WorldWideScience

Sample records for based case-control study

  1. Behavioural Comorbidity in Tanzanian Children with Epilepsy: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn; Rogathe, Jane; Hunter, Ewan; Burton, Matthew; Swai, Mark; Todd, Jim; Neville, Brian; Walker, Richard; Newton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of and risk factors for behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy from a rural district of Tanzania by conducting a community-based case-control study. Method: One hundred and twelve children aged 6 to 14 years (55 males, 57 females; median age 12y) with active epilepsy (at least two…

  2. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hosp...

  3. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gudnadóttir, Thuridur A.; Bateman, Brian T.; Hernádez-Díaz, Sonia; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Zoega, Helga

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989–2004, resulting in birth at t...

  4. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudnadóttir, TA; Bateman, BT; Hernádez-Díaz, S; Luque-Fernandez, MA; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H

    2016-01-01

    While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at t...

  5. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  6. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda : a population - based case- control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case-control study was conducted, with sub...

  7. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  8. Population-based case control study of the safety of sulfasalazine use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.;

    2001-01-01

    Background: We studied the human teratogenic risk of sulfasalazine because this drug interferes with folate metabolism. Methods: Case control study within the Hungarian Case Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996; based on 22 865 new-born infants or foetuses with congenital...... abnormalities, and 38 151 babies without any detected congenital abnormalities (control group). Results: Seventeen pregnant women (0.07%) were treated with sulfasalazine in the case group, and 26 (0.07%) in the control group. The overall adjusted adds ratio of congenital abnormalities after sulfasalazine...... treatment was odds ratio=1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.6–2.1). None of the analyses indicated any significant increased prevalence of selected congenital abnormalities among the exposed compared with the not exposed. Conclusions: We found no significant increased prevalence of selected congenital...

  9. Bra wearing not associated with breast cancer risk: a population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lu; Malone, Kathleen E.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of bras among U.S. women and concerns in the lay media that bra wearing may increase breast cancer risk, there is a scarcity of credible scientific studies addressing this issue. The goal of the study was to evaluate the relationship between various bra wearing habits and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in the Seattle-Puget Sound metropolitan area that compared 454 invasive ductal car...

  10. Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carlene; Senior, Jane; Webb, Roger T; Millar, Tim; Piper, Mary; Pearsall, Alison; Humber, Naomi; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    The elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders' suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk. PMID:26159602

  11. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  13. Shrinkage Estimators for Robust and Efficient Inference in Haplotype-Based Case-Control Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yi-Hau

    2009-03-01

    Case-control association studies often aim to investigate the role of genes and gene-environment interactions in terms of the underlying haplotypes (i.e., the combinations of alleles at multiple genetic loci along chromosomal regions). The goal of this article is to develop robust but efficient approaches to the estimation of disease odds-ratio parameters associated with haplotypes and haplotype-environment interactions. We consider "shrinkage" estimation techniques that can adaptively relax the model assumptions of Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium and gene-environment independence required by recently proposed efficient "retrospective" methods. Our proposal involves first development of a novel retrospective approach to the analysis of case-control data, one that is robust to the nature of the gene-environment distribution in the underlying population. Next, it involves shrinkage of the robust retrospective estimator toward a more precise, but model-dependent, retrospective estimator using novel empirical Bayes and penalized regression techniques. Methods for variance estimation are proposed based on asymptotic theories. Simulations and two data examples illustrate both the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  14. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  15. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  16. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  17. Tumor-based case-control studies of infection and cancer: muddling the when and where of molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A; Wacholder, Sholom; Katki, Hormuzd A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    We describe the "tumor-based case-control" study as a type of epidemiologic study used to evaluate associations between infectious agents and cancer. These studies assess exposure using diseased tissues from affected individuals (i.e., evaluating tumor tissue for cancer cases), but they must utilize nondiseased tissues to assess control subjects, who do not have the disease of interest. This approach can lead to exposure misclassification in two ways. First, concerning the "when" of exposure assessment, retrospective assessment of tissues may not accurately measure exposure at the key earlier time point (i.e., during the etiologic window). Second, concerning the "where" of exposure assessment, use of different tissues in cases and controls can have different accuracy for detecting the exposure (i.e., differential exposure misclassification). We present an example concerning the association of human papillomavirus with various cancers, where tumor-based case-control studies likely overestimate risk associated with infection. In another example, we illustrate how tumor-based case-control studies of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer underestimate risk. Tumor-based case-control studies can demonstrate infection within tumor cells, providing qualitative information about disease etiology. However, measures of association calculated in tumor-based case-control studies are prone to over- or underestimating the relationship between infections and subsequent cancer risk. PMID:25063520

  18. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, Pherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21–4.86). Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV and HCMV, are significantly associated with chronic periodontitis. There is insufficient evidence to support associations between HSV, HHV-7 and chronic periodontitis. PMID:26666412

  19. Air Pollution and the Risk of Cardiac Defects: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Lee, Yungling Leo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2015-11-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have assessed the role of the exposure to ambient air pollution in the development of cardiac birth defects, but they have provided somewhat inconsistent results. To assess the associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and the risk of cardiac defects, a population-based case-control study was conducted using 1087 cases of cardiac defects and a random sample of 10,870 controls from 1,533,748 Taiwanese newborns in 2001 to 2007.Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for 10 ppb increases in O3 and 10 μg/m increases in PM10. In addition, we compared the risk of cardiac defects in 4 categories-high exposure (>75th percentile); medium exposure (75th to 50th percentile); low exposure (patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were associated with 10 ppb increases in O3 exposure during the first 3 gestational months among term and preterm babies. In comparison between high PM10 exposure and reference category, there were statistically significant elevations in the effect estimates of ASD for all and terms births. In addition, there was a negative or weak association between SO2, NO2, CO, and cardiac defects.The study proved that exposure to outdoor air O3 and PM10 during the first trimester of gestation may increase the risk of VSD, ASD, and PDA. PMID:26554783

  20. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  1. Risk of miscarriage for pregnant users of pivmecillinam: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Mette; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Pedersen, Lars

    2008-04-01

    Few data exist on the risk of miscarriage after exposure to pivmecillinam. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in a Danish county with 0.5 million inhabitants during the period 1997-2002. We included 1,599 women with a miscarriage recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry and selected 10 controls per case among primiparous women who had a live birth during the study period. Controls were selected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We obtained data on use of pivmecillinam and sulfamethizole from a prescription database. Five cases (0.30%) and 24 controls (0.15%) were exposed to pivmecillinam in the last week before the miscarriage/index date. After adjustment for maternal age, use of antidiabetics or antiepileptics, the odds ratio for miscarriages among users of pivmecillinam compared with non-users was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-5.33) and the corresponding odds ratio for use of sulfamethizole was 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-3.09). Exposure within 2 to 12 weeks before the miscarriage was not associated with an increased risk. We concluded that use of pivmecillinam was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, but the risk was not significantly (p=0.64) different from the risk associated with use of sulfamethizole. PMID:18397462

  2. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  3. Education and occupations preceding Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Frigerio, Roberta; Elbaz, Alexis; Sanft, Kevin,; Peterson, Brett,; Bower, James; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Grossardt, Brandon,; de Andrade, Mariza; Maraganore, Demetrius,; Rocca, Walter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of Parkinson disease (PD) with education and occupations using a case-control study design. METHODS: The authors used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control. The authors collected information about education and occupations using two independ...

  4. Estrogen and Alzheimer′s disease in Aging Population: Population based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Hong; Zhen-xin Zhang; Hui Li; Jie hao Zhao; Jue-bin Huang; ling Wei

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Wc conducted a population based case-control study to evaluate the effect of estrogen associated variables in Alzhcimer′s disease. Methods: A total of 2995 female residents aged 55 years or older was drawn-by means of stratified multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas of Beijing. Wc collected gynecological data of 2995 females. Cases were females Alzheimer′s disease ascertained by DSM-Ⅳ criteria and NINCDS-ADRDA critcria. Controls were female residents whose MMSE scores upper than 50 percentage. Odds Ratio were calculated from Logistic models. Results: By a Logistic stepwise multiple regression model, we found that the risk of dementia in women increased with increasing age (OR per year, 1.21, 95%CI, 1.16 -1.27). The risk decreased with increased duration with menstrual cycles (OR per year, 0.8L, 95%CI, 0.68 to 0.97). The risk decreased with increased age of menopause (OR per year, 0.97, 95%CI, 0.91 to 1.04). The risk decreased in women ever suffered from uterine, ovary, or breast tumor (OR, 0.30, 95%C1:0.04- 2.28). Conclusion: The risk of AD decreased with increased duration of menstrual cycles and increased age of menopause and in wome ever suffered fiom uterine. ovary or breast tumor. These findings offers additional support for a protective influence of estrogen i AD.

  5. Level of neurotoxic metals in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Forte, Giovanni; Oggiano, Riccardo; Clemente, Simonetta; Asara, Yolande; Peruzzu, Angela; Farace, Cristiano; Pala, Salvatore; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    The association between exposure to toxic metals and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was explored in a population-based case-control study in the Sardinia island (Italy), a region characterized by elevated rates of ALS cases. In 34 patients with ALS (mean age, 62 ± 10 years) and 30 controls (mean age, 65 ± 11 years), Al, Cd, Hg, Mn and Pb were determined in blood, hair and urine by sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Results indicated that, in blood, concentrations of Al (p=0.045) and Pb were higher (p=0.026) in ALS patients than in control subjects. In hair, a depletion of Al (p=0.006) and Mn (p=0.032) concentrations in ALS subjects respect to controls was found. In urine, no significant differences between cases and controls were observed. Thus, some metals seemed to be associated with ALS degeneration, but a definitive conclusion is still far considering the multiple risk factors (genetic mutations, environmental toxicants and stressors) involved in the disease. Finally, the interpretation that deregulated metal concentrations can be a consequence of the degenerative process, rather than a cause, is also valid. PMID:26671079

  6. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  7. Association Between Obesity and Asthma among Adults: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the association between obesity and asthma among adults by gender. The prevalences of both asthma and obesity have increased substantially in recent decades, leading to speculation that obese individuals might be at risk of asthma. However, the evidence of a relationship between obesity and asthma is not fully conclusive among adults. Hence we investigate the association between obesity and asthma among men and women using both measured weight and height and self-reported weight and height while controlling for the effects of the demographic and environmental factors. This case-control study involves a total of 159 adults; 53 cases and 106 controls enrolled in the month of July 2009 at PSG Hospitals. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated based on measured weight and height. The Odds Ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval for obese individuals was estimated using logistic regression analysis with SPSS 11.5 for windows software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to adjust all risk estimates for covariates. Obese women were found to have 9.14 times the risk of asthma than non obese women (95% confidence interval (CI:1.38, 35.68 after adjusting for covariates, such as age, education, environmental tobacco smoke and pet keeping. No significant association was observed among men although the direction of association is positive; adjusted odds ratio was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.12, 9.70. No significant association was observed between self-reported prevalence of obesity and asthma; among women, adjusted odds ratio = 4.33 (95% CI: 0.69, 27.37; and among men, adjusted odds ratio = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.11, 7.12. The study indicates a strong positive association between obesity and asthma among adult Indian women. The causal links between obesity and asthma by gender need to be further examined using prospective cohort studies.

  8. Association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have been demonstrated to have higher overall morbidity and all-cause mortality rates from general medical conditions. However, little attention has been given to the urinary system of people with schizophrenia. As no direct evidence has been reported demonstrating a link between schizophrenia and urinary calculi, this study utilized a population-based case-control study design to investigate the possibility of an association between schizophrenia and the occurrence of urinary calculi. METHOD: This study used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Cases consisted of 53,965 urinary calculi patients newly diagnosed between 2002 and 2008. In total, 269,825 controls were randomly selected and matched with the cases in terms of age and sex. Each person was traced to discern whether he had previously received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conditional logistic regression models were performed for the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,119 (1.0% subjects had been diagnosed with schizophrenia prior to the index date. This included 0.7% of the patients with urinary calculi, and 1.0% of the controls. A prior diagnosis of schizophrenia was independently associated with a 30% decrease (95% CI = 0.62-0.76 in the occurrence of urinary calculi. The reduction was even more remarkable in males (38%, 95% CI = 0.55-0.71 and in elder individuals independent of gender (48% in those aged >69, 95% CI = 0.36-0.77. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is an inverse association between schizophrenia and urinary calculi. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which schizophrenia negatively associates with urinary calculi.

  9. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, X.O.; Gao, Y.T.; Brinton, L.A.; Linet, M.S.; Tu, J.T.; Zheng, W.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-08-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children.

  10. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  11. Population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population-based case-control interview study of 309 childhood leukemia cases and 618 healthy population control children was conducted in urban Shanghai, China. Like some studies in other countries, excess risks for both acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were associated with intrauterine and paternal preconception diagnostic x-ray exposure, and with maternal employment in the chemical and agricultural industries during pregnancy. ANLL was linked to maternal occupational exposure to benzene during pregnancy, whereas both ALL and ANLL were significantly associated with maternal exposure to gasoline and the patient's prior use of chloramphenicol. New findings, previously unsuspected, included an association of ANLL with younger maternal age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-13.9); a protective effect for long-term (greater than 1 year) use of cod liver oil containing vitamins A and D for both ALL (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and ANLL (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-1.0); and excess risks of ANLL among children whose mothers were employed in metal refining and processing (OR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.3-17.2) and of ALL associated with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.1-11.2). No relationships were found with late maternal age, certain congenital disorders, or familial occurrence, which have been related to childhood leukemia in other studies. In contrast with other reports, an excess of leukemia, primarily ANLL, occurred among second or later-born rather than firstborn children

  12. Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anil Mor, Sinna P Ulrichsen, Elisabeth Svensson, Klara Berencsi, Reimar W Thomsen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Background: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. Patients and methods: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. Results: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7% or never married (13% versus 11%. Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively compared with married (3% and widowed (6% patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33 among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17 among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37 among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. Conclusion: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients

  13. Childhood asthma in Beijing, China: A population-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, T.Z.; Niu, S.R.; Lu, B.Y.; Fan, X.E.; Sun, F.Y.; Wang, J.P.; Zhang, Y.W.; Zhang, B.; Owens, P.; Hao, L.Y.; Li, Y.D.; Leaderer, B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Epidemiology & Public Health

    2002-11-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shunyi County, People's Republic of China, in January 1999 and March 2001 to investigate the risk factors for childhood asthma. An increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with smoking by relatives in front of the mother while she was pregnant with the child (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.6) and with smoking by relatives in front of the child (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). The risk increased with the increasing number of smokers and the total minutes of smoking by relatives in front of both the child and the mother while she was pregnant with the child. An increased risk was observed for use of coal for heating (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Those who reported using coal for cooking without ventilation also had an increased risk (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.5). An increased risk was observed for those who reported having molds or fungi on the ceilings of their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9) or inside the child's room (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2). An increased risk was also found for those having both a dog and a cat as pets (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) or for finding both cockroaches and rats inside their houses (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8).

  14. A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, E; Kleinerman, R A; Boice, J D; LiVolsi, V A; Flannery, J T; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A population-based case-control interview study of thyroid cancer (159 cases and 285 controls) was conducted in Connecticut. Prior radiotherapy to the head or neck was reported by 12% of the cases and 4% of the controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.2-6.9]. Risk was inversely related to age at irradiation and was highest among children exposed under age 10. Few persons born after 1945 received prior radiotherapy, consistent with the declining use of radiation to treat benign conditions in the 1950's. Among females the radiogenic risk appeared to be potentiated by the number of subsequent live-births. Other significant risk factors included a history of benign thyroid nodules (OR = 33) or goiter (OR = 5.6). Miscarriage and multiparity increased risk but only among women who developed thyroid cancer before age 35 years. Consumption of shellfish (a rich source of iodine) seemed to increase the risk of follicular thyroid cancer, whereas consumption of goitrogen-containing vegetables appeared to reduce risk of total thyroid cancer, possibly because of their cruciferous nature. A significantly low risk was observed among persons of English descent, whereas Italian ancestry appeared to increase risk. No significant associations were found with a number of suspected risk factors: diagnostic x-rays, radioactive isotope scans, occupational radiation exposure, tonsillectomy, Jewish ethnicity, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, lactation suppressants, menopausal estrogens, most other common medications, and water source. New associations were suggested for obesity among females (OR = 1.5), surgically treated benign breast disease (OR = 1.6), use of spironolactone (OR = 4.3) or vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.8), and a family history of thyroid cancer (OR = 5.2). About 9% of the incident thyroid cancers could be attributed to prior head and neck irradiation, 4% to goiter, and 17% to thyroid nodular disease, leaving the etiology of most

  15. Antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism: A population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna K Jönsson1, Erzsebet Horváth-Puhó2, Staffan Hägg3, Lars Pedersen4, Henrik Toft Sørensen41Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Centre for Registry Research, Aarhus C, Denmark; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, DenmarkAbstract: During the last decade, the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE has been reported in users of antipsychotic drugs. However, the reports have been inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the relative risk of VTE in antipsychotic drug users. Using data from medical databases in North Jutland and Aarhus Counties, Denmark, and the Danish Civil Registration System, we identified 5,999 cases with a first-time diagnosis of VTE and, based on risk set sampling, 59,990 sex- and age-matched population controls during 1997–2005. Users of antipsychotic drugs were identified from population-based prescription databases and categorized based on filled prescriptions prior to admission date for VTE or index date for controls as current (at least one prescription within 90 days, recent (at least one prescription within 91–180 days, former (at least one prescription within 181–365 days or nonusers (no recorded prescription within 365 days. Compared with nonusers, current users of any antipsychotic drugs had an increased risk of VTE (adjusted relative risk [ARR]: 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69–2.34. Former users of any antipsychotic drugs had a nonsignificant elevated risk of VTE compared with nonusers (ARR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.99–2.40, p-value: 0.056. In conclusion, users of antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of VTE, compared with nonusers, which might be due to the treatment itself, to lifestyle factors, to the underlying disease, or to residual confounding. Keywords: antipsychotic agents, venous thromboembolism, adverse effects, case-control study

  16. Incretin-Based Therapy and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Pedersen, Lars; Møller, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of incretin-based drugs (GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 [DPP4] inhibitors) is associated with acute pancreatitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was a nationwide population-based case-control study using medical databases in...... Denmark. Participants were 12,868 patients with a first-time hospitalization for acute pancreatitis between 2005 and 2012 and a population of 128,680 matched control subjects. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) for acute pancreatitis associated with different antihyperglycemic drugs. We...... adjusted for history of gallstones, alcoholism, obesity, and other pancreatitis-associated comorbidities and medications. RESULTS: A total of 89 pancreatitis patients (0.69%) and 684 control subjects (0.53%) were ever users of incretins. The crude OR for acute pancreatitis among incretin users was 1.36 (95...

  17. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Kamangar, Farin; Fahimi, Saman; Shakeri, Ramin; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Merat, Shahin; Vahedi, Homayoon; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Saidi, Farrokh; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between tea drinking habits in Golestan province, northern Iran, and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Population based case-control study. In addition, patterns of tea drinking and temperature at which tea was drunk were measured among healthy participants in a cohort study. Setting Golestan province, northern Iran, an area with a high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Participants 300 histologically proved cases of o...

  18. Determinants of mortality from severe dengue in Brazil: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Giselle Hentzy; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case-control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000-2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue and 1,062 deaths. Factors independently associated with death included age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-3.29), history of previous dengue (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.99), positive tourniquet test result (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), laboratory diagnosis of dengue (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61-0.92), and a platelet count of 50,000-100,000 cells/mm(3) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.87). The risk profile identified in this study should serve to direct public health interventions to minimize deaths. PMID:23400577

  19. Factors associated with syphilis infection: a comprehensive analysis based on a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Li, S-L; Lin, H-L; Lin, Z-F; Zhu, X-Z; Fan, J-Y; Gao, K; Zhang, H-L; Lin, L-R; Liu, L-L; Tong, M-L; Niu, J-J; Yang, T-C

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate factors that influence the likelihood of syphilis infection from risk-taking behaviours and medical conditions. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by enrolling 664 syphilis inpatients (excluding 11 congenital syphilis patients) and 800 sex- and age-matched controls. Medical histories, clinical data and patient interview data were collected and subjected to logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of syphilis in the study population was 3·9% (675/17 304). By univariate analysis, syphilis infection was associated with migration between cities, marital status, smoking, reproductive history, hypertension, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (P syphilis-HBV co-infection was observed in HIV-negative patients and further research revealed an association between syphilis and specific HBV serological reactivity. Syphilis was also associated with the frequency, duration and status of tobacco use. Multivariate analysis indicated that syphilis infection was independently associated with migration between cities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·368, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·048-1·785], current smoking (aOR 1·607, 95% CI 1·177-2·195), elevated BUN (aOR 1·782, 95% CI 1·188-2·673) and some serological patterns of HBV infection. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, inpatients and blood donors should be tested for HIV, syphilis, HBV and HCV simultaneously. PMID:26467944

  20. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation: a register-based case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Steensel-Moll, H.A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Van Zanen, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposure was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in ''hydrocarbon-related'' occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7 - 9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydrocarbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks. 16 references, 5 tables.

  1. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Performance across Psychotic Disorders – a Multi-Centre Population Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanelli, Jolanta; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig; Russo, Manuela; Pilecka, Izabela; Fearon, Paul; Demjaha, Arsime; Doody, Gill A.; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Robin M; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. An unresolved question concerns whether there are gender differences in cognitive performance. Methods Data were derived from a multi-centre population based case-control study of patients with first-episode psychosis. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=70, 36% females), bipolar/mania (N=34,...

  2. The relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inorganic selenium in drinking water: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman Kenneth J; Bonvicini Francesca; Vinceti Marco; Vescovi Luciano; Wang Feiyue

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A community in northern Italy was previously reported to have an excess incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among residents exposed to high levels of inorganic selenium in their drinking water. Methods To assess the extent to which such association persisted in the decade following its initial observation, we conducted a population-based case-control study encompassing forty-one newly-diagnosed cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and eighty-two age- and sex-match...

  3. Measurement Error Correction in Exploiting Gene-Environment Independence in Family-Based Case-Control Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Guolo, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    Family-based case-control designs are commonly used in epidemiological studies for evaluating the role of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure to risk factors in the etiology of rare diseases. Within this framework, it is often reasonable to assume genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure being conditionally independent of each other within families in the source population. We focus on this setting to consider the common situation of measurement error aecting the assess...

  4. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Paddock Lisa E; Chandran Urmila; King Melony; Bandera Elisa V; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Olson Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (C...

  5. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann;

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil......Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  6. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann;

    2013-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil......Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  7. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  8. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to compare the risk of different estrogens, progestins, and combinations. Results A total of 3593 cases of breast cancer were identified and compared with 9098 controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for breast cancer (BC associated with current or past use of HRT was 1.2 (1.1–1.3, and almost identical for lag times from 6 months to 6 years prior to diagnosis. No significant trend of increasing BC risk was found with increasing duration of HRT use, or time since first or last use in aggregate. Many established BC risk factors significantly modified the effect of HRT on BC risk, particularly first-degree family history of BC, higher age, lower education, higher body mass index (BMI, and never having used oral contraceptives (OCs during lifetime. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT formulation groups (estrogens, progestins, and combinations were too small for strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the BC risk seems not to vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in BC risk was observed between HRT containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion The BC risk of HRT use is rather small. Low risk estimates for BC and a high potential for

  9. When to be skeptical of negative studies: pitfalls in evaluating occupational risks using population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S W; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Siemiatycki, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated arsenic and lung cancer incidence in a community setting in the Montreal area. Job histories and sociodemographic factors were collected by interview from 857 lung cancer cases, 533 general population controls, and 1,360 controls with other cancers. Chemist-hygienists assessed each subject's life-time occupational exposure to 294 substances. Logistic regressions yielded arsenic/lung cancer odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval = 0.60, 1.7) based on cancer controls, and 0.82 (95% confidence interval = 0.41, 1.6) based on population controls. Risk did not rise with increasing level or probability of exposure. Worksite studies consistently show lung carcinogenicity from arsenic. Since confounding from other chemicals was well controlled, the most likely explanation is substantially lower exposures than in previous studies. The lack of association in this study demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting negative findings from population-based case-control studies, particularly when exposures are low or rare, as well as the difficulty in generating hypotheses from such studies. PMID:10349223

  10. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  11. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  12. Risk assessment of tobacco, alcohol and diet in cancers of base tongue and oral tongue--a case control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao D; Desai P

    1998-01-01

    This is a retrospective case-control study of male tongue cancer patients seen at Tata memorial Hospital, Bombay, during the years 1980-84. The purpose of the study was to identify the association of tobacco, alcohol, diet and literacy status with respect to cancers of two sub sites of tongue namely anterior portion of the tongue (AT) (ICD 1411-1414) and base of the tongue (BT) (ICD 1410). There were 142 male AT patients and 495 BT patients interviewed during the period. 635 interviewed male ...

  13. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T.; Lau, Kar W.; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V.; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk.METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n= 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).RESULTS: Ind...

  14. Risk factors for homicide victimization in post-genocide Rwanda: a population -based case- control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubanzana, Wilson; Ntaganira, Joseph; Freeman, Michael D.; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particular attention on the latent effects of the 1994 genocide. Methods: A population-based matched case–control study was conducted, with sub...

  15. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Trichotillomania: A Bayesian Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Heeren; Charlotte Busana; Charlotte Coussement; Pierre Philippot

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, mindfulness-based interventions combined with habit reversal training have been demonstrated to be particularly suitable for addressing trichotillomania. However, because these studies always combined mindfulness training to habit reversal without including either a mindfulness or habit reversal condition alone, it is still unclear whether clinical benefits are the consequences of mindfulness or merely result from habit reversal training. The primary purpos...

  16. A population based case-control study of agricultural injuries in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Stueland, D. T.; Lee, B.C.; Nordstrom, D L; Layde, P M; Wittman, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify preventable risk factors related to agricultural injuries occurring to children on family farms. SETTING: A geographically defined central region of Wisconsin, USA with nearly 1800 family dairy farms. METHODS: A two year, population based incidence study of occupational injuries among farm residents was conducted. For cases, trained staff abstracted information on the nature, severity, and treatment of the injury from the patient's medical record. Staff also administer...

  17. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Trichotillomania: A Bayesian Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Alexandre; Busana, Charlotte; Coussement, Charlotte; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, mindfulness-based interventions combined with habit reversal training have been demonstrated to be particularly suitable for addressing trichotillomania. However, because these studies always combined mindfulness training to habit reversal without including either a mindfulness or habit reversal condition alone, it is still unclear whether clinical benefits are the consequences of mindfulness or merely result from habit reversal training. The primary purpose of the presen...

  18. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group. PMID:26932391

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Beverly T.; Vangaveti, Venkat N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for lower limb amputation in a specialist foot clinic-based setting. Methods. A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, using clinical and biochemical profiles of diabetic foot patients attending the High Risk Foot Clinic at The Townsville Hospital, Australia, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Results. The total study sample included 129 subjects, comprising 81 males and 48 females with M : F ratio of 1.7 : 1. Twenty-three subjects were Indigenous Australians, representing 17.8% of the study population. The average age of the cohort was 63.4 years ± 14.1 years [CI 90.98–65.89]. Lower limb amputation was identified as a common and significant outcome (n = 44), occurring in 34.1%, more commonly amongst the Indigenous Australians (56.5% versus 29.2%; p = 0.94, OR 0.94). Risk factors most closely associated with amputation included diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.00, OR 4.4), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (p = 0.01, OR 4.1), Charcot's arthropathy (p = 0.01, OR 2.9), and Indigenous ethnicity (p = 0.01, OR 3.4). Although average serum creatinine, corrected calcium, and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) levels were higher amongst amputees they were statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Lower limb amputation is a common outcome and linked to ethnicity and neurovascular diabetic complications amongst subjects with diabetic foot ulcer. Further research is needed to identify why risk of lower limb amputation seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  20. Caesarean Delivery and Postpartum Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based Case Control Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Saucedo, Monica; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide and reached 57% in Brazil in 2014. Although the safety of this surgery has improved in the last decades, this trend is a concern because it carries potential risks to women’s health and may be a modifiable risk factor of maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum maternal death directly associated with cesarean delivery in comparison to vaginal delivery in Brazil. Methods This was a population-based case—control study performed in eight Brazilian states. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidity were excluded. We included 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths from 2009–2012. Controls were selected from the Birth in Brazil Study, a 2011 nationwide survey including 9,221 postpartum women. We examined the association of cesarean section and postpartum maternal death by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Results After controlling for indication bias and confounders, the risk of postpartum maternal death was almost three-fold higher with cesarean than vaginal delivery (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.63–5.06), mainly due to deaths from postpartum hemorrhage and complications of anesthesia. Conclusion Cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor of postpartum maternal death. Clinicians and patients should consider this fact in balancing the benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:27073870

  1. [Analysis suspected allergic factors to shenqi fuzheng injection based on prescription sequence analysis and nested case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study based on twenty 3A grade hospital information system (HIS) database in China, adopt toprescription sequence analysis (PSA) with nested case control study (NCCS) to analysis mainly suspected allergy factor of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (Shenqi Fuzheng). Study design according to start to stop using Shenqi Fuzheng whether using dexamethasone injection will crowd divided into cases group and control group, each case matched 4 controls were selected, two groups according to the ratio of the age and sex matched well. Square test, Fisher exact test, single factor and multiple factor logistic regression were used to analyze data Condition on admission, allergic history, dosage and drug combinations were taken into account in cases of suspected allergic reactions. After analysis in two subgroups we found that the single dose (P = 0.000 2) and the combined use of matrine (P marketing Chinese medicine injection. PMID:25532396

  2. Childhood cancer and residential radon exposure - results of a population-based case-control study in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population-based case-control study on risk factors for childhood malignancies was used to investigate a previously reported association between elevated indoor radon concentrations and childhood cancer, with special regard to leukaemia. The patients were all children suffering from leukaemia and common solid tumours (nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, central nervous system (CNS) tumours) diagnosed between July 1988 and June 1993 in Lower Saxony (Germany) and aged less than 15 years. Two population-based control groups were matched by age and gender to the leukaemia patients. Long-term (1 year) radon measurements were performed in those homes where the children had been living for at least 1 year, with particular attention being paid to those rooms where they had stayed most of the time. Due to the sequential study design, radon measurements in these rooms could only be done for 36% (82 leukaemias, 82 solid tumours and 209 controls) of the 1038 families initially contacted. Overall mean indoor radon concentrations (27 Bq m-3) were low compared with the measured levels in other studies. Using a prespecified cutpoint of 70 Bq m-3, no association with indoor radon concentrations was seen for the leukaemias (odds ratio (OR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.32-5.33); however, the risk estimates were elevated for the solid tumours (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 0.96-7.13), mainly based on 6 CNS tumours. We did not find any evidence for an association between indoor radon and childhood leukaemia, which is in line with a recently published American case-control study. There is little support for an association with CNS tumours in the literature. (orig.)

  3. Childhood cancer and residential radon exposure - results of a population-based case-control study in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaletsch, U.; Kaatsch, P.; Meinert, R.; Schuez, J.; Michaelis, J. [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Czarwinski, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Fachbereich ST, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    A population-based case-control study on risk factors for childhood malignancies was used to investigate a previously reported association between elevated indoor radon concentrations and childhood cancer, with special regard to leukaemia. The patients were all children suffering from leukaemia and common solid tumours (nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, central nervous system (CNS) tumours) diagnosed between July 1988 and June 1993 in Lower Saxony (Germany) and aged less than 15 years. Two population-based control groups were matched by age and gender to the leukaemia patients. Long-term (1 year) radon measurements were performed in those homes where the children had been living for at least 1 year, with particular attention being paid to those rooms where they had stayed most of the time. Due to the sequential study design, radon measurements in these rooms could only be done for 36% (82 leukaemias, 82 solid tumours and 209 controls) of the 1038 families initially contacted. Overall mean indoor radon concentrations (27 Bq m{sup -3}) were low compared with the measured levels in other studies. Using a prespecified cutpoint of 70 Bq m{sup -3}, no association with indoor radon concentrations was seen for the leukaemias (odds ratio (OR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.32-5.33); however, the risk estimates were elevated for the solid tumours (OR: 2.61; 95% CI: 0.96-7.13), mainly based on 6 CNS tumours. We did not find any evidence for an association between indoor radon and childhood leukaemia, which is in line with a recently published American case-control study. There is little support for an association with CNS tumours in the literature. (orig.)

  4. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  5. Risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis associated with conventional and atypical antipsychotics: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Jacobsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atypical and conventional antipsychotics with the risk of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study. DATA SOURCE: Health care databases of Northern Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 3083 adults hospitalized with...... acute pancreatitis (case patients) and 30,830 control subjects. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Controls were selected from the general population by using risk-set sampling and were matched to case patients by age and sex. The date of the case patients' admission for acute pancreatitis was used as the...... index date for the matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis in current users (0-90 days before admission or index date) and former users (> 90 days before admission or index date) of atypical...

  6. Risk factors for hospitalization due to community-acquired sepsis - a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Pottegård, Anton; Laursen, Christian B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate risk factors for hospitalization due to sepsis and to determine whether these risk factors vary by age and gender. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study of all adult patients admitted to a medical ED from September 2010.......3%) were male. 621 (36.3%) patients were admitted with sepsis, 1071 (62.5%) with severe sepsis and 21 (1.2%) with septic shock. Episodes with sepsis of any severity were associated with older age (85+ years adjusted OR 6.02 [95%CI: 5.09-7.12]), immunosuppression (4.41 [3.83-5.09]), alcoholism...

  7. A population-based case-control study of the safety of oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, J.;

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the human teratogenic potential of isoniazid and other anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cases from a large population-based dataset at the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, and controls from the National Birth...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital abnormalities in newborn infants and fetuses diagnosed prenatally during the second and third trimesters, and postnatally from birth to the age of one year. RESULTS: Of 38,151 controls, 29 (0.08%) were exposed to anti-tuberculosis drug treatment during pregnancy; the...... Registry, between 1980 and 1996. Information on all oral anti-tuberculosis drug treatments during pregnancy was medically recorded. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: Women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities (case group), and women who had babies with no congenital abnormality (control group). MAIN...

  8. Multinomial logistic regression approach to haplotype association analysis in population-based case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kao Jau-Tsuen; Chen Yi-Hau

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The genetic association analysis using haplotypes as basic genetic units is anticipated to be a powerful strategy towards the discovery of genes predisposing human complex diseases. In particular, the increasing availability of high-resolution genetic markers such as the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has made haplotype-based association analysis an attractive alternative to single marker analysis. Results We consider haplotype association analysis under the popula...

  9. Optimal DNA Pooling-Based Two-Stage Designs in Case-Control Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yihong; Wang, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Study cost remains the major limiting factor for genome-wide association studies due to the necessity of genotyping a large number of SNPs for a large number of subjects. Both DNA pooling strategies and two-stage designs have been proposed to reduce genotyping costs. In this study, we propose a cost-effective, two-stage approach with a DNA pooling strategy. During stage I, all markers are evaluated on a subset of individuals using DNA pooling. The most promising set of markers is then evaluat...

  10. Determinants of Mortality from Severe Dengue in Brazil: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hentzy Moraes, Giselle; de Fátima Duarte, Eliane; Carmen Duarte, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although increases in severity of mortality from dengue infection have been observed in Brazil, their determinants are not fully known. A case–control study was conducted by using the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, including patients with severe dengue during 2000–2005. Cases were defined as patients that died and controls were those who survived. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed. During the study period, there were 12,321 severe cases of dengue a...

  11. Female Sexual Victimization Predicts Psychosis: A Case-Control Study Based on the Danish Registry System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    the dependent variable was a postindex year diagnosis of psychosis. The OR associated with sexual victimization (OR = 10.04; 95% CI 2.50-40.33) indicted an increased likelihood of psychosis while controlling for the other predictors in the model. Conclusions: This study found that sexual victimization...... significantly increased the likelihood of a diagnosis of psychosis and therefore suggests that there may be a role for traumatic experiences in the etiology of psychosis....

  12. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  13. Epilepsy and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    2007-01-01

    sex, birth year, and calendar date, were assigned to each suicide case. FINDINGS: We identified 21 169 cases of suicide and 423 128 controls. 492 (2.32%) individuals who committed suicide had epilepsy compared with 3140 (0.74%) controls, corresponding to a three times higher risk (rate ratio [RR] 3......BACKGROUND: Studies have linked epilepsy with an increased suicide risk, but the association might be modified by psychiatric, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Suicide cases were identified in the Cause of Death Register in Denmark from 1981 to 1997. Up to 20 controls, matched by...

  14. Dietary pattern and risk of hodgkin lymphoma in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Mara M; Chang, Ellen T; Zhang, Yawei; Fung, Teresa T; Batista, Julie L; Ambinder, Richard F; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E; Birmann, Brenda M

    2015-09-01

    Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk. PMID:26182945

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of atopic dermatitis: a population-based case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jen Tien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with systemic inflammation and induces various comorbid medical diseases. To date, no study has explored the relationship between OSA and atopic dermatitis (AD, an inflammatory and autoimmune skin disorder. This study investigated the longitudinal risk for AD in patients with OSA. METHODS: A random sample of 1,000,000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was collected. From this sample, 1222 patients with newly-diagnosed OSA between 2000 and 2005 were identified and compared with a matched cohort of 18330 patients without OSA. All patients were tracked for 5.5 years from the index date in order to identify which patients subsequently developed AD. RESULTS: During the 5.5-year follow-up period, the incidence rates of AD in the OSA cohort and comparison groups were 9.81 and 6.21 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, obesity, allergy, allergic rhinitis, asthma, monthly income, and geographic location, patients with OSA were 1.5-times more likely to develop AD than patients without OSA (95% CI = 1.15-1.95, p = 0.0025. The hazard risk for AD was greater in male OSA patients and young OSA patients (0-18 and 19-34 years, adjusted HRs being 1.53 (95% CI = 1.14-2.06, p = 0.005, 4.01(95% CI = 1.57-10.26, p = 0.0038 and 1.75(95% CI = 1.00-3.04, p = 0.0483, respectively. The log-rank test indicated that OSA patients <35-years-old had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of AD than those patient of the same age in the comparison group (p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Patients with OSA, especially male patients and younger patients, are at an increased risk for AD later in life.

  16. Surgical History and the Risk of Endometriosis: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xishi; Long, Qiqi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Women tend to receive more surgical procedures than men. Our mouse study shows that surgical stress promotes the development of endometriosis. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that surgery increases the risk of endometriosis. We recruited 208 patients with ovarian endometrioma and 212 age-matched patients with ovarian teratoma and retrieved information on the history of any surgical procedures after menarche, grouped by laparotomy, laparoscopy, gynecologically related procedures, cesarean section, and surgeries performed on torso and extremities was recorded. We then evaluated the association, if any, between endometriosis and history of surgical procedures. Cases and controls were comparable with respect to age, marital status, education level, and occupation. Eleven (5.3%) cases had laparotomy before the index surgery while 4 (1.9%) controls did. Sixty-six (31.7%) cases had Cesarean section while 53 (25.0%) controls did. Multivariate analysis identified age, at the index surgery laparotomy, and cesarean section as 3 factors positively associated with the risk of endometriosis while parity was found to be negatively associated with the risk. Laparotomy was associated with increased risk of endometriosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-12.31), while cesarean section was associated with 2-fold increase in risk (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.31-3.55). Both laparotomy and cesarean section may increase the risk of endometriosis probably by activation of adrenergic signaling, thus facilitating angiogenesis and accelerating the growth of endometriotic lesions that are already in existence. This finding may have important ramifications for the perioperative management of patients with increased risk or recurrence risk of endometriosis. PMID:26919976

  17. Generalized functional linear models for gene-based case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Carter, Tonia C; Lobach, Iryna; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Weeks, Daniel E; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-11-01

    By using functional data analysis techniques, we developed generalized functional linear models for testing association between a dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants in a genetic region while adjusting for covariates. Both fixed and mixed effect models are developed and compared. Extensive simulations show that Rao's efficient score tests of the fixed effect models are very conservative since they generate lower type I errors than nominal levels, and global tests of the mixed effect models generate accurate type I errors. Furthermore, we found that the Rao's efficient score test statistics of the fixed effect models have higher power than the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified version (SKAT-O) in most cases when the causal variants are both rare and common. When the causal variants are all rare (i.e., minor allele frequencies less than 0.03), the Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests have similar or slightly lower power than SKAT and SKAT-O. In practice, it is not known whether rare variants or common variants in a gene region are disease related. All we can assume is that a combination of rare and common variants influences disease susceptibility. Thus, the improved performance of our models when the causal variants are both rare and common shows that the proposed models can be very useful in dissecting complex traits. We compare the performance of our methods with SKAT and SKAT-O on real neural tube defects and Hirschsprung's disease datasets. The Rao's efficient score test statistics and the global tests are more sensitive than SKAT and SKAT-O in the real data analysis. Our methods can be used in either gene-disease genome-wide/exome-wide association studies or candidate gene analyses. PMID:25203683

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013 influe

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene A1298C polymorphism in pediatric stroke--case-control and family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Paweł; Kopyta, Ilona; Emich-Widera, Ewa; Pilarska, Ewa; Pienczk-Ręcławowicz, Karolina; Kaciński, Marek; Wendorff, Janusz; Żak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors of pediatric stroke. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme, which regulates homocysteine metabolism, and some polymorphisms of gene encoding this enzyme are associated with a decreased activity of the enzyme. The aim of the study was to assess an association between the A1298C polymorphism and pediatric stroke. We also evaluated a possible synergistic effect of A1298C and C677T polymorphisms of this gene. The study group consisted of 88 children after ischemic stroke, 142 of their parents and 111 controls. The A1298C polymorphism was genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We used 2 study designs: a case-control model and a family-based association test. The Statistica 7.1 and EpiInfo 6 softwares were used in all analyses. We did not observe any statistically significant differences either in the transmission of the A allele in the family-based test or in the frequency of the A allele in the patients group compared with the controls. We also did not notice any significant additive or synergistic effects between the A1298C and C677T polymorphisms. An analysis of the results obtained in this study and a critical review of previously published studies indicate that the A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is not related to ischemic stroke in children. PMID:25440348

  20. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  1. Driver Sleepiness and Risk of Car Crashes in Shenyang, a Chinese Northeastern City: Population-based Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAI-FEN LIU; SONG HAN; DUO-HONG LIANG; FENG-ZHI WANG; XIN-ZHU SHI; JIAN YU; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the association of driver sleepiness with the risk of car crashes.Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Shenyang, a northeastern city in China, between November 2001 and July 2002. The case group comprised 406 car drivers involved in crashes, and 438 car drivers recruited at randomly selected sites, and on the day of week, and the time of day when they were driving on highways in the study region during the study period were used as control groups. Face-to-face interviews with drivers were conducted according to a well-structured questionnaire covering the circumstances of their current trip and their background information.Stanford sleepiness scale and Epworth sleepiness scale were used to quantify acute sleepiness and chronic sleepiness respectively. Results There was a strong association between chronic sleepiness and the risk of car crash. Significantly increased risk of crash was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Epworth sleepiness score ≥ 10 vs <10; adjusted odds ratio 2.07, 95%confidence interval 1.30 to 3.29), but no increased risk was associated with measures of acute sleepiness. Conclusions Chronic sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of car crash. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  3. Risk of miscarriage among users of corticosteroid hormones: a population-based nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn AM; Nielsen RB; Nørgaard M; Nohr EA; Ehrenstein V

    2013-01-01

    Anne-Mette B Bjørn,1 Rikke B Nielsen,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Ellen A Nohr,2 Vera Ehrenstein11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: The purpose of this nested case-control study in Denmark was to study the association between use of corticosteroids and risk of miscarriage.Methods: We identified prescriptions for corticosteroids before the miscarriage/index date. We est...

  4. Exposure to pesticides and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Bonvicini; Norina Marcello; Jessica Mandrioli; Vladimiro Pietrini; Marco Vinceti

    2010-01-01

    A few epidemiologic studies have suggested an association of agricultural work and pesticides exposure with a severe degenerative disease of the motor neurons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), though conflicting results have also been provided. We investigated through a populationbased case-control study the possible relation between overall occupational exposure to pesticides and ALS risk in the northern Italy municipality of Reggio Emilia. By administering a questionnaire, we investigat...

  5. Red meat-derived heterocyclic amines increase risk of colon cancer: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Helmus, Drew S.; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Zelenskiy, Svetlana; Tucker, Thomas C.; Li LI

    2013-01-01

    Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one pathway believed to drive the association of colon cancer with meat consumption. Limited data exist on the associations of individual HCAs and PAHs in red or white meat with colon cancer. Analyzing data from a validated meat preparation questionnaire completed by 1,062 incident colon cancer cases and 1,645 population controls from an ongoing case-control study, risks of colon cancer were estim...

  6. Occupational risk factors for testicular cancer: a registry-based case-control study in Rhineland Palatinate – Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamyaa; Hammer, Gaël P.; Emrich, Katharina; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testicular cancer affects mainly men below the age of 50. An association with occupation and social status has been suggested but risk factors are not well understood. A registry-based case-control study focusing on occupation was performed in Germany. Methods: All 348 testicular cancer cases with available gainful occupational information registered between 2000 and 2005; as well as 564 suitable controls (from a pool of other cancers) were drawn from the Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Slightly elevated OR were observed for technicians and related professionals (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00–2.63) and for clerical support workers (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14–2.56). This increase was highest in the age group 20–50 for technicians (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23–3.33) and clerks (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.30–3.09), respectively. An association with testicular cancer was observed for no other occupation. Conclusion: An increased risk of testicular cancer was observed for technicians and related professionals and clerical support workers. This could be related to socioeconomic status or sedentary life style, two factors that were identified in previous studies. While the feasibility of a purely registry-based study was shown, missing occupational data and the choice of cancer controls represent challenges to the validity of this approach. PMID:24265602

  7. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  8. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS: A HOSPITAL BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Somjit, Pornpana; Rattanamongkolgul, Suthee; Siri, Sukhontha; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) among type 2 diabetics in Thailand. We conducted a hospital based case-control study in Nakhon Nayok Province, between August 2008 and July 2010. The subjects were comprised of 230 cases (with DR) and 230 controls (without DR) who were gender and age matched. All subjects were interviewed and their medical records were reviewed. Seventy-five percent of subjects were married and 42% were aged 60-69 years. Fifty-five percent had a primary school education, 27% had no occupation and 67% had family income > 10,000 Baht per month. On multiple logistic regression analysis, factors associated with DR were: having a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 141-160 mg/dl, 161-180 mg/dl and > 180 mg/dl [OR = 7.23; 95% confidence interval CI: 2.80-18.72; OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.66-11.33, and OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.39-10.18], having a HbA1c > 9% (OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.15-4.43), having a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.04-4.19), and having hypertension (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.19-2.71). Elevated blood sugar, blood pressure and body weight are all associated with DR. Further study is needed to determine if controlling these factors could reduce the prevalence of DR. PMID:26513935

  9. Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20, followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4, ocular diseases (n = 3, abortion (n = 2, and congenital infection (n = 1. Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-9.9 and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9 were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.

  10. Familial correlations of onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma: a population-based case-control family study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available There was lack of evidence for familial aggregation in onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in Chinese population. We conducted a population-based case-control family study to examine familial correlation of age of HCC onset in Taixing, China.A total of 202 cases and 202 matched controls as well as their relatives were included in the study. Lifetime cumulative risks of HCC were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach. Cross ratios (CRs were obtained from stratified Cox proportional hazard models, to assess the familial correlation of onset age.The mean age of HCC onset was decreased as increasing number of HCC cases in a family. The onset age was the earliest for first-degree relatives, intermediate for second-degree relatives, and latest for non-blood relatives (spouse (log-rank test, P<0.01. The onset age was significantly correlated between probands and their relatives. In stratified Cox proportional hazard models, the CRs for the probands versus their fathers, mothers, siblings and uncles/aunts were 6.25 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.84-21.25, 9.81 (95% CI: 1.24-77.56, 6.22 (95% CI: 1.37-28.36 and 3.24 (95% CI: 1.26-8.33, respectively. After adjustment for hepatitis B virus infection, the CRs remained significant.This current study suggested a significant correlation of onset age for HCC among blood relatives. Familial HCC cases yielded earlier age of onset and their relatives have higher HCC risk in early age, highlighting intensive surveillance should be start at an earlier age for individuals with family history of HCC.

  11. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Teglbjaerg, Peter Stubbe; Sabroe, Svend; Kolstad, Henrik A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Hardell, Lennart; Cyr, Diane; Ballard, Terri; Zambon, Paola; Morales Suárez-Varela, María M; Stang, Andreas; Olsen, Jorn

    2002-06-01

    Small bowel carcinoid tumor (SBC) is a rare disease of unknown etiology but with an age-, sex-, and place-specific occurrence that may indicate an occupational origin. A European multicenter population-based case-control study was conducted from 1995 through 1997. Incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age (n = 101) were identified, together with 3335 controls sampled from the catchment area of the cases. Histological review performed by a reference pathologist left 99 cases for study; 84 cases and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio [OR]) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, employment in wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 34.9]) and among men, manufacture of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.2 to 22.4), footwear (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 16.1), and metal structures (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 10.4). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters, and welders (men). The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0 to 4.2). Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead was suggested as another potential occupational exposure (OR, 9.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 107). This explorative study suggests an association between certain occupational exposures and SBC, but some of these associations could be attributable to chance. All findings should be regarded as tentative. PMID:12085477

  12. Long-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic stroke. A register-based case-control study using modelled NOx as exposure proxy

    OpenAIRE

    Oudin, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Strömberg, Ulf; Jakobsson, Kristina; Björk, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution is a hypothesized risk factor for ischemic stroke. In a large case-control study with a complete study base, we investigated whether hospital admissions for ischemic stroke were associated with residential concentrations of outdoor NOx, as a proxy for exposure to air pollution, in the region of Scania, Southern Sweden. Methods We used a two-phase case-control study design, including as first-phase controls all individuals born between 1923 and 19...

  13. Statin use and the risk of colorectal cancer:A population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shu-Chen Ho; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Toinvestigatewhethertheuseo.. Statinsisassoci-o investigate wwhether the use ofstatins is associated wwith colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Taiwwan. Data wwere retrospectively collected f..rom the Taiwwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cases consisted of.. All patients wwho were aged 50 years and older and had a first-time diagnosis of.. Colorectal cancer betwween the period 2005 and 2008. The controls matched to cases by age, sex, and index date. Adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We examined 1156 colorectal cancer cases and 4624 controls. The unadjusted Ors .or any statin prescription wwas 1.10 (95% CI=0.94-1.30)andthead- andthead-=1.330) and the adjusted OR 1.09 (95% CI=0.91-1.30).Whenstatin Whenstatin=Whenstatin0.91-1.330). When statin use categorized by cumulative dose, the adjusted Ors wwere 0.99 (95% CI=0.78-1.27).orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-1.277) or the group wwith cumulative statin use beloww 105 def..ined daily doses (DDDs); 1.077 (95% CI=0.78-1.49) .orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-or the group cumulative statin use betwween 106 and 298.66 DDDs; and 1.330 (95% CI=0.96-1.75).orthegroupwithcu- ithcu-=1.775) or the group wwith cumulative statin use of. 298.66 DDDs or more compared with nonusers. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide support for a protective effect of statins against colorectal cancer.

  14. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39, which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92, residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38. In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76, whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  15. Hormonal exposures and the risk of intracranial meningioma in women: a population-based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of exogenous hormone exposures in the development of meningioma is unclear, but these exposures have been proposed as one hypothesis to explain the over-abundance of such tumors in women. The association between oral contraception (OC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and intracranial meningioma in women was investigated using a population-based, matched case-control study. Exposures for 143 cases and 286 controls matched on age within five years were obtained by interview. Diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically and estrogen and progesterone receptor assays conducted. Although risk of meningioma appeared modestly elevated in past OC users (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8 – 2.7), and in current users (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.5 – 12.6), the confidence intervals were wide. No significant association between meningioma risk and duration of OC use was found. Likewise, risk of meningioma was only weakly associated with past use of HRT (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 – 1.3), and not at all with current use of HRT (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5 – 2.2). Of 142 available specimens, 2 (1%) expressed estrogen receptors, whereas 130 (92%) expressed progesterone receptors (PR). OC use was associated with increased risk of a meningioma expressing less rather than more PR (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3 – 8.0). Overall, in post menopausal women, HRT use appeared to confer a non-significant protective effect, and was not associated with low or high PR expressing meningiomas. This study found little evidence of associations between meningioma and exogenous hormone exposures in women but did suggest that some hormonal exposures may influence tumor biology in those women who develop meningioma

  16. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  17. Travel-related venous thrombosis: results from a large population-based case control study (MEGA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C Cannegieter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population (MEGA study. We also assessed the combined effect of travel and prothrombotic mutations, body mass index, height, and oral contraceptive use. Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 y with a first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis. Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 h in the 8 wk preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of venous thrombosis 2-fold (odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by car, bus, or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by car, bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with factor V Leiden (OR 8.1; 95% CI 2.7-24.7, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30 kg/m(2 (OR 9.9; 95% CI 3.6-27.6, in those who were more than 1.90 m tall (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.4-15.4, and in those who used oral contraceptives (estimated OR > 20. For air travel these synergistic findings were more apparent, while people shorter than 1.60 m had an increased risk of thrombosis after air travel (OR 4.9; 95% CI 0.9-25.6 as well. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.

  18. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Hyuk Park; Hwa Jung Kim; Geun-Yong Kwon; Jin Gwack; Young-Joon Park; Seung-Ki Youn; Jun-Wook Kwon; Byung-Guk Yang; Moo-Song Lee; Miran Jung; Hanyi Lee; Byung-Yool Jun; Hyun-Sul Lim

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD). However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study’s findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Methods Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years), s...

  19. Cancer risk in long-term users of valproate: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren; Bjerrum, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have shown promise as targeted cancer therapy. Valproate, an older anticonvulsant, has been shown to possess HDAC inhibitory activity. We undertook this case-control study to clarify whether long-term users of valproate had a reduced cancer in......-term valproate use is not associated with a reduced cancer risk. Our study does not support HDAC inhibition as a pharmacologic principle for general chemoprevention.......BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have shown promise as targeted cancer therapy. Valproate, an older anticonvulsant, has been shown to possess HDAC inhibitory activity. We undertook this case-control study to clarify whether long-term users of valproate had a reduced cancer...... incidence. If so, it would support HDAC inhibition as a pharmacologic principle in chemoprevention. METHODS: We identified 149,417 incident cancer cases in Denmark during the study period 2000 through 2005, and 597,668 age- and gender-matched controls. Data on history of cancer, past hospital admission...

  20. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  1. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: A Community-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension.We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis.After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified analyses

  2. Environmental risk factors for women with polycystic ovary syndrome in china: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X F; Liu, Y; Xu, L Z; Zhou, L L; Tang, L L; Zhuang, J; Li, T T; Guo, W Q; Hu, R; Qiu, D S; Han, D W

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of PCOS. The present study aimed to explore the potential environmental risk factors of PCOS. A cross-sectional study and stratified population-based case-control study were carried out. Pre-designed questionnaires were prepared, including questions about medication history, contact history of endocrine disruptors (EDs), environment and habituation. Fasting blood was collected for measurement of sex hormone, glucose and insulin. Matched logistic regression analysis was used to find the potential independent risk factor of PCOS. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four participants (aged 12-44 years) were analyzed in the cross-sectional investigation. One hundred sixty-nine PCOS patients and 338 matched controls were compared. PCOS patients were more frequent than controls in eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001), contacting pesticide (p=0.021), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.001), living beside a garbage heap (p=0.001), working at an acid plant (p=0.028), taking Chinese patent drugs (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.028) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001). However, PCOS patients were less likely to use kitchen ventilators (p=0.002), eat canned food (p=0.049), contact decorated materials, use skin care products (p=0.01) and cosmetics (p=0.027). No difference was found in taking antiepileptic drugs (p=0.93). Eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001, OR=44.449), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.03, OR=5.7) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001, OR=29.632) were found to be the independent risk factors for PCOS. The existence of an association between EDs and PCOS was proved. Plastic-packaged food, fruit with pericarp and drinking alcohol should be avoided as possible as we can. However, the causal relationships among these factors and PCOS should be proved by further research. PMID:25001653

  3. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  4. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study of...... 1.01, 2.02), liver 1.81 (95% CI 1.18, 2.80), lung 1.38 (95% CI 1.23, 1.54), pancreas 1.35 (95% CI 1.02, 1.79) and kidney 1.39 (95% CI 1.01, 1.91). For tobacco-related cancers, the OR was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09, 1.22) and for the remaining cancer sites 1.01 (95% CI 0.94, 1.08). Sub-group analyses revealed...

  5. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  6. Use of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms and risk of prostate cancer in Swedish men : nationwide, population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David; Garmo, Hans; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Mucci, Lorelei; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer risk. Design Nationwide, population based case-control study for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2007-09 within the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0. Setting The National Prostate Cancer Register, National Patient Register, census, and Prescribed Drug Register in Sweden, from which we obtained data on 5-ARI use before date of prostate cance...

  7. Use of 5α-reductase inhibitors for lower urinary tract symptoms and risk of prostate cancer in Swedish men: nationwide, population based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David; Garmo, Hans; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Mucci, Lorelei; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer risk. Design: Nationwide, population based case-control study for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2007-09 within the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0. Setting: The National Prostate Cancer Register, National Patient Register, census, and Prescribed Drug Register in Sweden, from which we obtained data on 5-ARI use before date of prostate cancer ...

  8. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistie Bezatu; Berhane Yemane; Worku Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 un...

  9. Driver sleepiness and risk of motor vehicle crash injuries: A population-based case control study in Fiji (TRIP 12) ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Josephine; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Robinson, Elizabeth; McCaig, Eddie; Connor, Jennie; Jackson, Rod; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Published studies investigating the role of driver sleepiness in road crashes in low and middle-income countries have largely focused on heavy vehicles. We investigated the contribution of driver sleepiness to four-wheel motor vehicle crashes in Fiji, a middle-income Pacific Island country. Method The population-based case control study included 131 motor vehicles involved in crashes where at least one person died or was hospitalised (cases) and 752 motor vehicles identified in r...

  10. Genetic Variability in Energy Balance and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Population-Based Case-Control Study in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori B.; Zhang, Xuemei; Prizment, Anna E.; Anderson, Kristin E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Accumulating evidence suggests that energy imbalance plays a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes regulating energy homeostasis influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated this question in a case-control study conducted from 1994 to 1998. Methods Cases (n=173) were ascertained from hospitals in the Twin Cities and Mayo Clinic, Minnesota. Controls (n=476) were identified from the general population and frequency matched to cases by age and sex. Seven SNPs were evaluated in relation to pancreatic cancer using unconditional logistic regression. Results After adjustment for confounders, the leucine/proline or proline/proline genotype of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene rs16139 was associated with a lower risk than the leucine/leucine genotype [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) (95% CI): 0.40 (0.15, 0.91)]. Conversely, an increased risk was observed for the glycine/arginine or arginine/arginine genotype of the adrenoceptor beta 2, surface (ADRB2) gene rs1042713 as compared with the glycine/glycine genotype [OR (95% CI): 1.52 (1.01, 2.31)]. Conclusions This study first reveals that SNPs in genes modulating energy intake (NPY) and energy expenditure (ADRB2) altered pancreatic cancer risk. If confirmed by other studies, our findings may shed new light on the etiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24201779

  11. Exposure to pesticides and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bonvicini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few epidemiologic studies have suggested an association of agricultural work and pesticides exposure with a severe degenerative disease of the motor neurons, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, though conflicting results have also been provided. We investigated through a populationbased case-control study the possible relation between overall occupational exposure to pesticides and ALS risk in the northern Italy municipality of Reggio Emilia. By administering a questionnaire, we investigated occupational history and leisure-time habits of the 41 ALS patients diagnosed in the 1995-2006 period, and of 82 age- and sex-matched randomly sampled population controls. More cases than controls were found to have been exposed to pesticides for at least six months (31.7% vs 13.4%, respectively, in all cases within the occupational environment. In a conditional logistic regression model, we found an excess ALS risk associated with exposure to pesticides, with a relative risk of 3.6 (95% confidence interval 1.2-10.5. Such association persisted after inclusion in the statistical analysis of potential confounders. Despite the limited statistical stability of the risk estimates, these results appear to indicate that occupational exposure to pesticides is a risk factor for ALS, suggesting the need to further investigate this issue.

  12. Use of antipsychotics and risk of venous thromboembolism in postmenopausal women. A population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Liou, Jun-Ting; Huang, Yun-Wen; Lin, Chen Wei; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chu, Che-Li; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Wang, Yun-Han

    2016-06-01

    Despite continued uncertainty of venous thromboembolism (VTE) caused from antipsychotic agents, this safety issue has not been examined in postmenopausal women, a population with high usages of antipsychotics and at high risk for VTE. We assessed whether antipsychotic use was associated with an increased VTE risk in women after menopause. We conducted a nested case-control study of all Taiwanese women aged ≥ 50 years (n = 316,132) using a nationwide healthcare claims database between 2000 and 2011. All newly diagnosed VTE patients treated with an anticoagulant or thrombectomy surgery were identified as cases (n = 2,520) and individually matched to select controls (n = 24,223) by cohort entry date, age, cancer diagnosis and major surgery procedure. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of VTE associated with antipsychotics were estimated by multivariate conditional logistic regressions. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with a 1.90-fold (95 % CI = 1.64-2.19) increased VTE risk compared with nonuse in postmenopausal women. The VTE risk existed in a dose-dependent fashion (test for trend, p 30 days. In conclusion, current use of antipsychotics is significantly associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of VTE in postmenopausal women, especially for those currently taking high-dose or receiving parenteral antipsychotics. PMID:26941052

  13. First-Trimester Maternal Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Infant Oral Clefts in Norway: A Population-based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa A. DeRoo; Wilcox, Allen J.; Drevon, Christian A.; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2008-01-01

    Although alcohol is a recognized teratogen, evidence is limited on alcohol intake and oral cleft risk. The authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and oral clefts in a national, population-based case-control study of infants born in 1996–2001 in Norway. Participants were 377 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, 196 with cleft palate only, and 763 controls. Mothers reported first-trimester alcohol consumption in self-administered questionnaires com...

  14. Polymorphisms of Genes in the Lipid Metabolism Pathway and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Stones: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chen, Bingshu E.; Rosenberg, Philip; Sakoda, Lori C.; Jie DENG; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Yeager, Meredith; Welch, Robert; Chanock, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, and ampulla of Vater, are uncommon, yet highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the primary risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. We examined the associations of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five genes in the lipid metabolism pathway with the risks of biliary cancers and stones in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. We included 235 gallbladder, 125 extra...

  15. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  16. Maternal outcome in multiple versus singleton pregnancies inNorthern Tanzania:A registry-based case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enid Simon Chiwanga; Gileard Massenga; Pendo Mlay; Joseph Obure; Michael Johnson Mahande

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare maternal outcome of multiple versus singleton pregnancies at a tertiary hospital inTanzania.Methods:A case control study was designed using maternally linked data fromKilimanjaroChristianMedicalCentre(KCMC) medical birth registry for the period of2000-2010.A total of822 multiple gestations(cases) were matched with822 singletons(controls) with respect to maternal age at delivery and parity.The odds ratio(ORs) with95% confidence intervals (CIs) for adverse maternal outcome between singleton and multiple gestations were computed in a multivariable logistic regression model.Results:Of the33997 births, there were822(2.1%) multiples.Compared with singletons, women with multiple gestations had increased risk for preeclampsia(OR2.6;95%CI:1.7-3.9), preterm labour(OR5.6;95%CI:4.2-7.4), antepartum haemorrhage(OR1.6;95%CI:1.1-2.3), anaemia(OR2.0;95%CI:1.6-2.6) and caesarean section (OR1.5;95%CI:1.4-1.7).In addition, there were six maternal deaths among women with multiple gestations, of which all were attributed to postpartum haemorrhage.This accounted for a case fatality rate of15.8%.Conclusions:Multiple gestations are associated with adverse maternal outcomes.Close follow-up and timely interventions may help to prevent poor outcomes related to multiple gestations.These findings suggest the needs for clinicians to counsel women with multiple gestations during prenatal care regarding the potential risks.

  17. Travel-Related Venous Thrombosis: Results from a Large Population-Based Case Control Study (MEGA Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Houwelingen, van Hans C.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered. Methods and Findings We studied the effect of various modes and duration of travel o

  18. Association between microRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk based on the findings of 66 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Pin Ma

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules, which participate in diverse biological processes and may regulate tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNA may contribute to diverse functional consequences, including cancer development, by altering miRNA expression. Numerous studies have shown the association between miRNA SNPs and cancer risk; however, the results are generally debatable and inconclusive, mainly due to limited statistical power. To assess the relationship between the five most common SNPs (miR-146a rs2910164, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-499 rs3746444, miR-149 rs2292832, and miR-27a rs895919 and the risk cancer development, we performed a meta-analysis of 66 published case-control studies. Crude odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the strength of the association. No association was observed between rs2910164 and cancer risk in the overall group. However, in stratified analysis, we found that either the rs2910164 C allele or the CC genotype was protective against bladder cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer, whereas it was a risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN. Further, rs11614913 was found to be significantly associated with decreased cancer risk, in particular, for bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and SCCHN. For miR-499, a significant association was found between the rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer risk in pooled analysis. In subgroup analysis, similar results were mainly observed for breast cancer. Finally, no association was found between rs2292832 and rs895919 polymorphisms and cancer risk in the overall group and in stratified analysis. In summary, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-146a rs2910164, and miR-499 rs3746444 are risk factors for cancer development, whereas mir-149 rs2292832 and miR-27a rs895919 are not associated with cancer risk.

  19. Perinatal Mortality Magnitude, Determinants and Causes in West Gojam: Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgu, Robel; Molla, Mitike; Sibley, Lynn; Gebremariam, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia, even if a significant reduction in child mortality is recorded recently, perinatal mortality rate is still very high. This study assessed the magnitude, determinants and causes of perinatal death in West Gojam zone, Ethiopia. Methods and materials A nested case control study was conducted on 102 cases (mothers who lost their newborns for perinatal death) and 204 controls (mothers who had live infants in the same year) among a cohort of 4097 pregnant mothers in three districts of the West Gojam zone, from Feb 2011 to Mar 2012. Logistic regression models were used to identify the independent determinant factors for perinatal mortality. The World Health Organization verbal autopsy instrument for neonatal death was used to collect mortality data and cause of death was assigned by a pediatrician and a neonatologist. Result Perinatal mortality rate was 25.1(95% CI 20.3, 29.9) per 1000 live and stillbirths. Primiparous mothers had a higher risk of losing their newborn babies for perinatal death than mothers who gave birth to five or more children (AOR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.03–9.60). Babies who were born to women who had a previous history of losing their baby to perinatal death during their last pregnancy showed higher odds of perinatal death than their counterparts (AOR = 9.55, 95% CI 4.67–19.54). Preterm newborns were more at risk for perinatal death (AOR = 9.44, 95%CI 1.81–49.22) than term babies. Newborns who were born among a household of more than two had a lesser risk of dying during the perinatal period as compared to those who were born among a member of only two. Paradoxically, home delivery was found to protect against perinatal death (AOR = 0.07 95% CI, 0.02–0.24) in comparison to institutional delivery. Bacterial sepsis, birth asphyxia and obstructed labour were among the leading causes of perinatal death. Conclusion Perinatal mortality rate remains considerably high, but proper maternal and child health care services can

  20. Periodontitis among poor rural Indian mothers increases the risk of low birth weight babies: a hospital-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Pulikkotil Shaju; Nath, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major public health problems in India. Hence, there is a need to identify risk factors that, when modified, will reduce the burden of unhealthy children on the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to determine whether periodontitis among mothers in the rural population of India is a risk factor for LBW babies. Methods A hospital-based case control study was conducted among 340 postpartum mothers. The cases consisted of 170 women who h...

  1. Methodology Series Module 2: Case-control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases), whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls). The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive - particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective). It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases - selection bias and recall bias. PMID:27057012

  2. Methodology series module 2: Case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case-Control study design is a type of observational study. In this design, participants are selected for the study based on their outcome status. Thus, some participants have the outcome of interest (referred to as cases, whereas others do not have the outcome of interest (referred to as controls. The investigator then assesses the exposure in both these groups. The investigator should define the cases as specifically as possible. Sometimes, definition of a disease may be based on multiple criteria; thus, all these points should be explicitly stated in case definition. An important aspect of selecting a control is that they should be from the same 'study base' as that of the cases. We can select controls from a variety of groups. Some of them are: General population; relatives or friends; and hospital patients. Matching is often used in case-control control studies to ensure that the cases and controls are similar in certain characteristics, and it is a useful technique to increase the efficiency of the study. Case-Control studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive – particularly when compared with cohort studies (prospective. It is useful to study rare outcomes and outcomes with long latent periods. This design is not very useful to study rare exposures. Furthermore, they may also be prone to certain biases – selection bias and recall bias.

  3. A likelihood-based method for haplotype association studies of case-control data with genotyping uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the associations between traits and haplotypes based on Fl (fluorescent intensity) data sets, We consider a clustering algorithm based on mixtures of t distributions to obtain all possible genotypes of each individual (i.e. "GenoSpectrum"). We then propose a likelihood-based approach that incorporates the genotyping uncertainty to assessing the associations between traits and haplotypes through a haplotypebased logistic regression model, Simulation studies show that our likelihood-based method can reduce the impact induced by genotyping errors.

  4. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  5. On combining family and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Landi, Maria T

    2008-11-01

    Studies to detect genetic association with disease can be family-based, often using families with multiple affected members, or population based, as in population-based case-control studies. If data on both study types are available from the same population, it is useful to combine them to improve power to detect genetic associations. Two aspects of the data need to be accommodated, the sampling scheme and potential residual correlations among family members. We propose two approaches for combining data from a case-control study and a family study that collected families with multiple cases. In the first approach, we view a family as the sampling unit and specify the joint likelihood for the family members using a two-level mixed effects model to account for random familial effects and for residual genetic correlations among family members. The ascertainment of the families is accommodated by conditioning on the ascertainment event. The individuals in the case-control study are treated as families of size one, and their unconditional likelihood is combined with the conditional likelihood for the families. This approach yields subject specific maximum likelihood estimates of covariate effects. In the second approach, we view an individual as the sampling unit. The sampling scheme is accommodated using two-phase sampling techniques, marginal covariate effects are estimated, and correlations among family members are accounted for in the variance calculations. The models are compared in simulations. Data from a case-control and a family study from north-eastern Italy on melanoma and a low-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, MC1R, are used to illustrate the approaches. PMID:18454494

  6. Diagnosis of Transverse Sinus Hypoplasia in Magnetic Resonance Venography: New Insights Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Combined Dataset of Venous Outflow Impairment Case-Control Studies: Post Hoc Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chi; Hsu, Hung-Yi; Chung, Chih-Ping; Sheng, Wen-Yung; Chan, Lung; Wu, Jiang; Hu, Han-Hwa

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies of transverse sinus (TS) hypoplasia, discrepancies between TS diameter measured by magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and contrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance (contrast T1) were observed. To investigate these discrepancies, and considering that TS hypoplasia is associated with neurological disorders, we performed a post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data from 3 case-control studies on transient global amnesia (TGA), transient monocular blindness (TMB), and panic disorders while retaining the original inclusion and exclusion criteria. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of 131 subjects was reviewed to evaluate TS diameter and the location and degree of venous flow stenosis and obstruction.MRV without contrast revealed that TS hypoplasia was observed in 69 subjects, whom we classified into 2 subgroups according to the concordance with contrast T1 observations: concordance indicated anatomically small TS (30 subjects), and discrepancy indicated that the MRV diagnosis is in fact flow-related and that TS is not anatomically small (39 subjects). The latter subgroup was associated with at least 1 site of venous compression/stenosis in the internal jugular vein (IJV) or the left brachiocephalic vein (BCV) (P < 0.001), which was significantly larger in patients than controls. Compensatory dilatation of contralateral TS diameter was only observed with MRV, not with contrast T1 imaging.The clinical implication of these results is that using MRV only, IJV/BCV compression/stenosis may be misdiagnosed as TS hypoplasia. And contralateral TS have no compensatory dilatation in its diameter in contrast T1 imaging, just compensatory increased flow volume. PMID:26962781

  7. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  8. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  9. Humidifier Disinfectants Are a Cause of Lung Injury among Adults in South Korea: A Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyuk Park

    Full Text Available An outbreak of lung injury among South Korean adults was examined in a hospital-based case-control study, and the suspected cause was exposure to humidifier disinfectant (HD. However, a case-control study with community-dwelling controls was needed to validate the previous study's findings, and to confirm the exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury.Each case of lung injury was matched with four community-dwelling controls, according to age (±3 years, sex, residence, and history of childbirth since 2006 (for women. Environmental risk factors, which included type and use of humidifier and HD, were investigated using a structured questionnaire during August 2011. The exposure to HD was calculated for both cases and controls, and the corresponding risks of lung injury were compared.Among 28 eligible cases, 16 patients agreed to participate, and 60 matched controls were considered eligible for this study. The cases were more likely to have been exposed to HD (odds ratio: 116.1, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-2,063.7. All cases were exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate, and the risk of lung injury increased with the cumulative exposure, duration of exposure, and exposure per day.This study revealed a statistically significant exposure-response relationship between HD and lung injury. Therefore, continuous monitoring and stricter evaluation of environmental chemicals' safety should be conducted.

  10. Hypothyroid symptoms fail to predict thyroid insufficiency in old people. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Bülow Pedersen, Inge; Knudsen, Nils;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinic-based studies have indicated that older hypothyroid patients may present only few symptoms. METHODS: In this population-based study of hypothyroidism, we investigated how the power of symptom presence predicts overt hypothyroidism in both young and older subjects. We identified...... patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in a population (n=140, median TSH (95%-CI): 54.5 (28.3-94.8), median total T4: 37 (18-52)), and individually matched each patient with four controls free of thyroid disease (n=560). Participants filled out questionnaires concerning presence and...... duration of symptoms. We compared the usefulness of hypothyroidism-associated symptoms in predicting overt hypothyroidism in different age groups (young: <50 years, middle age: 50-59 years, old: ≥ 60 years) also taking various confounders into account. RESULTS: In young hypothyroid patients, all 13...

  11. Acute maternal infection and risk of pre-eclampsia: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection in pregnancy may be involved in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. However, a clear association between acute maternal infection and pre-eclampsia has not been established. We assessed whether acute urinary tract infection, respiratory tract infection, and antibiotic drug prescriptions in pregnancy (a likely proxy for maternal infection are associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a matched nested case-control design and data from the UK General Practice Research Database to examine the association between maternal infection and pre-eclampsia. Primiparous women aged at least 13 years and registered with a participating practice between January 1987 and October 2007 were eligible for inclusion. We selected all cases of pre-eclampsia and a random sample of primiparous women without pre-eclampsia (controls. Cases (n=1533 were individually matched with up to ten controls (n=14236 on practice and year of delivery. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pre-eclampsia comparing women exposed and unexposed to infection using multivariable conditional logistic regression. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-gestational hypertension, diabetes, renal disease and multifetal gestation, the odds of pre-eclampsia were increased in women prescribed antibiotic drugs (adjusted odds ratio 1.28;1.14-1.44 and in women with urinary tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.22;1.03-1.45. We found no association with maternal respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0.91;0.72-1.16. Further adjustment for maternal smoking and pre-pregnancy body mass index made no difference to our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Women who acquire a urinary infection during pregnancy, but not those who have a respiratory infection, are at an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Maternal antibiotic prescriptions are also associated with an increased risk. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying

  12. ZDHHC8 as a candidate gene for schizophrenia: Analysis of a putative functional intronic marker in case-control and family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabs Burkhard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome 22q11 region is proposed as a major candidate locus for susceptibility genes to schizophrenia. Recently, the gene ZDHHC8 encoding a putative palmitoyltransferase at 22q11 was proposed to increase liability to schizophrenia based on both animal models and human association studies by significant over-transmission of allele rs175174A in female, but not male subjects with schizophrenia. Methods Given the genetic complexity of schizophrenia and the potential genetic heterogeneity in different populations, we examined rs175174 in 204 German proband-parent triads and in an independent case-control study (schizophrenic cases: n = 433; controls: n = 186. Results In the triads heterozygous parents transmitted allele G preferentially to females, and allele A to males (heterogeneity χ2 = 4.43; p = 0.035. The case-control sample provided no further evidence for overall or gender-specific effects regarding allele and genotype frequency distributions. Conclusion The findings on rs175174 at ZDHHC8 are still far from being conclusive, but evidence for sexual dimorphism is moderate, and our data do not support a significant genetic contribution of rs175174 to the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  13. Statins Attenuate Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and Reduce Incidence of Gastric Cancer: In Vitro and Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Lin

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The correlation of Helicobacter pylori and the etiology of gastric cancer was substantially certain. Cholesterol-rich microdomains (also called lipid rafts, which provide platforms for signaling, are associated with H. pylori-induced pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Patients who have been prescribed statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, have exhibited a reduced risk of several types of cancer. However, no studies have addressed the effect of statins on H. pylori-associated gastric cancer from the antineoplastic perspective. In this study, we showed that treatment of gastric epithelial cells with simvastatin reduced the level of cellular cholesterol and led to attenuation of translocation and phosphorylation of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA, which is recognized as a major determinant of gastric cancer development. Additionally, a nationwide case-control study based on data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was conducted. A population-based case-control study revealed that patients who used simvastatin exhibited a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.70-0.83. In patients exhibiting H. pylori infection who were prescribed simvastatin, the adjusted OR for gastric cancer was 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.50. Our results combined an in vitro study with a nationwide population analysis reveal that statin use might be a feasible approach to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.

  14. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile toxin-positive diarrhea: a population-based prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesteinsdottir, I; Gudlaugsdottir, S; Einarsdottir, R; Kalaitzakis, E; Sigurdardottir, O; Bjornsson, E S

    2012-10-01

    Increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) is of major concern. However, by minimizing known risk factors, the incidence can be decreased. The aim of this investigation was to calculate the incidence and assess risk factors for CDI in our population. A 1-year prospective population-based nationwide study in Iceland of CDIs was carried out. For risk factor evaluation, each case was matched with two age- and sex-matched controls that tested negative for C. difficile toxin. A total of 128 CDIs were identified. The crude incidence was 54 cases annually per 100,000 population >18 years of age. Incidence increased exponentially with older age (319 per 100,000 population >86 years of age). Community-acquired origin was 27 %. Independent risk factors included: dicloxacillin (odds ratio [OR]: 7.55, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-30.1), clindamycin (OR: 6.09, 95 % CI: 2.23-16.61), ceftriaxone (OR: 4.28, 95 % CI: 1.59-11.49), living in a retirement home (OR: 3.9, 95 % CI: 1.69-9.16), recent hospital stay (OR: 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.37-3.87). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were used by 60/111 (54 %) versus 91/222 (41 %) (p = 0.026) and ciprofloxacin 19/111 (17 %) versus 19/222 (9 %) (p = 0.027) for cases and controls, respectively. In all, 75 % of primary CDIs treated with metronidazole recovered from one course of treatment. CDI was mostly found among elderly patients. The most commonly identified risk factors were broad-spectrum antibiotics and recent contact with health care institutions. PPI use was significantly more prevalent among CDI patients. PMID:22441775

  15. Sarcoma risk and dioxin emissions from incinerators and industrial plants: a population-based case-control study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear whether environmental exposure to dioxin affects the general population. The aim of this research is to evaluate sarcoma risk in relation to the environmental pollution caused by dioxin emitted by waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin. The study population lives in a part of the Province of Venice (Italy, where a population-based cancer registry (Veneto Tumour Registry – RTV has been active since 1987. Methods Two hundred and five cases of visceral and extravisceral sarcoma, confirmed by microscopic examination, diagnosed from 01.01.1990 to 31.12.1996, were extracted from the RTV database. Diagnoses were revised using the actual pathology reports and clinical records. For each sarcoma case, three controls of the same age and sex were randomly selected from the population files of the Local Health Units (LHUs. The residential history of each subject, whether case or control, was reconstructed, address by address, from 1960 to the date of diagnosis. All waste incinerators and industrial sources of airborne dioxin in the Province of Venice were taken into account, as was one very large municipal waste incinerator outside the area but close to its boundaries. The Industrial Source Complex Model in Long Term mode, version 3 (ISCLT3, was used to assess the level of atmospheric dispersion. A specific value for exposure was calculated for each point (geo-referenced address and for each calendar year; the exposure value for each subject is expressed as the average of specific time-weighted values. The analysis takes into account 172 cases and 405 controls, aged more than 14 years. Results The risk of developing a sarcoma is 3.3 times higher (95% Confidence Interval – 95% CI: 1.24 – 8.76 among subjects, both sexes, with the longest exposure period and the highest exposure level ; a significant excess of risk was also observed in women (Odds Ratio OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.04 – 5.59 and for

  16. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p < .001), nonmelanoma skin cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The results suggest a plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence. PMID:25942634

  17. Selection of neighborhood controls for a population-based Lyme disease case-control study by using a commercial marketing database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Neeta P; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Meek, James

    2013-07-15

    The selection of controls is an important methodological consideration for case-control studies. Neighborhood-matched control selection is particularly crucial for studies of vector-borne disease, such as Lyme disease, for which risk is intrinsically linked to geographical location. The matching of case-control pairs on neighborhood can help control for variation in ecological risk factors that are tied to geographical location, like vector and host habitat in the peridomestic environment. Random-digit dialing has been used to find neighborhood controls by using the area code and exchange of the case to generate lists of potential control households. An alternative to random-digit dialing is the purchase of residential telephone numbers from a commercial marketing database. This report describes the utility of the InfoUSA.com (InfoGroup, Papillion, Nebraska) commercial marketing database for neighborhood control recruitment in a Lyme disease case-control study in Connecticut during 2005-2007. PMID:23696105

  18. Risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other tobacco products: A hospital-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Mahapatra; Ramachandra Kamath; Bharatesh K Shetty; Binu, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tobacco deaths rarely make headlines, tobacco kills one person every six seconds. Tobacco kills a third to half of all people who use it, on average 15 years prematurely. Aim of the Study: To study the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka consumption and other tobacco products. Objective: (1) To find the association between gutka consumption and oral cancer. (2) To study the association between oral cancer and other tobacco products. Methodology: A case-con...

  19. Antipsychotic polypharmacy and risk of death from natural causes in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Gasse, Christiane; Jensen, Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Concomitant prescription of more than 1 antipsychotic agent (antipsychotic polypharmacy) in the treatment of schizophrenia is prevalent, although monotherapy is generally recommended. Mortality from natural causes is markedly increased in schizophrenia, and the role of polypharmacy...... remains controversial. The objective was to investigate if antipsychotic polypharmacy is associated with the excess mortality from natural causes among patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted using patient data from January 1, 1996, to December 31...... hours) was associated with increased risk of natural death in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics (OR = 1.78 [95% CI, 1.25-2.52]). CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic polypharmacy did not contribute to the excess mortality from natural causes in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia. The...

  20. Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of hip/femur fracture: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pouwels (Sander); A. Lalmohamed (Arief); P. Souverein (Patrick); C. Cooper (Charles); B.J. Veldt (Bart); H.G.M. Leufkens (Hubert); A. de Boer (Anthonius); T.P. van Staa (Tjeerd); F. de Vries (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Previous studies evaluated the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and subsequent fracture risk, but they showed ambiguous results. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate this association in a different study population. Our findings show that there is probably

  1. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; García-Pérez Javier; López-Cima María; López-Abente Gonzalo; Tardón Adonina; Pollán Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based...

  2. Yoga and disc degenerative disease in cervical and lumbar spine: an MR imaging-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Tzu-Chieh; Kung, Ching-Huei; Hsu, Hue-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to find out whether yoga practice was beneficial to the spine by comparing degenerative disc disease in the spines of long-time yoga practitioners and non-yoga practicing controls, using an objective measurement tool, magnetic resonance imaging. This matched case–control study comprised 18 yoga instructors with teaching experience of more than 10 years and 18 non-yoga practicing asymptomatic individuals randomly selected from a health checkup database. A...

  3. Measures of 'exposure needed for one additional patient to be harmed' in population-based case-control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, J.; Christensen, R. D.; Sturmer, T.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The magnitude of risk for adverse drug reactions may be communicated by a measure of 'exposure needed for one additional patient to be harmed' (ENH). We present four ENH measures, based on four different counterfactual contrasts, as illustrated by the known effects of NSAID use on peptic...... ulcer bleeding. Methods The four measures were basic ENH (estimating the excess risk when treating the entire source population versus treating no one), age-restricted ENH (the entire source population above, e. g. 50 years old treated versus no one above 50 years old treated), standardised ENH (a...... 1995-2006. We incorporated prescription and census data to account for the source population's drug use. Results Estimates of basic, age-restricted, standardised and naturalistic ENH were 619 person-years (py) (95% confidence interval (CI): 558-684), 223 py (CI: 201-246), 131 py (CI: 118-144) and 162...

  4. Metformin use among type 2 diabetics and risk of pancreatic cancer in a clinic-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Evan J; Ko, Andrew H; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the association between diabetes and pancreatic cancer (PC) may inform prevention and/or early detection strategies. Metformin has been associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, including PC, in some observational clinical studies. We assessed whether metformin use was associated with PC risk among those with type 2 diabetes (DM2), and whether metformin use modulated the association between DM2 and risk of PC. In total, 536 PC cases and 869 frequency-matched c...

  5. Risk of esophagus cancer in diabetes mellitus: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Kao-Chi; Chen Yu-Lung; Lai Shih-Wei; Tsai Pang-Yao; Sung Fung-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with the cancer risk. This study investigated relationship between DM and esophageal cancer using Taiwan’s insurance data. Methods We identified 549 patients with esophageal cancer newly diagnosed in 2000-2009 and randomly selected 2196 controls without any cancer, frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year of cases. Logistic regression model estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of esophageal cancer ...

  6. A hospital based case control study of female breast cancer risk factors in a Sub-Saharan African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamour Gueye

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In this study, reproductive factors as early menarche or menopausal status were not associative to the risk of breast cancer and the early age at diagnosis and the positive history of breast cancer suggest a genetic pattern of this disease in Senegalese woman. But this fact is difficult to confirm for financial reasons. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2328-2332

  7. Increased risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lee Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Weng, Wen-Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The association between epilepsy and Tourette syndrome has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed a dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome. The study cohort consisted of 1062 patients with Tourette syndrome aged ≤ 18 years, and the control group consisted of three times the number of age- and sex-matched patients without Tourette syndrome, who were insurants, from the same database during the same period. The Tourette syndrome group had an 18.38-fold increased risk of epilepsy than the control group [hazard ratio=18.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=8.26-40.92; PTourette syndrome group with comorbidities remained high (hazard ratio=16.27, 95% CI=6.26-18.46; PTourette syndrome is associated with a higher risk of epilepsy. A close follow-up of children with Tourette syndrome for the development of epilepsy is warranted. PMID:26597416

  8. Endothelium-based biomarkers are associated with cerebral malaria in Malawian children: a retrospective case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Conroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiating cerebral malaria (CM from other causes of serious illness in African children is problematic, owing to the non-specific nature of the clinical presentation and the high prevalence of incidental parasitaemia. CM is associated with endothelial activation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that endothelium-derived biomarkers are associated with the pathophysiology of severe malaria and may help identify children with CM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were tested from children recruited with uncomplicated malaria (UM; n = 32, cerebral malaria with retinopathy (CM-R; n = 38, clinically defined CM without retinopathy (CM-N; n = 29, or non-malaria febrile illness with decreased consciousness (CNS; n = 24. Admission levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2, Ang-1, soluble Tie-2 (sTie-2, von Willebrand factor (VWF, its propeptide (VWFpp, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10 were measured by ELISA. Children with CM-R had significantly higher median levels of Ang-2, Ang-2:Ang-1, sTie-2, VWFpp and sICAM-1 compared to children with CM-N. Children with CM-R had significantly lower median levels of Ang-1 and higher median concentrations of Ang-2:Ang-1, sTie-2, VWF, VWFpp, VEGF and sICAM-1 compared to UM, and significantly lower median levels of Ang-1 and higher median levels of Ang-2, Ang-2:Ang-1, VWF and VWFpp compared to children with fever and altered consciousness due to other causes. Ang-1 was the best discriminator between UM and CM-R and between CNS and CM-R (areas under the ROC curve of 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. A comparison of biomarker levels in CM-R between admission and recovery showed uniform increases in Ang-1 levels, suggesting this biomarker may have utility in monitoring clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that endothelial proteins are informative biomarkers of malarial disease severity. These results

  9. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  10. Risk of esophagus cancer in diabetes mellitus: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Kao-Chi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM has been associated with the cancer risk. This study investigated relationship between DM and esophageal cancer using Taiwan’s insurance data. Methods We identified 549 patients with esophageal cancer newly diagnosed in 2000-2009 and randomly selected 2196 controls without any cancer, frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year of cases. Logistic regression model estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI of esophageal cancer associated with DM, sex, age. co-morbidities and medications. Results Cases were more prevalent than controls for alcoholism and esophageal disorders and using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors but not DM. Esophageal cancer had no association with DM (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.71-1.37, but significantly associated with alcoholism (OR 14.1, 95% CI 7.87-25.4, esophageal ulcer (OR 10.1, 95% CI 5.70-17.9, esophageal reflux (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.14-5.26 and uses of NSAIDs (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.80-4.13. An elevated risk of esophageal cancer appeared in DM patients taking insulin (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.08-6.15 or sulfonyurea (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.16-12.5. Conclusions Patients with DM are not at higher risk for esophagus cancer. However, esophageal disorders and anti-diabetic drugs are associated with the risk of the disease.

  11. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX) were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P < 0.05). Regular clean up of food storage utensils, green tea consumption, and alcohol abstinence were protective factors for ESCC (P < 0.01). The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4%) compared to controls (47.2%) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07), especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01). No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05). Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic

  12. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Weimin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and food-borne carcinogens exposure, and XME polymorphisms in formation of ESCC, and to investigate possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with ESCC in Huaian, China. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted in 107 ESCC newly diagnosed cases and 107 residency- age-, and sex-matched controls in 5 townships of Huaian. In addition to regular epidemiological and food frequency questionnaire analyses, genetic polymorphisms of phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, and phase II enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX were assessed from genomic DNA using PCR based techniques. Results Consuming acrid food, fatty meat, moldy food, salted and pickled vegetables, eating fast, introverted personality, passive smoking, a family history of cancer, esophageal lesion, and infection with Helicobacter pylori were significant risk factors for ESCC (P GSTT1 null genotype was higher in cases (59.4% compared to controls (47.2% with an odds ratio (OR of 1.68 and 95% confidence interval (CI from 0.96 to 2.97 (P = 0.07, especially in males (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.22–6.25; P = 0.01. No associations were found between polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and EPHX and ESCC (P > 0.05. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that dietary and environmental exposures, some demographic parameters and genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may play important roles in the development of ESCC in Huaian

  13. Predicting the risk of end-stage renal disease in the population-based setting: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiuhai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD have limitations: (1 some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD; (2 others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these limitations and to identify the strength and precision of characteristics that might predict ESRD pragmatically for decision-makers--as measured by the onset of renal replacement therapy (RRT. Methods We conducted a population-based, retrospective case-control study of patients who developed ESRD and started RRT. We conducted the study in a health maintenance organization, Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW. The case-control study was nested within the adult population of KPNW members who were enrolled during 1999, the baseline period. Cases and their matched controls were identified from January 2000 through December 2004. We evaluated baseline clinical characteristics measured during routine care by calculating the adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals after controlling for matching characteristics: age, sex, and year. Results The rate of RRT in the cohort from which we sampled was 58 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 53 to 64. After excluding patients with missing data, we analyzed 350 cases and 2,114 controls. We identified the following characteristics that predicted ESRD with odds ratios ≥ 2.0: eGFR2 (OR = 20.5; 95% CI, 11.2 to 37.3, positive test for proteinuria (OR = 5.0; 95% CI, 3.5 to 7.1, hypertension (OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5 to 8.0, gout/positive test for uric acid (OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 3.5, peripheral vascular disease (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.6, congestive heart failure (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.3, and diabetes (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9. Conclusions The clinical characteristics needed to predict ESRD--for example, to develop a population-based

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms of Infectious Diseases in Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, genetic epidemiological analyses in infectious diseases have increased drastically since the publication of human genome and all the subsequent projects analyzing human diversity at molecular level. The great majority of studies use classical epidemiological designs applied to genetic data, and more than 80% of published studies use population-based case-control designs with widely spread genetic markers in human genome, like short tandem repeats (STR or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, in genes chosen by their physiological association with the disease (candidate genes. Even though genetic data is less prone to several bias issues inherent to case-control studies, some care has to be taken when designing, performing, analyzing and interpreting results from such studies. Here we discuss some basic concepts of genetics and epidemiology as a departure to evaluate and review every step that should be followed to design, conduct, analyze, interpret and present data from those studies, using particularities of infectious diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis as models.

  15. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  16. The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on Body Mass Index: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuterwall Christina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High body mass index (BMI and lack of physical activity have been recognized as important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leisure-time physical activity compensates for the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with overweight and obesity. Methods Data from the SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program study were used. The SHEEP study is a large Swedish population-based case-control study, comprising 1204 male and 550 female cases, and 1538 male and 777 female controls, conducted in Stockholm County, Sweden, during the period 1992–1994. Odds ratios (OR, together with 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI, were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, as estimates of the relative risks. Results Regular leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, but not among obese subjects. Obese (BMI ≥ 30 and physically active persons had an almost twofold risk of myocardial infarction, compared with normal-weight and sedentary persons (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.18. The results were similar for men and women. Conclusion While regular leisure-time physical activity seems to provide protection against myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, this does not appear to be the case in obese subjects.

  17. Temporomandibular disorders. A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, Jose V.; Sanchis, Jose M.; Carbonell, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the risk factors and clinical manifestations of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) (axis I) versus an age and gender matched control group. Study Design: A total of 162 patients explored according to the RDC/TMD (mean age 40.6±18.8 years, range 7-90; 11.1% males and 88.9% females) were compared with 119 controls, measuring differences in TMD risk factors (sleep...

  18. Dyslipidemia and Psoriasis: A Case Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design:Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology:Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-T and Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  19. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  20. Prophylactic use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotics in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a single center hospital-based case-control study in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Panic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD develops through the loss of normal bacterial intestinal flora. We have conducted a case-control study in order to assess whether prophylactic administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii prevents occurrence of AAD among adult hospitalized patients. Methods. Single-center hospital based case-control study was conducted in University Clinic “Dr Dragisa Misovic-Dedinje”, Belgrade, Serbia. Hospital records were screened in order to identify all the patients developing AAD in period January 1. 2010 – August 31. 2015. For every case, one age and gender matched control was randomly selected among patients hospitalized at the same time at the same department who were administered with antibiotics and did not develop AAD. For both cases and controls data were extracted on demographics, medical history, indication for use of antibiotics, antibiotics used, and prophylactic use of S.boulardii probiotics. The relationship between occurrence of AAD and putative risk factors were measured using the odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence interval (CI derived from logistic regression analysis. Results. Number of 59 cases and 59 controls were included in the study. Most of AAD cases were associated with old age (mean age of 78.05, and almost half (49.15% were hospitalized on geriatrics department. Most prescribed class of antibiotics among cases was III generation cephalosporins (50.85%, followed by fluoroquinolones (28.81% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (20.34%. Significantly more cases than controls were treated with carbapenems (16.95% vs. 5.08% respectively, p=0.04. Significantly less cases were administered with prophylactic S. boulardii probiotics (18.64% vs. 42.37% p=0.005. We identified prophylactic use of S. boulardii to act protectively against development of AAD from both univariate (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.72 and multivariate analysis (OR:0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80. Use of

  1. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: A population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. Methods A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Results Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15–2.64. Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37–0.83 and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34–0.89 was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Conclusion Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in south Indian patients with psoriasis vulgaris and the relation between disease severity and metabolic syndrome: A hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Madanagobalane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints with an increased cardiovascular risk. Previous studies have shown a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in psoriatic patients. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of MS in patients with psoriasis and healthy controls, and to determine the relation between disease severity and the presence of MS. Materials and Methods: We performed a hospital-based case-control study on 118 adult patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 120 controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. MS was diagnosed by the presence of three or more of the South Asian Modified National Cholesterol Education Program′s Adult Panel III criteria. Results: MS was significantly more common in psoriatic patients than in controls (44.1% vs. 30%, P value = 0.025. Psoriatic patients also had a higher prevalence of triglyceridemia (33.9% vs. 20.8%, P value = 0.011, abdominal obesity (34.7% vs. 32.5%, P value = 0.035 and elevated blood sugar. There was no difference in the high density lipoprotein (HDL levels and presence of hypertension among patients with psoriasis and normal controls. There was no correlation between the severity and duration of psoriasis with MS. Conclusion: MS is frequent in patients with psoriasis. We have found no relationship between disease severity and presence of MS. Hence, we suggest that all patients must be evaluated for the MS, irrespective of the disease severity.

  3. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259) and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941). However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk

  4. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer. PMID:26941014

  5. Too far, too little, too late: a community-based case-control study of maternal mortality in rural west Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, B R; Coyaji, K J; Rao, V N

    1998-01-01

    A total of 121 maternal deaths, identified through multiple-source surveillance in 400 villages in Maharashtra, were prospectively enrolled during 1993-95 in a population-based case-control study, which compared deaths with the survivors of similar pregnancy complications. The cases took significantly longer to seek care and to make the first health contact after the decision to seek care was taken. They also travelled significantly greater distances through a greater number of health facilities before appropriate treatment was started. Multivariate analysis showed the negative effect of excessive referrals and the protective effect of the following: residing in and not away from the village; presence of a resident nurse in the village; having an educated husband and a trained attendant at delivery; and being at the woman's parents' home at the time of illness. Other significant findings showed that deaths due to domestic violence were the second-largest cause of deaths in pregnancy, that more than two-thirds of maternal deaths were underreported in official records, and that liveborn infants of maternal deaths had a markedly higher risk of dying in the first year of life. This study points to the need for information-education-communication (IEC) efforts to increase family (especially male) preparedness for emergencies, decentralized obstetric management with effective triage, and a restructuring of the referral system. PMID:10191555

  6. Previous Exposure to Statin May Reduce the Risk of Subsequent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Feng Cho

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between previous exposure to statins and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.This nationwide population-based case-control study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The NHL group consisted of the patients with a first-time diagnosis of NHL between 2005 and 2008. The cases of the control group were pair-matched to the NHL group according to sex, year of birth and date of NHL diagnosis (index date. The statin administration data from both groups were retrospectively collected from the index date to January 1, 1996. The cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD was estimated to evaluate the statin exposure. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using multivariate logistic regression.The study population was composed of 1715 NHL patients and 16942 control subjects. The analysis revealed that previous statin administration was associated with a reduced risk of subsequent NHL with an adjusted OR of 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.62. Additionally, there was a dose-response relationship between statin administration and the risk of NHL. The adjusted ORs were 0.63 (95% CI, 0.46-0.86, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.42-0.79, 0.51 (95% CI, 0.38-0.67, and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53 for the subjects with statin administrations of fewer than 28, 28 to 90, 91 to 365, and more than 365 cDDDs, respectively, relative to the subjects without any statin administration.The results of this study suggest that previous statin administration is associated with a lower risk of subsequent NHL. As statins are widely used medications, the magnitude of the risk reduction may have a substantial influence on public health. Further studies to confirm our findings are warranted.

  7. Risk and protective factors in the origin of conotruncal defects of heart--a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Vereczkey, Attila; Kósa, Zsolt; Gerencsér, Balázs; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2013-10-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) cases have been evaluated together as a group in some previous epidemiological studies. However, different CHD entities have different etiologies, and the underlying causes are unclear in the vast majority of patients. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of different maternal diseases with the risk of four types of conotruncal defects (CTD), that is, truncus arteriosus, d-transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle based on autopsy or surgical report diagnosis. Acute and chronic diseases with related drug treatments and peri-conceptual folic acid or multivitamin supplementations were compared in mothers of 598 CTD cases, of 902 matched controls, and 38,151 population controls without any defects, and with 20,896 malformed controls with other isolated non-cardiac defects in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Mothers who had medically recorded influenza and the common cold with secondary complications in the prenatal maternity logbook during the second and/or third gestational months were associated with a higher risk of CTD (OR with 95% CI: 2.22, 1.19-3.88). The common denominator of these maternal diseases may be high fever, which could be prevented by antifever therapies. On the other hand, high doses of medically recorded folic acid in early pregnancy were able to reduce the birth prevalence of CTD (OR with 95% CI: 0.54, 0.39-0.73), and this reduction was significant in transposition of the great arteries (0.46, 0.29-0.71) as well. In conclusion, high fever related maternal diseases may have a role in the origin of CTD, while high doses of folic acid in early pregnancy were able to reduce of CTD, particularly transposition of great vessels. PMID:23950097

  8. Predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea in Eastern Ethiopia: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistie Bezatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehydration therapy is a critical intervention to save the lives of children during the episodes of diarrhea. However, millions of children die every year due to failure to replace fluid effectively. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of Oral Rehydration Therapy use among under-five children with diarrhea. Method A community based unmatched case control study was conducted in Kersa district, Eastern Ethiopia, in February, 2011. The cases were 241 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had received Oral Rehydration Therapy while the controls were 253 under-five children with diarrhea in the preceding two weeks before the survey and who had not received Oral Rehydration Therapy. The cases and the controls were compared to find out the factors that were associated with the utilization of Oral Rehydration Therapy. Result The study revealed that caregivers’ previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI = 2.63–6.22, seeking advice or treatment from health facilities, (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI = 2.06–5.11 and knowledge of Oral Rehydration Therapy (AOR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.97–4.85 were found to be the positive determinants of Oral Rehydration Therapy use. Perception of teething as a cause of diarrhea was negatively associated with the utilization of Oral rehydration Therapy (AOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Conclusion Health education should be strengthened on the benefit, preparation, early initiation of Oral Rehydration Therapy and the causes of diarrhea. Attention should be given to those who do not have previous experience of Oral Rehydration Therapy use and have less frequent contacts with the health facilities.

  9. A population-based case-control study of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs and breast cancer: The impact of duration of use, cumulative dose and latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lévesque LE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, a popular class of antidepressants, may increase breast cancer risk by stimulating the secretion of prolactin, a potential tumour promoter. We evaluated the effects of duration of SSRI use, cumulative dose, and latency on the risk of breast cancer by conducting a population-based case-control study utilizing Saskatchewan health databases. Methods Cases included 1,701 women with primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 2003 to 2006, and controls consisted of 17,017 women, randomly selected from the population registry. Use of SSRIs was compiled using the Saskatchewan prescription database. Unconditional logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the impact of duration of combined SSRI use (total number of prescriptions dispensed, cumulative dose (total dosage received and timing of use (two or more years, two to seven years and more than seven years prior to index date on the risk of breast cancer. Results Overall, SSRI use was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer regardless of our definition of cumulative use (total number of prescriptions dispensed and total dosage. In addition, our results indicate that prolonged SSRI use does not have a latent effect on breast cancer risk. Also, our findings are not suggestive of an increased risk of breast cancer with the use of individual SSRIs. Conclusions Our study improved upon most previous studies by having a longer follow-up period, a larger sample size of long-term SSRI users and consideration of risk during specific exposure time windows that take latency into account. Given the potential health benefits of using SSRIs, our results suggest that the issue of breast cancer risk may no longer be a concern for women requiring long-term SSRIs.

  10. Association Between Statin Use and Open-angle Glaucoma in Hyperlipidemia Patients: A Taiwanese Population-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Chang, Yue-Cune; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chia-Huang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between statin use and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) risk in hyperlipidemia patients.We used the research database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to conduct a population-based case-control study. A total of 1276 patients with newly diagnosed OAG were identified from 2004 to 2011. Controls comprised of 12,760 patients without glaucoma and were frequency-matched for age, sex, history of diabetes mellitus, and year of hyperlipidemia diagnosis at a 1:10 ratio. Accumulated defined daily doses (DDDs) of statins prescribed during follow-up were calculated. Average statin use was calculated as the sum of DDDs divided by the duration from the initial statin prescription date to the index date (per year), and was subdivided into 3 levels: <30, 30 to 119, and ≥120 DDDs. Comorbidity, including hypertension, depression, and the Charlson comorbidity index, the frequency of eye care visits, and the use of nonstatin cholesterol-lowering drugs, were all considered as confounding factors.For the group with statin use, the adjusted odds ratio of OAG was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.15) when compared with the group without statin use. Subanalysis showed that a high dosage of statin use (≥120 DDD/y) resulted in a1.24-fold increased risk of OAG (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.49). The incidence of OAG was increased with the increase of the dosage of statin use (P for trend = 0.0458).Clinicians should be cautious of hyperlipidemia patients with a high dosage of statin use because it might be associated with an increased risk of OAG. Ophthalmologist consultation is necessary for this high-risk group. PMID:26559301

  11. FTO Is Associated with Aortic Valve Stenosis in a Gender Specific Manner of Heterozygote Advantage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Thron

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have been linked with increased body weight. However, the data on an association of FTO with cardiovascular diseases remains conflicting. Therefore, we ascertained whether FTO is associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS, one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases in the Western world.In this population-based case-control study the FTO SNP rs9939609 was analyzed in 300 German patients with AVS and 429 German controls of the KORA survey S4, representing a random population. Blood samples were collected prior to aortic valve replacement in AVS cases and FTO rs9939609 was genotyped via ARMS-PCR. Genotype frequencies differed significantly between AVS cases and KORA controls (p = 0.004. Separate gender-analyses uncovered an association of FTO with AVS exclusively in males; homozygote carriers for the risk-allele (A had a higher risk to develop AVS (p = 0.017, odds ratio (OR 1.727; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.087-2.747, recessive model, whereas heterozygote carriers for the risk-allele showed a lower risk (p = 0.002, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.384-0.828, overdominant model. After adjustment for multiple co-variables, the odds ratios of heterozygotes remained significant for an association with AVS (p = 0.008, OR 0.565, 95% CI 0.369-0.861.This study revealed an association of FTO rs9939609 with AVS. Furthermore, this association was restricted to men, with heterozygotes having a significantly lower chance to develop AVS. Lastly, the association between FTO and AVS was independent of BMI and other variables such as diabetes mellitus.

  12. Bone turnover and metabolism in patients with early multiple sclerosis and prevalent bone mass deficit: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Marit Moen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low bone mass is prevalent in ambulatory multiple sclerosis (MS patients even shortly after clinical onset. The mechanism is not known, but could involve shared etiological risk factors between MS and low bone mass such as hypovitaminosis D operating before disease onset, or increased bone loss after disease onset. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of the low bone mass in early-stage MS patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a population-based case-control study comparing bone turnover (cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen; NTX, bone alkaline phosphatase; bALP, metabolism (25-hydroxy- and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone, and relevant lifestyle factors in 99 patients newly diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS or MS, and in 159 age, sex, and ethnicity matched controls. After adjustment for possible confounders, there were no significant differences in NTX (mean 3.3; 95% CI -6.9, 13.5; p = 0.519, bALP (mean 1.6; 95% CI -0.2, 3.5; p = 0.081, or in any of the parameters related to bone metabolism in patients compared to controls. The markers of bone turnover and metabolism were not significantly correlated with bone mass density, or associated with the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia within or between the patient and control groups. Intake of vitamin D and calcium, reported UV exposure, and physical activity did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bone turnover and metabolism did not differ significantly in CIS and MS patients with prevalent low bone mass compared to controls. These findings indicate that the bone deficit in patients newly diagnosed with MS and CIS is not caused by recent acceleration of bone loss, and are compatible with shared etiological factors between MS and low bone mass.

  13. Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Tomidokoro, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Osamu; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoko; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Myokai, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Furuichi, Munehiro; Baba, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hisayo; Sato, Akihiro; Ookawara, Ichiro; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kono, Mio; Tanaka, Fumie; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kimiya, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takao; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013–14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38°C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39–52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56–69), 77% (95% CI, 59–87), and 26% (95% CI, 14–36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B. PMID:26317334

  14. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  15. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Gulnar Azevedo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. METHODS: The study included 177 incident cases and 377 controls recruited among female visitors. Three different models of control group composition were compared: Model 1, with all selected visitors; Model 2, excluding women visiting relatives with breast cancer; and Model 3, excluding all women visiting relatives with any type of cancer. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the associations. RESULTS: Age-adjusted OR for breast cancer associated with risk factors other than family history of cancer, except smoking and breast size, were similar in the three models. Regarding family history of all cancers, except for breast cancer, there was a decreased risk in Models 1 and 2, while in Model 3 there was an increased risk, but not statistically significant. Family history of breast cancer was a risk factor in Models 2 and 3, but no association was found in Model 1. In multivariate analysis a significant risk of breast cancer was found when there was a family history of breast cancer in Models 2 and 3 but not in Model 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that while investigating risk factors unrelated to family history of cancer, the use of hospital visitors as controls may be a valid and feasible alternative.

  16. The role of WWOX polymorphisms on COPD susceptibility and pulmonary function traits in Chinese: a case-control study and family-based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chenli; Chen, Xiaoliang; Qiu, Fuman; Zhang, Lisha; Wu, Di; Chen, Jiansong; Yang, Lei; Lu, Jiachun

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the WW domain containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene were recently identified to be quantitative trait loci for lung function and thus likely to be susceptible biomarkers for COPD. However, the associations between WWOX SNPs and COPD risk are still unclear. Here, by conducting a two-center case-control study including 1511 COPD cases and 1677 controls and a family-based analysis comprising 95 nuclear pedigrees, we tested the associations between five SNPs that are rs10220974C >T, rs3764340C >G, rs12918952G >A, rs383362G >T, rs12828G >A of WWOX and COPD risk as well as the hereditary inclination of these loci among COPD families. We found that the SNP rs383362G >T was significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD in a T allele-number dependent-manner (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11 - 1.52). The T allele was more prone to over transmit to sick children and sibs than the G allele (Z = 2.900, P = 0.004). Moreover, the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), FEV1/predicted-FEV1 and annual FEV1 also significantly decreased in the rs383362T carriers compared to the rs383362GG carriers. For other SNPs, no significant association was observed for COPD and pulmonary function. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the SNP rs383362G >T of WWOX plays a role in COPD inheritance. PMID:26902998

  17. Alcohol and cardio-respiratory deaths in Chinese: a population-based case-control study of 32,462 older Hong Kong adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Kwok

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In observational studies moderate alcohol use reduces cardio-respiratory mortality. However observational studies may be biased by many factors including residual confounding by unmeasured differences between moderate alcohol users and other groups or by changes in alcohol use with ill-health and aging. We used two different analytic strategies in an under-studied population, i.e. southern Chinese, to provide an assessment of the specific impact of moderate alcohol use on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD. Methods In a population-based case-control study of all adult deaths in Hong Kong Chinese in 1998, we used adjusted logistic regression to compare alcohol use in decedents aged ≥ 60 years from IHD (2270 and COPD (1441 with 10,320 living and 9043 dead controls (all non-alcohol related deaths. We also examined whether the association of alcohol use with death from IHD or COPD varied with sex or smoking status. Results Using living controls and adjusted for age, socio-economic status and lifestyle, occasional and moderate alcohol use were generally associated with lower mortality from IHD and COPD. However, using dead controls the protection of occasional and moderate alcohol use appeared to be limited to ever-smokers for IHD (odds ratio (OR 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.46 to 0.73 for moderate compared to never-use in ever-smokers, but OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.50 in never-smokers, and possibly to men for COPD. High alcohol use was associated with lower IHD mortality and possibly with lower COPD mortality. Conclusion High levels of alcohol use in an older Chinese population were associated with lower IHD mortality. Moderate alcohol use was less consistently protective against IHD mortality. Alcohol use was associated with lower COPD mortality particularly in men, either due to some yet to be clarified properties of alcohol or as the artefactual result of

  18. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE: a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Danièle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. Methods/design ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with cancer registries, in 10 geographical areas. The control group was a random sample of the population of these areas, with a distribution by sex and age comparable to that of the cases, and a distribution by socioeconomic status comparable to that of the population. Subjects were interviewed face to face, using a standardized questionnaire collecting particularly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, residential history and a detailed description of occupational history. Biological samples were also collected from study subjects. The main occupational exposures of interest are asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium and nickel compounds, arsenic, wood dust, textile dust, solvents, strong acids, cutting fluids, silica, diesel fumes, welding fumes. The complete list of exposures of interest includes more than 60 substances. Occupational exposure assessment will use several complementary methods: case-by-case evaluation of exposure by experts; development and use of algorithms to assess exposure from the questionnaires; application of job-exposure matrices. Discussion The large number of subjects should allow to uncover exposures associated with moderate increase in risks, and to evaluate risks associated with infrequent or widely

  19. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants.We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36 among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48. We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005. Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50.Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to

  20. Are signalized intersections with cycle tracks safer? A case-control study based on automated surrogate safety analysis using video data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangenehpour, Sohail; Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cities in North America have been building bicycle infrastructure, in particular cycle tracks, with the intention of promoting urban cycling and improving cyclist safety. These facilities have been built and expanded but very little research has been done to investigate the safety impacts of cycle tracks, in particular at intersections, where cyclists interact with turning motor-vehicles. Some safety research has looked at injury data and most have reached the conclusion that cycle tracks have positive effects of cyclist safety. The objective of this work is to investigate the safety effects of cycle tracks at signalized intersections using a case-control study. For this purpose, a video-based method is proposed for analyzing the post-encroachment time as a surrogate measure of the severity of the interactions between cyclists and turning vehicles travelling in the same direction. Using the city of Montreal as the case study, a sample of intersections with and without cycle tracks on the right and left sides of the road were carefully selected accounting for intersection geometry and traffic volumes. More than 90h of video were collected from 23 intersections and processed to obtain cyclist and motor-vehicle trajectories and interactions. After cyclist and motor-vehicle interactions were defined, ordered logit models with random effects were developed to evaluate the safety effects of cycle tracks at intersections. Based on the extracted data from the recorded videos, it was found that intersection approaches with cycle tracks on the right are safer than intersection approaches with no cycle track. However, intersections with cycle tracks on the left compared to no cycle tracks seem to be significantly safer. Results also identify that the likelihood of a cyclist being involved in a dangerous interaction increases with increasing turning vehicle flow and decreases as the size of the cyclist group arriving at the intersection increases. The results highlight the

  1. Use of traditional cooking fuels and the risk of young adult cataract in rural Bangladesh: a hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the independent relationship between the use of various traditional biomass cooking fuels and the occurrence of cataract in young adults in rural Bangladesh. Methods A hospital-based age- and sex-matched case-control study incorporating two control groups was conducted. Cases were cataract patients aged 18 and 49 years diagnosed on the basis of any opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule and visual acuity poorer than 6/18 on the Log Mar Visual Acuity Chart in either eye, or who had a pseudophakic lens as a result of cataract surgery within the previous 5 years. Non-eye-disease (NE controls were selected from patients from ENT or Orthopaedics departments and non-cataract eye-disease (NC controls from the Ophthalmology department. Data pertaining to history of exposure to various cooking fuels and to established risk factors for cataract were obtained by face-to-face interview and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results Clean fuels were used by only 4% of subjects. A majority of males (64-80% depending on group had never cooked, while the rest had used biomass cooking fuels, mainly wood/dry leaves, with only 6 having used rice straw and/or cow dung. All females of each group had used wood/dry leaves for cooking. Close to half had also used rice straw and/or cow dung. Among females, after controlling for family history of cataract and education and combining the two control groups, case status was shown to be significantly related to lifetime exposure to rice straw, fitted as a trend variable coded as never, ≤ median of all exposed, > median of all exposed (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, but not to lifetime exposure to wood/dry leaves. Case status among females showed an inverse association with ever use of cow dung as a cooking fuel (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.81. Conclusions In this population, where cooking is almost exclusively done using biomass fuels, cases of young adult

  2. Incidence and Risks of Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Tract in Newborns: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Luh, Hsing; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-02-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are 1 of the major factors in young adults needing renal replacement therapy, but there is little extensive assessment of their incidence and risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate trends in the incidence of and risk factors for CAKUT among all births in Taiwan.This population-based case-control study design was conducted using the Taiwan national births registry, which contains detailed information about maternal health and characteristics of newborns, supplied by health professionals. Of 1,603,794 newborns registered between 2004 and 2014, 668 infants were reported to have CAKUT. Newborns without congenital anomalies were matched with CAKUT cases by birth year, month, and Apgar score in a ratio of 5:1. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for developing CAKUT were calculated using a conditional multivariate logistic regression model.The incidence of CAKUT was approximately 4.2 per 10,000 births. The adjusted ORs for CAKUT in newborns associated with maternal age of 20 to 29 (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.11-4.28), or 30 to 39 (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.17-4.51), maternal gestational diabetes (OR, 2.22, 95% CI, 1.06-4.67), maternal thalassemia/hemochromatosis (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.35-5.27), polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios (OR, 9.16; 95% CI, 5.46-15.37), birth parity >1 (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.50), having a gestational age congenital anomalies, small gestational age (<37 weeks) and low birth weight.CAKUT are associated with several maternal health risk factors. As Taiwan has the highest prevalence and incidence rates of end-stage renal disease in the world, these findings strongly support the need to develop professional guidelines for prenatal counseling and management of women at risk of adverse birth outcomes, to prevent kidney disease progression and reduce complications. PMID:26844492

  3. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qilong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. Methods A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08, while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86, but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00 was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. Conclusion These findings indicate, for the first time, that there

  4. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08), while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86), but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00) was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. These findings indicate, for the first time, that there is an H-RAS T81C polymorphism existing in Chinese population

  5. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. PMID:24889992

  6. Case-control study of multiple myeloma and farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N E; Smith, A H; Howard, J K; Sheppard, R A; Giles, H J; Teague, C A

    1986-01-01

    A previous case-control study which utilised the occupational information available on the New Zealand Cancer Registry found an increased risk of multiple myeloma in agricultural workers consistent with previous findings in the United States. The findings are now presented for the second phase of the study which involved interviewing 76 cases of multiple myeloma (who had been included in the previous study) together with 315 controls with other types of cancer. The previous finding on an exce...

  7. Sialolithiasis is associated with nephrolithiasis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Chang; Hung, Shih-Han; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions This study demonstrates an association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. The results call for more awareness of this association among physicians and patients with nephrolithiasis. Objective Very few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the potential association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. As such, the association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis still remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the possible association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis using a population-based dataset. Methods Using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, this case-control study identified 966 patients with sialolithiasis as cases and 2898 sex- and age-matched subjects without sialolithiasis as controls. Conditional logistic regressions were conducted to examine the association of sialolithiasis with previously diagnosed nephrolithiasis. Results Out of 3864 sampled patients, 165 (4.27%) had prior nephrolithiasis. Using Chi-square test, it was found that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior nephrolithiasis between the cases and controls (10.25% vs 2.28%, p nephrolithiasis for cases was 4.74 (95% CI = 3.41-6.58, p < 0.001) when compared to controls after adjusting for monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level of residence, diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, chronic renal disease, and tobacco use. PMID:26808906

  8. A case-control study of benign ovarian tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V.; Maconochie, N; Carpenter, L.; Scott, C.

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the association between reproductive, contraceptive, and menstrual factors and risk of benign ovarian tumours. DESIGN AND SETTING--This was a case-control study carried out in six London Hospitals. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used. SUBJECTS--62 women with a benign epithelial ovarian neoplasm, 37 women with a functional ovarian cyst, and 20 women with a dermoid cyst presenting between 1983 and 1985, together with 132 controls, took ...

  9. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7 and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3. Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus.

  10. Toxocariasis in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demog...

  11. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  12. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without ...

  13. Mind wandering and driving: a responsibility case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    GALERA, Cédric; Orriols, Ludivine; M'BAILARA, Katia; LABOREY, Magali; Contrand, Benjamin; RIBEREAU-GAYON, Régis; Masson, Françoise; Bakiri, Sarah; GABAUDE, Catherine; Fort, Alexandra; MAURY, Bertrand; Lemercier, Céline; Cours, Maurice; BOUVARD, Manuel-Pierre; LAGARDE, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between mind wandering (i.e. thinking unrelated to the task at hand) and the risk of being responsible for the crash. Design Responsibility case-control study. Setting Adult emergency department of the Bordeaux University hospital (France) from April 2010 to August 2011. Participants 955 injured drivers presenting as a result of motor vehicle crash. Main outcome measures The main outcome variable was responsibility for the crash. Exposures were mind wanderi...

  14. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ruiz; Maria Teresa Martínez-Ros; Alberto Cárceles-Alvarez; Perales, Joseph E.; Diana Carolina Jaimes-Vega; Alicia Cánovas-Conesa; Virtudes Gomaríz-Peñalver; Soldin, Offie P.; Miguel Felipe Sánchez-Sauco; Juan Antonio Ortega-García

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident...

  15. Cataract Surgical Outcomes In Diabetic Patients: Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Onakpoya Oluwatoyin; Bekibele Charles; Adegbehingbe Stella

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Design: A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria. Subjects: Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005. Main outcome: Mean post operative visual acu...

  16. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19). PMID:17546338

  17. California Very Preterm Birth Study: design and characteristics of the population- and biospecimen bank-based nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kharrazi, Marin; Pearl, Michelle; Yang, Juan; Delorenze, Gerald N.; Bean, Christopher J.; Callaghan, William M.; Grant, Althea; Lackritz, Eve; Romero, Roberto; Satten, Glen A.; Simhan, Hyagriv; Torres, Anthony R.; Jonna B. Westover; Yolken, Robert; Williamson, Dhelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality, morbidity and racial disparity in the U.S. The underlying causes of VPTB are multiple and poorly understood. The California Very Preterm Birth Study was conducted to discover maternal and infant genetic and environmental factors associated with VPTB. This paper describes the study design, population, data and specimen collection, laboratory methods and characteristics of the study population. Using a large, population-based coh...

  18. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    POOROLAJAL, Jalal; Mazdeh, Mehrdokht; Saatchi, Mohammad; TALEBI GHANE, Elaheh; BIDERAFSH, Azam; LOTFI, Bahar; Mohammad FERYADRES; PAJOHI, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS). A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group) and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group) from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to a...

  19. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  20. Tea drinking habits and oesophagial cancer in a high-risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2009-05-01

    In a recently published paper in the "British Medical Journal", a joint collaboration of well-known international scientists represented by Islami et al. has tackled this issue.1 In a well-designed, laborious case-control study in Golestan, Iran, they looked at 300 cases of esophageal SCC and 571 age and sex matched neighborhood controls, assessed the temperature of the commonly used drink "tea" among them and compared it between the two groups. After adjusting for several confounders including ethnicity, daily vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, tobacco or opium use, duration of residence in rural areas, education level and car ownership (the latter two as indices of socio-economic status), they found that consuming hot tea is associated with significantly increased chance of developing esophageal SCC. The adjusted odds ratio(OR) for developing esophageal SCC in those who reported drinking "very hot tea" was 8.16 (95% CI: 3.93 to 16.91) as compared to those taking warm or lukewarm tea (Pstudy) from a large on-going cohort study in the same region. The authors conclude that it is probably the "hotness" rather than the "tea" which is responsible for this increased chance of SCC of esophagus. In an accompanying editorial, Whiteman suggests that people drink their tea at least 5 minutes after pouring it in their cups. PMID:19400617

  1. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  2. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids' are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.

  3. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case control study of asthma patients and control subjects drawn from the community in Wandsworth, London. Samples from both groups were pooled and then tested for eukaryotes. DNA was amplified using standard PCR techniques, followed by pyrosequencing and comparison of reads to databases of known sequences to determine in a semi-quantitative way the percentage of DNA from known species in each of the two pooled samples. Results A total of 136 fungal species were identified in the induced sputum samples, with 90 species more common in asthma patients and 46 species more common in control subjects. Psathyrella candolleana, Malassezia pachydermatis, Termitomyces clypeatus and Grifola sordulenta showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of asthma patients and Eremothecium sinecaudum, Systenostrema alba, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Vanderwaltozyma polyspora showed a higher percentage of reads in the sputum of control subjects. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of fungi that were present in the respective samples was demonstrated using the Phylogenetic (P test (P  Conclusion This study is novel in providing evidence for the widespread nature of fungi in the sputum of healthy and asthmatic individuals. Differences in the pattern of fungi present in asthma patients and controls merit further investigation. Of particular interest was the presence of Malassezia pachydermatis, which is known to be associated with atopic dermatitis.

  4. 社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率调查%Prevalence of dementia in diabetics: a community-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊云云; 赵倩华; 郭起浩; 罗剑锋; 丁玎; 洪震

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查社区糖尿病患者痴呆患病率,计算年龄别、性别患病率,并与非糖尿病组相比较.方法 对上海市某社区50岁以上常住居民中糖尿病患者及与其年龄、性别相匹配1:1对照的非糖尿病患者进行调查.运用问卷采集人口学及病史资料,MMSE筛查认知功能.对于文盲≤19分、小学≤21分、初中及以上文化程度≤24分者,进一步给予成套神经心理学量表检查,依据DSM-Ⅳ诊断痴呆.结果 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率[4.75%(23/484),95%CI:3.03%~7.04%]高于非糖尿病患者[2.24%(11/490),95%CI:1.13%~3.98% X~2=4.54,P=0.03].糖尿病组60~69、70~79和80岁以上各年龄段的痴呆患病率分别为1.94%(2/103)、4.43%(9/203)和14.12%(12/85)(趋势X~2=18.04,P<0.01);非糖尿病组相应年龄段痴呆患病率分别为1.43%(2/140)、2.86%(6/210)和5.00%(3/60,趋势X~2=4.58,P:0.03).糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为6.55%(19/290)和2.06%(4/194,X~2=5.18,P=0.02);非糖尿病组女性和男性痴呆患病率分别为3.01%(9/299)和1.05%(2/191).结论 糖尿病患者中痴呆患病率显著高于非糖尿病患者,2组痴呆患病率均随年龄增大而升高,并且女性痴呆患病率高于男性.%Objective To determine prevalence of dementia in diabetics and non-diabetics, and in different age and gender groups. Methods A case-control study was conducted among participants aged 50 and over in Jing' an temple community in Shanghai. Subjects in diabetics group were matched to non-diabetics groups for age and sex with 1:1 matching. Personal information and case history were collected through questionnaire. The subjects were screened for dementia using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects that screened positively (indicated by an MMSE score below 19, 21 and 24 among those with illiteracy, elementary school and above junior middle school education, respectively) were subsequently examined by a series of neuropsychological tests. Based

  5. Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3/1,000 among children Methods In 2006, active fever surveillance was conducted among a cohort of 6,694 children aged ≤ 15 years in 16 villages in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Subsequently, a case-control study was performed by individually assigning one non-dengue febrile control from the cohort to each laboratory-confirmed dengue case. Parents of cases and controls were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to determine household-level, illness-related expenditures for medical and non-medical costs, and estimated income loss (see Additional file 1. The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. Additional File 1 2006 cost study survey questionnaire, Cambodia. the questionnaire represents the data collection instrument that was developed and used during the present study. Click here for file Results Between September and November 2006, a total of 60 household heads were interviewed: 30 with dengue-positive and 30 with dengue-negative febrile children. Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44. Hospitalization almost tripled the costs of dengue (from 14.3 to 40.1 US$ and doubled the costs of other febrile illnesses (from 17.0 to 36.2 US$. To finance the cost of a febrile illness, 67% of households incurred an average debt of 23.5 US$ and higher debt was associated with hospitalization compared to outpatient treatment (US$ 23.1 vs. US$ 4.5, p Conclusion In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts.

  6. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; JIA Cun-xian; GENG Cui-zhi; TANG Jin-hai; ZHANG Jin; LIU Li-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China,but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females.This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China.Methods A 1:3 matched,case-control study was conducted.All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years.Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer.Results Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors:economic status,social status,family annual income,bean product consumption,body mass index (BMI),family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree,number of miscarriages,menstrual pattern,benign breast disease history,nipple leakage,inverted nipple,history of diabetes mellitus,history of hypertension,history of ovarian cyst,physical exercise,current and global quality of life satisfaction,healthy behavior and prevention,and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge.After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10),six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer,of which the ORs and 95%C/s were:BMI,1.696 (1.169-2.460,P=0.005); benign breast disease history,2.672 (0.848-8.416,P=0.093); family history of breast cancer,7.080 (1.758-28.551,P=0.006); number of miscarriages,1.738 (1.014-2.978,P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction,3.044 (1.804-5.136,P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention,3.294 (1.692-6.412,P=0.000).Conclusions A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified.Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle,especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  7. A case-control association study and family-based expression analysis of the bipolar disorder candidate gene PI4K2B

    OpenAIRE

    Houlihan, Lorna; Christoforou, A.; Arbuckle, M I; Torrance, H. S.; Anderson, S. M.; Muir, Walter,; Porteous, D. J.; Blackwood, D H; Evans, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and recurrent major depression are complex psychiatric illnesses with a substantial, yet unknown genetic component. Linkage of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression with markers on chromosome 4p15–p16 has been identified in a large Scottish family and three smaller families. Analysis of haplotypes in the four chromosome 4p-linked families, identified two regions, each shared by three of the four families, which are also supported by a case-control ass...

  8. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    seemed to predict struggling in postgraduate education if any. The study design is rooted in epidemiological methodology. Struggling doctors in specialist training: a case-control study. It has been reported in the international literature, that around 3-10% of doctors in post-garduate specialist...... training are struggling to comply with educational requirements.1-3 A struggling doctor risks being a liability to patients health care. In the medical education literature, early identification and support of strugglers has been proposed as an important investment in the development and training of future...... relationships between medical student behaviours and performances and subsequent professional misconduct or disciplinary action with the same study design and found positive associations.4,7 Our results (positive or negative) is of importance in the general discussion of the transition and handing-over of...

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  10. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk among African American women and white women in North Carolina: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C.; Douglas A Bell; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiologic studies have not shown a strong relationship between blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk. However, two recent studies showed a stronger association among postmenopausal white women with the inducible M2 polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene. Methods In a population-based case-control study, we evaluated breast cancer risk in relation to PCBs and the CYP1A1 polymorphisms M1 (also known as CYP1A1*2A), M2 (CYP1A1*2C),...

  12. Etiological study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in an endemic region: a population-based case control study in Huaian, China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Weimin; Hu Xu; Wang Shaokang; Xie Yin; Tang Yuntian; Sun Guiju; Tang Lili; Wang Zemin; Cox Stephen B; Wang Jia-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Continuous exposure to various environmental carcinogens and genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are associated with many types of human cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Huaian, China, is one of the endemic regions of ESCC, but fewer studies have been done in characterizing the risk factors of ESCC in this area. The aims of this study is to evaluate the etiological roles of demographic parameters, environmental and fo...

  13. Case-control study of mesothelioma in the shipyard industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nested case-control study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between occupational exposures to asbestos and low-level gamma radiation and mesothelioma. One hundred nineteen cases and four hundred fifty-two latency-matched controls were selected. Analyses were conducted using the conditional maximum likelihood estimate of the odds ratio and conditional logistic regression for matched sets. The results from the analyses revealed a relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma; the strength of this relationship increased with the intensity and duration of the asbestos exposure. Exposure to low-level gamma radiation was also associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma. There was no interaction between asbestos and radiation. Shipyard employment in non-asbestos jobs and male gender were also found to be associated with mesothelioma

  14. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  15. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  16. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  17. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  18. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  19. Cataract surgical outcomes in diabetic patients: Case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onakpoya Oluwatoyin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the visual outcome of cataract surgery in diabetes mellitus with advanced cataract in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Design: A retrospective case control study conducted at the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria. Subjects: Twenty three consecutive patients with diabetes and 23 age and sex matched non-diabetic control patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction for advanced cataract between 2002-2005. Main outcome: Mean post operative visual acuity and surgical complications. Results: Twenty three patients with diabetes mellitus and 23 non diabetic controls were studied; mean duration of diabetes was 8.1 ± 7.2 years. The mean post operative visual acuity in diabetics was 0.11±0.38, 0.33±0.57 and 0.38±0.49 at one week, two months and six months compared with 0.23±0.19, 0.46±0.37 and 0.48±0.31 in non diabetics. (p=0.207, 0.403 and 0.465 respectively. Improvement in preoperative visual acuity was noted in 84.2% and 90% in diabetics and non-diabetics respectively. Poor visual outcome in diabetics was mainly due to diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy or diabetes related surgical complications. Conclusion: Visual improvement was seen following surgery for advanced cataract in diabetics in this study population. Post operative monitoring for treatment of diabetic retinopathy may enhance visual outcome.

  20. Predicting the risk of end-stage renal disease in the population-based setting: a retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiuhai; Thorp Micah L; Smith David H; Johnson Eric S; Juhaeri Juhaeri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have limitations: (1) some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these limitations and to identify the strength and precision of characteristics that might predict ESRD pragmatically for decision-makers--as m...

  1. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Zhang; Shushu Li; Lu Liu; Li Wang; Xue Xiao; Zhenzhen Sun; Xichen Wang; Chao Wang; Meilin Wang; Lei Li; Qiujin Xu; Weimin Gao; Shou-Lin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based stu...

  2. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  4. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  5. Ovarian endometriomas and IVF: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidetti Daniela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed this retrospective case-control study analyzing 428 first-attempt in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles, among which 254 involved women with a previous or present diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis. First, the results of these 254 cycles were compared with 174 cycles involving patients with proven non-endometriotic tubal infertility having similar age and body mass index. Women with ovarian endometriosis had a significantly higher cancellation rate, but similar pregnancy, implantation and delivery rates as patients with tubal infertility. Second, among the women with ovarian endometriosis, the women with a history of laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF and no visual endometriosis at ovum pick-up (n = 112 were compared with the non-operated women and visual endometriomas at ovum pick-up (n = 142. Patients who underwent ovarian surgery before IVF had significantly shorter period, lower antral follicle count and required higher gonadotropin doses than patients with non-operated endometriomas. The two groups of women with a previous or present ovarian endometriosis did, however, have similar pregnancy, implantation and live birth rates. In conclusion, ovarian endometriosis does not reduce IVF outcome compared with tubal factor. Furthermore, laparoscopic removal of endometriomas does not improve IVF results, but may cause a decrease of ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins.

  6. A case-control study of visual acuity in onychocryptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many theories surrounding the etiology of ingrown toenails (IGTN). Few factors have been formally assessed, but it is widely accepted that a poor nail cutting technique has a causative role. AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that decreased visual acuity may lead to inadequate nail cutting and the formation of IGTN. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed. Near and distance visual acuity were tested on a population with IGTN (n = 19) and compared with that of an age- and sex-matched control cohort (n = 24) who underwent epidermal cyst excision in the same tertiary referral center. Comparisons of visual acuity were made between groups by Mann-Whitney U-test. Differences were taken to be significant if P < 0.05. Institutional Review Board approval was sought and granted. RESULTS: No significant difference in visual acuity (near or distance) was demonstrated between patients with IGTN and the control group (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Visual acuity does not appear to play a significant role in the development of IGTN.

  7. Case-control study on infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Karina Giane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.

  8. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli John J; Dosman James A; McDuffie Helen H; Karunanayake Chandima P; Pahwa Punam

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regre...

  9. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  10. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  11. Dietary Risk Factors for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Confirmatory Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Sobel, Eugene; Ziogas, Argyrios; Smoak, Carey; Bohr, Thomas; Doram, Keith; Liwnicz, Boleslaw

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study’s primary purpose was to determine whether earlier findings suggesting an association between sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of humans and specific dietary components could be replicated. The a priori hypotheses were that consumption of (i) foods likely to contain organ tissue and (ii) raw/rare meat are associated with increased sCJD risk. Study Design Population-based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study Departm...

  12. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among Spanish children and mothers' occupation: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Infante-Rivard, C; Mur, P.; Armstrong, B; ALVAREZ-DARDET, C.; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the association between mothers' occupational exposure during pregnancy and the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. DESIGN: The study was a case-control investigation. A face to face interview was used to assess exposures at work and relevant confounding variables. SETTING: The study was community based and was carried out in five provinces of Spain. SUBJECTS: 128 cases less than 15 years of age were interviewed (91% of those eli...

  13. Toxocariasis in waste pickers: a case control seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. AIMS: Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. METHODS: Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13% than in control subjects (1/90: 1% (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2-288. The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2-363 and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003-0.59. Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2 Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research.

  14. Increased risks of tic disorders in children with epilepsy: A nation-wide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Both epilepsy and tic disorders may share common mechanisms with the involvement of abnormal cortical-basal ganglion circuit connection and dopaminergic dysfunction. However, the association between epilepsy and tic disorders has never been studied. This study investigated the risks of developing tic disorders among children with epilepsy using databases of a universal health insurance system in Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study cohort included children with epilepsy between 2001 and 2007 (n=2629) and a three-fold age- and gender-matched controls (n=7887). All subjects were followed up for 3 years from the date of cohort entry to identify their admissions due to tic disorders (ICD-9-CM codes 307.2, 307.20-307.23). Cox hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of epilepsy on the occurrence of tics. The epilepsy cohort had a higher prevalence of tics (1.7% vs. 0.2%), and a 8.70-fold increased risk of developing a tic disorder compared with the controls (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-16.37, p<0.001). Male patients were observed to have a higher risk of developing a tic disorder (AHR 1.90, 95% CI=1.04-3.46, p<0.001) compared to female individuals. Patients with multiple antiepileptic drugs treatment also exhibited higher crude OR for developing tic disorders. This nationwide population-based cohort study, for the first time, demonstrated that there is a significantly increased risk for tic disorders among children with epilepsy. We also found males, attention deficit disorder and the use of multiple AEDs to be independent risk factors of tic disorders. Closely evaluating possible tic disorders would be crucial for improving the outcome and life quality in children with epilepsy. PMID:26585639

  15. A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Drinking-Water Nitrate and Congenital Anomalies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS to Develop Individual-Level Exposure Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E. Holtby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5–5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05–5.66 and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92–5.52 was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration.

  16. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  17. A case-controlled validation study of a blood-based seven-gene biomarker panel for colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip Kok-Thye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC screening is key to CRC prevention and mortality reduction, but patient compliance with CRC screening is low. We previously reported a blood-based test for CRC that utilizes a seven-gene panel of biomarkers. The test is currently utilized clinically in North America for CRC risk stratification in the average-risk North American population in order to improve screening compliance and to enhance clinical decision making. Methods In this study, conducted in Malaysia, we evaluated the seven-gene biomarker panel validated in a North American population using blood samples collected from local patients. The panel employs quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to analyze gene expression of the seven biomarkers (ANXA3, CLEC4D, TNFAIP6, LMNB1, PRRG4, VNN1 and IL2RB that are differentially expressed in CRC patients as compared with controls. Blood samples from 210 patients (99 CRC and 111 controls were collected, and total blood RNA was isolated and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR and data analysis. Results The logistic regression analysis of seven-gene panel has an area under the curve (AUC of 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.82, 77% specificity, 61% sensitivity and 70% accuracy, comparable to the data obtained from the North American investigation of the same biomarker panel. Conclusions Our results independently confirm the results of the study conducted in North America and demonstrate the ability of the seven biomarker panel to discriminate CRC from controls in blood samples drawn from a Malaysian population.

  18. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  19. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Salehiomran MR, Mahzari M. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:20-23.ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc and febrile seizure. Zinc, asa major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serumzinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years.This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case and 50 febrile children without seizures (control, that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the northof Iran. Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.ResultsThe mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001. The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to thecontrol groups.  ConclusionOur findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children. ReferencesVarma RR. Febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr 2002; 69(8; 697-700.Talebian A, Vakili Z, Talar SA, Kazemi M, Mousavi GA. Assessment of the relation between serum zinc and magnesium levels in children with febrile

  20. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Tony; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X.; Matthew A Weir; Juurlink, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for e...

  1. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah Kuper; Velma Nyapera; Jennifer Evans; David Munyendo; Maria Zuurmond; Severine Frison; Victoria Mwenda; David Otieno; James Kisia

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNI...

  2. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  3. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  4. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Barreto; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in ...

  5. Social predictors of adult asthma: a co-twin case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, E; Kaprio, J.; Laitinen, L; Koskenvuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Environmental factors are needed to explain the observed increase in the prevalence of asthma during recent decades, despite the existence of a recognised genetic component in asthma. A co-twin case-control study was undertaken to examine possible social risk factors for asthma.
METHODS—Asthma diagnoses were based on register data of reimbursed asthma medication. During 17 years follow up of the Finnish twin cohort, 262 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma...

  6. Bayes and empirical Bayes methods for reduced rank regression models in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Sen, Ananda; Zhou, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Langseth, Hilde; Engel, Lawrence S

    2016-06-01

    Matched case-control studies are popular designs used in epidemiology for assessing the effects of exposures on binary traits. Modern studies increasingly enjoy the ability to examine a large number of exposures in a comprehensive manner. However, several risk factors often tend to be related in a nontrivial way, undermining efforts to identify the risk factors using standard analytic methods due to inflated type-I errors and possible masking of effects. Epidemiologists often use data reduction techniques by grouping the prognostic factors using a thematic approach, with themes deriving from biological considerations. We propose shrinkage-type estimators based on Bayesian penalization methods to estimate the effects of the risk factors using these themes. The properties of the estimators are examined using extensive simulations. The methodology is illustrated using data from a matched case-control study of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:26575519

  7. Children who were vaccinated, breast fed and from low parity mothers live longer: A community based case-control study in Jimma, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane Yemane; Girma Belaineh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Improving child survival through various health interventions has been one of the main preoccupations of public health programs in developing nations. However, efforts to understand the child death determinants and determine whether the health interventions are really contributing to the reduction of mortality were not satisfactory. The purpose of this study is to identify determinants and causes of child mortality. Methods The study was conducted in the town of Jimma, Eth...

  8. There is an association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and uncomplicated peptic ulcers: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, M; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Lassen, A T; Hallas, Jesper

    Persons who use serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) seem to be at increased risk of having serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In vitro studies have shown that SSRIs inhibit platelet aggregation. It remains unknown if SSRIs have a direct ulcerogenic effect.......Persons who use serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) seem to be at increased risk of having serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In vitro studies have shown that SSRIs inhibit platelet aggregation. It remains unknown if SSRIs have a direct ulcerogenic effect....

  9. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs

  10. Meta-analysis of the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer based on case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliu Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible enzyme converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and playing important roles in inflammatory diseases as well as tumor development. Previous studies investigating the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC risk reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis of all available studies to explore this association. METHODS: All studies published up to October 2013 on the association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk were identified by searching electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. The association between COX-2 polymorphisms and CRC risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Ten studies with 6,774 cases and 9,772 controls were included for -1195A>G polymorphism, 13 studies including 6,807 cases and 10,052 controls were available for -765G>C polymorphism, and 8 studies containing 5,121 cases and 7,487 controls were included for 8473T>C polymorphism. With respect to -765G>C polymorphism, we did not find a significant association with CRC risk when all eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis. However, in subgroup analyses by ethnicity and cancer location, with a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.05/2, statistical significant increased CRC risk was found in the Asian populations (dominant model CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 1.399, 95%CI: 1.113-1.760, P = 0.004 and rectum cancer patients (CC vs. GG: OR = 2.270, 95%CI: 1.295-3.980, P = 0.004; Recessive model CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 2.269, 95%CI: 1.297-3.970, P = 0.004. In subgroup analysis according to source of control, no significant association was detected. With respect to -1195A>G and 8473T>C polymorphisms, no significant association with CRC risk was demonstrated in the overall and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism may be a risk factor for

  11. Hospital visitors as controls in case-control studies Visitantes hospitalares como controles em estudos caso-controle

    OpenAIRE

    Gulnar Azevedo S Mendonça; José Eluf-Neto

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Selecting controls is one of the most difficult tasks in the design of case-control studies. Hospital controls may be inadequate and random controls drawn from the base population may be unavailable. The aim was to assess the use of hospital visitors as controls in a case-control study on the association of organochlorinated compounds and other risk factors for breast cancer conducted in the main hospital of the "Instituto Nacional de Câncer" -- INCA (National Cancer Institute) in ...

  12. What factors explain the association between socioeconomic deprivation and reduced likelihood of live-donor kidney transplantation? A questionnaire-based pilot case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillippa K; Tomson, Charles RV; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomically deprived individuals with renal disease are less likely to receive a live-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) than less deprived individuals. This study aimed to develop and pilot a questionnaire designed to determine what factors explain this association. Design Questionnaire development and a pilot case–control study. Primary aims were to develop and evaluate a questionnaire, assess response rates, and to generate data to inform full-scale study design. Setting A UK tertiary renal referral hospital and transplant centre. Participants Invited participants comprised 30 LDKT recipients (cases) and 30 deceased-donor kidney transplant (DDKT) recipients (controls). Stratified random sampling was used to select cases and controls from all adults who had been transplanted at Southmead Hospital North Bristol National Health Service Trust, between 1 August 2007 and 31 July 2013. Methods Participants were posted questionnaires that were accompanied by an invitation letter from the renal consultant responsible for their care, and a patient information leaflet. Non-responders were sent a second questionnaire after 4–6 weeks. Data were extracted from returned questionnaires, and entered onto a Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) database. Results 63% (n=38) of those invited returned questionnaires. 16 (42%) declined to answer the question on income. 58% of participants had not asked any of their potential donors to consider living kidney donation (52% LDKT vs 65% DDKT, p=0.44). There was some evidence of a difference between the R3K-T knowledge score for recipients of LDKTs (mean 6.7, SD 1.8) and for recipients of DDKTs (mean 4.9, SD 2.1), p=0.008. Variables’ distribution for the exposure variables of interest was determined. Conclusions Findings from this study will inform a sample size calculation for a full-scale study. The findings of the full-scale case–control study will help us better understand how socioeconomic deprivation is

  13. Differences in fungi present in induced sputum samples from asthma patients and non-atopic controls: a community based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    van Woerden Hugo Cornelis; Gregory Clive; Brown Richard; Marchesi Julian Roberto; Hoogendoorn Bastiaan; Matthews Ian Price

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is emerging evidence for the presence of an extensive microbiota in human lungs. It is not known whether variations in the prevalence of species of microbiota in the lungs may have aetiological significance in respiratory conditions such as asthma. The aim of the study was to undertake semi-quantitative analysis of the differences in fungal species in pooled sputum samples from asthma patients and controls. Methods Induced sputum samples were collected in a case cont...

  14. Long-term use of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system and the risk of cancer. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Depont Christensen, Rene; Andersen, Morten; Friis, Søren; Bjerrum, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials has demonstrated a small excess of cancers in persons that had been allocated to angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs). We undertook this observational study to look at dose-response and dose-duration effects and look for specificity with respect to...... for each case by a risk-set sampling. Data on medication was retrieved from the Danish National Prescription Registry. We defined long-term exposure as at least 1000 defined daily doses redeemed within the past five years. Confounders were controlled by conditional logistic regression. Results: The...

  15. Effect of a Kinect-based exercise game on improving executive cognitive performance in community-dwelling elderly: case control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kayama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improv...

  16. Effect of a Kinect-Based Exercise Game on Improving Executive Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Elderly: Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kayama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Background Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improve...

  17. PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis based on 39 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is a nuclear chromatin-associated enzyme involved in several important cellular processes, particularly in the DNA repair system. PARP-1 rs1136410: C>T is among the most studied polymorphisms and likely involved in human carcinogenesis. However, results from previous studies are inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to derive a more precise estimation of the effects of this enzyme. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive search was conducted in the PubMed and EMBASE databases until December 9, 2013. A total of 39 studies with 16,783 cancer cases and 23,063 control subjects were included in the meta-analysis on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. No significant association between the PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism and cancer risk was found when all of the studies were pooled into the analysis (VA + AA vs. VV: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.95-1.11. The subgroup analysis of cancer types revealed that the -762Ala allele was associated with increased risk of gastric, cervical, and lung cancers and a decreased risk of glioma. In addition, a significantly increased risk of cancer associated with the polymorphism was observed in Asian descendents (VA + AA vs. VV: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.09-1.25; AA vs. VV: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.51; VA vs. VV: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.20; AA vs. VA + VV: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.03-1.39. These results also indicated that a joint effect between PARP-1 Val762Ala and XRCC1 Arg399Gln could be involved in the risk of cancer development (OR = 3.53, 95% CI = 1.30-9.59. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the PARP-1 Val762Ala may be involved in cancer development at least in some ethnic groups (Asian or some specific cancer types (gastric, cervical, and lung cancers, and glioma.

  18. Small dense LDL particles - a predictor of coronary artery disease evaluated by invasive and CT-based techniques: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Annette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary angiography is the current standard method to evaluate coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected angina pectoris, but non-invasive CT scanning of the coronaries are increasingly used for the same purpose. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and other lipid and lipoprotein variables are major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Small dense LDL particles may be of particular importance, but clinical studies evaluating their predictive value for coronary atherosclerosis are few. Methods We performed a study of 194 consecutive patients with chest pain, a priori considered of low to intermediate risk for significant coronary stenosis (>50% lumen obstruction who were referred for elective coronary angiography. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were measured including the subtype pattern of LDL particles, and all patients were examined by coronary CT scanning before coronary angiography. Results The proportion of small dense LDL was a strong univariate predictor of significant coronary artery stenosis evaluated by both methods. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, and waist circumference only results obtained by traditional coronary angiography remained statistically significant. Conclusion Small dense LDL particles may add to risk stratification of patients with suspected angina pectoris.

  19. Polymorphisms in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene and susceptibility to gastric cancer in a Turkish population: Hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Süleyman; Ülger, Yakup; Sümbül, Ahmet Taner; Kaya, Berrin Yalinbaş; Genç, Ahmet; Rencüzoğullari, Eyyüp; Dadaş, Erdoğan

    2016-07-01

    Erosion of telomeres, tandem nucleotide repeats (TTAGGG)n that cap the end of eukaryotic chromosomes, has been related with carcinogenesis. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene is encoded the rate-limiting catalytic subunit of the telomerase complexes, which is essential for the protection of telomeric DNA length and chromosomal stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of four functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of hTERT (rs2736109 G>A, rs2735940 T>C, rs2853669 A>G and rs2736100 T>G) on susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) in Turkish population. The genotype frequency of hTERT rs2736109 G>A, rs2735940 T>C, rs2853669 A>G and rs2736100 T>G polymorphisms were determined by using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TaqMan methods in 104 subjects with GC and 209 healthy control subjects. We found that hTERT rs2736109 G>A (AA+AG vs. GG OR=1.68 95% CI=1.01-2.81, P=0.04), rs2735940 T>C (CC vs. CT+TT: OR=2.53 95% CI=1.01-6.13, P=0.03), and rs2736100 T>G (TT vs. TG+GG: OR=2.27 95% CI=1.23-4.17, P=0.006) polymorphisms were associated with risk of GC. In the haplotype analysis, hTERT Grs2736109/Trs2735940/Ars2853669/Grs2736100 haplotype was also related with an increased risk of GC (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.05-2.93, P=0.03). Because this is the first study regarding the hTERT rs2736109 G>A, rs2735940 T>C, rs2853669 A>G and rs2736100 T>G polymorphisms and the risk of GC susceptibility in the literature, further independent studies are needed to verify our results in a larger sample sizes, as well as in patients of different populations. PMID:27016301

  20. Maternal smoking, obesity, and risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the puerperium: a population-based nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gislum, Mette;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking and obesity are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between smoking, obesity (BMI>30), and risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy and the puerperium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a population...... VTE as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: Smoking and obesity were associated with increased risk of VTE during pregnancy and the puerperium (adjusted OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5, 4.9) and 5.3 (95% CI: 2.1, 13.5), respectively). Obesity appeared to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary embolism...... (adjusted OR: 14.9 (95% CI: 3.0, 74.8) than of deep venous thrombosis (adjusted OR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 11.9). CONCLUSION: Smoking and obesity are risk factors for VTE in pregnancy and the puerperium....

  1. The association between the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213) polymorphisms and moyamoya disease susceptibility: a meta-analysis based on case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun-Sha; Wen, Jun; Li, Jiao-Xing; Lai, Rong; Wang, Yu-Fang; Liu, Hui-Jiao; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2016-06-01

    A number of studies assessed the association of ring finger protein 213 (RNF213) gene polymorphisms with moyamoya disease (MMD), but the results were not entirely consistent. This meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between RNF213 polymorphisms and moyamoya disease in Asian population. A systematic search from the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI web of science, CNKI, China CBM and WANFANG DATA databases was conducted to retrieve published studies until March 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA12.0 software. Fixed or random effects model, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were used to improve the comprehensive analysis. Eight papers including 904 MMD patients and 2258 controls were recruited in the meta-analysis. rs112735431 was closely associated with the risk of MMD among Asian population in all genetic models (dominant model: OR 103.39, 95 % CI 52.25-204.55, P = 1.69e-40; recessive model: OR 16.45, 95 % CI 6.00-45.10, P = 5.33e-08; additive model: OR 61.49, 95 % CI 22.07-171.33, P = 3.32e-15), especially in the Japanese population. Subgroup analysis revealed highly statistically significant higher risk in the patients with family histories. Although another polymorphism rs148731719 showed no significant association with the MMD, rs138130613 was found to be related to the higher risk in Chinese population (dominant model: OR 8.34, 95 % CI 1.72-40.47, P = 0.008). Our meta-analysis strengthens RNF213 rs112735431 is closely associated with the increased risk of MMD in Japanese, and the screening combined with rs112735431 and rs138130613may improve the detection rate for MMD in China. PMID:26847828

  2. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and bipolar disorder in European populations: A risk association in case-control, family-based and GWAS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chang, Hong; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor that has antidepressant-like effects in animal models and may be implicated in the etiology of mood-related phenotypes. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met) in the BDNF gene was demonstrated to influence BDNF's secretion and function, as well as mood and cognitive related phenotypes. However, previous genetic association studies of Val66Met polymorphism in the clinical risk of mood disorders have been complicated, possibly due to phenotypic diversity, underpowered statistical association or ancestry-specific effects. Here, we collected mood phenotypic and genetic data in over 90,000 individuals from diverse ethnic groups and conducted a systematic meta-analysis. The results showed that the Val66Met polymorphism was significantly associated with BPD in Europeans (Pmeta=0.0029, OR=1.136), but not in Asians (Pmeta=0.443). Also, it appears that the risk for MDD conferred by BDNF is waning, as the Val66Met variant was not associated with MDD in either European or Asian samples (Pmeta>0.5). PMID:27236043

  3. FAS and FASL Gene Polymorphisms Are Not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection Based on a Case-Control Study in a Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FAS and FASL genes with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 116 HBV-infected patients at the Hospital of the Santa Casa de Misericordia Foundation (Belém, PA, Brazil. Seronegative individuals were used as controls. DNA samples were extracted from the leukocytes and assayed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by RFLP analysis with restriction endonucleases. Results. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes for -670FAS (GG, Ivs2nt-124FASL (GG, Ivs3nt-169FASL (ΔT/ΔT, and -844FASL (TT were higher in the HBV patients, and the FAS-1377AA genotype was more frequent in the control group; however, the differences between the allele and genotype frequencies were not statistically significant. When the HBV patient population was divided into two groups (inactive carriers and active chronic hepatitis patients, the mutant genotypes were found to be more prevalent in the active chronic hepatitis group with respect to the FAS gene polymorphisms; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that the polymorphisms in FAS and FASL genes are not associated with HBV infection or even with the natural history of the infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

  4. CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk among Japanese: A nested case-control study within a large-scale population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Akihisa; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Charvat, Hadrien; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-08-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-transferases (GST) M1 and T1 are major enzymes in the carcinogen metabolizing pathway. We examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP1A1 (rs4646421, rs4646422 and rs1048943), GSTM1 and GSTT1 and gastric cancer risk in Japan. This is a nested case-control study (457 cases and 457 matched controls) of our population-based cohort involving 36,745 subjects who answered a baseline questionnaire and supplied blood samples. The odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. We found that CYP1A1 (rs4646422) variant allele was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.17-2.32). GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTM1/T1 both or either null genotypes were associated with increased risk, but not statistically significantly. Combination of the CYP1A1 (rs4646422) variant allele and GSTM1/T1 both or either null genotypes was associated with a statistically significant increased risk compared with the combination of the CYP1A1 homozygous wild-type genotype and the GSTM1/T1 both active genotypes. In addition, compared with CYP1A1 (rs4646422) homozygous wild-type genotypes in those who were never-smokers, CYP1A1 variant alleles in those who smoked ≥30 pack-years were associated with an increased risk; neither gene-gene nor gene-environment interactions were significant. The CYP1A1 (rs4646422) polymorphism might be involved in gastric carcinogenesis among the Japanese population. PMID:27062139

  5. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  6. Etiology of leukemia in childhood - a case control study in Lower Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two municipalities in Lower Saxony, Germany, clusters of childhood leukemia were observed. It was decided to conduct a case control study to explore potential risk factors which might explain the observed clusters. The study was based on the German Children's Cancer Registry. 781 parents of cases and controls took part in the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an interview by phone. Additionally, measurements of electromagnetic fields and radon were performed in the children's homes. The paper presents the basic considerations of the study, its design and a summary of the main results. (orig.)

  7. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benninga Marc A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194. The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on

  8. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, R. (PhD); K Holakouie Naieni; B. Golestan; H Nabavizadeh; M. Yunesian

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran)...

  9. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair xenoderma pigmentosum group D gene and its association with head and neck cancer susceptibility in rural Indian population: a hospital based case-control study from south-western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas D. Datkhile

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that polymorphisms in cd199 of XPD gene could play a role in modifying genetic susceptibility of individual to head and neck cancer in Maharashtra patients. Thus, the case-control study suggest that selected DNA repair genes represent genetic determinants in oral carcinogenesis along with other risk factors in the rural Indian population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1997-2005

  10. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  11. Diabetes and risk of Parkinson's disease: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether diabetes increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and the risk of PD. METHODS: Seven databases were searched to identify case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and PD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. All data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1 software. Subgroup analyses were also adopted, according to stratification on gender, geographic location, source of the control group, smoking, anti-diabetes drug prescription and duration of DM. RESULTS: Fourteen studies fulfilled inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, yielding a total of 21395 PD patients and 84579 control subjects. Individuals with diabetes were found to have a negative association with future PD (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.58-0.98 in spite of significant heterogeneity. In subgroup analyses, the negative correlation was still found in studies from North America, non-PD control groups from general population, never smoking individuals, and DM ascertainment based on questionnaire or self-report. Stratification of gender and DM duration showed no significant association. No association was also found in European and Asian individuals, hospital-based controls, ever smoking subjects, DM assessment by medical record or physician diagnosis, and insulin prescription for DM. CONCLUSION: Evidence from case-control studies suggested that diabetic individuals may have a decreased incidence of PD despite significant heterogeneity. More researches are warranted to clarify an understanding of the association between diabetes and risk of PD.

  12. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    OpenAIRE

    Medhi R; Das B; Das A; Ahmed M; Bawri S; Rai S

    2016-01-01

    Robin Medhi, Banani Das, Arpana Das, Mansur Ahmed, Sonika Bawri, Suditi Rai Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Assam, India Purpose: To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae com...

  13. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p < 0.01). In each stratum and overall, nulliparous women appeared to be at h...

  14. A case-control study: occupational cooking and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marr Anja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A European-wide population based case-control study (European rare cancer study undertaken in nine European countries examined risk factors for uveal melanoma. They found a positive association between cooks and the risk of uveal melanoma. In our study we examine whether cooks or people who worked in cook related jobs have an increased uveal melanoma risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study during 2002 and 2005. Overall, 1653 eligible subjects (age range: 20-74 years, living in Germany participated. Interviews were conducted with 459 incident uveal melanoma cases, 827 population controls, 180 ophthalmologist controls and 187 sibling controls. Data on occupational exposure were obtained from a self-administered postal questionnaire and a computer-assisted telephone interview. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusting for the matching factors. Results Overall, we did not observe an increased risk of uveal melanoma among people who worked as cooks or who worked in cook related jobs. When we restricted the source population of our study to the population of the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia, we observed an increased risk among subjects who were categorized as cooks in the cases-control analysis. Conclusion Our results are in conflict with former results of the European rare cancer study. Considering the rarity of the disease laboratory in vitro studies of human uveal melanoma cell lines should be done to analyze potential exposure risk factors like radiation from microwaves, strong light from incandescent ovens, or infrared radiation.

  15. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  16. Diabetes and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lin; Fu, Deng-lei; Li, Hui-Qin; Liu, Ai-ju; Li, Ji-huang; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether diabetes increases the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still inconclusive. The objective of this updated meta-analysis is to synthesize evidence from case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and the risk of PD. Methods Seven databases were searched to identify case-control studies that evaluated the association between diabetes and PD. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale. All data were anal...

  17. A potential anatomic subtype of short bowel syndrome: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wencheng; Wang, Jian; Ying, Rongchao; Li, Yousheng; Jin, Huicheng; Mao, Qi; Yao, Danhua; Guo, Mingxiao

    2016-01-01

    Background Fundamental researches suggest that ileum presents greater adaptive potential than the jejunum. However, few studies estimate the association between ileum and adaptive potential in human. To discover the association, we conducted this matched case-control study. Methods A 1:2 pair-matched, case-control study was conducted from January 1, 2001 to January 1, 2015 in Intestinal Rehabilition and Transplant Center. The case group was ileum predominated (IP) group and the control group ...

  18. Control for Confounding in Case-Control Studies Using the Stratification Score, a Retrospective Balancing Score

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Andrew S.; Satten, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    The stratification score for a case-control study is the probability of disease modeled as a function of potential confounders. The authors show that the stratification score is a retrospective balancing score and thus plays a similar role in case-control studies as the propensity score plays in prospective studies. The authors further show how standardization using the stratification score can be used to compare the distributions of exposures that would be found among case and control partic...

  19. Validation of a home safety questionnaire used in a series of case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were bli...

  20. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of chronic atrophic gastritis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raum Elke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported associations of DNA repair pathway gene variants and risk of various cancers and precancerous lesions, such as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. Methods A nested case-control study within the German population-based ESTHER cohort was conducted, including 533 CAG cases and 1054 controls. Polymorphisms in eleven DNA repair genes (APEX1, ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, PARP1 and XRCC1, in CD3EAP/ASE-1 and PPP1R13L were analysed. Results No association was disclosed for any of the analysed polymorphisms. Nor did stratified analyses according to ages Conclusions The results of this large German case-control study do not reveal associations of DNA repair pathway polymorphisms and risk of CAG. On the basis of a large number of CAG cases, they do not support associations of DNA repair pathway SNPs with CAG risk, but suggest the need of larger studies to disclose or exclude potential weak associations, or of studies with full coverage of candidate genes.

  1. Infectious Laryngotracheitis in the Niagara Peninsula: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zellen, G. K.; Weber, L J; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    The method(s) of spread of infectious laryngotracheitis in poultry flocks is uncertain. Based on an outbreak of the disease in the Niagara Peninsula in the summer of 1982, managers of infected (case) flocks and noninfected (control) flocks were interviewed to compare their management practices. The data were statistically analyzed; however, the results are not conclusive since only thirteen farms were involved in the outbreak. The results do suggest the following: farms with previous infectio...

  2. Type, number or both? A population-based matched case-control study on the risk of fall injuries among older people and number of medications beyond fall-inducing drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    Full Text Available Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization.National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study.Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009.Cases (n = 64,399 were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status.The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs. Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88. When stratified by use (or not of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67 and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77.In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs or high numbers of them.

  3. Type, Number or Both? A Population-Based Matched Case-Control Study on the Risk of Fall Injuries among Older People and Number of Medications beyond Fall-Inducing Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel; Johnell, Kristina; Elling, Berty; Möller, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Drug use is a modifiable risk factor for fall-related injuries in older people. Whereas the injurious effect of polypharmacy is established, that of low numbers of medications has not been fully ascertained. Neither do we know whether it is the number per se or the type of medications that actually matters. We assessed this question for fall injuries leading to hospitalization. Design National register-based, population-based, matched case-control study. Setting Community dwellers aged 65+ years living in Sweden between March 2006 and December 2009. Methods Cases (n = 64,399) were identified in the national inpatient register and four controls per case were randomly matched by gender, date of birth and residential area. The association between number of prescribed medications, assessed through linkage with the Swedish prescribed drug register, and the risk of injurious falls was estimated with odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for demographic and health status. Results The number of medications was associated with an increased risk of fall injury in a dose-response fashion, even after adjustment for marital status, comorbidity and number of fall-risk-inducing drugs (FRIDs). Using ten or more medications was associated with an almost two-fold higher risk (adjusted OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.66 to 1.88). When stratified by use (or not) of at least one FRID, the association weakened slightly among both non-users (adjusted OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.67) and users (adjusted OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.58 to 1.77). Conclusion In older people, not only large but also small numbers of medications may affect the risk for them to sustain injurious falls. Although the mechanisms lying behind this are complex, the finding challenges the prevention strategies targeting either specific types of medications (FRIDs) or high numbers of them. PMID:25815483

  4. Use of dairy products, lactose, and calcium and risk of ovarian cancer - results from a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose......, and calcium and risk of overall ovarian cancer and histological types of ovarian cancer....

  5. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Alayed

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: When considered together, the traditional ‘red flags’ for NF may be sufficient to rule in or rule out the diagnosis. If future prospective studies validate these findings, there will be a potential opportunity to expedite NF diagnosis and improve patient outcomes.

  6. Hoogfrequente percussieventilatie bij premature baby's: een retrospectieve case- control studie

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaerts, Lore; Dielkens, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Motivering: Prematuur geboren baby's hebben vaak onvoldoende ontwikkelde longen. Hierdoor ontstaan vaak allerlei respiratoire problemen. Hoogfrequente percussieventilatie (HFPV) wordt als behandeling gebruikt om deze respiratoire problemen onder controle te krijgen. Niettegenstaande positieve klinische effecten is nog geen wetenschappelijke evidentie gevonden. Doelstellingen: Het doel van deze studie bestaat erin na te gaan in welke mate HFPV als adjuvante therapie een verschil kan beteke...

  7. Inference of the Haplotype Effect in a Matched Case-Control Study Using Unphased Genotype Data*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Samiran; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rennert, Gad

    2008-01-01

    Typically locus specific genotype data do not contain information regarding the gametic phase of haplotypes, especially when an individual is heterozygous at more than one locus among a large number of linked polymorphic loci. Thus, studying disease-haplotype association using unphased genotype data is essentially a problem of handling a missing covariate in a case-control design. There are several methods for estimating a disease-haplotype association parameter in a matched case-control stud...

  8. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  9. Combined effects of cigarette smoking, gene polymorphisms and methylations of tumor suppressor genes on non small cell lung cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is the most established risk factor, and genetic variants and/or gene promoter methylations are also considered to play an essential role in development of lung cancer, but the pathogenesis of lung cancer is still unclear. We collected the data of 150 cases and 150 age-matched and sex-matched controls on a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in China. Face to face interviews were conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Gene polymorphism and methylation status were measured by RFLP-PCR and MSP, respectively. Logistic regressive model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for different levels of exposure. After adjusted age and other potential confounding factors, smoking was still main risk factor and significantly increased 3.70-fold greater risk of NSCLC as compared with nonsmokers, and the ORs across increasing levels of pack years were 1, 3.54, 3.65 and 7.76, which the general dose-response trend was confirmed. Our striking findings were that the risk increased 5.16, 8.28 and 4.10-fold, respectively, for NSCLC with promoter hypermethylation of the p16, DAPK or RARβ gene in smokers with CYP1A1 variants, and the higher risk significantly increased in smokers with null GSTM1 and the OR was 17.84 for NSCLC with p16 promoter hypermethylation, 17.41 for DAPK, and 8.18 for RARβ in smokers with null GSTM1 compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Our study suggests the strong combined effects of cigarette smoke, CYP1A1 and GSTM1 Polymorphisms, hypermethylations of p16, DAPK and RARβ promoters in NSCLC, implying complex pathogenesis of NSCLC should be given top priority in future research

  10. Periconceptional folic acid associated with an increased risk of oral clefts relative to non-folate related malformations in the Northern Netherlands: a population based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periconceptional folic acid has been associated with a reduced risk of neural tube defects, but findings on its effect in oral clefts are largely inconclusive. This case-control study assesses the effects of periconceptional folic acid on cleft risk, using complementary data from the Dutch Oral Cleft Registry and a population-based birth defects registry (Eurocat) of children and foetuses born in the Northern Netherlands between 1997 and 2009. Cases were live-born infants with non-syndromic clefts (n = 367) and controls were infants or foetuses with chromosomal/syndromal (n = 924) or non-folate related anomalies (n = 2,021). We analyzed type/timing/duration of supplement use related to traditional cleft categories as well as to their timing (early/late embryonic periods) and underlying embryological processes (fusion/differentiation defects). Consistent supplement use during the aetiologically relevant period (weeks 0–12 postconception) was associated with an increased risk of clefts (adjusted odds ratio 1.72, 95 % confidence interval 1.19–2.49), especially of cleft lip/alveolus (3.16, 1.69–5.91). Further analysis systematically showed twofold to threefold increased risks for late differentiation defects—mainly clefts of the lip/alveolus—with no significant associations for early/late fusion defects. Effects were attributable to folic acid and not to other multivitamin components, and inclusion of partial use (not covering the complete aetiologically relevant period) generally weakened associations. In conclusion, this study presents several lines of evidence indicating that periconceptional folic acid in the Northern Netherlands is associated with an increased risk of clefts, in particular of cleft lip/alveolus. This association is strengthened by the specificity, consistency, systematic pattern, and duration of exposure-response relationship of our findings, underlining the need to evaluate public health strategies regarding folic acid and to

  11. A functional HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility and poor clinicopathological characteristics in a Turkish population: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Süleyman; Sümbül, Ahmet Taner; Dadaş, Erdoğan

    2016-04-01

    Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is pervasively overexpressed and correlated with tumor invasion, progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in various human cancers including breast cancer (BC) that plays a role as an oncogenic molecule. A common functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs12826786 C>T) at the HOTAIR promoter has been reported to influence HOTAIR expression and gastric adenocarcinoma susceptibility, but relation of HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism with BC susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics has yet to be reported. To explore the association of the HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism with the risk of BC in a Turkish population, a hospital-based case-control study was carried out consisting of 123 BC patients and 122 age-matched healthy controls. HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan assay. We found that women carrying TT genotype of HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism had an increased risk of developing BC in both codominant (odds ratio (OR) = 2.24, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.05-4.81, P = 0.02) and recessive (OR = 2.49, 95 % CI 1.25-4.97, P = 0.008) inheritance models. Moreover, TT genotype of HOTAIR rs12826786 C>T polymorphism was significantly related with multiple clinicopathological characteristics concerned with worse BC progression such as advanced TNM stage (III and IV), larger tumor size (T3 and T4), and distant metastasis (M1), as well as poor histological grade (III) (P T polymorphism might play crucial roles in genetic susceptibility and poor prognosis for BC in Turkish population, further independent studies are needed to confirm our results in a larger series, as well as in patients of distinct populations. PMID:26577852

  12. Red Flags For Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al Alayed; Charlie Tan; Nick Daneman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to examine the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ‘red flags’ for necrotizing fasciitis (NF) on history and physical examination. Methods: retrospective study of all cases of NF admitted to a large tertiary care hospital between January 1 2004 and December 31 2013, each matched to two control patients with cellulitis. We determined the diagnostic test characteristics of clinical features for distinguishing NF from cellulitis, with emphasis on positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) li...

  13. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakta, A; Bandyopadhyay, M; A. M. Tarnekar; Ghosh, S. K.; D. K. Adak; P. Bharati

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects) increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC) was found ...

  14. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  15. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  16. Exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study of brain tumors in adults was carried out using 215 cases diagnosed in Southern Ontario between 1979 and 1982, with an individually matched, hospital control series. Significantly elevated risks were observed for reported use of spring water, drinking of wine, and consumption of pickled fish, together with a significant protective effect for the regular consumption of any of several types of fruit. While these factors are consistent with a role for N-nitroso compounds in the etiology of these tumors, for several other factors related to this hypothesis, no association was observed. Occupation in the rubber industry was associated with a significant relative risk of 9.0, though no other occupational associations were seen. Two previously unreported associations were with smoking nonfilter cigarettes with a significant trend and with the use of hair dyes or sprays. The data do not support an association between physical head trauma requiring medical attention and risk of brain tumors and indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation and vinyl chloride monomer does not contribute any appreciable fraction of attributable risk in the population studied. The findings warrant further detailed investigation in future epidemiologic studies

  17. Dermatoglyphics in Alopecia Areata - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhakta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata subjects are characterized by asymptomatic, circular or oval smooth patches of complete loss of hair on scalp, the beard or elsewhere. In the present study alopecia areata subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in alopecia areata but in case of whorls and arches (not in male subjects increased numbers are recorded than their counterpart. On palm, a-b ridge count (a-b RC was found to be increased in both sexes of alopecia areata(statistically significant increase in alopecia areata Female while atd angles were reduced in females. In male subjects of alopecia areata, true palmar pattern (TPP was increased in both hypothenar and left interdigital-2 (ID2 areas while in females, TPP were increased in both inter digital area-2 and 3 and left ID4 areas. TPP were reduced in left thenar (Lt. Th.,Lt. ID1, ID3, ID4, Rt. ID2, ID3 and ID4 areas of alopecia areata males and both right and left thenar and hypothenar and right ID4 areas of females. This study reveals deviation in the form of reduction of number of loops and increase in number of whorls and arches in alopecia subjects. Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. These can be considered as quite useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for alopecia areata.

  18. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n=86) and Asperger's syndrome (n=114) the percentages were 8.1% and 18.......4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (p= .0009)....

  19. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.;

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow-up was...... between 25 years and 59 years. An account of convictions in the nationwide Danish Register of Criminality was used as a measure of criminal behaviour. Among 113 cases with childhood autism, .9% had been convicted. In atypical autism (n = 86) and Asperger's syndrome (n = 114) the percentages were 8.1% and...... 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. Case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deapen, D.M.; Henderson, B.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors conducted a study of 518 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients identified between 1977 and 1979 and 518 controls to investigate putative risk factors for this disease. Occupations at risk of electrical exposure were reported more often by patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-13.0) as were electrical shocks producing unconsciousness (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-9.9). Although an overall excess of physical trauma associated with unconsciousness was observed in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.4), the effect was inversely associated with duration of the unconscious episodes, suggesting an effect of recall bias. Only slight differences were found for surgical traumata to the nervous system. Parkinsonism was reported more often among first degree relatives of cases (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.6). The frequencies of prior poliomyelitis or other central nervous system diseases were similar for patients and controls. Occupational exposure to selected toxic substances was similar for patients and controls except for the manufacture of plastics (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.0-20.5), although few details of these exposures were provided. No differences in occupations with exposure to animal skins or hides were observed.

  1. Remifentanil for tracheal tube tolerance: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machata, A M; Illievich, U M; Gustorff, B; Gonano, C; Fässler, K; Spiss, C K

    2007-08-01

    We assessed the minimal remifentanil dosage required for tracheal tube tolerance in awake and spontaneously breathing patients after major abdominal surgery. Forty postoperative patients received remifentanil 0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), which was reduced in steps of 0.025 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) every 30 min. Respiratory response subscore of comfort scale (CSRR), Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, and minute ventilation were recorded. Spontaneous respiration with no or little response to ventilation (CSRR 2) in co-operative, oriented and tranquil patients (RSS 2) was defined as the main outcome and study endpoint. Thirty-one patients (77.5%) reached a CSRR 2 and RSS 2 with remifentanil 0.025 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) and nine patients (22.5%) required remifentanil 0.05 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). Analgesia was sufficient in all patients (VAS = 30). Remifentanil 0.025-0.05 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) achieves satisfactory tracheal tube tolerance in awake and spontaneously breathing patients. PMID:17635427

  2. Case-Control Study of acute diarrhea in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vafaee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To determine the risk factor for acute diarrhea disease in children. Methods: In the survey, 220 cases and 220 controls were involved. Cases were children with loose watery feces, pathologically diagnosed as acute diarrhea by the physician, and enrolled from the Emergency Ward as the Incident Cases in Dr. Sheykh Hospital, Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Control group too, was enrolled from the same cases and the members were children whose risk factors disease were not the risk factor for acute diarrhea, and were enrolled from emergency ward of burn patients, accidents, acute respiratory diseases and eligible patients.

    Results: By using univariate logistic regression models, variables consisting used milk up to 6 months age, antibiotic usage during the last 15 days, mother's employment, mother's acquaintance with ORS, occupancy, and water slack during the week before illness, were significantly related with acute diarrhea. In a multiple logistic regression, the relationship between the said factors as the independent variables and acute diarrhea was studied. Use of formulas before 6 month age with (95% CI 1.77- 5.79 OR=3.21, and tenantry with (95% CI 1.24-2.71 OR=1.83, and mother

  3. Congenital anosmia and emotion recognition: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Smadja, Julien; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Soudry, Yaël; Robin, Marion; Berthoz, Sylvie; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Bonfils, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Patients with anosmia are not able to detect volatile chemicals signaling the presence of infectious and non-infectious environmental hazards, which typically elicit disgust and fear, respectively. Social animals may compensate a loss of olfaction by taking advantage of signals of threat that are produced by their conspecifics. Among humans and other primates, body postures and facial expressions are powerful cues conveying emotional information, including fear and disgust. The aim of the present study was to examine whether humans with agenesis of the olfactory bulb, a rare disorder characterized by congenital anosmia, would be more accurate in recognizing facial expressions of fear and disgust. A total of 90 participants with no history of mental disorder or traumatic brain injury were recruited, including 17 patients with congenital anosmia (10 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.5 ± 14.8 years), 34 patients with acquired anosmia (18 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 57.2 ± 11.8 years) and 39 healthy subjects (22 men, mean age ± standard deviation: 36.7 ± 13.2 years). For each patient with congenital anosmia, the agenesis of the olfactory bulb was ascertained through magnetic resonance imaging. Emotion recognition abilities were examined with a dynamic paradigm in which a morphing technique allowed displaying emotional facial expressions increasing in intensity over time. Adjusting for age, education, depression and anxiety, patients with congenital anosmia required similar levels of intensity to correctly recognize fear and disgust than healthy subjects while they displayed decreased error rates for both fear (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -28.3% [-46.3%, -10.2%], P = 0.003) and disgust (mean difference [95% confidence interval] = -15.8% [-31.5%, -0.2%], P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with acquired anosmia, there was a negative correlation between duration of anosmia and the rate of errors for fearful (Spearman's ρ = -0.531, P

  4. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  5. A multi-institute case-control study on the risk factors of developing pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Nakamura, K; Omata, M; Oguchi, H; Ohashi, K; Ohyanagi, H; Fujiki, T; Motojima, K

    1992-08-01

    A multi-institute, hospital-based, case-control study on pancreatic cancer was carried out to examine its association with preceding diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on 124 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases and sex-, age- and institute-matched hospital controls in seven hospitals in Japan. Cigarette smoking showed a positive association with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Especially among smokers, a risk enhancing effect of involuntary/passive smoking prior to twenty years of age was observed (P tea or alcohol consumption. Among dietary factors, favoring food of a salty taste and drinking green tea five cups per day or more were positively associated with the risk. Drinking milk and eating fish everyday were inversely associated with the risk. PMID:1434027

  6. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  7. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease. PMID:22449145

  8. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  9. A hospital-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in Shanghai: analysis of environmental and occupational risk factors by subtypes of the WHO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Otto; Harris, Fran; Armstrong, Thomas W; Hua, Fu

    2010-03-19

    The objectives were (1) to investigate potential environmental and occupational risk factors of non-Hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms (NHLN), and (2) to explore the relationships between risk factors and NHLN subtypes according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The investigation was a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 649 newly diagnosed NHLN cases (August 2003 through January 2008) and 1298 individually gender-age-matched patient controls at 25 hospitals in Shanghai. A 17-page questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, medical history, family history, lifestyle risk factors, employment history, residential history, and occupational and non-occupational exposures. Certain occupations of interest triggered a second questionnaire, which was occupation-specific and asked for more details about jobs, tasks, materials used and work environment. Exposure assessments were based on the questionnaires, on-site workplace investigations, data published in the Chinese literature, historical exposure measurements maintained by government health agencies, and expert opinions of a panel of local scientists who were familiar with workplaces in Shanghai. Risk estimates (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) of individual risk factors were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. A number of potential environmental and occupational risk factors were associated with an increased risk of NHLN (all subtypes combined) and/or individual subtypes; including home/workplace renovation, living on a farm, planting crops, raising livestock or animals, farm workers, fabric sewing and cutting workers, welders and sheet metal workers, masonry and plastering workers, product and chemical testing workers, toy manufacturing, agriculture industry, and beauty salon. Exposures associated with an increased risk of NHLN (all subtypes combined) and/or individual subtypes included benzene, solvents, petroleum fuels, metals, insecticides

  10. Early Life Course Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity: The IDEFICS Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammann, Karin; Peplies, Jenny; De Henauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A.; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. Objectives The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. Methods A case-control study with 1,024 1∶1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007–05/2008) of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. Results For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.04), smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08–2.01), Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10–1.74), and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62–0.96). Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. Conclusions Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:24551043

  11. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  12. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C;

    2010-01-01

    population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... with a first stroke within 72 h of hospital presentation in whom CT or MRI is performed. Proxy respondents are used for cases unable to communicate. Etiological and topographical stroke subtype is documented for all cases. Controls are hospital- and community-based, matched for gender, ethnicity and...... urine samples are obtained from cases and controls. Study Significance: An effective global strategy to reduce the risk of stroke mandates systematic measurement of the contribution of the major vascular risk factors within defined ethnic groups and geographical locations....

  13. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it. PMID:21699022

  14. Case-control study of radon and lung cancer in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is known to cause lung cancer in humans; however, there remain uncertainties about the effects associated with residential exposures. This case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer was conducted in five counties in New Jersey and involved 561 cases and 740 controls. A yearlong α-track detector measurement of radon was completed for ∼93% of all residences lived in at the time of interview (a total of 2063). While the odds ratios (ORs) for whole data were suggestive of an increased risk for exposures >75 Bq m-3, these associations were not statistically significant. The adjusted excess OR (EOR) per 100 Bq m-3 was -0.13 (95% CI: -0.30 to 0.44) for males, 0.29 (95% CI: -0.12 to 1.70) for females and 0.05 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.56) for all subjects combined. An analysis of radon effects by histological type of lung cancer showed that the OR was strongest for small/oat cell carcinomas in both males and females. There was no statistical heterogeneity of radon effects by demographic factors (age at disease occurrence, education level and type of respondent). Analysis by categories of smoking status, frequency or duration did not modify the risk estimates of radon on lung cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with an earlier population-based study of radon and lung cancer among New Jersey women, and with the North American pooling of case control radon seven studies, including the previous New Jersey study. Several uncertainties regarding radon measurements and assumptions of exposure history may have resulted in underestimation of a true exposure-response relationship. (authors)

  15. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Kleinerman, R; Land, C; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; La Vecchia, C

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Because the etiology of thyroid cancer is not well described, we conducted a pooled analysis of all published case-control studies, as well as two identified unpublished studies. This paper describes the major characteristics of the 14 studies included in the analysis, as well as the stat

  16. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes;

    2015-01-01

    , homocysteine, adiponectin, or body-mass index. Conclusions: In these parallel nested case-control studies, we found no relationship of multilocus heterozygosity with risk of CHD or its major risk factors. Studies in other populations are needed to rule out associations with lower levels of heterozygosity....

  17. Agreement between oral contraceptive users and prescribers: implications for case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); M.H. Camps; B.A. Kempers; M.F. Mentjens; H.B. Mulder; E.G. Schouten (Evert); R.M.L. Zwijsen; M.A. Rookus (Matti)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies examining the effects of oral contraceptives (OC) are prone to misclassification bias due to errors in assessment of OC use. Concern about inaccurate exposure histories has increased since current studies require women to recall OC use over prolonged periods of time.

  18. Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark; Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schafer, Helmut; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Freitag, Christine; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Rothenberger, Aribert; Hawi, Ziarih; Sergeant, Joseph; Roeyers, Herbert; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases…

  19. DHAT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PYSCHIATRIC COMORBIDITIES IN MALES: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu RN, Sharma VK, Ashutosh Kumar, Chintan Bavishi, Balaji More

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dhat syndrome is often taken as culture bound syndrome (CBS) of Indian subcontinent. There are many misconceptions which form base of symptoms and co morbidities. Aim: Dhat syndrome is reported on basis of self diagnosis. The study aims to study associated symptoms, sexual behavior and co morbidities in Indian population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and case-control study was carried with help of trained local interviewers at Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, ...

  20. A Case-Control Study of Migraine and Tension-Type Headache’s Risk Factors Among Shiraz Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    S.M.T. Ayatollahi; Khosravi, A

    2005-01-01

    Studies of headache risk factors are numerous but their results are based on clinics and hospitals. Few data have been reported in children. No data are available regarding migraine and tension-type headache risk factors among Iranian children. Therefore we determined the sociodemographic risk factors of migraine and tension-type headaches and their correlations in schoolchildren.This study was a matched case-control method using the prevalence study data. The subjects were ...

  1. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niven DJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Niven1, Luc R Berthiaume2, Gordon H Fick1, Kevin B Laupland11Department of Critical Care Medicine, Peter Lougheed Centre, Calgary, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods.Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.Results: Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%. Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02. They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08. In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001.Conclusion: The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature.Keywords: case-control, matched, dependent data, statistics

  2. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  3. Biomarkers of exposure to organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk : analysis of the CECILE study, a population-based case-control study in France, based on pharmacokinetic models to assess exposure during critical exposure windows

    OpenAIRE

    Bachelet, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Its incidence is only partially explained by well-established risk factors as reproductive, hormonal or genetic factors. It has been suggested that endocrine disrupting chemicals such as persistent organochlorine pollutants also play a role in breast cancer. The objectives of this study were: to assess exposure levels to DDE (main metabolite of DDT) and to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and to explore their determinants; to estimate PCB-153 lev...

  4. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  5. Toxoplasmosis gondii and schizophrenia: a case control study in a low Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence Mexican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are conflicting reports concerning the association of T. gondii infection and schizophrenia. Therefore, we determined such association in a Mexican population of Mestizo ethnicity. Through a case-control study design, 50 schizophrenic patients and 150 control subjects matched by gender, age, r...

  6. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was asse

  7. Risk factors for Mycobacterium abscessus infection in cystic fibrosis patients; a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verregghen, M.; Heijerman, H.G.; Reijers, M.; Ingen, J. van; Ent, C.K. van der

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Factors that predispose CF patients to infection by this environmental bacterium remain unknown. In a case-control study of 22 CF patients with M.

  8. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange;

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup. A t...

  9. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Lenters, M. de; Duijster, D.; Bruist, M.A.; Thijssen, J.; Ruiter, C. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  10. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong-Lenters; D. Duijster; M.A. Bruist; J. Thijssen; C. de Ruiter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and co

  11. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  12. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  13. Consumption of sweet foods and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of women on Long Island, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Satia, Jessie A.; Britton, Julie A.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have reported a positive association between breast cancer risk and high intake of sweets, which may be due to an insulin-related mechanism. We investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of 1434 cases and 1440 controls from Long Island, NY. Shortly after diagnosis, subjects were interviewed in-person to assess potential breast cancer risk factors, and self-completed a modified Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included 11...

  14. Risk Factors for Cryptosporidiosis among Children in a Semi Urban Slum in Southern India: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Mark R. Francis; Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Prabakaran, Ashok D.; Jayavelu, Nithya; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for acquisition of cryptosporidial infection in resource-poor settings are poorly understood. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess factors associated with childhood cryptosporidiosis (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) in an endemic, Indian slum community using data from two community-based studies with 580 children followed prospectively until their second birthday. Factors were assessed for overall cryptosporidiosis (N = 406), and for multiple (N = ...

  15. Risk Factors for Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: a Case-Control Study from the CONDOR Dental PBRN

    OpenAIRE

    Barasch, A.; Cunha-Cruz, J.; Curro, F.A.; Hujoel, P; Sung, A.H.; Vena, D.; Voinea-Griffin, A. E.; Beadnell, Steven; Craig, Ronald G.; DeRouen, Timothy; Desaranayake, Ananda; Gilbert, Ann; Gilbert, Gregg H; Goldberg, Ken; Hauley, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Case reports and cohort studies have linked bisphosphonate therapy and osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ), but neither causality nor specific risks for lesion development have been clearly established. We conducted a 1:3 case-control study with three dental Practice-based Research Networks, using dentist questionnaires and patient interviews for collection of data on bisphosphonate therapy, demographics, co-morbidities, and dental and medical treatments. Multivariable logistic regression analyse...

  16. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  17. Selecting controls for assessing interaction in nested case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for selecting controls in nested case-control studies, matching on X and counter matching on X, are compared when interest is in interaction between a risk factor X measured in the full cohort and another risk factor Z measured only in the case-control sample. This is important because matching provides efficiency gains relative to random sampling when X is uncommon and the interaction is positive (greater than multiplicative), whereas counter matching is generally efficient compared to random sampling. Matching and counter matching were compared to each other and to random sampling of controls for dichotomous X and Z. Comparison was by simulation, using as an example a published study of radiation and other risk factors for breast cancer in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and by asymptotic relative efficiency calculations for a wide range of parameters specifying the prevalence of X and Z as well as the levels of correlation and interaction between them. Focus was on analyses utilizing general models for the joint risk of X and Z. Counter-matching performed better than matching or random sampling in terms of efficiency for inference about interaction in the case of a rare risk factor X and uncorrelated risk factor Z. Further, more general, efficiency calculations demonstrated that counter-matching is generally efficient relative to matched case-control designs for studying interaction. Because counter-matched designs may be analyzed using standard statistical methods and allow investigation of confounding of the effect of X, whereas matched designs require a non-standard approach when fitting general risk models and do not allow investigating the adjusted risk of X, it is concluded that counter-matching on X can be a superior alternative to matching on X in nested case-control studies of interaction when X is known at the time of case-control sampling. (author)

  18. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fen Wu; Koenig, Karen L; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Saran Jonas; Yelena Afanasyeva; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Max Costa; Yu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was mea...

  19. 病例对照Meta分析显示男性乳腺癌与女性乳腺癌预后相同%A meta-analysis based on case-control studies shows the similar prognosis between male and female patients with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feifei Zhou; Rong Huang; Jun Jiang; Fang Wang; Wenzhuo He; Guifang Guo; Liangping Xia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, and studies to compare the prognosis between the MBC and female breast cancer (FBC) available now were case-control studies and population-based studies, however, with controversial outcomes. To further investigate whether sex affects the prognosis of breast cancer, we performed a meta-analysis based on all the peered papers. Methods: The PubMed database was screened. Subsequently, the hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease special survival (DSS), were pooled using the Review Manager 5.0 package. Results: This study comprised of 254 MBC and 733 FBC patients enrolled in six case-control studies. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity among the trials for either outcome variable. The pooled HR showed that there was no significant difference in 5-year or 10-year DSS (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.76-2.08; HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.66-1.59) and 5-year or 10-year OS (HR: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.51-1.14; HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.54-1.02) between MBCs and FBCs. Conclusion: MBC and FBC with similar prognosis are found in this meta-analysis based on only case-control studies which matched main potential prognostic factors such as age, clinical stage, and time at diagnosis.

  20. Radiation dose and relapse are predictors for development of second malignant solid tumors after cancer in childhood and adolescence: A population-based case-control study in the five Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk with radiation therapy and chemotherapy of the first cancer in childhood and adolescence for the development of a second malignant solid tumor (SMST). Also, the role of relapse of the primary tumor was studied. It is a nested case-control study within a Nordic cohort of patients less than 20 years of age at first diagnosis 1960-1987. SMSTs were diagnosed in 1960-1991. There were 196 cases and 567 controls. The risk was increased only for radiotherapy given more than five years before the development of the SMST. A significantly increased relative risk of 1.8 was found already at doses below 1 Gy. The risk increased rapidly up to a maximum of 18.3 for doses above 30 Gy. Chemotherapy alone did not increase the risk to develop an SMST. However, in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy showed a significant potentiating effect. Relapse was found to be an independent risk factor for development of an SMST, with a higher relative risk for females than for males

  1. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Vladimir; Šipetić Sandra; Vlajinac Hristina; Stošić-Divjak Svetlana; Ješić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. ...

  2. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in D...

  3. Dietary Calcium and Risk for Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study Among US Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christina D.; Whitley, Brian M.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Grant, Delores J.; Schwartz, Gary G; Presti, Joseph C.; Iraggi, Jared D.; Newman, Kathryn A.; Gerber, Leah; Taylor, Loretta A.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk. We hypothesized that calcium intake would be positively associated with lower risk for prostate cancer. Methods We used data from a case-control study conducted among veterans between 2007 and 2010 at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The study consisted of 108 biopsy-positive prostate cancer cases, 161 biopsy-negative controls, and 237 healthy controls. We also d...

  4. Risk of metabolic syndrome among children living in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Mohd N; Bulgiba Awang; Poh Bee K; Wee Bee S; Ruzita Abdul T; Hills Andrew P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background With the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the metabolic syndrome has been studied among children in many countries but not in Malaysia. Hence, this study aimed to compare metabolic risk factors between overweight/obese and normal weight children and to determine the influence of gender and ethnicity on the metabolic syndrome among school children aged 9-12 years in Kuala Lumpur and its metropolitan suburbs. Methods A case control study was conducted among 402 ch...

  5. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases)...

  6. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  7. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on stroke recovery: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rabadi, Meheroz H; Kristal, Bruce S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Epidemiological studies have associated increased dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, and β-carotene) in preventing and decreasing the extent of ischemic brain injury. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on functional recovery after stroke has not been studied. Method: In this retrospective, case-control study of 23 patients with ischemic stroke taking vitamin C were identified and matched for age, sex, onset to admission, and admission total functional i...

  8. Assessing incremental value of biomarkers with multi-phase nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian M; Zheng, Yingye; Chibnik, Lori B; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-12-01

    Accurate risk prediction models are needed to identify different risk groups for individualized prevention and treatment strategies. In the Nurses' Health Study, to examine the effects of several biomarkers and genetic markers on the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a three-phase nested case-control (NCC) design was conducted, in which two sequential NCC subcohorts were formed with one nested within the other, and one set of new markers measured on each of the subcohorts. One objective of the study is to evaluate clinical values of novel biomarkers in improving upon existing risk models because of potential cost associated with assaying biomarkers. In this paper, we develop robust statistical procedures for constructing risk prediction models for RA and estimating the incremental value (IncV) of new markers based on three-phase NCC studies. Our method also takes into account possible time-varying effects of biomarkers in risk modeling, which allows us to more robustly assess the biomarker utility and address the question of whether a marker is better suited for short-term or long-term risk prediction. The proposed procedures are shown to perform well in finite samples via simulation studies. PMID:26195245

  9. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  10. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  11. Intake of dietary fat and vitamin in relation to breast cancer risk in Korean women: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Sun; Jung, Pa Jong; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate association between breast cancer risk and nutrients intake in Korean women, a case-control study was carried out, at Seoul, Korea. Incident cases (n=224) were identified through the cancer biopsy between February 1999 and December 2000 at two University hospitals in Seoul. Hospital-based controls (n=250) were selected from patients in the same hospitals, during the same periods. Food intake was investigated semiquantitative frequency questionnaire (98 items) by trained dietiti...

  12. Frequency of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in a case-control study of early onset Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, A S; Bertrandy, S.; Finnan, F; Butler, A; G. D. Smith(Edinburgh University); Ben-Shlomo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease may share a common or at least overlapping aetiology. The prevalence of dementia among cases of Parkinson's disease is known to be greater than expected in the general population. The frequency of the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele in a large case-control study of early onset Parkinson's disease has been examined. METHODS: 215 patients and 212 population based controls were recruited from the Republic of Irela...

  13. A case-control study of the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Lesotho.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, D L; Cousens, S N; Makoae, L. N.; Feachem, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A health impact evaluation of the Rural Sanitation Pilot Project in Mohale's Hoek district, Lesotho, was conducted from October 1987 to September 1988. A clinic-based case-control design was used to investigate the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in young children. The results indicate that under-5-year-olds from households with a latrine may experience 24% fewer episodes of diarrhoea than such children from households without a latrine (odds ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence ...

  14. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad-Reza Mansourian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (±7.2 μmol/l and 16.7 (±6.6 μmol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion :This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  15. Serum Copper Concentration in Newborns with Neural Tube Defects in Northern Iran; A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Jafar Golalipour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the eventual association between copper deficiency in newborns with neural tube defects (NTD in Northern Iran. A high prevalence of neural tube defects has been reported from this region.Methods: This hospital based case control study was carried out on 13 newborns having neural tube defects and 35 healthy controls in Northern Iran during 2005-2006. Serum copper was measured by spectrophotometery.Findings: Serum copper level in newborns with NTD and healthy normal newborns was 16.5 (�7.2 ?mol/l and 16.7 (�6.6 ?mol/l, respectively. In case group 38.5% of newborns and in control group 28.6% had copper deficiency. Logistic regression analysis showed no association between the presence of NTD and copper deficiency (OR:1.6, 95% CI=0.3-7.1, P=0.5.Conclusion:This study showed no association between NTD and copper deficiency in newborns.

  16. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  17. Neonatal Mortality Risk Factors in a Rural Part of Iran: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chaman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Due to complex causal framework of neonatal mortality, improvement of this health indicator is quite gradual and it's decreasing trend is not as great as other health indicators such as infant and under 5 mortality rates.This study was conducted to evaluate neonatal mortality risk factors based on nested case-control design."nMethods:  The study population was 6900 neonates who were born in rural areas of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province (South of Iran. They were under follow up till the end of neonatal period and the outcome of interest was neonatal death. By using risk set sampling method, 97 cases and 97 controls were selected in study cohort."nResults: Prematurity (OR= 5.57, LBW (OR= 7.68, C-section (OR= 7.27, birth rank more than 3 (OR=6.95 and birth spac­ing less than 24 months (OR= 4.65 showed significant statistical association (P< 0.05 with neonatal mortality. The Popula­tion Attributable Fraction (PAF was 0.45 for LBW, 0.40 for prematurity, 0.28 for C-section, 0.30 for birth rank more than 3, and 0.16 for birth spacing less than 24 months."nConclusion: Prematurity, low birth weight, C-section, birth spacing less than 24 months and birth rank more than 3 are impor­tant risk factors for neonatal mortality.

  18. Bladder cancer among workers in the textile industry: results of a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C A; Riboli, E; Lopez-Abente, G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case-control study carried out in the county of Mataro, Spain. The study was designed to investigate the possible causes of an unusually high mortality rate from bladder cancer in Mataro county as compared to Spain as a whole, and this report focuses on occupational exposures. The study is based on 57 cases who were hospitalized for or died from bladder cancer between 1978 and 1981. Two controls per case were matched for sex, age, residence, and date of either hospitalization or death. Information was collected on smoking, coffee drinking, and occupation. Occupational histories were then evaluated and coded blind by a group of occupational health physicians. Analyses were carried out by means of conditional logistic regression. Among a group of common occupational sectors, an increased risk for past employment in the textile industry (OR = 2.2; p = .038) was found. Further analyses indicated that the risk is particularly elevated (OR = 4.41; 95% confidence limits; 1.15-16.84) for subjects who worked in dyeing or printing and who were most probably exposed to azo-dyes. Exposure in the textile industry may be responsible for 16% of the bladder cancers in the Mataro area. A list of dyes commonly used in the Mataro textile industries was compiled and cross-checked with lists of substances tested or evaluated for carcinogenesis. PMID:3232687

  19. Analgesics use and ESRD in younger age: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moehner Sabine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ad hoc peer-review committee was jointly appointed by Drug Authorities and Industry in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 1999/2000 to review the evidence for a causal relation between phenacetin-free analgesics and nephropathy. The committee found the evidence as inconclusive and requested a new case-control study of adequate design. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study with incident cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD under the age of 50 years and four age and sex-matched neighborhood controls in 170 dialysis centers (153 in Germany, and 17 in Austria from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2004. Data on lifetime medical history, risk factors, treatment, job exposure and intake of analgesics were obtained in a standardized face-to-face interview using memory aids to enhance accuracy. Study design, study performance, analysis plan, and study report were approved by an independent international advisory committee and by the Drug Authorities involved. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The analysis included 907 cases and 3,622 controls who had never used phenacetin-containing analgesics in their lifetime. The use of high cumulative lifetime dose (3rd tertile of analgesics in the period up to five years before dialysis was not associated with later ESRD. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were 0.8 (0.7 – 1.0 and 1.0 (0.8 – 1.3 for ever- compared with no or low use and high use compared with low use, respectively. The same results were found for all analgesics and for mono-, and combination preparations with and without caffeine. No increased risk was shown in analyses stratifying for dose and duration. Dose-response analyses showed that analgesic use was not associated with an increased risk for ESRD up to 3.5 kg cumulative lifetime dose (98 % of the cases with ESRD. While the large subgroup of users with a lifetime dose up to 0.5 kg (278 cases and

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor: results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falola M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael FalolaDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAI read with interest the article "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a cardiovascular risk factor. Results of a case-control study (CONSISTE study" by de Lucas-Ramos et al.1 In my opinion, the study did not use case-control design, despite its title.View original paper by de Lucas-Ramos and colleagues.

  1. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  2. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo F Guerreiro; Neves, Ema L; Navarro, Rita; Mendes, Raquel; Prioste, Ana; Ribeiro, Diana; Lila, Tiago; Neves, António; Salgado, Mónica; Santos, Nazaré; Sampaio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal), using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years). The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and dat...

  3. Personality traits of patients with myocardial infarctio A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Eshraghi; Ahmad Khamosan; Reza Dastjerdy; Morteza Vejdan; Toba Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: In addition to some physiological factors such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipdemia, and smoking. Psychological factors, especially personality traits of individuals, also accelerate and intensify cardiovascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to draw a comparison between personality traits of patients with myocardial infarction and those of healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed in Birjand Valli-e-asr hospital. ...

  4. Home environment and asthma in Kenyan schoolchildren: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED, N.; Ng'ang'a, L; Odhiambo, J.; Nyamwaya, J.; Menzies, R

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is increasing evidence that environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma, so the relationship was studied between home environment factors and asthma among school children of varying socioeconomic backgrounds living in a developing country. METHODS--A case-control study was performed in participants of a prevalence survey which included 77 schoolchildren with asthma (defined by a history of wheeze, doctor diagnosis, or a decline in FEV1 of > or = 10% at five...

  5. Case-control genome-wide association study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Benjamin M.; Medland, Sarah; Ripke, Stephan; Anney, Richard JL; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Kent, Lindsey; Holmans, Peter; Middleton, Frank; Thapar, Anita; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Faraone, Stephen V.; Daly, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although twin and family studies have shown attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be highly heritable, genetic variants influencing the trait at a genome-wide significant level have yet to be identified. Thus additional genomewide association studies (GWAS) are needed. Method: We used case-control analyses of 896 cases with DSM-IV ADHD genotvped using the Affymetrix 5.0 array and 2,455 repository controls screened for psychotic and bipolar symptoms genotyped using Affy...

  6. Socioeconomic factors and the risk of anencephaly in a Mexican population: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control ...

  7. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh Taheri P; Sepahran M; Shariat M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved...

  8. Partially Linear Single Index Cox Regression Model in Nested Case-Control Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Shulian; Liu, Mengling; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Clendenen, Tess V; Krogh, Vittorio; Hallmans, Goran; Lu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    The nested case-control (NCC) design is widely used in epidemiologic studies as a cost-effective subcohort sampling method to study the association between a disease and its potential risk factors. NCC data are commonly analyzed using Thomas' partial likelihood approach under the Cox proportional hazards model assumption. However, the linear modeling form in the Cox model may be insufficient for practical applications, especially when there are a large number of risk factors under investigati...

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawash, Yousry A.; Laila Sh. Dorgham; Amir, El-Amir M.; Sharaf, Osama F.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF) predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases) from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were colle...

  10. Coarse fishing and urothelial cancer: a regional case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T; Sole, G

    1990-01-01

    In a regional case-control study of coarse fishing and urothelial cancer, histories from 989 patients with tumours diagnosed in the period 1985-87 were compared with histories from 2,059 unmatched electoral register controls and 1,599 matched general practitioner controls. Angling and the use of dyed maggots by anglers were not found to be risk factors. The study emphasises the importance of the established risk factor of cigarette smoking.

  11. Assessing general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability: case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, M.; Langan, J; Russell, O

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare general practitioners' care of adult patients with learning disability with that of control patients in the same practice. DESIGN--Case-control study of patients and controls by a structured interview study of general practitioners. SETTING--Avon. PATIENTS--78 adult patients with learning disability and 78 age and sex matched controls--cared for by 62 general practitioners. MAIN MEASURES--Number and content of consultations and opinions of the general practitioners. RESU...

  12. A Case control study to evaluate oxidative stress in plasma samples of oral malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Chandan Srivastava; Ravi David Austin; Deepti Shrivastava; S Sethupathy; S Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant -antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the venous blood samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different Clinicopathologic stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Setting and Design: A Case control study was designed in a hospital (Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, A...

  13. Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Karlsson, M.; Axelson, O

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinical...

  14. Determinants of Internet Addiction among Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis Tsitsika; Elena Critselis; Amalia Louizou; Mari Janikian; Aliki Freskou; Evgenia Marangou; Georgios Kormas; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric inter...

  15. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Ken M Kunisaki; Finley, E.; Dietz, D.; Chesson, C.; Vjecha, M; Standridge, B.; Schmetter, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients wh...

  16. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  17. Maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction in Goa, India: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    DD Motghare; Vaz, Frederick S; AM Pawaskar; Kulkarni MS

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the maternal determinants of intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary care Hospital in the year 2009. Ninety eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 98 controls, matched for newborns sex and type of delivery. Data was collected by interviewing the mother using a structured pretested schedule and perusal of antenatal records. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as occurring if birth weight ...

  18. Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Chinese Adults: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Wang; Xiao-Ling Lin; Yu-Ying Fan; Yuan-Ting Liu; Xing-Lan Zhang; Yun-Kai Lu; Chun-Hua Xu; Yu-Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that dietary factors may affect the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We examined the association between overall diet quality and NPC risk in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 600 NPC patients and 600 matched controls between 2009 and 2011 in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary intake and various covariates were assessed via face-to-face interviews. Diet quality scores were calculated according to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), the alter...

  19. A matched case control study of risk indicators of breast cancer in assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, N; Mahanta, L B; Nath, D C; Sarma, J D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide especially in a developing country like India. It also occupies the highest place with relative proportion 17.5% in the Hospital Based Cancer Registry in progress in the Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute. Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute is the Regional Cancer Care Center for entire North East region of India. With this background a matched case control study of 100 cases of breast cancer and 100 controls was carried out to investigate the role of different Socio economic, Female Reproductive and Life style related factors and to understand the etiology of breast cancer in Assam. Controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Data were collected using questionnaire and then conditional logistic regression analysis is used to estimate the odd ratios for several factors. Study revealed that breast cancer occurrence has statistical association with the factors chewing habits (p=0.003), number of children (p=0.080), age at marriage (p=0.014), age at first child birth (p=0.007), age at menarche (p=0.010). PMID:26007270

  20. Increasing frequency of penicillin-resistant pneumococci: epidemiological aspects and case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitai, Y; Rotenberg, M; Wirtschafter, D; Haas, H; Michel, J

    1985-04-01

    At the Hadassah University Hospital, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, the frequency of patients with relatively penicillin-resistant pneumococci (RPRP) isolates has increased from 0.9 to 10.8% during the years 1979-82. Infants and children were particularly involved. Significantly more RPRP isolates were found in those less than 14 years old than in those who were older (P less than 0.005). The determination of susceptibility or relative resistance to penicillin was based on the disk sensitivity method, which remained unchanged throughout the study period. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to penicillin G was also determined for 20 RPRP isolates and was found to be in the range of relative resistance to penicillin (0.25 to 0.50 micrograms/ml) in all 20 isolates. A case-control study of 16 index patients examined antibiotic usage during the 60 days preceding pneumococcal isolation. Total antibiotic usage was high in both groups (18.8 vs. 8.8 days, P = 0.2); beta-lactam antibiotic usage was significantly higher in the RPRP group than in the control group (13.3 vs. 4.2 days, 0.01 less than P less than 0.02). General prescribing practices, even in nonisolated areas where there is no need for public health programs to dispense prophylactic antibiotics, may produce sufficiently high antibiotic exposures to aid the emergence of RPRP strains. PMID:3846591

  1. Risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A case- control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ming Zhou; Zheng-Feng Yin; Jia-Mei Yang; Bin Li; Wen-Yu Shao; Feng Xu; Yu-Lan Wang; Dian-Qi Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To carry out a hospital-based case-control study to investigate risk factors for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) in China.METHODS: A total of 312 ICC cases and 438 matched controls were included in the study. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertention, hepatolithiasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis), was investigated through clinical records. Blood from all participants was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.RESULTS: Compared with controls, ICC patients had a higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity (48.4% vs 9.6%, P < 0.000), and hepatolithiasis (5.4% vs 1.1%, P = 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for development of ICC were HBsAg seropositivity (adjusted OR, 8.876, 95% CI, 5.973-13.192), and hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR, 5.765, 95% CI, 1.972-16.851). The prevalence of anti-HCV seropositivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertention, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HBV infection and hepatolithiasis are strong risk factors for development of ICC in China.

  2. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Dones, Raul D.; Gonzalez-Pons, Maria; Villar-Prados, Alejandro; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Arroyo, Heriberto; Fonseca-Williams, Sharon; Velazquez, Francisco E.; Diaz-Algorri, Yaritza; Lopez-Diaz, Sofia M.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45) and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36) was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2%) CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males) and in 1 of 36 (2.8%) controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males) with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49). HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:26904111

  3. High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Colorectal Cancer in Hispanics: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul D. Bernabe-Dones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Salehi, Bahman; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with PMNE and five controls (5%) (P=0.01). Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P=0.08) and 15 (15%) and 16 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P=0.84), respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE. PMID:26787570

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and compare it with healthy children. A total of 100 five to 16-year-old children with PMNE and 100 healthy children without NE were included in this case-control study as the cases and control groups, respectively. Subjects were selected from children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of the Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner′s Parent Rating Scale-48 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria and was confirmed by consultation with a psychiatrist. Data were analyzed by binomial test using SPSS18. ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16% with PMNE and five controls (5% (P = 0.01. Despite these significant differences in the case and control groups, 25 (25% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (P = 0.08 and 15 (15% and 16 (16% children were affected by ADHD mixed type (P = 0.84, respectively. ADHD inattentive type in children with PMNE was significantly more common than that in healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD inattentive type and PMNE makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with PMNE.

  6. Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, F; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Modan, B

    1985-03-01

    A dietary case-control study based on 818 newly diagnosed breast cancer (BC) patients was conducted in Israel between 1975 and 1978. The role of coffee and total methylxanthine intake from coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, and cocoa drinks was evaluated in the BC patients as compared to that in two matched control populations [surgical controls (SC) and neighborhood controls (NC)]. Because it has been suggested that caffeine enhances mammary carcinogenesis in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diets, analysis was done also in relation to fat consumption. When comparison was done to both matched control groups, a nonsignificant negative association was found between consumption of cups of coffee and BC (odds ratios of greater than or equal to 4 cups of coffee/day vs. less than or equal to 1 per week = 0.6 for BC/NC and 0.7 for BC/SC). This association was observed in all 3 ethnic subgroups studied. The pattern was stronger among the high-fat consumers after controlling for several hormonal confounding factors (two-tailed P-value for linear trend = 0.06 for SC and P = 0.05 for NC). In addition, when the consumption of methylxanthine of BC patients was compared to that of benign breast patients, adjusted by age and ethnic group, a diminished risk was found (odds ratio for BC of the highest level of methylxanthine vs. lowest level = 0.59). PMID:3856060

  7. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p cows. In conclusion, the finding discloses the strong association of N. caninum with reproductive disorders compared to Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. PMID:24781154

  8. Risk Factors of Congenital Heart Diseases: A Case-Control Study in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghavi-Behzad Mohammad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are of immense importance and also a high prevalence. Contributing factors to developing these defects have not been abundantly studied. Therefore, the current study was conducted aiming at determining the effective factors on Congenital Heart Disease (CHD in newborn infants of Northwest Iran. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in North-West of Iran from 2002 to 2012 and a total of 473 infants entered the study. Required data were obtained through check lists completed by the information of hospital records and interview with mothers of 267 newborn infants with CHD together with medical records of mothers as the case group, and 206 medical records of healthy infants at the same period all together with those of their mothers as the control group. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, T-test, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, and Multi-variable Logistic Regression Model (OR with 95% CI, using SPSS.19. In the present study, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Based on the results of univariable analyses, the number of previous cesarean sections, past medical history of diseases, gestational age (GA, fetal weight at birth, diastolic blood pressure, fetal heart rate, pulse rate, fetal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and fetal head circumference at birth have significant relationship with incidence of congenital abnormalities (P<0.05. Family history, past cesarean sections history, past medical history and GA had significant relationship with CHD incidence. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, in order to control and reduce the cases of CHD, it is crucial to make proper decisions and implement policies for reducing cesarean cases, lowering consanguineous marriages, providing proper pre-marriage counseling, prompt treatment of mothers’ illnesses, improving pregnancy health care and mothers

  9. Drug induced immune haemolytic anaemia in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Thomae, Michael; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Hildebrandt, Martin; Späth-Schwalbe, Ernst; Grüneisen, Andreas; Mayer, Beate; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kurtal, Hanife

    2011-09-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia is a rare but serious condition. This study investigated the possibility of drug aetiology of immune haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in 134 patients with new onset of IHA who were identified in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study between 2000 and 2009. Single drugs related to IHA in three or more patients and assessed more than once as a certain or probable cause of IHA in a standardized causality assessment included diclofenac, fludarabine, oxaliplatin, ceftriaxone and piperacillin. In a case-control study including all 124 IHA cases developed in outpatient care and 731 controls, significantly increased odds ratios (OR) were observed for beta-lactam antibiotics (OR=8·8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3·2-25·2), cotrimoxazole (OR=6·5; CI 1·1-37·9), ciprofloxacin (OR=6·9, CI 1·3-38·5), fludarabine (OR=22·2; CI: 2·8-454·5) and lorazepam (OR=5·3; CI: 1·2-21·2). Excluding new onset cases with a chronic IHA disease course, an increased risk became also apparent for diclofenac with an OR of 3·1 (CI 1·3-7·0). This is the first case-control study investigating drugs as risk factors for IHA. It corroborates an increased risk for several drugs that have been implicated as a cause of IHA in the standardized causality assessment of individual cases. PMID:21749359

  10. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  11. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh Mannem; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n =...

  12. Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols: a case control study on soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J G; Christophers, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A case control study on patients with soft tissue sarcoma and malignant lymphoma was undertaken to test whether there was any association between these diseases and past exposure to chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides or chlorophenols. It was carried out over the period 1982-1988 in Victoria, Australia. Thirty males with soft tissue sarcoma and 52 males with malignant lymphoma were matched by age, place of residence and sex with one population control and one cancer control each. Exposure was...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Case Control Study To Assess Association Between Periodontal Infection And Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mohitey; Rahul Redasani

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of adult mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Well known risk factors independently or combined are involved in both atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Recent data have shown that viral and bacterial infections may also contribute to acute thromboembolic events; hence a case control study was carried out. Aims and Objective: To investigate the possible association between periodontal health and coronary artery disease, i...

  14. Risk factors for giardiasis: a case-control study in Avon and Somerset.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, S F; Gunnell, D J; Peters, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common and increasing cause of gastrointestinal illness in the UK. We report a case-control study that examined risk factors for giardiasis. Patients with giardiasis were identified from reports to the Consultants in Communicable Disease in Avon and Somerset, and age-sex matched controls were obtained from their general practitioners' lists. Details of travel history, water consumption and recreational water use were collected by postal questionnaire. Over the period July...

  15. Matching for Several Sparse Nominal Variables in a Case-Control Study of Readmission Following Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zubizarreta, José R.; Reinke, Caroline E.; Kelz, Rachel R; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Rosenbaum, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Matching for several nominal covariates with many levels has usually been thought to be difficult because these covariates combine to form an enormous number of interaction categories with few if any people in most such categories. Moreover, because nominal variables are not ordered, there is often no notion of a “close substitute” when an exact match is unavailable. In a case-control study of the risk factors for read-mission within 30 days of surgery in the Medicare popula...

  16. Social equity in perinatal survival : a case-control study at hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Ekholm Selling, Katarina; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Rwanda has invested heavily in improving maternal and child health, but knowledge is limited regarding social equity in perinatal survival. We analysed whether perinatal mortality risks differed between social groups in hospitals in the country's capital. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on singleton births aged at least 22 weeks of gestation and born in district or tertiary referral hospitals in Kigali from July 2013 to May 2014. Perinatal deaths were recorded as they occur...

  17. Prevalence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth among Chronic Pancreatitis Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Therrien, Amelie; Bouchard, Simon; SIDANI, SACHA; Bouin, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) exhibit numerous risk factors for the development of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Objective. To determine the prevalence of SIBO in patients with CP. Methods. Prospective, single-centre case-control study conducted between January and September 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 to 75 years and clinical and radiological diagnosis of CP. Exclusion criteria included history of gastric, pancreatic, or intestinal surgery or si...

  18. Columnar cell lesions and subsequent breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Aroner, Sarah A.; Collins, Laura Christine; Schnitt, Stuart Jay; Connolly, James Leo; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla May

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Histologic and genetic evidence suggests that at least some columnar cell lesions (CCL) of the breast represent precursor lesions in the low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. However, the risk of subsequent breast cancer associated with the presence of CCL in a benign breast biopsy is poorly understood.Methods The authors examined the association between the presence of CCL and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast c...

  19. The effect of opium dependency on testis volume: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Cyrus; Hassan Solhi; Mahdi Azizabadi Farahani; Hamid Reza Khoddami Vishteh; Davoud Goudarzi; Ghasem Mosayebi; Hamed Mohamadian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the paucity of data on possible testis changes in opioid dependents, we sought to compare the testis volumes between a group of opium dependents and a group of healthy controls. Objective: Comparison of testis volume between opium dependents and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study recruited 100 men with opium dependency (cases) and 100 healthy men (controls) in Iran, in 2008. A checklist containing questions about age, height, weight, daily amoun...

  20. ESTIMATING HAZARD RATIOS IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDIES BY MANTEL-HAENSZEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠占

    2001-01-01

    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  1. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  2. Modifiable factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; del Castillo, Hernán; Pereda, Ynés; Lecca, Leonid; Cárdenas, Luz; Fuertes, Jhoelma; Murray, Megan B; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study among children in Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with tuberculosis disease. Known close contact with someone with tuberculosis disease, prior hospitalization, and history of anemia were associated with a higher tuberculosis disease rate. Consumption of fruits/vegetables ≥5 days/week was associated with a lower rate. Isoniazid uptake was low among children with a known contact. PMID:24064556

  3. Ethnic Identity and the Risk of Schizophrenia in Ethnic Minorities: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether negative ethnic identity is related to schizophrenia risk in non-Western immigrants. Methods: Matched case-control study of first-episode schizophrenia, including 100 non-Western immigrant cases, gene...

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Salazar-Pousada; Dalton Arroyo; Luis Hidalgo; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Peter Chedraui

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adult...

  5. Firefighters and on-duty deaths from coronary heart disease: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S; Kales Stefanos N; Christoudias Stavros G; Christiani David C

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is responsible for 45% of on-duty deaths among United States firefighters. We sought to identify occupational and personal risk factors associated with on-duty CHD death. Methods We performed a case-control study, selecting 52 male firefighters whose CHD deaths were investigated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. We selected two control populations: 51 male firefighters who died of on-duty trauma; and 310 male firefig...

  6. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, C.; Beral, V; Maconochie, N.; P. Fraser; Davies, G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer....

  7. Factors Associated with Mastitis in Ontario Dairy Herds: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhope, R. G.; Meek, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Data from Ontario dairy cattle herds which had had a high average milk gel index for 1978 (cases) and from other herds which had had a low average during the same period (controls) were collected and analyzed using case control techniques. The purpose of the study was to contrast factors of husbandry and management between the two groups and to determine the relative contribution of each of these factors on mastitis (as determined indirectly by the milk gel index) at the herd level.

  8. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Moshkelgosha; Negar Khosravifard; Ali Golkari

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all ...

  9. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco AL; De Stefani E; Deneo-Pellegrini H

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s) coefficients were taken as estimates of rel...

  10. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gungor Tayfun; Kurt Ayten; Pinar Gul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The...

  11. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-05-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p risk compared to those who had different number of births (OR=12.5, 95%, CI: 2.4-63.8). Evaluation of early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk. Furthermore, increased risk was observed between pre-menopausal women and never-married nulliparity women, respectively (OR=1.44 95%, CI: 0.88-2.36; OR=8.98, 95%, CI: 1.44 - 56.14), but ovarian cancer risk was reduced for hysterectomized women. These findings suggest that Albanian women have risk factors similar to women in western countries. PMID:23725504

  12. Analysis of Case-Control Association Studies: SNPs, Imputation and Haplotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-11-01

    Although prospective logistic regression is the standard method of analysis for case-control data, it has been recently noted that in genetic epidemiologic studies one can use the "retrospective" likelihood to gain major power by incorporating various population genetics model assumptions such as Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium (HWE), gene-gene and gene-environment independence. In this article we review these modern methods and contrast them with the more classical approaches through two types of applications (i) association tests for typed and untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (ii) estimation of haplotype effects and haplotype-environment interactions in the presence of haplotype-phase ambiguity. We provide novel insights to existing methods by construction of various score-tests and pseudo-likelihoods. In addition, we describe a novel two-stage method for analysis of untyped SNPs that can use any flexible external algorithm for genotype imputation followed by a powerful association test based on the retrospective likelihood. We illustrate applications of the methods using simulated and real data. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2009.

  13. Risk factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in patients with hepatolithiasis:a case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-YuLiu; Yan-MingZhou; Le-HuaShi; Zheng-FengYin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Why 3.3% to 10% of all patients with hepatolithiasis develop intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remains unknown. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study to identify risk factors for the development of ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis in China. METHODS: Eighty-sevenpatientswithpathologicallydiagnosed hepatolithiasis associated with ICC and 228 with hepatolithiasis alone matched by sex, age (±2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence were interviewed during the period of 2000-2008. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculatedforeachriskfactor. RESULTS: Among the patients with hepatolithiasis associated with ICC, the mean age was 57.7 years and 61.0% were female. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for ICC development in hepatolithiasis were smoking, family history of cancer, appendectomy during childhood (under age 20), and duration of symptoms >10 years. In multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, smoking (OR=1.931, 95%CI: 1.000-3.731), family history of cancer (OR=5.175, 95% CI:1.216-22.022), and duration of symptoms >10 years (OR=2.348, 95% CI: 1.394-3.952) were independent factors. CONCLUSION: Smoking, family history of cancer and duration of symptoms >10 years may be risk factors for ICC in patients with hepatolithiasis.

  14. Some further results on incorporating risk factor information in assessing the dependence between paired failure times arising from case-control family studies: an application to prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li; Prentice, Ross L; Stanford, Janet L

    2002-03-30

    In a typical case-control family study, detailed risk factor information is often collected on cases and controls, but not on their relatives for reasons of cost and logistical difficulty in locating the relatives. The impact of missing risk factor information for relatives on estimation of the strength of dependence between the disease risk of pairs of relatives is largely unknown. In this paper, we extend our earlier work on estimating the dependence of ages at onset between paired relatives from case-control family data to include covariates on cases and controls, and possibly relatives. Using population-based case-control families as our basic data structure, we study the effect of missing covariates for relatives and/or cases and controls on the bias of certain dependence parameter estimators via a simulation study. Finally we illustrate various analyses using a case-control family study of early onset prostate cancer. PMID:11870822

  15. Pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 haplotypes and risk of pituitary adenoma: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinfang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that pituitary adenoma results from accumulation of multiple genetic and/or epigenetic aberrations, which may be identified through association studies. As pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (PTTG1/securin plays a critical role in promoting genomic instability in pituitary neoplasia, the present study explored the association of PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma. Methods We genotyped five PTTG1 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP by PCR-RFLP assays in a case-control study, which included 280 Han Chinese patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and 280 age-, gender- and geographically matched Han Chinese controls. Haplotypes were reconstructed according to the genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of the htSNPs. Results No significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the htSNPs were observed between pituitary adenoma patients and controls, indicating that none of the individual PTTG1 SNPs examined in this study is associated with the risk of pituitary adenoma. In addition, no significant association was detected between the reconstructed PTTG1 haplotypes and pituitary adenoma cases or the controls. Conclusions Though no significant association was found between PTTG1 haplotypes and the risk of pituitary adenoma, this is the first report on the association of individual PTTG1 SNPs or PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma based on a solid study; it will provide an important reference for future studies on the association between genetic alterations in PTTG1 and the risk of pituitary adenoma or other tumors.

  16. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K;

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  17. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhi R

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Robin Medhi, Banani Das, Arpana Das, Mansur Ahmed, Sonika Bawri, Suditi Rai Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, Assam, India Purpose: To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results: Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03, preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03. Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478, low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g, and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417 were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover

  18. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study. RESULTS: Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  19. A case - control study of risk factors for coronary artery disease in Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To establish the strength of association of conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease in native Pakistani females. Methods: We conducted a case - control hospital based study on 198 females (age 30 - 80 years) scheduled for their first coronary angiography at Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore. Patients were divided into pre-menopausal group (age: 45.1 +- 6.3) and post-menopausal group (62.1 +- 9.1). For each risk factor, patients with significant CAD (= 50% luminal diameter stenosis) were regarded as cases an those without significant CAD were taken as controls. Odds Ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by univariate analysis. Results: In total study cohort, Diabetes mellitus (OR 3.65 95% CI 2.0 - 6.5), Family history of premature coronary artery disease (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4), and increased waist circumference (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.2 - 3.8) were strongly associated with significant CAD. In post menopausal age group, diabetes mellitus (OR 2.66 CI 1.3 - 5.1), hyperlipidaemia (OR 2.25 CI 1.2 - 2.3) and increased waist circumference (OR 2.16 CI 1.1 - 4.2) reached statistical significance. In pre-menopausal females only diabetes was strongly associated with significant coronary artery disease (OR 10 CI 2.6 - 37.4). Association of hypertension was not significant in any of subgroups studied. Very few cases of smoking (6 / 198) were found in our study to merit any further statistical analysis. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus was the only risk factor in pre-menopausal females associated with coronary artery disease While diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and increased waist circumference were significantly associated with CAD in post menopausal females. (author)

  20. The Relationship between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Kheirkhah, Davood; Madani, Mahla; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Febrile seizure is among the most common convulsion disorders in children, which strikes 2% to 5% of children between 3 to 60 months of age. Some studies have reported that iron deficiency could be a risk factor for febrile seizure. The present study was conducted to compare the rate of iron deficiency anemia in febrile children with and without seizure. Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated 200 children aged 6-60 month in two 100 person groups (febrile seizur...

  1. Primary postpartum haemorrhage in an Australian tertiary hospital: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amanda; Birch, Mary-Rose; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Katz, Sue; Wang, Yueping Alex

    2005-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) after vaginal birth at an Australian tertiary hospital, and to investigate risk factors for primary PPH at this hospital. A case-control study of women delivering vaginally at a tertiary hospital from February to June 2003 was performed. Demographic, antenatal, intrapartum, treatment and outcome data were abstracted from patient records. The study population comprised 125 cases and 125 controls, with a primary PPH rate of 12.1 per 100 vaginal births. Risk factors on multivariate analysis were past history of PPH, second stage labour > 60 min, forceps delivery, and incomplete placenta/ragged membranes. PMID:15904450

  2. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. PMID:26020580

  3. Case-control study on factors associated with crown fractures in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors associated with dental trauma in preschool children. This case-control study was nested in a population-based cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 301 children one to five years of age in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was made up of children with at least one fractured deciduous tooth, and the control group was made up of children with no deciduous tooth fracture. The two groups were matched for age in a proportion of one control for every case. The dependent variable was “dental trauma,” diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Andreasen and Andreasen. The independent variables were overjet, measured and considered accentuated when surpassing 3 mm, and lip coverage, classified as adequate or inadequate. Clinical oral examinations were performed by calibrated dentists. The parents provided information on the socioeconomic indicators. Statistical analysis involved the McNemar test and logistic regression. Each group (case and control was composed of 92 children. In the bivariate analysis, traumatic dental injury (TDI was associated with overjet > 3 mm (p = 0.001, inadequate lip coverage (p < 0.001, mother's schooling (p = 0.028 and household income (p < 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, only inadequate lip coverage was associated with TDI (OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.37-20.85. In conclusion, the case group children had a 5.3 - fold more likely chance of presenting inadequate lip coverage, compared with the control children.

  4. Maternal Risk Factors for Oral Clefts: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mobasheri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A cleft lip with or without a cleft palate is one of the major congenital anomalies observed in newborns. This study explored the risk factors for oral clefts in Gorgan, Northern Iran.  Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Gorgan, Northern Iran between April 2006 and December 2009. The case group contained 33 newborns with oral clefts and the control group contained 63 healthy newborns. Clinical and demographic factors, including date of birth, gender of the newborns, type of oral cleft, consanguinity of the parents, parental ethnicity, and the mother's parity, age, education and intake of folic acid were recorded for analysis.  Results: A significant association was found between parity higher than 2 and the risk of an oral cleft (OR= 3.33, CI 95% [1.20, 9.19], P> 0.02. According to ethnicity, the odds ratio for oral clefts was 0.87 in Turkmens compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.25, 2.96] and 1.11 in native Fars people compared with Sistani people (CI 95% [0.38, 3.20]. A lack of folic acid consumption was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts but this was not statistically significant (OR = 1.42, CI 95% [0.58, 3.49]. There were no significant associations between sex (OR boy/girl = 0.96, CI 95% [0.41, 2.23], parent familial relations (OR = 1.07, CI 95% [0.43, 2.63], mother's age and oral clefts.  Conclusions:  The results of this study indicate that higher parity is significantly associated with an increased risk of an oral cleft, while Fars ethnicity and a low intake of folic acid increased the incidence of oral clefts but not significantly.

  5. Chiari malformation type I: a case-control association study of 58 developmental genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aintzane Urbizu

    Full Text Available Chiari malformation type I (CMI is a disorder characterized by hindbrain overcrowding into an underdeveloped posterior cranial fossa (PCF, often causing progressive neurological symptoms. The etiology of CMI remains unclear and is most likely multifactorial. A putative genetic contribution to CMI is suggested by familial aggregation and twin studies. Experimental models and human morphometric studies have suggested an underlying paraxial mesoderm insufficiency. We performed a case-control association study of 303 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP across 58 candidate genes involved in early paraxial mesoderm development in a sample of 415 CMI patients and 524 sex-matched controls. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with classical, small-PCF CMI by means of MRI-based PCF morphometry (n = 186, underwent additional analysis. The genes selected are involved in signalling gradients occurring during segmental patterning of the occipital somites (FGF8, Wnt, and retinoic acid pathways and from bone morphogenetic proteins or BMP, Notch, Cdx and Hox pathways or in placental angiogenesis, sclerotome development or CMI-associated syndromes. Single-marker analysis identified nominal associations with 18 SNPs in 14 genes (CDX1, FLT1, RARG, NKD2, MSGN1, RBPJ1, FGFR1, RDH10, NOG, RARA, LFNG, KDR, ALDH1A2, BMPR1A considering the whole CMI sample. None of these overcame corrections for multiple comparisons, in contrast with four SNPs in CDX1, FLT1 and ALDH1A2 in the classical CMI group. Multiple marker analysis identified a risk haplotype for classical CMI in ALDH1A2 and CDX1. Furthermore, we analyzed the possible contributions of the most significantly associated SNPs to different PCF morphometric traits. These findings suggest that common variants in genes involved in somitogenesis and fetal vascular development may confer susceptibility to CMI.

  6. A semiparametric Wald statistic for testing logistic regression models based on case-control data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We propose a semiparametric Wald statistic to test the validity of logistic regression models based on case-control data. The test statistic is constructed using a semiparametric ROC curve estimator and a nonparametric ROC curve estimator. The statistic has an asymptotic chi-squared distribution and is an alternative to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-type statistic proposed by Qin and Zhang in 1997, the chi-squared-type statistic proposed by Zhang in 1999 and the information matrix test statistic proposed by Zhang in 2001. The statistic is easy to compute in the sense that it requires none of the following methods: using a bootstrap method to find its critical values, partitioning the sample data or inverting a high-dimensional matrix. We present some results on simulation and on analysis of two real examples. Moreover, we discuss how to extend our statistic to a family of statistics and how to construct its Kolmogorov-Smirnov counterpart.

  7. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  8. Environmental risk factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis in Kayseri: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servin Yeşil Günal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: our purpose is to evaluate the possible relationship between multiple sclerosis (MS and environmental factors in Kayseri.Methods: this case control study was conducted on 100 patients with MS and 100 sex-aged and residential area matched control. Data was collected by using face to face interviews. Questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part was comprised of items related with the participants’ sociodemographic features. The second part was related with factors thought to be involved in the occurrence or aggravation of the disease. The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analysis.Results: logistic regression analysis revealed the following as possible risk factors in MS cases: economic status (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.14 adjusted 7.19; Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.05-0.43, having a sensitive personality (OR:4.51; 95% CI: 1.10-18.45, familial history of MS (OR:3.28; 95% CI: 1.3-8.27, history of cranial and spinal injury (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.11-8.08, cooking oil consumption (OR:0.07 adjusted 13.5; 95% CI: 0.03-0.20, consumption of legumes and grains (OR: 0.11 adjusted 8.9; 95% CI: 0.03-0.41, and living in dwellings within a distance of 500 meters from transformer basestations (OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 1.54-28.21.Conclusions: we believe that it is necessary to inform the individuals about the risk of MS and their relatives of the results of large-scale joint studies and to offer suggestions based on the data obtained.

  9. Cardiovascular safety of celecoxib in acute myocardial infarction patients: a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Courteau

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to measure the impact of exposure to coxibs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID on morbidity and mortality in older patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A nested case-control study was carried out using an exhaustive population-based cohort of patients aged 66 years and older living in Quebec (Canada who survived a hospitalization for AMI (ICD-9 410 between 1999 and 2002. The main variables were all-cause and cardiovascular (CV death, subsequent hospital admission for AMI, and a composite end-point including recurrent AMI or CV death. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate the risk of mortality and morbidity. A total of 19,823 patients aged 66 years and older survived hospitalization for AMI in the province of Quebec between 1999 and 2002. After controlling for covariables, the risk of subsequent AMI and the risk of composite end-point were increased by the use of rofecoxib. The risk of subsequent AMI was particularly high for new rofecoxib users (HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.57-3.89. No increased risk was observed for celecoxib users. No increased risk of CV death was observed for patients exposed to coxibs or NSAIDs. Patients newly exposed to NSAIDs were at an increased risk of death (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.30-3.77 and of composite end-point (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.84. Users of rofecoxib and NSAIDs, but not celecoxib, were at an increased risk of recurrent AMI and of composite end-point. Surprisingly, no increased risk of CV death was observed. Further studies are needed to better understand these apparently contradictory results.

  10. Association between statin therapy and tendon rupture: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Abhimanyu; Dwamena, Francesca C; Dwamena, Ben A

    2009-05-01

    Although case reports of a possible association between statin therapy and tendon rupture have been published, no analytical studies exploring this relationship have been reported. We conducted a case-control study using the electronic medical records at Michigan State University from 2002 to 2007 to assess whether statin use is a risk factor for tendon rupture. We compared exposure to statins in 93 cases of tendon rupture with similar exposure in 279 sex- and age-matched controls. Exposure to statins was defined as documentation in the electronic medical record of statin use in the 12 months preceding tendon rupture. For controls, the exposure period was defined as 1 year preceding the last office visit. We used a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for diabetes, renal disease, rheumatologic disease, and steroid use, to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls in the rates of statin use, with either univariate [OR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-1.84] or multivariate analyses (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.57-2.13). Based on predetermined subgroup analyses, statin exposure was found to be a significant risk factor for tendon rupture in women (adjusted OR = 3.76, 95% CI 1.11-12.75) but not in men (adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.51). In conclusion, we found no overall association between statin use and tendon rupture, but subgroup analysis suggested that women with tendon rupture were more likely to be on statins. PMID:19454900

  11. Diet and breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulos, D; Boyle, P; Xirouchaki, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lisseos, B; Vasilaros, S; MacMahon, B

    1986-12-15

    A case-control study of the role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer was conducted in Athens, Greece. There are reasons to believe that the diet of the Greek population is characterized by greater heterogeneity than that in most countries where such studies have been undertaken. The case series consisted of 120 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer admitted to either of two teaching hospitals over a 12-month period. The controls were 120 patients admitted to a teaching hospital for trauma and orthopedic conditions during the same period. Dietary histories concerning the frequency of consumption of 120 foods and drinks were obtained by interview. Cases reported significantly less frequent consumption of vegetables as a group and, within that group, specifically of cucumber, lettuce and raw carrot. After adjustment for potential external confounding variables and for confounding between food categories, the odds ratio for persons in the highest quintile of vegetable consumers, relative to those in the lowest quintile, was 0.09 with 95% confidence limits 0.03-0.30. That is to say, the lowest quintile of vegetable consumers had about 10 times the breast cancer risk of the highest quintile. For a score based on consumption of only the 3 specified salad items the odds ratio over the extreme quartiles was 0.12 (0.05-0.32). There was no association with consumption of fats and oils, alcohol or coffee, and no significant association with any other major food category (including alcohol and coffee) after adjustment for confounding variables. PMID:3793261

  12. Risk factors for infection with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: a case-case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Gómez Rueda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To evaluate the association between quinolone exposure and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP and to estimate CRKP-specific mortality.Methods: Case-case-control study implemented in a tertiary care institution. Three groups of patients were analyzed: 61 consecutive cases of infection with CRKP (Group I; 61 randomly chosen cases of patients infected with carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP; Group II; and 122 randomly chosen controls without CRKP or CSKP infection. Matching was based on the length of stay in intensive care unit and the date of bacterial isolation. An active search was performed for patients with CRKP and CSKP infection, and prospective cases were included in the study. We compared the results for Groups I and II against those for the controls by using two conditional logistic regression analyses that included infection as the dependent variable and controlled for time at risk and co-morbidities.Results: Exposure to quinolones was not associated with CRKP infection: no association was found in the analysis of CRKP with the controls (OR= 1.7; 95% CI: 0.2-6.5 or in the analysis of CSKP against the controls (OR= 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-1.6. Use of carbapenems (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.2-9.3 and colonization with CRKP (OR = 3.3; 95% IC: 1.2-9.3 were specific risk factors for infection with CRKP. Mortality associated with CRKP was 61.3%.Conclusion: No association was found between exposure to quinolones and infection with CRKP; however, colonization by CRKP and use of carbapenems are risk factors for infection with CRKP.

  13. Environmental factors in early childhood are associated with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditzenbach Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS with increasing incidence mainly in high-income countries. One explanation of this phenomenon may be a higher prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries as a consequence of otherwise beneficial advances in sanitation (hygiene hypothesis. We investigated environmental factors in early childhood associated with MS. Methods A case-control study was performed of 245 MS patients and 296 population-based controls in Berlin. The study participants completed a standardized questionnaire on environmental factors in childhood and youth, including aspects of personal and community hygiene. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate factors in childhood and youth associated with the occurrence of MS. Results Mean age was 46 years (range, 20-80 in the MS group and 42 years (range 18-80 in the control group, of which 73.9% in the MS and 61.5% in the control group were female. The multivariable analysis showed that having at least two older siblings (OR 0.54; p = 0.05, for individuals with two older siblings compared to individuals without older siblings, attending a day-care center (OR 0.5; p = 0.004 and growing up in an urban center with more than 100, 000 inhabitants (OR 0.43; p = 0.009 were factors independently associated with a lower chance for MS. Conclusions The hygiene hypothesis may play a role in the occurrence of MS and could explain disease distribution and increasing incidence.

  14. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator. PMID:16494130

  15. Assessment of Vitamin K2 Levels in Osteoporotic Patients: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Noori; Mahin Lashkari; Sonia Oveisi; Mohamad Reza Khair Khah; Ali Zargar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the level of Vitamin K2 (Vit K2) in osteoporotic patients and individuals with normal bone density as controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done in Outpatient Department of Rheumatology at Qazvin Boo-ali Sina Hospital in 2013. Participants were 50 patients with osteoporotic densitometry measured by DEXA (T score? -2.5) who were matched with 48 persons in control group with normal bone density (T score> -1). The level of...

  16. Life events influence the development of ankylosing spondylitis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a small pilot case-control study exploring the role of stressors of day-to-day life in triggering ankylosing spondylitis (AS and the effect of various coping strategies adopted by the patients. We consider AS as a good model to study the hypothesis due to its close association with the well-described genetic marker, HLA B27. The onset of rheumatic diseases has been commonly observed. However, the role of stress and stressful life events in the development of rheumatic disease is a matter of debate. Though there are explainable hypothesis, clinical evidence on this association is limited

  17. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  18. The Quality of Reporting of Cohort, Case-Control Studies in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Yoon, Yeo Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was developed to improve the reporting of observational studies. We aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting in cohort studies and case-control studies among observational studies published in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine. Methods We searched for cohort studies and case-control studies published as original articles in the Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine during th...

  19. Association of Macro- and Micro-nutrients Intake with the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Behrooz; Golaleh Asghari; Zohreh Hosseini; Parvin Mirmiran; Bahram Rashidkhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and it has been suggested that nutrition might play a role in the etiology of MS. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between MS risk and intake of some macro- and micro-nutrients in Tehran (Iran). Materials and Methods: In this hospital based, case-control study, a total of 60 newly diagnosed patients with MS and 140 controls underwent face-to-face inter...

  20. Indoor air pollution and pulmonary adenocarcinoma among females: a case-control study in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B S; Wang, T J; Guan, P; Wu, J M

    2000-01-01

    Factors that affect the risk of lung adenocarcinoma among females were investigated in Shenyang, China, using a population-based case-control study design. A total of 72 new cases, ages 35-69, diagnosed with incident, primary pulmonary adenocarnoma, were collected between April 1991 and December 1995, and were 1:1 age-matched with healthy females randomly selected from the general population. A questionnaire covering demographics, diet/nutritional preferences and cooking habits, living conditions, family history of cancer, sources of indoor/outdoor/occupational pollution, exposure to ETS from spousal smoking, workplace exposure, and exposure during childhood, history of menstruation and pregnancy, was given to each subject in a structured in-person interview given by trained field workers. Univariate analysis was performed on the data collected. The results showed that cooking fumes, family history of lung cancer, economic status, and number of live births and intake of vitamin E were risk factors significantly associated with adenocarcinoma of the lung. In particular, exposure to different levels of cooking fumes, an indoor air pollutant, increased the odds ratio of lung adenocarcinoma by 1.33, 7.33 and 1.67, respectively (trend p=0.006). Another important risk factor was family history of lung cancer, which gave an OR of 7.65 (95% CI, 0.90-169.84). Intake of beta-carotene from vegetables and fruit offered protection against lung adenocarcinoma, giving an OR of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.12-0.69). These results were confirmed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. PMID:11032925

  1. Antidepressant-warfarin interaction and associated gastrointestinal bleeding risk in a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Schelleman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bleeding is the most common and worrisome adverse effect of warfarin therapy. One of the factors that might increase bleeding risk is initiation of interacting drugs that potentiate warfarin. We sought to evaluate whether initiation of an antidepressant increases the risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding in warfarin users. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data (1999-2005 were used to perform an observational case-control study nested within person-time exposed to warfarin in those ≥18 years. In total, 430,455 warfarin users contributed 407,370 person-years of warfarin use. The incidence rate of hospitalization for GI bleeding among warfarin users was 4.48 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.42-4.55. Each gastrointestinal bleeding cases was matched to 50 controls based on index date and state. Warfarin users had an increased odds ratio of gastrointestinal bleeding upon initiation of citalopram (OR = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.25-2.38], fluoxetine (OR = 1.63 [95% CI, 1.11-2.38], paroxetine (OR = 1.64 [95% CI, 1.27-2.12], amitriptyline (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.02-2.11]. Also mirtazapine, which is not believed to interact with warfarin, increased the risk of GI bleeding (OR = 1.75 [95% CI, 1.30-2.35]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Warfarin users who initiated citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, amitriptyline, or mirtazapine had an increased risk of hospitalization for gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the elevated risk with mirtazapine suggests that a drug-drug interaction may not have been responsible for all of the observed increased risk.

  2. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  3. A case-control study of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B; Briscoe, J

    1988-03-01

    A case-control design has been applied in the evaluation of improved environmental sanitation on diarrhoeal diseases in rural Malawi. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using such an approach to evaluate two levels of water supply and sanitation service quickly and at moderate cost. Sample sizes would need to be increased substantially to evaluate multiple levels of service or to investigate interactions between water supply and sanitation. The results indicate that children living in families who use good quality water supplies and latrines experience 20% less diarrhoea as reported to the health clinics during the warm, rainy season. PMID:3418292

  4. Usual dietary salt intake and asthma in children: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Demissie, K; Ernst, P; Gray Donald, K.; Joseph, L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in host resistance due to an alteration in diet--primarily of salt--was recently put forward as a possible explanation for rising rates of asthma. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in participants in a prevalence survey which included 187 children with asthma (defined by prior diagnosis and/or a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > or = 10% after exercise) and 145 age and sex matched controls. Subjects were selected from 989 children ag...

  5. A case-control study of somatic and behavioural symptoms in sexually abused boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Antao, V; Maddocks, A; Street, E; Sibert, J R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To ascertain how often sexually abused boys present with somatic and behavioural symptoms. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A primary school in South Wales where a male teacher had been convicted of sexually abusing boys since 1981. The police investigation started in 1993 and he was convicted in 1994. A similar large primary school where abuse had not taken place. SUBJECTS: All 107 boys who had been identified by a police inquiry to have been subject to sexual abuse by a si...

  6. A case-control study of diabetes mellitus and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E; Franceschi, S; D'Avanzo, B.; P Boyle

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and cancer risk was investigated using data from an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Northern Italy between 1983 and 1992. Cases were 9,991 patients with incident, histologically confirmed neoplasms below age 75, including 181 cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 316 of the oesophagus, 723 of the stomach, 828 of the colon, 498 of the rectum, 320 of the liver, 58 of the gall bladder, 362 of the pancreas, 242 of the larynx, 3,4...

  7. Endometrial cancer following treatment for breast cancer: a case-control study in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewertz, M.; S.G. Machado; Boice, J. D.; Jensen, O M

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer subsequent to breast cancer, a case-control study was carried out in Denmark. Between 1943-1977, 115 cases of histologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma developed more than 3 months after the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer in 51,638 women. A total of 235 breast cancer patients with no second primary cancer were matched to the cases on age, calendar year of diagnosis, and survival with an intact uterus. Identification of cases and controls r...

  8. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in the UK: case-control study in 806 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, J T; Tan, B B; Smith, A.G.; Bowers, W.; Jones, P W; Heagerty, A.H.; Strange, R.C.; Fryer, A A

    1997-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest malignant neoplasm in white people. We present a large UK case-control study in which conditional logistic regression analysis of age-matched and gender-matched data sets was used to compare, first, cases with controls (n = 403) and second, patients having multiple BCC with those having a single BCC (n = 278). Eye/hair colour, occupation, skin type, social class, tumour site at presentation and smoking history were assessed. Social class 1/2, skin t...

  9. Drug exposure and psoriasis vulgaris: case-control and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arnon D; Bonneh, Dan Y; Reuveni, Haim; Vardy, Daniel A; Naggan, Lechaim; Halevy, Sima

    2005-01-01

    Intake of drugs is considered a risk factor for psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between drugs and psoriasis. A case-control study including 110 patients who were hospitalized for extensive psoriasis was performed. A control group (n = 515) was defined as patients who had undergone elective surgery. A case-crossover study included 98 patients with psoriasis. Exposure to drugs was assessed during a hazard period (3 months before hospitalization) and compared to a control period in the patient's past. Data on drug sales were extracted by data mining techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed by logistic regression and conditional logistic regression. In the case-control study, psoriasis was associated with benzodiazepines (OR 6.9), organic nitrates (OR 5.0), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (OR 4.0) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (OR 3.7). In the case-crossover study, psoriasis was associated with ACE inhibitors (OR 9.9), beta-blockers (OR 9.9), dipyrone (OR 4.9) and NSAIDs (OR 2.1). Extensive psoriasis may be associated with intake of ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs or beta-blockers. PMID:16191849

  10. Case-control study on uveal melanoma (RIFA: rational and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak Andrea

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a rare disease, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence rate of up to 1.0 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe. Only a few consistent risk factors have been identified for this disease. We present the study design of an ongoing incident case-control study on uveal melanoma (acronym: RIFA study that focuses on radiofrequency radiation as transmitted by radio sets and wireless telephones, occupational risk factors, phenotypical characteristics, and UV radiation. Methods/Design We conduct a case-control study to identify the role of different exposures in the development of uveal melanoma. The cases of uveal melanoma were identified at the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Essen, a referral centre for tumours of the eye. We recruit three control groups: population controls, controls sampled from those ophthalmologists who referred cases to the Division of Ophthalmology, University of Duisburg-Essen, and sibling controls. For each case the controls are matched on sex and age (five year groups, except for sibling controls. The data are collected from the study participants by short self-administered questionnaire and by telephone interview. During and at the end of the field phase, the data are quality-checked. To estimate the effect of exposures on uveal melanoma risk, we will use conditional logistic regression that accounts for the matching factors and allows to control for potential confounding.

  11. Interaction and Its Solution in Individual Matching Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To indicate the deficiency of the classical method for analyzing data on individual matching case-control study in consideration of the interaction between the study factor (exposure) and the matching factor, and to find out a proper method for handling this deficiency. Method First, experimental data with 50 pairs of cases and controls were used for strata analysis according to the values of a matching factor to illustrate the possible interaction between a risk factor (exposure) and the matching factor. Second, a detailed procedure was proposed for analyzing such data. Results Interaction between the study factor and matching factor was demonstrated by using strata analysis and unconditional logistic regression analysis. Therefore the results from the classical analysis for such data might be incorrect. Conclusion Data from individual matching case-control study design should be dealt with strata analysis or multivariate analysis to explore and evaluate the possible interaction between the study factor and matching factor. The conclusion would be valid only after such analysis is conducted.

  12. Snippets from the past: is Flint, Michigan, the birthplace of the case-control study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-12-15

    In the summer of 1924, an outbreak of scarlet fever occurred in Flint, Michigan. Unable to trace it to the usual causes, particularly fresh milk, the Michigan Department of Health used a novel approach to disentangle the enigma: The 116 cases of scarlet fever were compared with 117 "controls" selected from neighbors of the quarantined cases and from patients at the City Health Center who had been treated for ailments unrelated to scarlet fever. The extraordinary culprit was ice cream, which had a frequent/occasional/none consumption prevalence of 60%, 34%, and 6% among the cases and 24%, 51%, and 25% among the controls, respectively. The 1925 report reads, "Detailed epidemiological investigation, by means of case histories and control histories on well persons, confirmed early suspicions and established the fact that the epidemic was spread by ice cream" (Am J Hyg. 1925;5(5):669-681). This forgotten epidemiologic study is the oldest study using the case-control design to have been resurrected thus far. The case-control study design may have been conceived simultaneously, but independently and for different purposes, in England (Janet Lane-Claypon's 1926 report on the determinants of breast cancer) and the United States. PMID:24064743

  13. Outbreak of hepatitis B in Sabarkantha district of Gujarat: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisworanjan Dash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of jaundice syndrome was reported from Sabarkantha district of Gujarat in February 2009. Initial investigation of serum specimens collected from the patients was positive for hepatitis B. The outbreak was investigated thoroughly. Materials and Methods: A confirmed case definition was made as a person residing in Sabarkantha district who developed jaundice symptoms with SGPT >400 IU and tested positive for HBsAg. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of infection and to recommend public health measures. Results: Five-hundred and twenty-eight cases were reported of which, 93 died (Case fatality rate = 17.6%. Majority (61% were males, and more than 77% were in the age group of 12-45 years. Eighty-four percent reported history of taking injections/needle prick in the last 6 months. In the case-control study there was strong association between cases and history of injection/needle prick (OR = 42.17. Hepatitis B mass vaccination was carried out to control the outbreak. Conclusion: This outbreak of hepatitis-B was associated with unsafe injection practices in private clinics of Sabarkantha district. Sensitization workshop for safe injection practices and waste management held among doctors. Legal actions were taken against the private practitioners involved in these unsafe injection practices.

  14. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kuper

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject.A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age. The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education, and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition.The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6-2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age, stunting (low height for age, low body mass index (BMI or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.7. Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9.Children with disabilities were particularly

  15. Stressful life events and Graves' disease: Results of a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged worry has generally been acknowledged as one of the main precipitating factors of the onset of Graves' disease. A review of literature reveals that emotional stresses of considerable severity precede the onset of hyperthyroidism in about 90% of cases. However, not everyone subscribes to the Stress/Graves' disease hypothesis. Attempts to resolve this issue have tended to focus on whether a correlation can be shown between the magnitude of antecedent life events and the disease. Hence the main objective of the present study was to identify the possible association between stressful life events and Graves' disease. This paper presents the results of a case-control study, involving patents and subjects from the Veterans Memorial Medical Centre of Manila. A total of 224 patients of Graves' disease, newly or previously diagnosed, representing the 'patient's' arm were interviewed. All patients were questioned regarding various stresses, which greatly affected their life style spanning over a 12-month period prior to the onset of the disease. Simultaneously, 224 control subjects were also interviewed, and their stresses spanning over a similar period preceding the dates of interviews were recorded in quantifiable terms. Different stresses were given different intensity scores based on a social readjustment scale taking into consideration the life situations, emotions and diseases. In cases of multiple stresses, intensity scores were added to obtain the total stress intensity. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation, median, frequency and percent distribution. Scatter plot was also constructed for intensity of stressful life events. To determine association of different factors with Graves' disease, Students t-test and chi-square tests were applied to the data. Odds ratio (OR) was also computed to determine risk attributed to each factor. Since there was significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and controls, stratified Mantel

  16. Analysis of Case-Control Studies of Genetic and Environmental Factors With Missing Genetic Information and Haplotype-phase Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Spinka, Christine; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2005-01-01

    Case-control studies of unrelated subjects are now widely used to study the role of genetic susceptibility and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Exploiting an assumption of gene-environment independence, and treating the distribution of the environmental exposures to be completely nonparametric, Chatterjee and Carroll (2005) recently developed an efficient retrospective maximum-likelihood method for analysis of case-control studies. In this article, we develop...

  17. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  18. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  19. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  20. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  1. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  2. Residents in difficulty—just slower learners? A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Norberg, Karen; Thomsen, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    practicing doctors. The aim of this study was to examine if a sample of Danish residents in difficulty tended to struggle already in medical school, and to determine whether administratively observable performance indicators in medical school could predict difficulties in residency. METHODS The study design...... was a cumulative incidence matched case-control study. The source population was all active specialist trainees, who were medical school graduates from Aarhus University, in 2010 to June 2013 in two Danish regions. Cases were doctors who decelerated, transferred, or dropped out of residency. Cases and...... controls were matched for graduation year. Medical school exam failures, grades, completion time, and academic dispensations as predictors of case status were examined with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total 89 cases and 343 controls were identified. The total number of medical school re...

  3. 1000 Genomes-based imputation identifies novel and refined associations for the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium phase 1 Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Ellinghaus, David; Franke, Andre; Howie, Bryan; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    We hypothesize that imputation based on data from the 1000 Genomes Project can identify novel association signals on a genome-wide scale due to the dense marker map and the large number of haplotypes. To test the hypothesis, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) Phase I genotype data were imputed using 1000 genomes as reference (20100804 EUR), and seven case/control association studies were performed using imputed dosages. We observed two 'missed' disease-associated variants that were undetectable by the original WTCCC analysis, but were reported by later studies after the 2007 WTCCC publication. One is within the IL2RA gene for association with type 1 diabetes and the other in proximity with the CDKN2B gene for association with type 2 diabetes. We also identified two refined associations. One is SNP rs11209026 in exon 9 of IL23R for association with Crohn's disease, which is predicted to be probably damaging by PolyPhen2. The other refined variant is in the CUX2 gene region for association with type 1 diabetes, where the newly identified top SNP rs1265564 has an association P-value of 1.68 × 10(-16). The new lead SNP for the two refined loci provides a more plausible explanation for the disease association. We demonstrated that 1000 Genomes-based imputation could indeed identify both novel (in our case, 'missed' because they were detected and replicated by studies after 2007) and refined signals. We anticipate the findings derived from this study to provide timely information when individual groups and consortia are beginning to engage in 1000 genomes-based imputation. PMID:22293688

  4. Salivirus in Children and Its Association with Childhood Acute Gastroenteritis: A Paired Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Mei Yu

    Full Text Available Salivirus was recently discovered in children with gastroenteritis and in sewage. Though a causative role for salivirus in childhood gastroenteritis was suggested in the previous study, the relationship between salivirus and acute gastroenteritis has not yet been clearly clarified. The sewage strain reported by Ng, although represented by incomplete genome sequencing data, was distinct from previously reported saliviruses, and had not previously been detected in humans. A case-control study examining 461 paired stool samples from children with diarrhea and healthy controls (1:1 was conducted in this study. Also, common diarrheal viruses were detected and complete genome of a salivirus was determined. Results showed that salivirus was detected in 16 (3.5% and 13 (2.8% of the case and control samples, respectively; no differences in detection rates (p=0.571 or mean values of viral loads (p=0.400 were observed between the groups. Multivariate Cox regression revealed no association between salivirus and gastroenteritis (p=0.774. The data also demonstrated that salivirus infection did not exacerbate clinical symptoms of gastroenteritis in children. Furthermore, complete genome sequence of a salivirus recovered from the feces of a child with diarrhea (i.e., SaliV-FHB shared a 99% nucleotide identity with the sewage strain. In conclusion, a paired case-control study did not support a causative role for salivirus strains detected in this study with pediatric gastroenteritis. This study also demonstrated that all known saliviruses can be detected in the feces of children with or without gastroenteritis.

  5. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  6. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  7. Replication of Prostate Cancer Risk Variants in a Danish Case-Control Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen; Nyegaard, Mette; Børglum, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    -matched controls. Family history was obtained by questionnaire. Age at diagnosis, clinical tumor variables including pre- and postoperative PSA, Gleason score, and T stage were obtained from prospectively collected clinical data (Aarhus Prostate Cancer Study). The SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom and Taqman...... assays and associations between SNPs, prostate cancer risk, and clinico-pathological variables were assessed. Results: Seventeen SNPs were successfully replicated in our case-control study and the association estimates were consistent with previous reports. Four markers were excluded from further...... ≥4 markers compared with patients without any of the five SNPs (P for trend = 1.0 × 10–4). Six markers were significantly associated with clinico-pathological variables: SNP rs2735839 (GG) at locus 19q13, which is in the KLK3 gene encoding PSA, was associated with high preoperative PSA (P = 0...

  8. Melasma and its association with different types of nevi in women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini-sani Nayereh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about possible association of nevi and melasma. The study objective was to determine if there is an association between melasma and existence of different kinds of nevi. Methods In a case-control study, 120 female melasma patients referred to dermatology clinic of Ardabil and 120 patients referred to other specialty clinics who lacked melasma were enrolled after matching for age. Number of different types of nevi including lentigines and melanocytic nevi were compared between case and control group patients. Data were entered into the computer and analyzed by SPSS 13 statistical software. Results Mean number of lentigines was 25.5 in melasma group compared to 8 in control group(P Conclusion Existence of lentigines and melanocytic nevi increases chance of having melasma

  9. Results of case-control studies support the association between contact lens use and Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacella E

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Elena Pacella,1 Giuseppe La Torre,2 Maria De Giusti,2 Chiara Brillante,1 Anna Maria Lombardi,2 Gianpaolo Smaldone,1 Tommaso Lenzi,1 Fernanda Pacella11Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyBackground: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK is ever more frequently reported in industrialized countries. The loss of the corneal surface integrity consequent to secondary microtrauma produced by the use of contact lens (CL favors the penetration of the parasite into the corneal tissue.Objectives: A scientific review was performed to investigate the association of CL wear as an Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK risk factor.Methods: A computerized screening of 7834 Medline articles (4623 from PubMed; 3211 from Scopus used a strict selection criteria of case-control studies involving CL wear and/or trauma.Results: The search yielded five case-control studies published from 1995 to 2012. All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, with a combined odds ratio (OR of 10.21 (95%, confidence intervals [CI]; 3.57–27.64.Statistical analysis: All studies included showed a statistically significant positive association between AK and CL use, though with differing OR values.Conclusion: Though rare, AK should be held in higher consideration when ophthalmologists are faced with CL users exhibiting simplex-like lesions associated with circular stromal infiltrates and disproportionate ocular pain in respect to the objective clinical picture.Keywords: keratitis, contact lens, Acanthamoeba

  10. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  12. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrild Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361 were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083 were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05. A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99. Conclusions This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  13. Studies of CTNNBL1 and FDFT1 variants and measures of obesity: analyses of quantitative traits and case-control studies in 18,014 Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla Helene; Mogensen, Mette Sloth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Almind, Katrine; Hansen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    obesity-related quantitative traits, and case-control studies in large study samples of Danes. METHODS: The FDFT1 rs7001819, CTNNBL1 rs6013029 and rs6020846 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising 18,014 participants ascertained from; the population...... most significantly associating variants within CTNNBL1 including rs6013029 and rs6020846 were additionally confirmed to associate with morbid obesity in a French Caucasian case-control sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these three variants on obesity, through analyses of......-based Inter99 cohort (n = 6,514), the ADDITION Denmark screening study cohort (n = 8,662), and a population-based sample (n = 680) and a type 2 diabetic patients group (n = 2,158) from Steno Diabetes Center. RESULTS: Both CTNNBL1 variants associated with body weight and height with per allele effect sizes of...

  14. Clinical features of adolescents with deliberate self-harm: A case control study in Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo F Guerreiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diogo F Guerreiro, Ema L Neves, Rita Navarro, Raquel Mendes, Ana Prioste, Diana Ribeiro, Tiago Lila, António Neves, Mónica Salgado, Nazaré Santos, Daniel SampaioYouth Suicide Study Group (NES, The Hospital Santa Maria, Psychiatry Department, Lisbon Faculty of Medicine, PortugalAbstract: Deliberate self-harm (DSH among adolescents is a high-risk condition for suicide. The aim of the present study is to describe the characteristic clinical features of adolescents with DSH according to our local context (Lisbon, Portugal, using easily available information from clinical settings. A case control study was constructed from a sample of 100 adolescents (aged 12 to 21 years. The sample was divided into two groups: adolescents with and without DSH. Case files were examined and data was completed by clinical interviews. Demographic, psychosocial, and psychopathological data were assessed and compared. Ninety-eight subjects completed the protocol. The DSH group was associated with the following: suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior as consultation motive, emergency room referral, previous follow-up attempts, suicidal ideation, psychosocial difficulties, or lack of therapeutic goals. There was a nonsignificant trend towards diagnosis of depression in the DSH group. These results reflect our clinical practice with adolescents and add data about teenagers who self-harm to the literature. Prevention and early recognition of DSH (and frequently associated depression in adolescents are essential and could be life-saving measures. An integrated approach, which takes into account psychosocial difficulties, family dysfunction, and negative expectations, seems to be of great importance.Keywords: deliberate self-harm, suicide, adolescents, suicide risk, case control

  15. Case-control study of diabetes-related genetic variants and pancreatic cancer risk in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Kamisawa, Terumi; Ueda, Junko; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ueno, Makoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Nojima, Masanori; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether diabetes-related genetic variants are associated with pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS: We genotyped 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PPARG2 (rs1801282), ADIPOQ (rs1501299), ADRB3 (rs4994), KCNQ1 (rs2237895), KCNJ11 (rs5219), TCF7L2 (rs7903146), and CDKAL1 (rs2206734), and examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a multi-institute case-control study including 360 cases and 400 controls in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on lifestyle factors. Genotyping was performed using Fluidigm SNPtype assays. Unconditional logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between these diabetes-associated variants and pancreatic cancer risk. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene (P = 0.09), no apparent differences in genotype frequencies were observed between cases and controls. Rs1501299 in the ADPIOQ gene was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk; compared with individuals with the AA genotype, the age- and sex-adjusted OR was 1.79 (95%CI: 0.98-3.25) among those with the AC genotype and 1.86 (95%CI: 1.03-3.38) among those with the CC genotype. The ORs remained similar after additional adjustment for body mass index and cigarette smoking. In contrast, rs2237895 in the KCNQ1 gene was inversely related to pancreatic cancer risk, with a multivariable-adjusted OR of 0.62 (0.37-1.04) among individuals with the CC genotype compared with the AA genotype. No significant associations were noted for other 5 SNPs. CONCLUSION: Our case-control study indicates that rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. These findings should be replicated in additional studies. PMID:25516658

  16. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme GHASEMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghasemi F, Valizadeh F, Taee N. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:38-44.ObjectiveConsidering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission wasmeasured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%.Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17 compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46 compared to the healthy group. ConclusionChildren with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS.References1. Østergaard J R. Febrile Seizures. Acta Pædiatr 2009;98(5:771-3.2. Jones T, Jacobsen SJ. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications. Int J Med Sci. 2007; 4(2:110-4.3. Flury T, Aebi

  17. Normal endothelial function in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter R; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is increasing that severe psoriasis is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Results from case-control studies of endothelial dysfunction, a marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis have been conflicting and were conducted with operator......-dependent and technically demanding ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation. Therefore, we decided to measure endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) using a newer and relatively operator...... blood pressures, and plasma levels of triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glycated glucose, compared with controls. This indicates that even mild-to-moderate psoriasis may be regarded as a systemic inflammatory disease, and that an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity may...

  18. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;

    2003-01-01

    assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure was...... higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  19. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  20. Sociodemographic characteristics of domestic violence in China: a population case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, YuPing; Yang, ShiChang; Wang, GuoQiang; Zhang, YaLin

    2014-03-01

    A population case-control study of domestic violence in China was conducted to examine the relationship between individual- and household-level characteristics and violence perpetration and victimization. Demographic comparisons were conducted between perpetrators and victims (n = 624), perpetrators and matched controls (n = 628), and perpetrator households and control households (n = 620). A multivariate model of demographic risk was tested, integrating individual- and household-level correlates of violence perpetration. Compared with victims, perpetrators were more likely to be older, male, and have lower levels of education. In the final model, violence perpetration was more likely among individuals who earned more income, contributed a lower proportion of the household income, had a family member who was unemployed or lived in households with an authoritarian or independent power structure. PMID:24176988

  1. Etiology of diarrhea in young children in Denmark: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, B.; Neimann, J.; Bottiger, B.;

    2005-01-01

    -matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were......Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age...... by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness...

  2. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series

  3. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  4. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M; Duijster, D; Bruist, M A; Thijssen, J; de Ruiter, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction and childhood dental caries, using a sample of 5-8-year old children from the Netherlands. Cases were defined as children with four or more decayed, missing or filled teeth and controls were caries free. Cases (n = 28) and controls (n = 26) were recruited from a referral centre for paediatric dental care and a general dental practice, respectively. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions of the child's primary caregiver were observed using Structured Interaction Tasks and subsequently rated on seven dimensions: positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving, discipline, monitoring, coercion and interpersonal atmosphere. All Structured Interaction Tasks were videotaped, and coded by trained and calibrated observers blind to the dental condition. Differences in parenting dimensions between cases and controls were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance, independent samples T-tests, χ(2)-tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Controls had significantly higher scores on the dimensions positive involvement, encouragement, problem-solving and interpersonal atmosphere, compared to cases. Parents of controls were also less likely to show coercive behaviours. These associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for the mother's education level, tooth brushing frequency and the frequency of consuming sugary foods and drinks, except for coercion. There was no significant difference in discipline between cases and controls. In conclusion, this case-control study found a significant relationship between parenting practices, parent-child interaction quality and childhood dental caries. Our findings suggest that parenting practices may be an important factor to consider in caries preventive programs. PMID:24980791

  5. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  6. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  7. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour SADEGHZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4:27-31.Abstract Objective: Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, serum iron (SI, total iron binding capacity (TIBC and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. ReferencesBidabadi E, Mashouf M.. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion: A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jan;18(5:347-51.Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevisasl P, Moussavinassab N, Koosha A, Norouzi M. The Relation Between Serum Zinc Level and Febrile Seizures in Children Admitted to Zanjan Valie-Asr Hospital. J Zanjan Uni Med Sci. 2011;19(74:17-24.Kumari PL, Nair MK, Nair SM, Kailas L, Geetha S. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for simple febrile seizures-a case control study. Indian Pediatr. 2012 Jan;49(1:17-9.Pisacane A, Sansone R, Impagliazzo N, Coppola A, Rolando P, D'Apuzzo A, Tregrossi C. Iron deficiency anaemia and

  8. The association between dietary lignans, phytoestrogen-rich foods, and fiber intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a German case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaineddin, A.K.; Buck, K.; Vrieling, A.; Heinz, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Linseisen, J.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are structurally similar to estrogens and may affect breast cancer risk by mimicking estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In Western societies, whole grains and possibly soy foods are rich sources of phytoestrogens. A population-based case-control study in German postmenopausal women

  9. [Domestic and family violence against women: a case-control study with victims treated in emergency rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with treatment of victims of domestic and family violence in emergency rooms in Brazil. This is a case-control study based on the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), 2011. Women ≥ 18 years who were victims of family and domestic violence were selected as cases and compared to accident victims (controls). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. 623 cases and 10,120 controls were included. Risk factors according to the adjusted analysis were younger age (18-29 years), low schooling, lack of paid work, alcohol consumption, having sought treatment in a different health service, and violence on weekends or at night or in the early morning hours. The study concludes that domestic and family violence shows alcohol consumption as a strongly associated factor. Days and hours with the highest ocurrence reveal the need to adjust emergency services to treat victims. PMID:27096297

  10. The prediction of discharge from in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountain Debbie A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At any time, about 1% of people with severe and enduring mental illness such as schizophrenia require in-patient psychiatric rehabilitation. In-patient rehabilitation enables individuals with the most challenging difficulties to be discharged to successful and stable community living. However, the length of rehabilitation admission that is required is highly variable and the reasons for this are poorly understood. There are very few case-control studies of predictors of outcome following hospitalisation. None have been carried out for in-patient rehabilitation. We aimed to identify the factors that are associated with achieving discharge from in-patient rehabilitation by carrying out a case-control study. Methods We compared two groups: 34 people who were admitted to the Rehabilitation Service at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital and discharged within a six year study period, and 31 people who were admitted in the same period, but not discharged. We compared the groups on demographic, illness, treatment and risk variables that were present at the point of their admission to rehabilitation. We used independent t tests and Pearson Chi-Square tests to compare the two groups. Results We found that serious self harm and suicide attempts, treatment with high dose antipsychotics, antipsychotic polypharmacy and previous care in forensic psychiatric services were all significantly associated with non-discharge. The non-discharged group were admitted significantly later in the six year study period and had already spent significantly longer in hospital. People who were admitted to rehabilitation within the first ten years of developing psychosis were more likely to have achieved discharge. Conclusions People admitted later in the study period required longer rehabilitation admissions and had higher rates of serious self harm and treatment resistant illness. They were also more likely to have had previous contact with forensic services. This

  11. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score ADHD significantly increased the odds of prolonged recovery (aOR 4.41, 95% CI 1.93-10.07 and aOR 3.87, 95% CI 1

  12. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Central India: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Zodpey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial disease involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Studies highlighting the public health importance of risk factors like chronic infections causing acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the Indian context are scarce. This study was undertaken to study the association of socio-demographic and life-style factors with acute myocardial infarction in central India. Materials and Methods: The cases and controls were group-matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. A blinded research associate administered the study questionnaire. We performed an unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The case-control study included 265 cases of AMI and 265 controls. The results of final model of logistic regression analysis for risk factors of AMI included 11 risk factors at α = 0.05. They were waist hip ratio, body mass index, stress at home in last 1 year, hypertension, family history of CHD, past history of gingival sepsis, tobacco smoking, raised total serum cholesterol, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and raised C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The findings confirm the role of conventional risk factors for cardiac disease and highlight need for research into the association between chronic infections with AMI.

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  14. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  15. Food and dietary patterns and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Belgrade (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana D. Pekmezovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS is unclear, but numerous studies suggest that different exogenous factors can lead to the development of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The objective of this case-control study was to determine the role of food and dietary patterns in patients with MS in the population of Belgrade (Serbia.

    Methods: In this matched case-control study, we included 110 cases with definite MS according to McDonald’s criteria, in whom the onset symptoms occurred up to 2 years prior to the interview, who were followed-up at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The identical number of controls from the same institution, individually matched by sex, age and area of residence, was recruited from patients with various non-autoimmune neurological disorders. Dietary information was obtained by using a frequency history approach.

    Results: According to univariate conditional logistic regression analysis the following factors were significantly related to MS: body mass index (BMI less than 25 (OR=2.2, p=0.009, frequent consumption of beef (OR=1.7, p=0.043, chicken (OR=2.0, p=0.045, meat of the lamb (OR=2.1, p=0.013, butter (OR=1.7, p=0.056 and ice-cream (OR=1.8, p=0.031, with dose-response relationship. Consumption of majority of various fruit was more frequently reported by controls. According to multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, BMI less than 25 (OR=2.3, p=0.008, consumption (weekly of beef (OR=2.0, p=0.017 and butter (OR=1.9, p=0.027 was significantly related to MS, while regular consumption of cherry (OR=0.4, p=0.024 had protective role.

    Conclusions: This study might assist in potential defining of the dietary factors that could contribute to the risk of developing MS.

  16. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Aschengrau Ann; Zota Ami R; Brody Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  17. Certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M. Sagare, S. S. Rajderkar B. S. Girigosavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension accounts for 90% of all cases of hypertension. Though it is a one of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, it is a condition with its own risk factors. Overall prevalence of hypertension is increasing over the years in India (from 3.57% in 1977 to 20-30% after 1995. Considering the public health importance of ‘Essential Hypertension’ the present study was conducted. The objective was to study role of certain risk factors in essential hypertension. A case control study was conducted in rural township of Tasgaon; in Sangli district of Maharashtra during 2001-2002, to study role of certain modifiable risk factors in essential hypertension in 21-60 years age group. 165 cases of essential hypertension were selected by systematic random sampling from two private hospitals & O.P.D. of RHTC, Tasgaon and 330, age & sex matched controls were selected in the ratio of 1:2. A significant association was found between essential hypertension and various risk factors including smoking, its frequency and duration, alcoholic status, leisure time physical inactivity, restless sleep, BMI, mental stress, mixed diet and salt intake. Smoking of more than 10 cigarettes or bidi had 3.23 times risk of developing hypertension than smoking up to 10 cigarettes or bidi.

  18. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  19. Dietary patterns and benign breast diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznobeyk, Zeinab; Sheikhi Mobarakeh, Zahra; Qorbani, Mostafa; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Khosravi, Shahla; Doostan, Farideh

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between benign breast diseases (BBD) and food intake. However, dietary patterns of these patients have not been taken into consideration up to now. The aim of this study is to determine the association between dietary patterns and BBD. In this case-control study, ninety-six patients with BBD and seventy controls were selected from women attending the Iranian Center for Breast Cancer affiliated with Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. Demographic, physical activity and semi-quantitative FFQ were completed. The main dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis. Two major dietary patterns emerged: Healthy dietary pattern including fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds, whole grains, oil and mayonnaise, olives, fruits; and Unhealthy dietary pattern including red meats, organ and processed meats, high-fat dairy products, refined grains, sweets and desserts, animal and solid fats. After adjustment for age, BMI and energy intake, the participants in the highest tertile of Healthy dietary pattern (OR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·20, 0·99) were less likely to have BBD compared with those in the first tertile. After adjustment for other confounding variables, this relationship still remained close to significant level. However, higher consumption of Unhealthy dietary pattern was not associated with the risk of BBD. In conclusion, Healthy dietary pattern might be inversely associated with the risk of BBD; however, this result should be interpreted with caution. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27198589

  20. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)