastasis were significantly associated with OS. As noninvasive, low-cost, reproducible prognostic biomarkers, NLR, PLR and SII could help predict poor prognosis in patients with chordoma after radical resection. This finding may contribute to the development of more effective tailored therapy according to the characteristics of individual tumors.

  5. Computed tomographic findings in dogs with head trauma and development of a novel prognostic computed tomography-based scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Orit; Peery, Dana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Moscovich, Efrat; Kelmer, Efrat; Klainbart, Sigal; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings and outcomes in dogs with head trauma and design a prognostic scale. ANIMALS 27 dogs admitted to the Koret School Veterinary Teaching Hospital within 72 hours after traumatic head injury that underwent CT imaging of the head. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding dog signalment, history, physical and neurologic examination findings, and modified Glasgow coma scale scores. All CT images were retrospectively evaluated by a radiologist unaware of dog status. Short-term (10 days after trauma) and long-term (≥ 6 months after trauma) outcomes were determined, and CT findings and other variables were analyzed for associations with outcome. A prognostic CT-based scale was developed on the basis of the results. RESULTS Cranial vault fractures, parenchymal abnormalities, or both were identified via CT in 24 of 27 (89%) dogs. Three (11%) dogs had only facial bone fractures. Intracranial hemorrhage was identified in 16 (59%) dogs, cranial vault fractures in 15 (56%), midline shift in 14 (52%), lateral ventricle asymmetry in 12 (44%), and hydrocephalus in 7 (26%). Hemorrhage and ventricular asymmetry were significantly and negatively associated with short- and long-term survival, respectively. The developed 7-point prognostic scale included points for hemorrhage, midline shift or lateral ventricle asymmetry, cranial vault fracture, and depressed fracture (1 point each) and infratentorial lesion (3 points). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings reported here may assist in determining prognoses for other dogs with head trauma. The developed scale may be useful for outcome assessment of dogs with head trauma; however, it must be validated before clinical application.

  6. Reactivity index based on orbital energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneda, Takao; Singh, Raman K

    2014-05-30

    This study shows that the chemical reactivities depend on the orbital energy gaps contributing to the reactions. In the process where a reaction only makes progress through charge transfer with the minimal structural transformation of the reactant, the orbital energy gap gradient (OEGG) between the electron-donating and electron-accepting orbitals is proven to be very low. Using this relation, a normalized reaction diagram is constructed by plotting the normalized orbital energy gap with respect to the normalized intrinsic reaction coordinate. Application of this reaction diagram to 43 fundamental reactions showed that the majority of the forward reactions provide small OEGGs in the initial stages, and therefore, the initial processes of the forward reactions are supposed to proceed only through charge transfer. Conversely, more than 60% of the backward reactions are found to give large OEGGs implying very slow reactions associated with considerable structural transformations. Focusing on the anti-activation-energy reactions, in which the forward reactions have higher barriers than those of the backward ones, most of these reactions are shown to give large OEGGs for the backward reactions. It is also found that the reactions providing large OEGGs in the forward directions inconsistent with the reaction rate constants are classified into SN 2, symmetric, and methyl radical reactions. Interestingly, several large-OEGG reactions are experimentally established to get around the optimum pathways. This indicates that the reactions can take significantly different pathways from the optimum ones provided no charge transfer proceeds spontaneously without the structural transformations of the reactants. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. New coal-based energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1986-01-01

    Conversion of coal into liquid fuels or into coal gas is considered and the use of high temperature nuclear reactors whose waste heat can be used for remote (district) heating mentioned. The use of high temperature reactors as energy source for coal gasification is also examined and, finally, the extraction of heat from combined coal, steel and high temperature nuclear reactors is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  8. Film-based dual energy radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J. M.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray energy-difference images are obtained simultaneously by exposing a body to a broad energy spectrum X-ray beam while a radiographic film package is disposed between front and rear X-ray intensifying screens. The film package has two superimposed films with a light-opaque sheet between them. The front screen, on which the polyenergetic image beam emerging from the body is incident, is excited to luminescence by X-ray photons predominantly in one energy band and the rear screen is excited predominantly by photons in another band. The light opaque sheet preferably contains X-ray filter material for additional filtering of photons to increase the fraction of protons at said other band to which the rear screen is sensitive. A shadowgraph of a marker is formed on the film emulsions during X-ray exposure to aid in matching congruent picture elements on each film when the developed films are being read out to obtain signals corresponding to their intensities. Notches in the edges of the films and sheet serve as a code for indicating the type of screens with which the package can be used

  9. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  10. The clinical performance of an office-based risk scoring system for fatal cardiovascular diseases in North-East of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf G Sepanlou

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are becoming major causes of death in developing countries. Risk scoring systems for CVD are needed to prioritize allocation of limited resources. Most of these risk score algorithms have been based on a long array of risk factors including blood markers of lipids. However, risk scoring systems that solely use office-based data, not including laboratory markers, may be advantageous. In the current analysis, we validated the office-based Framingham risk scoring system in Iran.The study used data from the Golestan Cohort in North-East of Iran. The following risk factors were used in the development of the risk scoring method: sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, current smoking, and diabetes. Cardiovascular risk functions for prediction of 10-year risk of fatal CVDs were developed.A total of 46,674 participants free of CVD at baseline were included. Predictive value of estimated risks was examined. The resulting Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC was 0.774 (95% CI: 0.762-0.787 in all participants, 0.772 (95% CI: 0.753-0.791 in women, and 0.763 (95% CI: 0.747-0.779 in men. AUC was higher in urban areas (0.790, 95% CI: 0.766-0.815. The predicted and observed risks of fatal CVD were similar in women. However, in men, predicted probabilities were higher than observed.The AUC in the current study is comparable to results of previous studies while lipid profile was replaced by body mass index to develop an office-based scoring system. This scoring algorithm is capable of discriminating individuals at high risk versus low risk of fatal CVD.

  11. New perspectives on renewable energy systems based on hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, T. K.; Agbossou, K.; Benard, P.; St-Arnaud, J-M.

    1999-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon-based energy systems, current energy consumption and the push towards the utilization of renewable energy sources, fuelled by global warming and the need to reduce atmospheric pollution are discussed. The consequences of climatic change and the obligation of Annex B countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in terms of the Kyoto Protocols are reviewed. The role that renewable energy sources such as hydrogen, solar and wind energy could play in avoiding the most catastrophic consequences of rapidly growing energy consumption and atmospheric pollution in the face of diminishing conventional fossil fuel resources are examined. The focus is on hydrogen energy as a means of storing and transporting primary energy. Some favorable characteristics of hydrogen is its abundance, the fact that it can be produced utilizing renewable or non-renewable sources, and the further fact that its combustion produces three times more energy per unit of mass than oil, and six times more than coal. The technology of converting hydrogen into energy, storing energy in the form of hydrogen, and its utilization, for example in the stabilization of wind energy by way of electrolytic conversion to hydrogen, are described. Development at Hydro-Quebec's Institute of Research of a hydrogen-based autonomous wind energy system to produce electricity is also discussed. 2 tabs., 11 refs

  12. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities......, as responsible entities for physical planning, can hold a key role in transforming energy systems towards carbon-neutrality, based on renewable energies. The implementation should be approached at community scale, which has advantages compared to only focusing on buildings or cities. But community energy...... planning can be a complex and time-consuming process. Many municipalities hesitate to initiate such a process, because of missing guidelines and uncertainty about possible energy potentials. Case studies help to understand applied methodologies and could show available energy potentials in different local...

  13. Z-scores-based methods and their application to biological monitoring: an example in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulière, Guillaume; Dedecker, Jérôme; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Rochcongar, Pierre; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Berthelot, Geoffroy

    2017-11-15

    The clinical and biological follow-up of individuals, such as the biological passport for athletes, is typically based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of hematological or urine markers. These follow-ups aim to identify abnormal behavior by comparing the individual's biological samples to an established baseline. These comparisons may be done via different ways, but each of them requires an appropriate extra population to compute the significance levels, which is a non-trivial issue. Moreover, it is not necessarily relevant to compare the measures of a biomarker of a professional athlete to that of a reference population (even restricted to other athletes), and a reasonable alternative is to detect the abnormal values by considering only the other measurements of the same athlete. Here we propose a simple adaptive statistic based on maxima of Z-scores that does not rely on the use of an extra population. We show that, in the Gaussian framework, it is a practical and relevant method for detecting abnormal values in a series of observations from the same individual. The distribution of this statistic does not depend on the individual parameters under the null hypothesis, and its quantiles can be computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed method is tested on the 3-year follow-up of ferritin, serum iron, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit markers in 2577 elite male soccer players. For instance, if we consider the abnormal values for the hematocrit at a 5% level, we found that 5.57% of the selected cohort had at least one abnormal value (which is not significantly different from the expected false-discovery rate). The approach is a starting point for more elaborate models that would produce a refined individual baseline. The method can be extended to the Gaussian linear model, in order to include additional variables such as the age or exposure to altitude. The method could also be applied to other domains, such as the clinical patient

  14. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  15. Sea wave energy based in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Carlos

    2010-09-15

    Application on which it turns east document is the recovery of the energy of the sea waves turning it into electricity by means of the combination of nano-piezoelectric and condensing, the system would be seen like a compound floating fabric of million piezoelectric crystals that turn the oscillating movement of the sea into micro-electrical signals that they are added and they left by means cables to the surface where electronics devices classified to the load of condensers, from the electricity is confined and later is invested and synchronize itself with the great national mains.

  16. Prediction-based Dynamic Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Ma, Jun-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Dao-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical constraint in wireless sensor networks. Focusing on the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a method of prediction-based dynamic energy management. A particle filter was introduced to predict a target state, which was adopted to awaken wireless sensor nodes so that their sleep time was prolonged. With the distributed computing capability of nodes, an optimization approach of distributed genetic algorithm and simulated annealing was proposed to minimize the energy consumption of measurement. Considering the application of target tracking, we implemented target position prediction, node sleep scheduling and optimal sensing node selection. Moreover, a routing scheme of forwarding nodes was presented to achieve extra energy conservation. Experimental results of target tracking verified that energy-efficiency is enhanced by prediction-based dynamic energy management.

  17. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  18. Prediction-based Dynamic Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical constraint in wireless sensor networks. Focusing on the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a method of prediction-based dynamic energy management. A particle filter was introduced to predict a target state, which was adopted to awaken wireless sensor nodes so that their sleep time was prolonged. With the distributed computing capability of nodes, an optimization approach of distributed genetic algorithm and simulated annealing was proposed to minimize the energy consumption of measurement. Considering the application of target tracking, we implemented target position prediction, node sleep scheduling and optimal sensing node selection. Moreover, a routing scheme of forwarding nodes was presented to achieve extra energy conservation. Experimental results of target tracking verified that energy-efficiency is enhanced by prediction-based dynamic energy management.

  19. Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from primary care-based disease management: a propensity score matched survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Thomas, Karsten; Graf, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of a nationwide German diabetes mellitus disease management program (DMP) on survival time and costs in comparison to routine care. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using routine administration data from Germany's largest sickness fund to identify insured suffering from diabetes in 2002. A total of 95,443 insured with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were born before January 1, 1962 met the defined inclusion criteria, resulting in 19,888 pairs of DMP participants and nonparticipants matched for socioeconomic and health status using propensity score matching methods. This is the first time propensity score matching has been used to evaluate a survival benefit of DMPs. In the time frame analyzed (3 years), mean survival time for the DMP group was 1045 days vs. 985 days for the routine care group (Ptime. They also incurred lower costs compared to propensity score matched insured in routine care.

  20. An Asset-Based Approach to Tribal Community Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies

    2016-08-01

    Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.

  1. An Energy Integrated Dispatching Strategy of Multi- energy Based on Energy Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weixia; Han, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Energy internet is a new way of energy use. Energy internet achieves energy efficiency and low cost by scheduling a variety of different forms of energy. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an advanced algorithm with few parameters, high computational precision and fast convergence speed. By improving the parameters ω, c1 and c2, PSO can improve the convergence speed and calculation accuracy. The objective of optimizing model is lowest cost of fuel, which can meet the load of electricity, heat and cold after all the renewable energy is received. Due to the different energy structure and price in different regions, the optimization strategy needs to be determined according to the algorithm and model.

  2. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  3. A competing risk approach for the European Heart SCORE model based on cause-specific and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Henrik; Harmsen, Charlotte G; Wisløff, Torbjørn

    2013-01-01

    for older individuals. When non-CVD mortality was assumed unaffected by smoking status, the absolute risk reduction due to statin treatment ranged from 0.0% to 3.5%, whereas the gain in expected residual lifetime ranged from 3 to 11 months. Statin effectiveness increased for non-smokers and declined...... pressure, and total cholesterol level. The SCORE model, however, is not mathematically consistent and does not estimate all-cause mortality. Our aim is to modify the SCORE model to allow consistent estimation of both CVD-specific and all-cause mortality. Methods: Using a competing risk approach, we first...

  4. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P collection, ≥ 20 HU: 4 points; entrapped gas: 3 points). The model was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.36). In the validation cohort, scores of 2 or lower

  5. Interphalangeal Osteoarthritis Radiographic Simplified (iOARS) score: a radiographic method to detect osteoarthritis of the interphalangeal finger joints based on its histopathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Amoyo-Minar, Love; Stamm, Tanja; Haider, Stefanie; Niederreiter, Birgit; Supp, Gabriela; Soleiman, Afschin; Kainberger, Franz; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    To develop a radiographic score for assessment of hand osteoarthritis (OA) that is based on histopathological alterations of the distal (DIP) and proximal (PIP) interphalangeal joints. DIP and PIP joints were obtained from corpses (n=40). Plain radiographies of these joints were taken. Joint samples were prepared for histological analysis; cartilage damage was graded according to the Mankin scoring system. A 2×2 Fisher's exact test was applied to define those radiographic features most likely to be associated with histological alterations. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analysed to determine radiographic thresholds. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) estimated intra- and inter-reader variability. Spearman's correlation was applied to examine the relationship between our score and histopathological changes. Differences between groups were determined by a Student's t test. The Interphalangeal Osteoarthritis Radiographic Simplified (iOARS) score is presented. The score is based on histopathological changes of DIP and PIP joints and follows a simple dichotomy whether OA is present or not. The iOARS score relies on three equally ranked radiographic features (osteophytes, joint space narrowing and subchondral sclerosis). For both DIP and PIP joints, the presence of one x-ray features reflects interphalangeal OA. Sensitivity and specificity for DIP joints were 92.3% and 90.9%, respectively, and 75% and 100% for PIP joints. All readers were able to reproduce their own readings in DIP and PIP joints after 4 weeks. The overall agreement between the three readers was good; ICCs ranged from 0.945 to 0.586. Additionally, outcomes of the iOARS score in a hand OA cohort revealed a higher prevalence of interphalangeal joint OA compared with the Kellgren and Lawrence score. The iOARS score is uniquely based on histopathological alterations of the interphalangeal joints in order to reliably determine OA of the DIP and PIP joints radiographically. Its high

  6. Energy information data base. Guide to abstracting and indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The Technical Information Center (TIC) acquires and brings under bibliographic control information related to the administrative and research, development, and demonstration activities of the Department of Energy (DOE). Three major data bases are being created and maintained: the Energy Information Data Base (EDB) containing scientific and technical information covering all areas of energy as well as quasi-technical information in the area of energy policy and management; the General and Practical Information Base (GAP) containing mass-distribution information on energy, ''how-to'' information primarily in the areas of energy conservation and solar energy utilization, and information on energy-related legislation and standards; and the Research in Progress Information Base (RIP), which describes current research and development programs in the field of energy. Two smaller, classified data bases are also produced, one on weapons data and the second containing other information that must be given limited distribution. Two of the more significant components of the document records stored are abstracts and subject descriptors. This manual contains the guidelines used in abstract writing and editing and in subject descriptor selection. The associated acquisition and subject categorization functions are also addressed

  7. Assessment of the reliability and consistency of the "malnutrition inflammation score" (MIS) in Mexican adults with chronic kidney disease for diagnosis of protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Ailema Janeth; Arce-Santander, Celene Viridiana; Vega-Vega, Olynka; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Angeles

    2014-10-04

    The protein-energy wasting syndrome (PEW) is a condition of malnutrition, inflammation, anorexia and wasting of body reserves resulting from inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).One way of assessing PEW, extensively described in the literature, is using the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS). To assess the reliability and consistency of MIS for diagnosis of PEW in Mexican adults with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). Study of diagnostic tests. A sample of 45 adults with CKD on HD were analyzed during the period June-July 2014.The instrument was applied on 2 occasions; the test-retest reliability was calculated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC); the internal consistency of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's αcoefficient. A weighted Kappa test was used to estimate the validity of the instrument; the result was subsequently compared with the Bilbrey nutritional index (BNI). The reliability of the questionnaires, evaluated in the patient sample, was ICC=0.829.The agreement between MIS observations was considered adequate, k= 0.585 (p <0.001); when comparing it with BNI, a value of k = 0.114 was obtained (p <0.001).In order to estimate the tendency, a correlation test was performed. The r² correlation coefficient was 0.488 (P <0.001). MIS has adequate reliability and validity for diagnosing PEW in the population with chronic kidney disease on HD. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Derivation and Cross-Validation of Cutoff Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders on WAIS-IV Digit Span-Based Performance Validity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Toofanian Ross, Parnian; Kinney, Dominique I; Nitch, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify and cross-validate cutoff scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Digit Span-based embedded performance validity (PV) measures for individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In Study 1, normative scores were identified on Digit Span-embedded PV measures among a sample of patients (n = 84) with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses who had no known incentive to perform poorly and who put forth valid effort on external PV tests. Previously identified cutoff scores resulted in unacceptable false positive rates and lower cutoff scores were adopted to maintain specificity levels ≥90%. In Study 2, the revised cutoff scores were cross-validated within a sample of schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 96) committed as incompetent to stand trial. Performance on Digit Span PV measures was significantly related to Full Scale IQ in both studies, indicating the need to consider the intellectual functioning of examinees with psychotic spectrum disorders when interpreting scores on Digit Span PV measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Present status of severe head injured patients with an admission glasgow coma scale score of 3 based on the Japan neurotrauma data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzura, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Severe head injured patients presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 have been hesitated to treat aggressively. We analyzed present status of patients with GCS score of 3 from the Project 2004 in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. Among 1,101 cases registered, 805 cases with GCS score of 8 or less on admission. Of those, 215 cases with GCS score of 3 were classified the survival group (51 cases) and the dead group (164 cases) and compared each group. These results showed that the characteristics associated with favorable outcome including absence of cardiopulmonary arrest, no abnormality of pupil findings, stable condition of respiration and circulation, serum glucose level (less than 184 mg/dl), absence of initial CT findings including skull base fracture, pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage, no serious extracranial injures including Injury Severity Scale score of less than 25, critic al care including intracranial pressure monitoring and temperature management. We suggest that it is important to treat brain and systemic problems aggressively in severe head injured patients with GCS score of 3. (author)

  10. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  11. The colostomy impact score: development and validation of a patient reported outcome measure for rectal cancer patients with a permanent colostomy. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyø, A; Emmertsen, K J; Pinkney, T D; Christensen, P; Laurberg, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop and validate a simple scoring system evaluating the impact of colostomy dysfunction on quality of life (QOL) in patients with a permanent stoma after rectal cancer treatment. In this population-based study, 610 patients with a permanent colostomy after previous rectal cancer treatment during the period 2001-2007 completed two questionnaires: (i) the basic stoma questionnaire consisting of 22 items about stoma function with one anchor question addressing the overall stoma impact on QOL and (ii) the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30. Answers from half of the cohort were used to develop the score and subsequently validated on the remaining half. Logistic regression analyses identified and selected items for the score and multivariate analysis established the score value allocated to each item. The colostomy impact score includes seven items with a total range from 0 to 38 points. A score of ≥ 10 indicates major colostomy impact (Major CI). The score has a sensitivity of 85.7% for detecting patients with significant stoma impact on QOL. Using the EORTC QLQ scales, patients with Major CI experienced significant impairment in their QOL compared to the Minor CI group. This new scoring system appears valid for the assessment of the impact on QOL from having a permanent colostomy in a Danish rectal cancer population. It requires validation in non-Danish populations prior to its acceptance as a valuable patient-reported outcome measure for patients internationally. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Management of a power system based on renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronay Karoly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article main purpose is to highlight the main advantage of the hardware and software implementation for an energy management system based on renewable energy sources. By using implemented and dedicated hardware and software the evolution of energy production and consumption can be monitored. The advantages of such system are highlighted by the results obtained from experimental simulations. An experimental model for the power system based on renewable energy sources was implemented, where the actual status of the system in different situations when the equipments change their own statuses can be shown.

  13. Recent Progress on PZT Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gyu Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting is the most effective way to respond to the energy shortage and to produce sustainable power sources from the surrounding environment. The energy harvesting technology enables scavenging electrical energy from wasted energy sources, which always exist everywhere, such as in heat, fluids, vibrations, etc. In particular, piezoelectric energy harvesting, which uses a direct energy conversion from vibrations and mechanical deformation to the electrical energy, is a promising technique to supply power sources in unattended electronic devices, wireless sensor nodes, micro-electronic devices, etc., since it has higher energy conversion efficiency and a simple structure. Up to now, various technologies, such as advanced materials, micro- and macro-mechanics, and electric circuit design, have been investigated and emerged to improve performance and conversion efficiency of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. In this paper, we focus on recent progress of piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies based on PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT materials, which have the most outstanding piezoelectric properties. The advanced piezoelectric energy harvesting technologies included materials, fabrications, unique designs, and properties are introduced to understand current technical levels and suggest the future directions of piezoelectric energy harvesting.

  14. Predicting long-term mortality after Fontan procedures: A risk score based on 6707 patients from 28 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsaied, Tarek; Bokma, Jouke P.; Engel, Mark E.; Kuijpers, Joey M.; Hanke, Samuel P.; Zuhlke, Liesl; Zhang, Bin; Veldtman, Gruschen R.

    2017-01-01

    Reported long-term outcome measures vary greatly between studies in Fontan patients making comprehensive appraisal of mortality hazard challenging. We sought to create a clinical risk score to assist monitoring of Fontan patients in the outpatient setting. A systematic review was conducted to

  15. Using "big data" to capture overall health status: properties and predictive value of a claims-based health risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Modrek, Sepideh; Kubo, Jessica; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Investigators across many fields often struggle with how best to capture an individual's overall health status, with options including both subjective and objective measures. With the increasing availability of "big data," researchers can now take advantage of novel metrics of health status. These predictive algorithms were initially developed to forecast and manage expenditures, yet they represent an underutilized tool that could contribute significantly to health research. In this paper, we describe the properties and possible applications of one such "health risk score," the DxCG Intelligence tool. We link claims and administrative datasets on a cohort of U.S. workers during the period 1996-2011 (N = 14,161). We examine the risk score's association with incident diagnoses of five disease conditions, and we link employee data with the National Death Index to characterize its relationship with mortality. We review prior studies documenting the risk score's association with other health and non-health outcomes, including healthcare utilization, early retirement, and occupational injury. We find that the risk score is associated with outcomes across a variety of health and non-health domains. These examples demonstrate the broad applicability of this tool in multiple fields of research and illustrate its utility as a measure of overall health status for epidemiologists and other health researchers.

  16. A comparison of the prognostic value of preoperative inflammation-based scores and TNM stage in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan QX

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Qun-Xiong Pan,* Zi-Jian Su,* Jian-Hua Zhang, Chong-Ren Wang, Shao-Ying KeDepartment of Oncosurgery, Quanzhou First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: People’s Republic of China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of gastric cancer, accounting for 45% of all new gastric cancer cases in the world. Therefore, strong prognostic markers are critical for the diagnosis and survival of Chinese patients suffering from gastric cancer. Recent studies have begun to unravel the mechanisms linking the host inflammatory response to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers. Based on this relationship between inflammation and cancer progression, several inflammation-based scores have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many types of malignant solid tumors.Objective: To compare the prognostic value of inflammation-based prognostic scores and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection.Methods: The inflammation-based prognostic scores were calculated for 207 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR, prognostic nutritional index (PNI, and prognostic index (PI were analyzed. Linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic were performed to compare the prognostic value of the selected scores and TNM stage.Results: In univariate analysis, preoperative serum C-reactive protein (P<0.001, serum albumin (P<0.001, GPS (P<0.001, PLR (P=0.002, NLR (P<0.001, PI (P<0.001, PNI (P<0.001, and TNM stage (P<0.001 were significantly associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with gastric cancer. In multivariate analysis, GPS (P=0.024, NLR (P=0.012, PI (P=0.001, TNM stage (P<0.001, and degree of

  17. A Score-Based Approach to 18F-FDG PET Images as a Tool to Describe Metabolic Predictors of Myocardial Doxorubicin Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bauckneht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To verify the capability of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT to identify patients at higher risk of developing doxorubicin (DXR-induced cardiotoxicity, using a score-based image approach. Methods: 36 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. These patients had shown full remission after DXR-based chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease (DXR dose: 40–50 mg/m2 per cycle, and were retrospectively enrolled. Inclusion criteria implied the presence of both pre- and post-chemotherapy clinical evaluation encompassing electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiography. Myocardial metabolism at pre-therapy PET was evaluated according to both standardized uptake value (SUV- and score-based approaches. The capability of the score-based image assessment to predict the occurrence of cardiac toxicity with respect to SUV measurement was then evaluated. Results: In contrast to the SUV-based approach, the five-point scale method does not linearly stratify the risk of the subsequent development of cardiotoxicity. However, converting the five-points scale to a dichotomic evaluation (low vs. high myocardial metabolism, FDG-PET/CT showed high diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of cardiac toxicity (specificity = 100% and sensitivity = 83.3%. In patients showing high myocardial uptake at baseline, in which the score-based method is not able to definitively exclude the occurrence of cardiac toxicity, myocardial SUV mean quantification is able to further stratify the risk between low and intermediate risk classes. Conclusions: the score-based approach to FDG-PET/CT images is a feasible method for predicting DXR-induced cardiotoxicity. This method might improve the inter-reader and inter-scanner variability, thus allowing the evaluation of FDG-PET/CT images in a multicentral setting.

  18. Energy-efficiency based classification of the manufacturing workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Afteni, C.; Badea, N.; Epureanu, A.

    2017-08-01

    EU Directive 92/75/EC established for the first time an energy consumption labelling scheme, further implemented by several other directives. As consequence, nowadays many products (e.g. home appliances, tyres, light bulbs, houses) have an EU Energy Label when offered for sale or rent. Several energy consumption models of manufacturing equipments have been also developed. This paper proposes an energy efficiency - based classification of the manufacturing workstation, aiming to characterize its energetic behaviour. The concept of energy efficiency of the manufacturing workstation is defined. On this base, a classification methodology has been developed. It refers to specific criteria and their evaluation modalities, together to the definition & delimitation of energy efficiency classes. The energy class position is defined after the amount of energy needed by the workstation in the middle point of its operating domain, while its extension is determined by the value of the first coefficient from the Taylor series that approximates the dependence between the energy consume and the chosen parameter of the working regime. The main domain of interest for this classification looks to be the optimization of the manufacturing activities planning and programming. A case-study regarding an actual lathe classification from energy efficiency point of view, based on two different approaches (analytical and numerical) is also included.

  19. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  20. Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a Simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in a Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Programme for Screening of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dysglycaemia in Madrid, Spain: The SPREDIA-2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Salinero-Fort

    Full Text Available To evaluate the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC and a simplified FINDRISC score (MADRISC in screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (UT2DM and dysglycaemia.A population-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with participants with UT2DM, ranged between 45-74 years and lived in two districts in the north of metropolitan Madrid (Spain. The FINDRISC and MADRISC scores were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method (ROC-AUC. Four different gold standards were used for UT2DM and any dysglycaemia, as follows: fasting plasma glucose (FPG, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, HbA1c, and OGTT or HbA1c. Dysglycaemia and UT2DM were defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria.The study population comprised 1,426 participants (832 females and 594 males with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 6.1. When HbA1c or OGTT criteria were used, the prevalence of UT2DM was 7.4% (10.4% in men and 5.2% in women; p<0.01 and the FINDRISC ROC-AUC for UT2DM was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.74. The optimal cut-off point was ≥13 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 65.1%. The ROC-AUC of MADRISC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.81 with ≥13 as the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 84.8%, specificity = 54.6%. FINDRISC score ≥12 for detecting any dysglycaemia offered the best cut-off point when HbA1c alone or OGTT and HbA1c were the criteria used.FINDRISC proved to be a useful instrument in screening for dysglycaemia and UT2DM. In the screening of UT2DM, the simplified MADRISC performed as well as FINDRISC.

  1. Optimal selection among different domestic energy consumption patterns based on energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Wu, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In China market, people have many choices for air conditioning of their apartments, including heat-pump systems or gas-fired boilers for heating and air conditioners for cooling. Domestic hot water is usually provided by domestic water heaters making use of electricity or natural gas, which are known for their great energy costs. These systems consume much energy and increase the total cost of required domestic energy. A novel system combining heat pump with water heater is proposed in this paper, and it is named domestic energy system. The system can realize the provision of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water throughout a year. Based on different types of air conditioners, space heating equipments and water heaters, domestic energy consumption patterns are concluded to be eight categories. This study describes and compares the eight domestic energy consumption patterns by economic analysis and prime energy analysis method. Results show that the domestic energy system can provide good economy and save energy significantly. Furthermore, exergy analysis method is employed to compare the exergy efficiencies of different energy consumption systems. The results show that the domestic energy system has the highest energy conversion efficiency and can make remarkable contribution to social energy saving.

  2. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  3. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  4. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  5. ABCD3-I score and the risk of early or 3-month stroke recurrence in tissue- and time-based definitions of TIA and minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lukas; Ferrari, Julia; Krebs, Stefan; Boehme, Christian; Toell, Thomas; Matosevic, Benjamin; Tinchon, Alexander; Brainin, Michael; Gattringer, Thomas; Sommer, Peter; Thun, Peter; Willeit, Johann; Lang, Wilfried; Kiechl, Stefan; Knoflach, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Changing definition of TIA from time to a tissue basis questions the validity of the well-established ABCD3-I risk score for recurrent ischemic cerebrovascular events. We analyzed patients with ischemic stroke with mild neurological symptoms arriving TIA or minor stroke, in the prospective multi-center Austrian Stroke Unit Registry. Patients were retrospectively categorized according to a time-based (symptom duration below/above 24 h) and tissue-based (without/with corresponding brain lesion on CT or MRI) definition of TIA or minor stroke. Outcome parameters were early stroke during stroke unit stay and 3-month ischemic stroke. Of the 5237 TIA and minor stroke patients with prospectively documented ABCD3-I score, 2755 (52.6%) had a TIA by the time-based and 2183 (41.7%) by the tissue-based definition. Of the 2457 (46.9%) patients with complete 3-month followup, corresponding numbers were 1195 (48.3%) for the time- and 971 (39.5%) for the tissue-based definition of TIA. Early and 3-month ischemic stroke occurred in 1.1 and 2.5% of time-based TIA, 3.8 and 5.9% of time-based minor stroke, 1.2 and 2.3% of tissue-based TIA as well as in 3.1 and 5.5% of tissue-based minor stroke patients. Irrespective of the definition of TIA and minor stroke, the risk of early and 3-month ischemic stroke steadily increased with increasing ABCD3-I score points. The ABCD3-I score performs equally in TIA patients in tissue- as well as time-based definition and the same is true for minor stroke patients.

  6. Test Score Equating Using Discrete Anchor Items versus Passage-Based Anchor Items: A Case Study Using "SAT"® Data. Research Report. ETS RR-14-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Zu, Jiyun; Curley, Edward; Carey, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of discrete anchor items versus passage-based anchor items on observed score equating using empirical data.This study compares an "SAT"® critical reading anchor that contains more discrete items proportionally, compared to the total tests to be equated, to another anchor that…

  7. Saving energy in 1-D : tailoring energy-saving advice using a Rasch-based energy recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, Alain; Willemsen, Martijn; Snijders, Chris; Ge, Mouhzi; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Although there are numerous possibilities to save energy, conservation initiatives often do not tailor their content to the consumer. By considering energy conservation as a one-dimensional construct, where different behaviors have different execution difficulties, we have set out a Rasch-based

  8. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  9. Energy saving behaviours: Development of a practice-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Jillian C.; Kresling, Johannes; Webb, Dave; Soutar, Geoffrey N.; Mazzarol, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Financial pressure and concern for the environment has meant many consumers are aware of the need to reduce their consumption of many resources, including energy, which is the focus of the present study. While potential energy use deterrents in the form of access constraints and price increases are forms of extrinsic control, it is not clear how effective these are at reducing consumption and, indeed, it is not clear if such measures are consistent with people's underlying energy saving motivations. Beyond behavioural motivations, people's desires to reduce energy can be thwarted (barriers) and/or supported by a variety of factors, some within their control, while others are perhaps less so. Using a practice-based framework and a qualitative focus group approach, this study presents an exploratory study of these issues. Policy suggestions for overcoming barriers, as well suggestions as to how energy saving behaviours can be supported are offered. - Highlights: • We obtained consumers views about energy saving motivations, barriers and support. • Attitudes towards energy saving are not sufficient to change behaviours. • A practice-based approach to understanding energy saving behaviours is applied. • A practice-based energy-cultures framework (PBECF) is developed. • Barriers and support factors are identified that can be conceptualised within a PBECF

  10. Scoping study into community-based renewable energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This scoping study has been carried out by the Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE), a charity which promotes energy efficiency and renewable energy. CSE have used their involvement in the development of the Energy Club (the first energy service company for householders in the UK) and the Bristol Environment and Energy Trust (a cross-sector organisation initiating environmental projects) as the basis of the study. This study is the first phase of a long term project to set up two small-scale renewable energy schemes to demonstrate the benefits of a community based approach. Specific objectives of the study were: to identify, quantify and cost, renewable energy resources for interested community organisations; to evaluate two routes for developing community based projects - Environment Trusts and Energy Clubs'; to organise a seminar with the objective of bringing together community interest groups with experts in renewable energy; to identify two communities with viable renewable projects for the next phase - full feasibility studies/pilot projects. (author)

  11. GPU Based N-Gram String Matching Algorithm with Score Table Approach for String Searching in Many Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, K. G.; Shree Devi, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    String searching in documents has become a tedious task with the evolution of Big Data. Generation of large data sets demand for a high performance search algorithm in areas such as text mining, information retrieval and many others. The popularity of GPU's for general purpose computing has been increasing for various applications. Therefore it is of great interest to exploit the thread feature of a GPU to provide a high performance search algorithm. This paper proposes an optimized new approach to N-gram model for string search in a number of lengthy documents and its GPU implementation. The algorithm exploits GPGPUs for searching strings in many documents employing character level N-gram matching with parallel Score Table approach and search using CUDA API. The new approach of Score table used for frequency storage of N-grams in a document, makes the search independent of the document's length and allows faster access to the frequency values, thus decreasing the search complexity. The extensive thread feature in a GPU has been exploited to enable parallel pre-processing of trigrams in a document for Score Table creation and parallel search in huge number of documents, thus speeding up the whole search process even for a large pattern size. Experiments were carried out for many documents of varied length and search strings from the standard Lorem Ipsum text on NVIDIA's GeForce GT 540M GPU with 96 cores. Results prove that the parallel approach for Score Table creation and searching gives a good speed up than the same approach executed serially.

  12. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanc, Z.; Kerner, A.

    1997-01-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  14. Energy demand forecasting method based on international statistical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanc, Z; Kerner, A [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Poland is in a transition phase from a centrally planned to a market economy; data collected under former economic conditions do not reflect a market economy. Final energy demand forecasts are based on the assumption that the economic transformation in Poland will gradually lead the Polish economy, technologies and modes of energy use, to the same conditions as mature market economy countries. The starting point has a significant influence on the future energy demand and supply structure: final energy consumption per capita in 1992 was almost half the average of OECD countries; energy intensity, based on Purchasing Power Parities (PPP) and referred to GDP, is more than 3 times higher in Poland. A method of final energy demand forecasting based on regression analysis is described in this paper. The input data are: output of macroeconomic and population growth forecast; time series 1970-1992 of OECD countries concerning both macroeconomic characteristics and energy consumption; and energy balance of Poland for the base year of the forecast horizon. (author). 1 ref., 19 figs, 4 tabs.

  15. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  16. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of GHG emissions in buildings is a focus area of national energy policies, because buildings are responsible for a major share of energy consumption. Policies to increase the share of renewable energies and energy efficiency measures are implemented at local scale. Municipalities...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat......- and electricity supply of typical urban communities is possible and can be implemented in a cost-efficient way, if the energy planning is done systematically and in coherence with urban planning....

  17. Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), The highest control layer of a (hybrid) vehicular drive train is termed the Energy Management Strategy (EMS). In this paper an overview of different control methods is given and a new rule-based EMS is introduced based on the combination of Rule-Based

  18. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, design and economics of the novel type of thermal control system for datacenter using heat pipe based cold energy storage has been proposed and discussed. Two types of cold energy storage system namely: ice storage system and cold water storage system are explained and sized for datacenter with heat output capacity of 8800 kW. Basically, the cold energy storage will help to reduce the chiller running time that will save electricity related cost and decrease greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the electricity generation from non-renewable sources. The proposed cold energy storage system can be retrofit or connected in the existing datacenter facilities without major design changes. Out of the two proposed systems, ice based cold energy storage system is mainly recommended for datacenters which are located in very cold locations and therefore can offer long term seasonal storage of cold energy within reasonable cost. One of the potential application domains for ice based cold energy storage system using heat pipes is the emergency backup system for datacenter. Water based cold energy storage system provides more compact size with short term storage (hours to days) and is potential for datacenters located in areas with yearly average temperature below the permissible cooling water temperature (∼25 o C). The aforesaid cold energy storage systems were sized on the basis of metrological conditions in Poughkeepsie, New York. As an outcome of the thermal and cost analysis, water based cold energy storage system with cooling capability to handle 60% of datacenter yearly heat load will provide an optimum system size with minimum payback period of 3.5 years. Water based cold energy storage system using heat pipes can be essentially used as precooler for chiller. Preliminary results obtained from the experimental system to test the capability of heat pipe based cold energy storage system have provided satisfactory outcomes and validated the proposed

  19. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  20. Energy-Based Devices in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Z; Bloom, Bradley S; Goldberg, David J

    2016-05-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatologic complaint with a multifactorial cause. Traditionally, antibiotics and retinoids have been used to manage the condition; patient compliance has been an ongoing issue. A variety of energy-based devices have been reported to be effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris. To review and summarize the current literature specific to treatment of acne vulgaris with energy-based devices. A review of the current literature of energy-based devices used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Although limited randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acne have been performed, significant clinical improvement of acne vulgaris, especially of inflammatory lesions, has been demonstrated with a variety of energy-based devices. Newer approaches may lead to even better results.

  1. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  2. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two

  3. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  4. Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out ...

  5. Energy conservation technologies based on thermodynamic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Masaru [Shibaura Institute of Technology of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission to prevent global warming, the most promising way for electric generation in the Northeast Asia is to introduce cogeneration and {open_quotes}repowering{close_quotes} technologies based on high temperature gas turbines fueled by natural gas. Especially the old type coal burning boiler-steam turbine plants should be retrofit by introducing gas turbines to become highly efficient combined cycle. Same technologies should be applied to the old garbage incineration plants and/or even to the nuclear power plants. The exhaust heat or steam should become much increased and it should be utilized as the process heat for industries or heat supply as the distinct heating or cooling for residential area. This paper introduces a brief survey of these new technologies.

  6. A risk scoring model based on vital signs and laboratory data predicting transfer to the intensive care unit of patients admitted to gastroenterology wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Jinmi; Lee, Ju-Ry; Jung, Youn Kyung; Kim, Hwa Jung; Huh, Jin Won; Lim, Chae-Man; Koh, Younsuck; Hong, Sang-Bum

    2017-08-01

    To compare the ability of a score based on vital signs and laboratory data with that of the modified early warning score (MEWS) to predict ICU transfer of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Consecutive events triggering medical emergency team activation in adult patients admitted to the gastroenterology wards of the Asan Medical Center were reviewed. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting transfer to the ICU. Gastrointestinal early warning score (EWS-GI) was calculated as the sum of simplified regression weights (SRW). Of the 1219 included patients, 468 (38%) were transferred to the ICU. Multivariate analysis identified heart rate≥105bpm (SRW 1), respiratory rate≥26bpm (SRW 2), ACDU (Alert, Confused, Drowsy, Unresponsive) score≥1 (SRW 2), SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratiogastroenterology wards. The EWS-GI should be prospectively validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN CLUSTER BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SHANKAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are made up of sensor nodes which are usually battery-operated devices, and hence energy saving of sensor nodes is a major design issue. To prolong the networks lifetime, minimization of energy consumption should be implemented at all layers of the network protocol stack starting from the physical to the application layer including cross-layer optimization. Optimizing energy consumption is the main concern for designing and planning the operation of the WSN. Clustering technique is one of the methods utilized to extend lifetime of the network by applying data aggregation and balancing energy consumption among sensor nodes of the network. This paper proposed new version of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, protocols called Advanced Optimized Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (AOLEACH, Optimal Deterministic Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (ODLEACH, and Varying Probability Distance Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (VPDL combination with Shuffled Frog Leap Algorithm (SFLA that enables selecting best optimal adaptive cluster heads using improved threshold energy distribution compared to LEACH protocol and rotating cluster head position for uniform energy dissipation based on energy levels. The proposed algorithm optimizing the life time of the network by increasing the first node death (FND time and number of alive nodes, thereby increasing the life time of the network.

  8. Energy Optimal Control Strategy of PHEV Based on PMP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezhou Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the global voice of “energy saving” and the current boom in the development of energy storage technology at home and abroad, energy optimal control of the whole hybrid electric vehicle power system, as one of the core technologies of electric vehicles, is bound to become a hot target of “clean energy” vehicle development and research. This paper considers the constraints to the performance of energy storage system in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, from which lithium-ion battery frequently charges/discharges, PHEV largely consumes energy of fuel, and their are difficulty in energy recovery and other issues in a single cycle; the research uses lithium-ion battery combined with super-capacitor (SC, which is hybrid energy storage system (Li-SC HESS, working together with internal combustion engine (ICE to drive PHEV. Combined with PSO-PI controller and Li-SC HESS internal power limited management approach, the research proposes the PHEV energy optimal control strategy. It is based on revised Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP algorithm, which establishes the PHEV vehicle simulation model through ADVISOR software and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility. Finally, the results show that the energy optimization control strategy can improve the instantaneity of tracking PHEV minimum fuel consumption track, implement energy saving, and prolong the life of lithium-ion batteries and thereby can improve hybrid energy storage system performance.

  9. Measuring health-related quality of life in population-based studies of coronary heart disease: comparing six generic indexes and a disease-specific proxy score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garster, Noelle C; Palta, Mari; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Kaplan, Robert M; Fryback, Dennis G

    2009-11-01

    To compare HRQoL differences with CHD in generic indexes and a proxy CVD-specific score in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. The National Health Measurement Study, a cross-sectional random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adults aged 35-89, administered the EQ-5D, QWB-SA, HUI2, HUI3, SF-36v2 (yielding PCS, MCS, and SF-6D), and HALex. Analyses compared 3,350 without CHD (group 1), 265 with CHD not taking chest pain medication (group 2), and 218 with CHD currently taking chest pain medication (group 3), with and without adjustment for demographic variables and comorbidities. Data on 154 patients from heart failure clinics were used to construct a proxy score utilizing generic items probing CVD symptoms. Mean scores differed between CHD groups for all indexes with and without adjustment (P < 0.0001 for all except MCS P = 0.018). Unadjusted group 3 versus 1 differences were about three times larger than for group 2 versus 1. Standardized differences for the proxy score were similar to those for generic indexes, and were about 1.0 for all except MCS for group 3 versus 1. Generic indexes capture differences in HRQoL in population-based studies of CHD similarly to a score constructed from questions probing CVD-specific symptoms.

  10. A comparison of the nutritional quality of organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals based on NuVal scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Nancy J; George, Valerie A

    2014-07-01

    To identify whether there were differences in nutritional quality between organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals of similar types, based on NuVal scores. The current descriptive study analysed NuVal scores for 829 ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and eighteen different cereal types. ANOVA was used to compare the mean NuVal scores of 723 conventional cereals with those of 106 organic cereals. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (n 829) with NuVal scores. Not applicable. There was no significant difference in NuVal scores between conventional (mean 28·4 (sd 13·4)) and organic (mean 30·6 (sd 13·2)) cereal types. Consumers who choose the organic version of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal believing that nutritional quality is superior may not be making a valid assumption. Public health nutrition educators must help consumers understand that organic cereals are not necessarily more nutritious and their consumption could result in excessive intake of undesirable nutrients, such as fat, sugar and sodium.

  11. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park in Turkey. HYDEPARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan, Niluefer; Ersoez, Atilla [TUEBITAK Marmara Research Center Energy Institute, Gebze Kocaeli (Turkey); Cubukcu, Mete [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this national project is to research hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications. Solar and wind energy are utilized to obtain hydrogen via electrolysis, which can either be used in the fuel cell or stored in cylinders for further use. The management of all project work packages was carried by TUeBITAK Marmara Research Center (MRC) Energy Institute (EI) with the support of the collaborators. The aim of this paper is to present the units of the renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park, which is in the demonstration phase now and share the experimental results. (orig.)

  13. On promotion of base technologies of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in June, 1987 by the Atomic Energy Commission, it was recognized that hereafter, the opening-up of the new potential that atomic energy possesses should be aimed at, and the policy was shown so that the research and development hereafter place emphasis on the creative and innovative region which causes large technical innovation, by which the spreading effect to general science and technology can be expected, and the development of the base technologies that connect the basic research and project development is promoted. The trend of atomic energy development so far, the change of the situation surrounding atomic energy, the direction of technical development of atomic energy hereafter and the base technologies are discussed. The concept of the technical development of materilas, artificial intelligence, lasers, and the evaluation and reduction of radiation risks used for atomic energy is described. As the development plan of atomic energy base technologies, the subjects of technical development, the future image of technical development, the efficient promotion of the development and so on are shown. (Kato, I.)

  14. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  15. Derivation and validation of a diagnostic score based on case-mix groups to predict 30-day death or urgent readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; Wong, Jenna; Forster, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients die or are urgently readmitted within 30 days of discharge from hospital. Readmission risk indexes have either excluded acute diagnoses or modelled them as multiple distinct variables. In this study, we derived and validated a score summarizing the influence of acute hospital diagnoses and procedures on death or urgent readmission within 30 days. From population-based hospital abstracts in Ontario, we randomly sampled 200 000 discharges between April 2003 and March 2009 and determined who had been readmitted urgently or died within 30 days of discharge. We used generalized estimating equation modelling, with a sample of 100 000 patients, to measure the adjusted association of various case-mix groups (CMGs-homogenous groups of acute care inpatients with similar clinical and resource-utilization characteristics) with 30-day death or urgent readmission. This final model was transformed into a scoring system that was validated in the remaining 100 000 patients. Patients in the derivation set belonged to 1 of 506 CMGs and had a 6.8% risk of 30-day death or urgent readmission. Forty-seven CMG codes (more than half of which were directly related to chronic diseases) were independently associated with this outcome, which led to a CMG score that ranged from -6 to 7 points. The CMG score was significantly associated with 30-day death or urgent readmission (unadjusted odds ratio for a 1-point increase in CMG score 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-1.56). Alone, the CMG score was only moderately discriminative (C statistic 0.650, 95% CI 0.644-0.656). However, when the CMG score was added to a validated risk index for death or readmission, the C statistic increased to 0.759 (95% CI 0.753-0.765). The CMG score was well calibrated for 30-day death or readmission. In this study, we developed a scoring system for acute hospital diagnoses and procedures that could be used as part of a risk-adjustment methodology for analyses of postdischarge

  16. Energy Management for Community Energy Network with CHP Based on Cooperative Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy system (IES has received increasing attention in micro grid due to the high energy efficiency and low emission of carbon dioxide. Based on the technology of combined heat and power (CHP, this paper develops a novel operation mechanism with community micro turbine and shared energy storage system (ESS for energy management of prosumers. In the proposed framework, micro-grid operator (MGO equipped with micro turbine and ESS provides energy selling business and ESS leasing business for prosumers. Prosumers can make energy trading with public grid and MGO, and ESS will be shared among prosumers when they pay for the rent to MGO. Based on such framework, we adopt a cooperative game for prosumers to determine optimal energy trading strategies from MGO and public grid for the next day. Concretely, a cooperative game model is formulated to search the optimal strategies aiming at minimizing the daily cost of coalition, and then a bilateral Shapley value (BSV is proposed to solve the allocation problem of coalition’s cost among prosumers. To verify the effectiveness of proposed energy management framework, a practical example is conducted with a community energy network containing MGO and 10 residential buildings. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to provide financial benefits to all prosumers, while providing peak load leveling for the grid.

  17. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cengiz; Nisa Mencet, M.; Ozkan, Burhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the current energy status of Turkey and the effects of national energy policies on Turkish agricultural support policies are discussed for both current and future requirements. Turkey is an energy-importing country producing 30 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) energy but consuming 80 mtoe. The energy import ratio of Turkey is 65-70% and the majority of this import is based on petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, while world energy demand increases by 1.8% annually, Turkey's energy demand increases by about 8%. Although energy consumption in agriculture is much lower than the other sectors in Turkey, energy use as both input and output of agricultural sector is a very important issue due to its large agricultural potential and rural area. Total agricultural land area is 27.8 million hectares and about 66.5% of this area is devoted for cereal production. On the other hand, Turkey has over 4 million agricultural farm holdings of which 70-75% is engaged in cereal production. Machinery expenses, mainly diesel, constitute 30-50% of total variable expenses in cereal production costs. It is observed that energy policies pursued in agriculture have been directly affected by diesel prices in Turkey. Therefore, support policy tools for using diesel and electricity in agriculture are being pursued by the Turkish government

  18. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Peng, Limei; Lu, Huimin; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif

    2017-07-10

    Body area networks (BANs) are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device's battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  19. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Leif [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Stroemme, Maria [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Energy use in the rural areas of India: setting up a rural energy data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Chandra Shekhar; Sinha, Shirish; Joshi, Veena

    1998-01-01

    Aggregating and forecasting demand are crucial parts of energy planning. While a large number of energy consumption surveys have been conducted in the past in the rural energy sector of India, the lack of sufficient data and its compilation, coupled with doubt about the quality of data, has made the task extremely difficult. This paper summarizes recent efforts to compile, computerize and analyze data from 638 village energy consumption surveys covering over 39,000 households, carried out by different organisations between 1985 and 1989. The details of the level of information provided in the survey reports, area of survey, land use pattern, asset ownership, etc., of the collated studies are presented. Results based on the analysis of the energy consumption data compiled are then discussed. The paper also compares the estimates with those based on other surveys in India. (author)

  1. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34,600 cases and 45,968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history

  2. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  3. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  4. Harvesting energy: Place and local entrepreneurship in community-based renewable energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Süsser, Diana; Döring, Martin; Ratter, Beate M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Transition towards a renewable energy supply initiates a physical (re)shaping of places and a social transformation of communities into renewable energy communities. Although socio-cultural challenges of energy transition have been recognised (), understandings about socio-geographic places of energy transition and their underlying social processes and structures are insufficiently studied and often remain underestimated. To close this gap, we theoretically and empirically analysed the multifaceted interplay between place, local entrepreneurship and ‘community renewable energy’. Our study is based on an analysis of regional documents and policy reports, and on qualitative interviews undertaken with inhabitants in the case-study municipality of Reußenköge (Germany). Our findings reveal two important aspects: Firstly, people's individual and shared place meanings which materialised in social, physical, historical and climate-related place-attachments and meanings of contested and innovative place are important ingredients bearing an impact on processes of adopting or rejecting renewables. Secondly, differentiated characteristics of entrepreneurs, namely grounded, collaborative, innovative, change-making, economic, communicating, networking and political aspects, appeared to be relevant for the acceptance and support in community-based renewable energy projects. Our findings reveal that energy policies, funding schemes and administrative structures should recognise local socio-geographic important elements in the context of a sustained and decentralised energy transition. - Highlights: • Places are resources of experiences, creativity and innovation for community renewables. • Energy policies should recognise place-based approaches to grassroots community energy actions. • A located view of multifaceted entrepreneurship is relevant to support community renewable energy. • Supportive funding schemes should empower community-based concepts.

  5. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  7. Simulation-based optimization of sustainable national energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batas Bjelić, Ilija; Rajaković, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the EU2030 energy policy should be achieved cost-effectively by employing the optimal mix of supply and demand side technical measures, including energy efficiency, renewable energy and structural measures. In this paper, the achievement of these goals is modeled by introducing an innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with the generic optimization program (GenOpt). This soft-link enables simulation-based optimization, guided with the chosen optimization algorithm, rather than manual adjustments of the decision vectors. In order to obtain EnergyPLAN simulations within the optimization loop of GenOpt, the decision vectors should be chosen and explained in GenOpt for scenarios created in EnergyPLAN. The result of the optimization loop is an optimal national energy master plan (as a case study, energy policy in Serbia was taken), followed with sensitivity analysis of the exogenous assumptions and with focus on the contribution of the smart electricity grid to the achievement of EU2030 goals. It is shown that the increase in the policy-induced total costs of less than 3% is not significant. This general method could be further improved and used worldwide in the optimal planning of sustainable national energy systems. - Highlights: • Innovative method of soft-linking of EnergyPLAN with GenOpt has been introduced. • Optimal national energy master plan has been developed (the case study for Serbia). • Sensitivity analysis on the exogenous world energy and emission price development outlook. • Focus on the contribution of smart energy systems to the EU2030 goals. • Innovative soft-linking methodology could be further improved and used worldwide.

  8. Prediction Based Energy Balancing Forwarding in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent cellular network technologies, relay stations extend cell coverage and enhance signal strength for mobile users. However, busy traffic makes the relay stations in hot area run out of energy quickly. Energy is a very important factor in the forwarding of cellular network since mobile users(cell phones in hot cells often suffer from low throughput due to energy lack problems. In many situations, the energy lack problems take place because the energy loading is not balanced. In this paper, we present a prediction based forwarding algorithm to let a mobile node dynamically select the next relay station with highest potential energy capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that a relay station only maintains three past status, and then it is able to predict the potential energy capacity. Then, the node selects the next hop with potential maximal energy. Moreover, a location based algorithm is developed to let the mobile node figure out the target region in order to avoid flooding. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increase the aggregate throughput and decrease the delay in cellular network environment.

  9. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, Taiwan were used as samples. Students were randomly assigned to experimental conditions by class. Twenty eight students of the experimental group were taught by the collaboration of social studies teacher and teacher-librarian; while 27 students of the controlled group were taught separately by teacher in didactic teaching method. Inquiry-Based Project Record, Inquiry-Based Project Rubrics, and school monthly test scores were used as instruments for collecting data. A t-test and correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that: (1 High-end collaboration model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian was established and implemented well in the classroom. (2There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group in individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports. Students that were taught by the collaborative teachers got both higher inquiry-based project reports’ scores than those that were taught separately by the teachers. Experimental group’s students got higher school monthly test scores than controlled groups. Suggestions for teachers’ high-end collaboration and future researcher are provided in this paper.

  10. Energy Management in Smart Cities Based on Internet of Things: Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Moharana, Akshaya Kumar; Leung, Victor C M

    2017-12-05

    Around the globe, innovation with integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) with physical infrastructure is a top priority for governments in pursuing smart, green living to improve energy efficiency, protect the environment, improve the quality of life, and bolster economy competitiveness. Cities today faces multifarious challenges, among which energy efficiency of homes and residential dwellings is a key requirement. Achieving it successfully with the help of intelligent sensors and contextual systems would help build smart cities of the future. In a Smart home environment Home Energy Management plays a critical role in finding a suitable and reliable solution to curtail the peak demand and achieve energy conservation. In this paper, a new method named as Home Energy Management as a Service (HEMaaS) is proposed which is based on neural network based Q -learning algorithm. Although several attempts have been made in the past to address similar problems, the models developed do not cater to maximize the user convenience and robustness of the system. In this paper, authors have proposed an advanced Neural Fitted Q -learning method which is self-learning and adaptive. The proposed method provides an agile, flexible and energy efficient decision making system for home energy management. A typical Canadian residential dwelling model has been used in this paper to test the proposed method. Based on analysis, it was found that the proposed method offers a fast and viable solution to reduce the demand and conserve energy during peak period. It also helps reducing the carbon footprint of residential dwellings. Once adopted, city blocks with significant residential dwellings can significantly reduce the total energy consumption by reducing or shifting their energy demand during peak period. This would definitely help local power distribution companies to optimize their resources and keep the tariff low due to curtailment of peak demand.

  11. Energy Management in Smart Cities Based on Internet of Things: Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmaya Mahapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Around the globe, innovation with integrating information and communication technologies (ICT with physical infrastructure is a top priority for governments in pursuing smart, green living to improve energy efficiency, protect the environment, improve the quality of life, and bolster economy competitiveness. Cities today faces multifarious challenges, among which energy efficiency of homes and residential dwellings is a key requirement. Achieving it successfully with the help of intelligent sensors and contextual systems would help build smart cities of the future. In a Smart home environment Home Energy Management plays a critical role in finding a suitable and reliable solution to curtail the peak demand and achieve energy conservation. In this paper, a new method named as Home Energy Management as a Service (HEMaaS is proposed which is based on neural network based Q-learning algorithm. Although several attempts have been made in the past to address similar problems, the models developed do not cater to maximize the user convenience and robustness of the system. In this paper, authors have proposed an advanced Neural Fitted Q-learning method which is self-learning and adaptive. The proposed method provides an agile, flexible and energy efficient decision making system for home energy management. A typical Canadian residential dwelling model has been used in this paper to test the proposed method. Based on analysis, it was found that the proposed method offers a fast and viable solution to reduce the demand and conserve energy during peak period. It also helps reducing the carbon footprint of residential dwellings. Once adopted, city blocks with significant residential dwellings can significantly reduce the total energy consumption by reducing or shifting their energy demand during peak period. This would definitely help local power distribution companies to optimize their resources and keep the tariff low due to curtailment of peak demand.

  12. Primary radiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Comparative analysis of inflammation-based prognostic scoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer, Edgar; Grah, Anja; Heiduschka, Gregor; Thurnher, Dietmar; Kornek, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation-based scoring systems have potential value in evaluating the prognosis of cancer patients; however, detailed comparative analyses in well-characterized head and neck cancer patient collectives are missing. We analyzed overall survival (OS) in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients who were treated with curative intent by primary radiotherapy (RT) alone, by RT in combination with cetuximab (RIT) or with cisplatin (RCHT), and by primary surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). The primary RT collective (N = 170) was analyzed separately from the surgery plus RT group (N = 148). OS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meyer method. Cox proportional-hazard regression models were applied to compare the risk of death among patients stratified according to risk factors and the inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), the modified GPS (mGPS), the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the prognostic index (PI). A prognostic relevance of the scoring systems for OS was observed in the primarily irradiated, but not in the PORT collective. OS was 35.5, 18.8, and 15.4 months, respectively, according to GPS 0, 1, and 2. OS according to mGPS 0-2 was identical. The PLR scoring system was not of prognostic relevance, while OS was 27.3 months in the NLR 0 group and 17.3 months in the NLR 1 group. OS was 35.5 months in PI 0, 16.1 months in PI 1, and 22.6 months in PI 2. GPS/mGPS scoring systems are able to discriminate between three risk groups in primarily, but not postoperatively irradiated locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. (orig.) [de

  13. The ADOPT-LC score: a novel predictive index of in-hospital mortality of cirrhotic patients following surgical procedures, based on a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaya; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hiroki; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to develop a model for predicting in-hospital mortality of cirrhotic patients following major surgical procedures using a large sample of patients derived from a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We enrolled 2197 cirrhotic patients who underwent elective (n = 1973) or emergency (n = 224) surgery. We analyzed the risk factors for postoperative mortality and established a scoring system for predicting postoperative mortality in cirrhotic patients using a split-sample method. In-hospital mortality rates following elective or emergency surgery were 4.7% and 20.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, patient age, Child-Pugh (CP) class, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and duration of anesthesia in elective surgery were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. In emergency surgery, CP class and duration of anesthesia were significant factors. Based on multivariate analysis in the training set (n = 987), the Adequate Operative Treatment for Liver Cirrhosis (ADOPT-LC) score that used patient age, CP class, CCI, and duration of anesthesia to predict in-hospital mortality following elective surgery was developed. This scoring system was validated in the testing set (n = 986) and produced an area under the curve of 0.881. We also developed iOS/Android apps to calculate ADOPT-LC scores to allow easy access to the current evidence in daily clinical practice. Patient age, CP class, CCI, and duration of anesthesia were identified as important risk factors for predicting postoperative mortality in cirrhotic patients. The ADOPT-LC score effectively predicts in-hospital mortality following elective surgery and may assist decisions regarding surgical procedures in cirrhotic patients based on a quantitative risk assessment. © 2016 The Authors Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Atrial fibrillation, CHA2DS2-VASc score, antithrombotics and risk of traffic accidents: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Chin; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Liu, Chia-Ning; Liu, Tsun-Jui

    2015-10-15

    Traffic accidents account for a substantial proportion of premature disabilities and deaths. Whether atrial fibrillation (AF) provokes while antithrombotics prevent from such events remains un-investigated. All patients ≥40years with newly diagnosed AF in 2005 were scrutinized from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005" (1 million beneficiaries) of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Institute as the AF group. Four-fold number of age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched patients but without AF served as the Non-AF controls. Patients were followed till occurrence of hospitalization-requiring traffic injury, death, withdrawal from insurance, or the end of 2010. Cumulative incidence of traffic accidents was compared between groups, and predictors and preventive role of antithrombotics for these accidents were identified by Cox regression analysis. Within a mean follow-up of 4.3years, traffic injury occurred significantly more often in patients with AF (N=1724) than those without it (N=6896) (5.4 vs. 4.9 per 1000 person-years, log-rank p=0.012, HR 1.110, 95% CI 1.013-1.572). Cox models identified age ≧65years, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, liver cirrhosis and CHADS2VASC score≧1 as risk factors for traffic injury in AF patients, whereas oral anticoagulants (HR 0.576, 95% CI 0.285-0.791, p=0.002) used in patients with CHADS2VASC score ≧1 but not antiplatelet therapy (p=0.197) as negative predictors. Patients with AF are more vulnerable to traffic accidents especially when with higher CHADS2VASC scores and other comorbidities. This tendency to traffic accidents, however, could be ameliorated by oral anticoagulation in specialized cases but not by antiplatelet therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Care needs and clinical outcomes of older people with dementia: a population-based propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Yuan Hsiao

    Full Text Available To explore the healthcare resource utilization, psychotropic drug use and mortality of older people with dementia.A nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study.National Health Insurance Research database.A total of 32,649 elderly people with dementia and their propensity-score matched controls (n=32,649.Outpatient visits, inpatient care, psychotropic drug use, in-hospital mortality and all-cause mortality at 90 and 365 days.Compared to the non-dementia group, a higher proportion of patients with dementia used inpatient services (1 year after index date: 20.91% vs. 9.55%, and the dementia group had more outpatient visits (median [standard deviation]: 7.00 [8.87] vs. 3.00 [8.30]. Furthermore, dementia cases with acute admission had the highest psychotropic drug utilization both at baseline and at the post-index dates (difference-in-differences: all <0.001. Dementia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (90 days, Odds ratio (OR=1.85 [95%CI 1.67-2.05], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.59 [1.50-1.69], p<0.001 and in-hospital mortality (90 days, OR=1.97 [1.71-2.27], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.82 [1.61-2.05], p<0.001 compared to matched controls.When older people with dementia are admitted for acute illnesses, they may increase their use of psychotropic agents and their risk of death, particularly in-hospital mortality.

  16. Validity and Agreement between the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score Based on C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielung, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To validate the agreement between the 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and the 28-joint disease activity score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) in a group of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Data from 109...... Danish RA patients initiating biologic treatment were analysed at baseline and following one year of treatment. Participants were retrospectively enrolled from a previous cohort study and were considered eligible for this project if CRP and ESR were measured at baseline and at the follow-up visit...... are interchangeable when assessing RA patients and the two versions of DAS28 are comparable between studies....

  17. Energy Cooperation in Ultradense Network Powered by Renewable Energy Based on Cluster and Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Duo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method about renewable energy cooperation among small base stations (SBSs is proposed, which is for maximizing the energy efficiency in ultradense network (UDN. In UDN each SBS is equipped with energy harvesting (EH unit, and the energy arrival times are modeled as a Poisson counting process. Firstly, SBSs of large traffic demands are selected as the clustering centers, and then all SBSs are clustered using dynamic k-means algorithm. Secondly, SBSs coordinate their renewable energy within each formed cluster. The process of energy cooperation among SBSs is considered as Markov decision process. Q-learning algorithm is utilized to optimize energy cooperation. In the algorithm there are four different actions and their corresponding reward functions. Q-learning explores the action as much as possible and predicts better action by calculating reward. In addition, ε greedy policy is used to ensure the algorithm convergence. Finally, simulation results show that the new method reduces data dimension and improves calculation speed, which furthermore improves the utilization of renewable energy and promotes the performance of UDN. Through online optimization, the proposed method can significantly improve the energy utilization rate and data transmission rate.

  18. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  19. Market Mechanism Design for Renewable Energy based on Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Bo, Wang; Jichun, Liu; Wenjiao, Zai; Pingliang, Zeng; Haobo, Shi

    2018-02-01

    Generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is an efficient market means for transforming supply structure of electric power into sustainable development pattern. But the trading is hampered by the output fluctuations of renewable energy and the cost differences between renewable energy and thermal power at present. In this paper, the external environmental cost (EEC) is defined and the EEC is introduced into the generation cost. At same time, the incentive functions of renewable energy and low-emission thermal power are designed, which are decreasing functions of EEC. On these bases, for the market risks caused by the random variability of EEC, the decision-making model of generation trading between renewable energy and thermal power is constructed according to the risk theory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are verified by simulation results.

  20. Inconsistencies between alcohol screening results based on AUDIT-C scores and reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions: prevalence in two US national samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The AUDIT-C is an extensively validated screen for unhealthy alcohol use (i.e. drinking above recommended limits or alcohol use disorder), which consists of three questions about alcohol consumption. AUDIT-C scores ≥4 points for men and ≥3 for women are considered positive screens based on US validation studies that compared the AUDIT-C to “gold standard” measures of unhealthy alcohol use from independent, detailed interviews. However, results of screening—positive or negative based on AUDIT-C scores—can be inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions. For example, individuals can screen positive based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking below US recommended limits on the same AUDIT-C. Alternatively, they can screen negative based on the AUDIT-C score while reporting drinking above US recommended limits. Such inconsistencies could complicate interpretation of screening results, but it is unclear how often they occur in practice. Methods This study used AUDIT-C data from respondents who reported past-year drinking on one of two national US surveys: a general population survey (N = 26,610) and a Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient survey (N = 467,416). Gender-stratified analyses estimated the prevalence of AUDIT-C screen results—positive or negative screens based on the AUDIT-C score—that were inconsistent with reported drinking (above or below US recommended limits) on the same AUDIT-C. Results Among men who reported drinking, 13.8% and 21.1% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results based on AUDIT-C scores (positive or negative) that were inconsistent with reported drinking on the AUDIT-C questions (above or below US recommended limits). Among women who reported drinking, 18.3% and 20.7% of US general population and VA samples, respectively, had screening results that were inconsistent with reported drinking. Limitations This study did not include an

  1. The Effect of Glare on Regan Contrast Letter Acuity Scores Using Dye-Based and Reflective Laser Eye Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghani, Nadeem

    2001-01-01

    Current laser eye protection devices (LEPDs) are dye-based or reflective. While both technologies block the laser wavelengths, reflective LEPDs generally transmit more visible light than do dye-based LEPDs...

  2. PLASS: Protein-ligand affinity statistical score a knowledge-based force-field model of interaction derived from the PDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozrin, V. D.; Subbotin, M. V.; Nikitin, S. M.

    2004-04-01

    We have developed PLASS (Protein-Ligand Affinity Statistical Score), a pair-wise potential of mean-force for rapid estimation of the binding affinity of a ligand molecule to a protein active site. This scoring function is derived from the frequency of occurrence of atom-type pairs in crystallographic complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Statistical distributions are converted into distance-dependent contributions to the Gibbs free interaction energy for 10 atomic types using the Boltzmann hypothesis, with only one adjustable parameter. For a representative set of 72 protein-ligand structures, PLASS scores correlate well with the experimentally measured dissociation constants: a correlation coefficient R of 0.82 and RMS error of 2.0 kcal/mol. Such high accuracy results from our novel treatment of the volume correction term, which takes into account the inhomogeneous properties of the protein-ligand complexes. PLASS is able to rank reliably the affinity of complexes which have as much diversity as in the PDB.

  3. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  4. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, T...

  5. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  6. The association between creatinine versus cystatin C-based eGFR and cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease using a modified PDAY risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sheena; Denburg, Michelle R; Furth, Susan L

    2017-08-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Among adults with CKD, cystatin C-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) demonstrate a stronger predictive value for cardiovascular events than creatinine-based eGFR. The PDAY (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth) risk score is a validated tool used to estimate the probability of advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions in young adults. To assess the association between cystatin C-based versus creatinine-based eGFR (eGFR cystatin C and eGFR creatinine, respectively) and cardiovascular risk using a modified PDAY risk score as a proxy for CVD in children and young adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 71 participants with CKD [median age 15.5 years; inter-quartile range (IQR) 13, 17], and 33 healthy controls (median age 15.1 years; IQR 13, 17). eGFR was calculated using age-appropriate creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulas. Median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C for CKD participants were 50 (IQR 30, 75) and 53 (32, 74) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. For the healthy controls, median eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin were 112 (IQR 85, 128) and 106 mL/min/1.73m 2 (95, 123) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. A modified PDAY risk score was calculated based on sex, age, serum lipoprotein concentrations, obesity, smoking status, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. Modified PDAY scores ranged from -2 to 20. The Spearman's correlations of eGFR creatinine and eGFR cystatin C with coronary artery PDAY scores were -0.23 (p = 0.02) and -0.28 (p = 0.004), respectively. Ordinal logistic regression also showed a similar association of higher eGFR creatinine and higher eGFR cystatin C with lower PDAY scores. When stratified by age creatinine and eGFR cystatin C with PDAY score were modest and similar in children [-0.29 (p = 0.008) vs. -0.32 (p = 0

  7. Energy Data Base: Subject categories and scope: A reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) is defined, encompassing all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Coverage also includes the basic sciences as applicable. The subject areas within the scope of EDB are defined and hierarchically numbered, and scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain areas, particularly areas of basic research

  8. Magnetron based high energy S-band linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, T.; Krishnan, R.; Phatangare, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of magnetron based high energy S-band linear accelerator (linac) system operating at spot frequency 2.998 GHz. The energy and dose are two important parameters of linac system which depend on input power of microwave source and length of linac tube. Here the author has studied how these parameters can be improved for side coupled standing wave S-band linac system

  9. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  10. Community Based Approach to Wind Energy Information Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innis, S.

    2003-09-26

    The purpose of the Department of Energy's grant was to transfer to New Mexico and Utah a national award-winning market-based strategy to aggregate demand for wind energy. Their experiences over the past few years in New Mexico and utah have been quite different. In both states they have developed stronger relationships with utilities and policymakers which will increase the effectiveness of the future advocacy efforts.

  11. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  12. Diagnostic performance of a CT-based scoring system for diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: comparison with subjective CT assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goense, Lucas; Rossum, Peter S.N. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stassen, Pauline M.C.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Hillegersberg, Richard van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wessels, Frank J.; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    To develop a CT-based prediction score for anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and compare it to subjective CT interpretation. Consecutive patients who underwent a CT scan for a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis between 2003 and 2014 were analyzed. The CT scans were systematically re-evaluated by two radiologists for the presence of specific CT findings and presence of an anastomotic leak. Also, the original CT interpretations were acquired. These results were compared to patients with and without a clinical confirmed leak. Out of 122 patients that underwent CT for a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leakage; 54 had a confirmed leak. In multivariable analysis, anastomotic leakage was associated with mediastinal fluid (OR = 3.4), esophagogastric wall discontinuity (OR = 4.9), mediastinal air (OR = 6.6), and a fistula (OR = 7.2). Based on these criteria, a prediction score was developed resulting in an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.86, sensitivity of 80%, and specificity of 84%. The original interpretation and the systematic subjective CT assessment by two radiologists resulted in AUCs of 0.68 and 0.75 with sensitivities of 52% and 69%, and specificities of 84% and 82%, respectively. This CT-based score may provide improved diagnostic performance for diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of an inflammation-based prognostic score (GPS) with performance status (ECOG-ps) in patients receiving palliative chemotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Andrew B C; Stuart, Robert C; McKernan, Margaret; McDonald, Alexander C; McMillan, Donald C

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare an inflammation-based prognostic score (Glasgow Prognostic Score, GPS) with performance status (ECOG-ps) in patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for palliation of gastroesophageal cancer. Sixty-five patients presenting with gastroesophageal carcinoma to the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow between January 1999 and December 2005 and who received palliative chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy were studied. ECOG-ps, C-reactive protein, and albumin were recorded at diagnosis. Patients with both an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were allocated a GPS of 2. Patients in whom only one of these biochemical abnormalities was present were allocated a GPS of 1 and patients with a normal C-reactive protein and albumin were allocated a score of 0. Toxicity was recorded using the Common Toxicity Criteria. The minimum follow up was 14 months. During the follow-up period, 59 (91%) of the patients died. On univariate and multivariate survival analysis, only the GPS (hazard ratios 1.65, 95% CI 1.10-2.47, P GPS of 0, those patients with a GPS of 1 or 2 required more frequent chemotherapy dose reduction (P GPS, appears to be superior to the subjective assessment of performance status (ECOG-ps) in predicting the response to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer.

  14. The Reliability of Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints-C-Reactive Protein Might Be Overestimated in a Subgroup of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients, When the Score Is Solely Based on Subjective Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie; Asmussen Andreasen, Rikke; Van Bui Hansen, Mark Nam

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) is a scoring system to evaluate disease activity and treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A DAS28 score of greater than 3.2 is a well-described limit for treatment intensification; however, the reliability of DAS28 might be overe......BACKGROUND: Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) is a scoring system to evaluate disease activity and treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A DAS28 score of greater than 3.2 is a well-described limit for treatment intensification; however, the reliability of DAS28 might...... be overestimated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of DAS28 in RA, especially focusing on a subgroup of patients with a DAS28 score of greater than 3.2. METHODS: Data from RA patients registered in the local part of Danish DANBIO Registry were collected in May 2015. Patients were....... Patients with central sensitization and psychological problems and those with false-positive diagnosis of RA are at high risk of overtreatment.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where...

  15. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xin Yajuan; Tong Dingding

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  16. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  17. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  18. Graphene-Based Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique 2D structure and numerous fascinating properties, graphene-based materials have attracted particular attention for their potential applications in energy storage devices. In this review paper, we focus on the latest work regarding the development of electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors from graphene and graphene-based carbon materials. To begin, the advantages of graphene as an electrode material and the existing problems facing its use in this application will be discussed. The next several sections deal with three different methods for improving the energy storage performance of graphene: the restacking of the nanosheets, the doping of graphene with other elements, and the creation of defects on graphene planes. State-of-the-art work is reviewed. Finally, the prospects and further developments in the field of graphene-based materials for electrochemical energy storage are discussed.

  19. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, S.; Gillie, M.

    2009-01-01

    Task 18 working group of the International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement has been evaluating and documenting experiences with renewable based hydrogen energy projects in remote and island communities in the United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Gran Canaria, Spain and New Zealand. The objective was to examine the lessons learned from existing projects and provide recommendations regarding the effective development of hydrogen systems. In order to accomplish this task, some of the drivers behind the niche markets where hydrogen systems have already been developed, or are in the development stages, were studied in order to determine how these could be expanded and modified to reach new markets. Renewable based hydrogen energy projects for remote and island communities are currently a key niche market. This paper compared various aspects of these projects and discussed the benefits, objectives and barriers facing the development of a hydrogen-based economy

  20. Energy based model for temperature dependent behavior of ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, Sanjay; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    An energy based model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization curves of ferromagnetic materials is proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. This is based on the calculation of macroscopic magnetic properties by performing an energy weighted average over all possible orientations of the magnetization vector. Most prior approaches that employ this method are unable to independently account for the effect of both inhomogeneity and temperature in performing the averaging necessary to model experimental data. Here we propose a way to account for both effects simultaneously and benchmark the model against experimental data from ~5 K to ~300 K for two different materials in both annealed (fewer inhomogeneities) and deformed (more inhomogeneities) samples. This demonstrates that this framework is well suited to simulate temperature dependent experimental magnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Energy based model for temperature dependent ferromagnetic behavior. • Simultaneously accounts for effect of temperature and inhomogeneities. • Benchmarked against experimental data from 5 K to 300 K.

  1. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  2. Spine-hip T-score difference predicts major osteoporotic fracture risk independent of FRAX(®): a population-based report from CAMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Kovacs, Christopher S; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Towheed, Tanveer; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Prior, Jerilynn C; Josse, Robert G; Jamal, Sophie A; Kreiger, Nancy; Goltzman, David

    2011-01-01

    The WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX(®)) estimates an individual's 10-yr major osteoporotic and hip fracture probabilities. When bone mineral density (BMD) is included in the FRAX calculation, only the femoral neck measurement can be used. Recently, a procedure was reported for adjusting major osteoporotic fracture probability from FRAX with femoral neck BMD based on the difference (offset) between the lumbar spine and the femoral neck T-score values. The objective of the current analysis was to independently evaluate this algorithm in a population-based cohort of 4575 women and 1813 men aged 50 yr and older from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. For women and men combined, there was a 15% (95% confidence interval 7-24%) increase in major osteoporotic fracture risk for each offset T-score after adjusting for FRAX probability calculated with femoral neck BMD. The effect was stronger in women than men, but a significant sex interaction was not detected. Among the full cohort, 5.5% had their risk category reclassified after using the offset adjustment. Sex- and age-dependent offsets (equivalent to an offset based on Z-scores) showed improved risk classification among individuals designated to be at moderate risk with the conventional FRAX probability measurement. In summary, the T-score difference between the lumbar spine and femoral neck is an independent risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures that is independent of the FRAX probability calculated with femoral neck BMD. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a prognostic scoring system based on the systemic inflammatory and nutritional status of patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Matsuo, Yukinori; Itou, Hitoshi; Shintani, Takashi; Iizuka, Yusuke; Kim, Young Hak; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Systemic inflammation and poor nutritional status have a negative effect on the outcomes of cancer. Here, we analyzed the effects of the pretreatment inflammatory and nutritional status on clinical outcomes of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with chemoradiotherapy between July 2006 and June 2013. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed as an inflammatory marker, and serum albumin, body mass index (BMI) and skeletal mass index were assessed as nutritional status markers. The relationships between these markers and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The median OS was 24.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.4–39.3 months]. During follow-up, 58 patients (65%) had disease recurrence and 52 patients (58%) died. In multivariate Cox hazard analysis, CRP levels and BMI approached but did not achieve a significant association with OS (P = 0.062 and 0.094, respectively). Recursive partitioning analysis identified three prognostic groups based on hazard similarity (CRP-BMI scores): 0 = CRP < 0.3 mg/dl, 1 = CRP ≥ 0.3 mg/dl and BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m 2 , and 2 = CRP ≥ 0.3 mg/dl and BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 . The CRP-BMI score was significantly associated with OS (P = 0.023). Patients with scores of 0, 1 and 2 had median OS of 39.3, 24.5 and 14.5 months, respectively, and the scores also predicted the probability of receiving salvage treatment after recurrence. The CRP-BMI score is thus a simple and useful prognostic marker of clinical outcome for patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with chemoradiotherapy.

  4. Epidemiological data and a score-based study of renal, hepatic and cerebral lesions in feline infectious peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the epidemiological and pathological findings observed in a population of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and estimated the degree of tissue destruction in the kidney, brain, and liver. A retrospective study was performed to determine the number of cats with a histopathological diagnosis of FIP between 2005-2016, at the Laboratory of Animal Pathology, Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The histopathological alterations in selected organs (brain, liver and kidneys associated with FIP were described and then compared with a scoring system to estimate the degree of tissue destruction. FIP was diagnosed in 3.7% (19/520 of all cats necropsied during the 11-year period; sexual and breed predominance were not identified. Cats that were less than one-year-old were more frequently diagnosed with FIP. Pyogranulomatous nephritis with vasculitis (94.7%; 18/19, coagulative renal necrosis (84.2%; 16/19, hepatocellular necrosis (57.9; 11/19, and necrotizing leptomeningitis (47.4%; 9/19 were the most frequent lesions observed. Moreover, FIP-associated renal lesions were more severe and frequently observed when compared with those in the brain and liver. It is proposed that necrosis be considered as an important lesion associated with FIP that should be included in the histopathological diagnosis of this disease.