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  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  2. Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both a woman's egg ... back in the woman's body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and effective type of ...

  3. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A ... Read Article View All News ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/ ...

  4. Ethics and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-06-01

    In vitro fertilization and assisted reproductive technology have made great progress during the last 20 years. Genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and surrogacy are currently practiced in many countries. On the other hand, embryo research is practiced only in a small number of nations, whereas human cloning has thus far been universally condemned. The rapid evolution and progress of all these techniques of assisted reproduction has revealed certain ethical issues that have to be addressed. PMID:10825637

  5. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  6. Assisted reproduction and distributive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Vida

    2015-02-01

    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I examine three strategies for justifying collective provisions in a liberal society and assess whether public reproductive assistance can be defended on any of these accounts. I begin by considering, and rejecting, rights-based and needs-based approaches. I go on to argue that instead we ought to address assisted reproduction from the perspective of the contractarian insurance-based model for public health coverage, according to which we select items for inclusion based on their unpredictability in nature and cost. I argue that infertility qualifies as an unpredictable incident against which rational agents would choose to insure under ideal conditions and that assisted reproduction is thereby a matter of collective responsibility, but only in cases of medical necessity or inability to pay. The policy I endorse by appeal to this approach is a means-tested system of coverage resembling neither Ontario nor Quebec's, and I conclude that it constitutes a promising alternative worthy of serious consideration by bioethicists, political philosophers, and policy-makers alike. PMID:24602147

  7. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  8. Laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, WS; Ng, EH

    2000-01-01

    A number of advances have been made concerning the laboratory aspects of assisted reproduction. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the treatment of male infertility. With the development of better embryo culture media, blastocyst transfer is now possible and is likely to reduce high-order multiple pregnancy in assisted reproduction treatment. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis has become an alternative to prenatal diagnosis. The recent use of molecular biology techniques to d...

  9. Heparin for assisted reproduction (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad A. Akhtar; Sur, Shyamaly D.; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes. It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to ...

  10. Parthenogenesis and Human Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bos-Mikich; Fabiana F. Bressan; Ruggeri, Rafael R.; Yeda Watanabe; Flávio V. Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes obtained from infertility treatments has gained new interest in recent years as an alternative approach to create embryos with no reproductive purpose for research in areas such as assisted reproduction technologies itself, somatic cell, and nuclear transfer experiments and for derivation of clinical grade pluripotent embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine. Different activating methods have been tested on human and nonhuman oocytes, with var...

  11. Ethical issues in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B M

    1992-07-01

    Since the birth of Louise Brown in 1978, no other area in clinical practice and medical research has held the public interest to the same extent as the assisted reproductive technologies. This has led to the formation of committees of enquiry, guidelines from professional bodies, the passage of legislation, and the formation of legislative bodies. The ethical issues which arise in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction, the donation of gametes and embryos, and their cryopreservation, surrogacy, and human embryo research are reviewed. PMID:1309130

  12. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. PMID:21958915

  13. Social aspects in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive techniques have become common practice in many countries today, regulated by established legislation, regulations or by committee-set ethical standards. The rapid evolution and progress of these techniques have revealed certain social issues that have to be addressed. The traditional heterosexual couple, nowadays, is not considered by many as the only 'IVF appropriate patient' since deviations from this pattern (single mother, lesbians) have also gained access to these treatments. Genetic material donation, age limitation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, surrogacy and cloning are interpreted differently in the various countries, as their definition and application are influenced by social factors, religion and law. Financial and emotional stresses are also often described in infertile couples. Information as deduced from the world literature regarding IVF regulation, as well as about the existing religious, cultural and social behaviours towards these new technologies, is presented in this article in relation to the social aspects of assisted reproduction. PMID:10333367

  14. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...... with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human...... adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders...

  15. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Söderström-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina; Aittomäki, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development, coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been associated with ART techniques, but disentangling the influence of the ART procedures per se from the effect of the reproductive disease of the parents is a challenge. Epidemiological human studies have shown altered birthweight profiles in ART compared with spontaneously conceived singletons. Conception with cryopreserved/thawed embryos results in a higher risk of large-for-gestational-age babies, which may be due to epigenetic modification. Further animal studies have shown altered gene expression profiles in offspring conceived by ART related to altered glucose metabolism. It is controversial whether human adolescents conceived by ART have altered lipid and glucose profiles and thereby a higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This commentary describes the basic concepts of epigenetics and gives a short overview of the existing literature on the association between imprinting disorders, epigenetic modification and ART. PMID:26458360

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; de Mouzon, J; Bhattacharya, S; Castilla, J A; Korsak, V; Kupka, M; Nygren, K G; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008.......This 12th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2008....

  17. Assisted reproduction and child neurodevelopmental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception.......To systematically review the existing literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born after medically assisted reproduction compared with those of children born after spontaneous conception....

  18. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S; Castilla, J A; Ferraretti, A P; Korsak, V; Kupka, M; Nygren, K G; Andersen, A Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007.......This 11th European IVF-monitoring report presents the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments initiated in Europe during 2007....

  19. Imprinting disorders after assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2006-01-01

    To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies.......To assess the evidence of an increased risk of imprinting diseases in children born after use of assisted reproductive technologies....

  20. 21 CFR 884.6150 - Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6150 Assisted reproduction micromanipulators and microinjectors. (a)...

  1. Posthumous Assisted Reproduction from Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in assisted reproductive techniques along with relieving the pain of childlessnesshas brought new ethical and policy dilemmas. Posthumous assisted reproduction is the mostchallenging, difficult and sensitive issue to be discussed ethically and religiously. In this paper theacceptability of the posthumous reproduction in Islamic contexts is evaluated and major concernslike Consent and ownership of the gametes after death, Family and Marriage vision and Welfareof the child are discussed together with some international legislation. We can conclude that uponIslamic vision to assisted reproductive techniques as treatment of families and relieving the seriousproblem of childlessness, posthumous assisted reproduction is unacceptable even with previouslyfrozen gametes or embryos. Also, Islamic vision to marriage, consent and welfare of the childconfirms the unacceptability. There must be some law or legislation to ban this procedure in Islamiccontexts.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraretti, A P; Goossens, V; Kupka, M; Bhattacharya, S; de Mouzon, J; Castilla, J A; Erb, Karin; Korsak, V; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; (EIM), European IVF-monitoring

    2013-01-01

    The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?......The 13th European in vitro fertilization (IVF)-monitoring (EIM) report presents the results of treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) initiated in Europe during 2009: are there any changes in the trends compared with previous years?...

  3. 21 CFR 884.6130 - Assisted reproduction microtools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction microtools. 884.6130 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6130 Assisted reproduction microtools. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microtools are pipettes...

  4. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  5. 21 CFR 884.6110 - Assisted reproduction catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction catheters. 884.6110 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6110 Assisted reproduction catheters. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction catheters are devices used in...

  6. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  7. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mantikou

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e. it

  8. Abuse of Assistant Reproductive Technologies Banned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Is it morally and legally viable for unmarried womento have a child through in vitro fertilization? Is fetusreduction operation necessary for multi-births causedby assistant reproductive technologies? Such issueshave aroused great concerns from governmentofficials and demographers and the general public

  9. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  10. 21 CFR 884.6140 - Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication... Devices § 884.6140 Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication instruments. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction micropipette fabrication devices are instruments intended to pull, bevel, or forge...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6200 - Assisted reproduction laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction laser system. 884.6200... Assisted reproduction laser system. (a) Identification. The assisted reproduction laser system is a device that images, targets, and controls the power and pulse duration of a laser beam used to ablate a...

  12. Perinatal Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Setenay Arzu Yilmaz; Ozlem Secilmis Kerimoglu

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies(ART) are widely used in the treatment of infertility. Many advances in ART have resulted in higher pregnancy rates for patients. The introduction of embryo cryopreservation and subsequently intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI) in 1992 were the important developments in ART success. Development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis has facilitated the exclusion of genetically abnormal embryos but every development brought new risks about the manipulation of ...

  13. Assisted reproductive technologies in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs have been used in the production of rhesus monkey offspring at the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC and that experience is summarized here. Additionally these technologies serve as a source of oocytes/embryos for monozygotic twinning, embryonic stem (ES cell derivation and cloning. High fertilization efficiencies were realized with conventional insemination or following the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and approximately 50% of the resulting embryos grew in vitro to blastocysts. Both fresh and frozen sperm were employed in fertilization by ICSI and the resulting embryos could be low temperature stored for subsequent thawing and transfer when a synchronized recipient female was available or after shipment to another facility. Following the transfer of up to 3 embryos, an overall pregnancy rate of 30% was achieved with increasing rates dependent upon the number of embryos transferred. Singleton pregnancy outcomes following the transfer of ART produced embryos were similar to those observed in a control group of animals in the timed mated breeding colony at ONPRC. ICSI produced embryos were used in efforts to create monozygotic twins by blastomere separation or blastocyst splitting. While pregnancies were achieved following the transfer of demi-embryos, only one was a twin and it was lost to spontaneous abortion. ICSI produced embryos have also served as the source of blastocysts for the derivation of embryonic stem cells. These pluripotent cells hold potential for cell based therapies and we consider the monkey an important translational model in which to evaluate safety, efficacy and feasibility of regenerative medicine approaches based on the transplantation of stem cell-derived progeny. Finally, efforts to produce genetically-identical monkeys by nuclear transfer have been briefly summarized.

  14. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie;

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment...... literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, and different ART methods including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, blastocyst culture, and cryotechniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also be...

  15. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  16. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN AND...... ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215...... affected the observed trends. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS It is assuring that data from four countries confirm an overall improvement over time in the perinatal outcomes of children conceived after ART. Furthermore, data show the beneficial effect of single embryo transfer, not only in regard to...

  17. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and...... variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0...

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  19. Banning reproductive travel: Turkey's ART legislation and third-party assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtin, Zeynep B

    2011-11-01

    In March 2010, Turkey became the first country to legislate against the cross-border travel of its citizens seeking third-party reproductive assistance. Although the use of donor eggs, donor spermatozoa and surrogacy had been illegal in Turkey since the introduction of a regulatory framework for assisted reproductive treatment in 1987, men and women were free to access these treatments in other jurisdictions. In some cases, such travel for cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) was even facilitated by sophisticated arrangements between IVF clinics in Turkey and in other countries, particularly in Cyprus. However, new amendments to Turkey's assisted reproduction legislation specifically forbid travel for the purposes of third-party assisted reproduction. This article outlines the cultural context of assisted reproductive treatment in Turkey; details the Turkish assisted reproduction legislation, particularly as it pertains to third-party reproductive assistance; explores Turkish attitudes towards donor gametes and surrogacy; assesses the existence and extent of CBRC prior to March 2010; and discusses some of the legal, ethical and practical implications of the new legislation. As CBRC becomes an increasingly pertinent issue, eliciting debate and discussion at both national and international levels, it is important to carefully consider the particular circumstances and potential consequences of this unique example. PMID:21962527

  20. Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed

  1. [Thrombosis and assisted reproductive techniques (ART)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, J; Plu-Bureau, G; Horellou, M-H; Samama, M-M; Gompel, A

    2011-06-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) concern procedures designed to increase fertility of couples: artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (IVF), either classical or after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), transfer of frozen embryos, or gamete intrafallopian transfer. Their use has greatly increased these last years. They may be associated with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and one possible major complication is venous or arterial thrombosis. Thromboses are rare but potentially serious with important sequellae. They are mostly observed in unusual sites such as head and neck vessels and the mechanism is still unknown although hypotheses have been proposed. This review is an update of our knowledge and an attempt to consider guidelines for the prevention and treatment of ART-associated thromboses, which frequently occur when the woman is pregnant. Prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation by appropriate stimulation procedures, detection of women at risk of hyperstimulation and of women at high risk of thrombosis should allow reduction of the risk of thrombosis, possibly by administration of a thromboprophylaxis at a timing and dose which can be only determined by extrapolation. PMID:21333476

  2. Complications and outcome of assisted reproduction technologies in overweight and obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecher, W. K. H.; Broekmans, F. J.; Land, J. A.; Mol, B. W.; Hoek, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on a presumed negative impact of overweight and obesity on reproductive capacity and pregnancy outcome, some national guidelines and clinicians have argued that there should be an upper limit for a woman's BMI to access assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, evidence on

  3. Assisted reproductive technology and somatic morbidity in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bay, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    were included. Results indicated that children conceived by assisted reproductive technology may be at increased risk of unspecified infectious and parasitic diseases, asthma, genitourinary diseases, epilepsy or convulsions, and longer hospitalizations. However, several results in individual studies...

  4. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year

  5. Gross characteristics of placentas from an assisted reproduction program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabs Dunja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Even though placentas from assisted reproduction programs often differ from placentas of women who conceived naturally, they are rarely examined. The aim of our investigation was to determine some gross characteristics of placentas of women who conceived with assisted reproduction. Material and methods. We examined 30 placentas from an assisted reproduction program (20 from in vitro fertilization and 10 from intrauterine insemination and 30 placentas of women who conceived naturally. All women were age matched. All the women were at term. Results. The mean weight of placentas from assisted reproduction program was 573 g and of those after natural conception - 582.67g. The mean length of the umbilical cords was 64.3cm after assisted reproduction and 66.3cm after natural conception. The mean placenta thickness after assisted reproduction was 2,22 cm and after natural conception 2.28 cm. Eight pla­centas of the study group had a marginal insertion of the umbilical cord, which lead to a statistically significant difference when compared to placentas of women who conceived naturally: χ² =7.07; p>0.01. Discussion. Marginal cord insertion into the placenta after assisted reproduction is also often described in the literature (as a possible "consequence " of embryo-transfer. Conclusion. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean weight and dimensions of placentas, length of the umbilical cord, gross pathological features of placentas and cords, mean birth weight of babies and placental/fetal ratios between women from assisted reproduction program and those who conceived naturally. .

  6. Assisted reproduction in Hong Kong: Status in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Loong, EPL; Haines, CJ; Chiu, TYT; Wong, SP; Cheung, LP; So, WWK; Lau, E.; Ng, V; Leung, CKM; Leong, MKH; Wong, CJY; Tang, WWC; Chun, MMP; Ho, PC; Yeung, WSB

    1996-01-01

    Information on assisted reproduction in Hong Kong for the period from January 1992 to December 1993 was collected from the three centres that offer assisted reproduction. Altogether, 912 treatment cycles of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer, 158 treatment cycles of gamete intrafallopian transfer, and 87 cycles of zygote intrafallopian transfer were initiated during this period. The delivery rates per cycle started were 8.4% for in vitro fertilisation, 29.1% for gamete intrafallopian ...

  7. Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for Livestock Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P and N. Sri Balaji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of farm animals is a prime concern over the years for researchers. Several reproductive technologies have been employed to achieve this. Assisted reproductive technologies like Artificial insemination, Superovulation, In vitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer have been introduced to overcome reproductive problems, to increase the offspring from selected female’s and to reduce the generation intervals in farm animals. The progress achieved during the last few years in the assisted reproductive technologies field has been phenomenal. Artificial Insemination (AI is the most effective method being used for the genetic improvement of animals. Reproductive capacity and efficiency has been improved tremendously since the introduction of artificial insemination. The development of cloning using various cells from the animal body has created opening of a fascinating scientific arena. These technologies have been propounded as saviors of indigenous livestock breeds. These alternative reproductive techniques are available not only for manipulation of reproductive processes but also proven to be powerful tools in curbing the spread of vertically transmitted diseases. The successful reproductive technologies such as AI and Embryo transfer need be applied on a large scale, emerging biotechnogies such as MOET, IVF and Cloning provides powerful tool for rapidly changing the animal populations, genetically. This advanced reproduction technologies will definitely play an important role in the future perspective and visions for efficient reproductive performance in livestock. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 238-240

  8. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobek Jr., A.; Zbořilová, B.; Procházka, M.; Šilhánová, E.; Koutná, O.; Klásková, E.; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2015), s. 756-760. ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monozygotic twins * genetics * assisted reproduction techniques * infertility Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 4.590, year: 2014

  9. Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitnev, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational surrogacy is an option for heterosexual couples and single women, although a court decision might be needed to register a 'surrogate' child born to a couple who are not officially married or a single woman. However, it is not explicitly allowed nor prohibited for single men. PMID:20435519

  10. Responsive regulation of cross-border assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-12-01

    This article considers the question: how might Australian regulators constructively respond to the dynamic and complex challenges posed by cross-border assisted reproduction? To begin, the article summarises the available international scholarship and outlines what little we know about Australian cross-border reproductive travel. Of the three generally proposed responses to cross-border reproductive care (prohibition, harm minimisation and harmonisation), the article summarily rejects the first approach, and instead discusses a mixture of the latter two. The article proposes the beginnings of an immediate policy response aimed not at stopping cross-border practices per se, but rather at understanding and reducing the risks associated with them, as well as flagging the pursuit of more ambitious meta-goals such as developing more equitable and accessible treatment frameworks for assisted reproductive technology and encouraging domestic self-sufficiency in reproduction. PMID:26939503

  11. Contemporary pharmacological manipulation in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huirne, Judith A F; Lambalk, Cornelis B; van Loenen, Andre C D; Schats, Roel; Hompes, Peter G A; Fauser, Bart C J M; Macklon, Nick S

    2004-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment to induce follicular development in anovulating women and multiple follicular development for assisted conception has been incorporated in almost all reproductive treatment cycles in the form of either urinary, purified urinary or recombinant preparations. Besides improved tolerance and theoretically lower chances of infection by prions, the latter may be more effective in terms of clinical pregnancy rates, FSH requirement and cost effectiveness. The low-dose, step-up protocol to induce monofollicular development, which is applied worldwide, has to compete with the equally effective but health economically beneficial step-down protocol. The long protocol using recombinant FSH 150 IU/day is advocated when using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection treatment. However, the current paradigmatic hyperstimulation came under scrutiny after the introduction of the GnRH antagonists, which allow milder and more convenient approaches with acceptable cancellation and pregnancy rates but lower requirements for FSH. Risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) can be further eliminated if recombinant luteinising hormone (rLH) or GnRH agonists are used to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation; the latter require pituitary responsiveness and are therefore excluded in agonist protocols. FSH and LH are both required for appropriate folliculo- and steroidogenesis. In hypogonadotropic women, the addition of LH (human menopausal gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin or rLH) is therefore obligate to achieve appropriate follicular growth and pregnancy. The role of LH in ovulation induction is still a matter of debate, although in GnRH agonistic protocols there seems to be a 'therapeutic window'; levels that are too high or too low have detrimental effects on IVF outcome. To broaden the pharmaceutical armoury, recent efforts have been directed towards the

  12. Discontinuation Decision in Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are recognizedas established and increasingly successful forms of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbersof couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify majorfactors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF/ICSI treatments.Materials and Methods: We studied the data of 338 couples who discontinued their infertilitytreatments after three cycles; based on medical records and phone contact. The main measure wasthe reason for stopping their treatments.Results: Economical problems were cited by 212 couples (62.7%, as their mean income wassignificantly less than other couples (p<0.0001. Lack of success was reported as a reason by229 (67.8%, from whom 165 (72% also had economical problems. Achieving independent-ART pregnancy was the reason for discontinuation in 20 (5.9% couples. Psychological stress,depression and anxiety were reported as other cessation factors by 169 (50%, 148 (43.8% and 182(53.8% couples, respectively.Conclusion: This survey suggests that the most common reasons for assisted reproductivetechnique (ART discontinuation after three cycles are: prior unsuccessful cycles, economicaland psychological problems. Therefore, the substantial proportion of couples could benefit frompsychological intervention, increasing awareness of ART outcomes and health funding to copemore adequately with failed treatments.

  13. The legal aspects of parental rights in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, John K; Ciccarelli, Janice C

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different legal approaches that are used in various jurisdictions to determine parental rights and obligations of the parties involved in third party assisted reproduction. Additionally, the paper explores the differing legal models that are used depending on the method of surrogacy being utilized. The data demonstrates that a given method of surrogacy may well result in different procedures and outcomes regarding parental rights in different jurisdictions. This suggests the need for a uniform method to resolve parental rights where assisted reproductive technology is involved. PMID:17073027

  14. Assisted reproductive technologies and fertility "tourism": examples from global Dubai and the Ivy League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Shrivastav, Pankaj; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    What motivates the global movements of infertile people searching for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)? In this article, we attempt to answer this question by exploring infertile patients' practices of so-called "fertility tourism." Based on ethnographic research carried out with nearly 300 infertile travelers in two major ART centers--one in the global hub of the United Arab Emirates and the other at a major East Coast Ivy League university--we examine a diverse set of reasons for reproductive travel. We argue that reproductive "tourism" should be reconceptualized as reproductive "exile" in that infertile couples feel barred from accessing ARTs in their home countries. Listening to reproductive travel stories is key to understanding infertile couples' transnational "quests for conception." Stories of two couples, one from Lebanon and one from Italy, demonstrate the poignancy of these quests and begin to shed light on the complex calculus of factors governing this global movement of reproductive actors. PMID:22540317

  15. Psychological Evaluation Test After the Use of Assisted Reproduction Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, José Gonçalves; Baruffi, Ricardo Luiz Razera; Mauri, Ana Lucia; Petersen, Claudia Guilhermino; Felipe, Valeria; Garbellini, Erika

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The emotional changes provoked by the use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) may trigger important psychological reactions. The objective of the present study was to develop a psychological evaluation test (PET–ART) in order to identify the occurrence of psychological problems and to facilitate their treatment.

  16. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini Mahajan; Sharma, S.

    2016-01-01

    A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4%) in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness

  17. 21 CFR 884.6160 - Assisted reproduction labware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction labware. 884.6160 Section 884.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... procedures. These include syringes, IVF tissue culture dishes, IVF tissue culture plates, pipette...

  18. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  19. Toward a gender-sensitive assisted reproduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The recent case of the UK woman who lost her legal struggle to be impregnated with her own frozen embryos, raises critical issues about the meaning of reproductive autonomy and the scope of regulatory practices. I revisit this case within the context of contemporary debate about the moral and legal dimensions of assisted reproduction. I argue that the gender neutral context that frames discussion of regulatory practices is unjust unless it gives appropriate consideration to the different positions women and men occupy in relation to reproductive processes and their options for autonomous choice. First, I consider relevant legal rulings, media debate, and scholarly commentary. Then I discuss the concept of reproductive autonomy imbedded in this debate. I argue that this concept conflates informed consent and reproductive autonomy, thereby providing an excessively narrow reading of autonomy that fails to give due regard to relations among individuals or the social, political and economic environment that shapes their options. I contrast this notion of autonomy with feminist formulations that seek to preserve respect for the agency of individuals without severing them from the conditions of their embodiment, their surrounding social relationships, or the political contexts that shape their options. Taking these considerations into account I weigh the advantages of regulation over the commercial market arrangement that prevails in some countries and suggest general guidelines for a regulatory policy that would more equitably resolve conflicting claims to reproductive autonomy. PMID:19076940

  20. Assisted hatching in assisted reproduction: a state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Hammadeh, Mohamad Eid; Fischer-Hammadeh, Constanze; Ali, Khaled Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that one in six couples experience some delay in conception and an increasing number require treatment by the assisted conception (AC) procedures of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).The implantation rate of embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization cycles is generally less than 20%. The exposure of oocytes and embryos to the artificial conditions of in vitro culture may have negative effects on the embryo’s abi...

  1. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, M.; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C; Kremer, J A M; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone or hCG levels, or both, are low and the natural process is insufficient, so the luteal phase is supported with either progesterone, hCG or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. Luteal phas...

  2. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in a model of fertility choice

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Helmut; Selvaretnam, Geethanjali; Ulph, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a simple theoretical framework to discuss the relationship between assisted reproductive technologies and the microeconomics of fertility choice. Individuals make choices of education and work along with decisions about whether and when to have children. Decisions regarding fertility are influenced by policy and labor market factors that affect the earnings opportunities of mothers and the costs of raising children. We show how observed differences in these economic factor...

  3. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discus...

  4. The Role of Acupuncture in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Hong Zheng; Ming Min Zhang; Guang Ying Huang; Wei Wang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide reliable evidence by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture, including manual, electrical, and laser acupuncture (LA) techniques, on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or artificial insemination were included. The controlled groups consisted ...

  5. Effects and effectiveness of heparin in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Michael K

    2011-06-01

    Despite significant improvements in treatment protocols and laboratory techniques, the baby take-home rate after assisted reproduction (ART) is disappointing, e.g. 20% in Germany. It is therefore understandable that various approaches are undertaken to improve the pregnancy and delivery rates after IVF and ICSI. Among others, the application of heparin is suggested to avoid implantation failure - partially irrespective of maternal thrombophilia. The applications of heparin for various indications are presented in this manuscript and critically discussed, taking into account current studies and meta-analyses. Furthermore, possible effects of heparin on the embryo-maternal dialogue and indications for heparin to prevent and treat thromboembolic disease during ART are summarized. A systematic literature search of the PubMed/Medline database was performed assessing all articles published before November 2010. "IVF", "ICSI", "assisted reproduction", "heparin", "side effect", "coagulation", "thrombosis", "thrombophilia", "thrombophilic disorder", "implantation", "implantation failure" and "placenta" were used as keywords. The available studies on heparin in assisted reproduction are characterized by heterogeneous inclusion criteria and a lack of proven effectiveness in special constellations. In conclusion, the application of heparin to improve ART outcome rates is not justified. PMID:21641656

  6. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  7. Perceptions of infertile couples to assisted reproductive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritsa Gourni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Infertility treatment influences significantly not only the couples’ quality of life but also their psychology separately.Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions of infertility couples in regard to assisted reproductive techniques.Method and material: The sample study consisted of 110 infertile couples that seek medical help to a Center of Assisted Reproductive Techniques. A specially designed questionnaire was used for the needs of the survey, that included items related to the perceptions of infertile couples. Statistical analysis was performed by the statistical package SPSS-13.Results: Οf the 110 studied infertile couples, 44,3% followed (IVF In Vitro Fertilization method, 37,8% artificial Insemination, 14,1% (ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 3,1% donor insemination and 0,7% (GIFT Gamete Intra – Fallopian Transfer. In regard to factors that make difficult the decision to choose Assisted Reproductive Techniques, in 27,3% of the participants was the side effects deriving from therapy, in 22,7% the cost, in 7,3% the attitude of the environment, in 10,0% the psychological and in 4,5% the religious factor. The 73,6% of the studied sample reported that they would try again to have a child even if the previous effort was successful and the 94,5% reported that they would try again even if the previous effort was not successful. Regarding what they had the intention to sacrifice of their life to the birth of a child, the 58,3% reported that they would sacrifice “everything”, the 14,5% free-time, the 4,5% the entertainment, the 3,6% occupation, the 2,7% athletics and the 16,4% would sacrifice nothing. The 73,6% of the couples that had undergone an Assisted Reproductive Techniques, received no psychological support, while 26,4% received. Τhe 55,4% reported that they desired the presence of their spouse during the procedures of medical treatment, the 36,4% in some of them and the 8,2% in every medical process. The 61

  8. The passage of Florida's Statute on Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maun, A R; Williams, R S; Graber, B; Myers, W G

    1994-11-01

    Until 1993, there were no statutes in the United States covering gestational surrogacy contracts, disposition of stored embryos and gametes, parentage of children born from donated gametes and embryos, and the inheritance rights of cryopreserved embryos of deceased donors. In March 1993, the Florida Assisted Reproductive Technology Act was passed to address some of these issues and to minimize the expense and emotional cost of related courtroom proceedings. Authors of the bill believed that motherhood of a newborn in the eyes of the law should be determined by two factors: genetic inheritance and the original intent of the woman to become the parent of record. The bill included the assumption that, in the cases of children born of gestational surrogacy, the commissioning genetic parents would be the "natural parents" of the child. Some of the reasons for legislative success of the statute include: 1) clear need for statutory guidance in cases involving reproductive technology, 2) relevance of the issue to cost containment (ie, judicial costs) in an era of health care reform, 3) careful use of scientific terminology and the support of the medical community, 4) involvement of a skilled legislative team, 5) participation of physician specialists in the development of the bill (ie, practicing gynecologists in assisted reproductive technology programs), 6) participation of the State of Florida legislative staff, and 7) consultation with appropriate lobbying groups (eg, Florida Catholic Conference). The successful legislative process that was followed to achieve passage of this bill can serve as an example for other states to emulate. PMID:7936533

  9. Impact of assisted reproductive technology on modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H

    2000-02-01

    A surge in knowledge and interest in reproductive biology has occurred since the advent of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in the 1960s. These innovative medical advances soon challenged societies and invited criticism. Nevertheless, ART has superseded older therapies and serves as a back-up when all else fails. There are currently 61 ART clinics in Taiwan. Thanks to a group of young physicians and scientists who have devoted great effort in catching up with the modern advances in assisted reproduction, most of the important advances in ART have been introduced to Taiwan promptly and resulted in good success rates. The complications of multifetal pregnancies as well as controversies regarding gestational surrogacy and new technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and cloning have challenged conventional wisdom, ethics, laws, and religions. Society now faces a dilemma in striking a balance among science, ethics, and human rights. It is, thus, advisable that we stand back once in a while and carefully consider where we should go next. PMID:10770023

  10. Conventional vs unconventional assisted reproductive technologies: opinions of young physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, S

    2013-01-01

    In the last three and a half decades, an increasing number of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been developed, some of them already being used in clinical practice, while others will probably remain purely theoretical due to their associated ethical issues. The purpose of this study was to analyse the opinions of medical residents regarding various ARTs, both classical and unconventional. We conducted a multi-institutional survey among 142 medical residents in order to assess the views of young physicians of regarding ARTs. Most responders were in favour of medical procedures like gamete donation and surrogacy. When asked about more controversial procedures such as posthumous sperm procurement or reproductive cloning, most were against. Progress in reproductive medicine is made at a fast pace, as more and more couples are found infertile and as the birth rate in developed countries becomes smaller and smaller. If not carefully followed and regulated, this can easily lead to the development of highly controversial procedures, which can significantly alter the way we see human reproduction. As the law has a very traditional approach, it is often left behind by progress in this field, leaving potentially controversial procedures unregulated for long periods of time. During these periods, physicians have the very important role of analysing what is good and what is not and when to recognise procedures that go against general ethical and medical principles. PMID:23259883

  11. Synergies between assisted reproduction technologies and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Ptak, Grazyna; Scapolo, Pier A; Capra, Emanuele; Stella, Alessandra; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Williams, John L

    2016-01-01

    This review, is a synopsis of advanced reproductive technologies in farm animals, including the discussion of their limiting factors as revealed by the study of offspring derived from embryos produced in vitro and through cloning. These studies show that the problems of epigenetic mis-programming, which were reported in the initial stages of assisted reproduction, still persist. The importance of whole-genome analyses, including the methylome and transcriptome, in improving embryo biotechnologies in farm animals, are discussed. Genome editing approaches for the improvement of economically-relevant traits in farm animals are also described. Efficient farm animal embryo biotechnologies, including cloning and the most recent technologies such as genome editing, will effectively complement the latest strategies to accelerate genetic improvement of farm animals. PMID:27481215

  12. Rethinking radical politics in the context of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Radical feminists have argued for both the radical potential of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and its oppressive and damaging effects for women. This paper will address the question of what constitutes a radical feminist position on ART; I will argue that the very debate over whether ART liberates or oppresses women is misguided, and that instead the issue should be understood dialectically. Reproductive technologies are neither inherently liberating nor entirely oppressive: we can only understand the potential and effects by considering how they are actually taken up within a culture. The internal contradictions, tensions, and inconsistencies within ART and the way it is addressed within the law points to a dialectic that resists a simple reductivist understanding. PMID:19076939

  13. Experience with ISO quality control in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs are complex organizations requiring the integration of multiple disciplines. ISO 9001:2008 is a quality management system that is readily adaptable to an ART program. The value that ISO brings to the entire organization includes control of documents, clear delineation of responsibilities of staff members, documentation of the numerous processes and procedures, improvement in tracking and reducing errors, and overall better control of systems. A quality ART program sets quality objectives and monitors their progress. ISO provides a sense of transparency within the organization and clearer understanding of how service is provided to patients. Most importantly, ISO provides the framework to allow for continual improvement. PMID:24112531

  14. Current and future assisted reproductive technologies for mammalian farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    technologies that have the potential to improve efficiency of livestock production. The focus will be on technologies that manipulate male and female gametes as well as the stem cells from which they are derived and the preimplantation embryo. While technology is crucial to other interventions in the reproductive process like control of seasonal breeding, hormonal regulation of ovulation, estrous cyclicity and pregnancy establishment, feeding to optimize reproduction, minimizing environmental stress, and selection of genes controlling reproduction, these will not be considered here. Rather the reader is directed to other chapters in this volume as well as some reviews on other aspects of artificial manipulation of reproduction (Reprod Fertil Dev 24:258-266, 2011; Reprod Domest Anim 43:40-47, 2008; Reprod Domest Anim 43:122-128, 2008; Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 66:87-102, 2009; Comprehensive biotechnology, Amsterdam, pp 477-485; Dairy production medicine, Chichester, pp 153-163; Theriogenology 76:1619-1631, 2011; Theriogenology 76:1568-1582, 2011; Theriogenology 77:1-11, 2012). Given the large number of mammalian species used for production of products useful for man and the diversity in their biology and management, the review will not be comprehensive but instead will use results from species that are most illustrative of the opportunities generated by assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:24170352

  15. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    O P Verma; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Chand, S

    2012-01-01

    It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction...

  16. 21 CFR 884.6170 - Assisted reproduction water and water purification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... storage of gametes or embryos for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or other assisted reproduction procedures... aspiration, incubation, transfer, or storage of gametes or embryos for IVF or other assisted...

  17. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana;

    2016-01-01

    for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem......BACKGROUND: Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation to...... infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors for...

  18. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  19. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the first...... and last eating disorder diagnosis before, during, and after ART treatment, and evaluates differences in obstetric outcomes between women with and without a severe eating disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital-diagnosed eating disorders among 42 915 women in the Danish National ART cohort (DANAC......), registered during 1994-2009 in the mandatory Psychiatric Central Research Register, were compared with a non-eating disorder ART cohort of 42 644 women and an age-matched background population of 215 290 women without a history of ART treatment for the main outcome measures prevalence of eating disorders...

  20. An Ethical Analysis of Assisted Reproduction Providers' Websites in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ayesha; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) are intertwined and coevolving. These technologies are increasingly used to fulfill socially and culturally framed requests, for example, "family balancing," or to enable postmenopausal women or homosexual couples to have genetically linked children. The areas of ART and RGT are replete with ethical issues, because different social practices and legal regulations, as well as economic inequalities within and among countries, create vulnerable groups and, therefore, the potential for exploitation. This article provides an overview of the ART and RGT landscape in Pakistan and analyzes the available online content addressing Pakistani citizens and international clients. We explored the topic in view of socioeconomic challenges in Pakistan, particularly deeply rooted poverty, lack of education, gender discrimination, and absence of regulation. As online information given by ART and RGT providers is readily available and could easily raise false hopes, make use of discriminatory statements with regard to women, and promote gender selection to meet sociocultural expectations, it should be subjected to quality control. PMID:27348834

  1. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  2. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  3. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  4. Gasotransmitters in Gametogenesis and Early Development: Holy Trinity for Assisted Reproductive Technology—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodart, Jean-Francois; Petr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Creation of both gametes, sperm and oocyte, and their fusion during fertilization are essential step for beginning of life. Although molecular mechanisms regulating gametogenesis, fertilization, and early embryonic development are still subjected to intensive study, a lot of phenomena remain unclear. Based on our best knowledge and own results, we consider gasotransmitters to be essential for various signalisation in oocytes and embryos. In accordance with nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) physiological necessity, their involvement during oocyte maturation and regulative role in fertilization followed by embryonic development have been described. During these processes, NO- and H2S-derived posttranslational modifications represent the main mode of their regulative effect. While NO represent the most understood gasotransmitter and H2S is still intensively studied gasotransmitter, appreciation of carbon monoxide (CO) role in reproduction is still missing. Overall understanding of gasotransmitters including their interaction is promising for reproductive medicine and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), because these approaches contend with failure of in vitro assisted reproduction. PMID:27579148

  5. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Mikkelsen Englund, Anne L; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction.......To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction....

  6. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  7. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Merlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technologies (ART have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomĂŠdecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain.

  8. Assisted Reproduction: What factors interfere in the professional's decisions? Are single women an issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlatzis Basil C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of medical technology, many countries around the world have been implementing ethical guidelines and laws regarding Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR. A physician's reproductive decisions are not solely based on technical criteria but are also influenced by society values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the factors prioritized by MAR professionals when deciding on whether to accept to perform assisted reproduction and to show any existing cultural differences. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 224 healthcare professionals working with assisted reproduction in Brazil, Italy, Germany and Greece. Instrument used for data collection: a questionnaire, followed by the description of four special MAR cases (a single woman, a lesbian couple, an HIV discordant couple and gender selection which included case-specific questions regarding the professionals' decision on whether to perform the requested procedure as well as the following factors: socio-demographic variables, moral and legal values as well as the technical aspects which influence decision-making. Results Only the case involving a single woman who wishes to have a child (without the intention of having a partner in the future demonstrated significant differences. Therefore, the study was driven towards the results of this case specifically. The analyses we performed demonstrated that professionals holding a Master's Degree, those younger in age, female professionals, those having worked for less time in reproduction, those in private clinics and Brazilian health professionals all had a greater tendency to perform the procedure in that case. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the reasons for the professional's decision to perform the procedure were the woman's right to gestate and the duty of MAR professionals to help her. The professionals who decided not to perform the procedure identified the woman's marital status and

  9. Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Yimeng Zhang; Shari Margolese; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Christina Diong; Hart, Trevor A.; Shapiro, Heather M; Cliff Librach; Matt Gysler; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument “The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire” at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more in...

  10. Emergent complications of assisted reproduction: expecting the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Keren Tuvia; Babagbemi, Kemi T; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Asrani, Ashwin V; Troiano, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of assisted reproductive technology (ART), radiologists are more likely to encounter associated complications, especially in an emergency setting. These complications include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), ovarian torsion, and ectopic and heterotopic pregnancy. OHSS occurs following ovulation induction or ovarian stimulation and manifests with bilateral ovarian enlargement by multiple cysts, third-spacing of fluids, and clinical findings ranging from gastrointestinal discomfort to life-threatening renal failure and coagulopathy. Enlarged hyperstimulated ovaries are at risk for torsion. Clinical symptoms are often nonspecific, and ovarian torsion should be suspected and excluded in any female patient undergoing infertility treatment who presents with severe abdominal pain. The most consistent imaging finding is asymmetric enlargement of the twisted ovary. There is also an increased risk for ectopic pregnancy following ART, with a relative increased risk for rarer and more lethal forms, including interstitial and cervical ectopic pregnancies. Heterotopic pregnancy refers to simultaneous intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies and has an incidence of 1%-3% in ART patients. Careful evaluation of the adnexa is critical in this patient population, even when an intrauterine pregnancy has been confirmed. Ultrasonography is the first-line imaging modality for the evaluation of complications of ART, although nonspecific symptoms may sometimes lead to cross-sectional imaging being performed. Familiarity with the multimodality imaging appearance of these entities will allow accurate and timely diagnosis and help avert potentially fatal consequences. PMID:23322839

  11. Association between Thrombophilia and Repeated Assisted Reproductive Technology Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the incidence of thrombophilic gene mutations in repeated assisted reproductive technology (ART failures. Methods: The prevalence of mutated genes in the patients with a history of three or more previous ART failures was compared with the patients with a history of successful pregnancy following ARTs. The study group included 70 patients, 34 with three or more previously failed ARTs (A and control group consisted of 36 patients with successful pregnancy following ARTs (B. All patients were tested for the presence of mutated thrombophilic genes including factor V Leiden (FVL, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and Prothrombin (G20210A using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR. Results: Mutation of FVL gene was detected in 5.9% women of group A (2 of 34 compared with 2.8% women (1 of 36 of control group (P = 0.6. Mutation of MTHFR gene was found in 35.3% (12 cases as compared with 50% (18 cases of control (35.3% versus 50%; P = 0.23. Regarding Prothrombin, only control group had 5.6% mutation (P = 0.49. No significant differences were detected in the incidences of FVL, Prothrombin and MTHFR in the study group A compared with the control group B. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that thrombophilia does not have a significant effect in ART failures.

  12. The transmission of mitochondrial DNA following assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, J C

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondria, among other functions, generate energy in the form of ATP. The chondrial genome, located within each mitochondrion, encodes some of the polypeptides associated with the electron transfer chain (ETC) and ATP production. Transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is dependent upon the import of transcription and replication factors encoded by the nucleus. Certain point mutations and large-scale deletions to mtDNA can be either severely debilitating or lethal. The transmission and inheritance of mtDNA [not readable: see to offspring is strictly regulated and specific to each species. In many mammalian systems, paternal mtDNA is eliminated very early during embryonic development. However, it is possible that the paternal molecule could be extruded to those cells destined to become trophoblasts and may act as a regulator of embryonic cell fate. Furthermore, the increasing use of more sophisticated assisted reproductive techniques has led to the incorporation of extraneous mtDNA in both the reconstructed oocyte and embryo with transmission to the offspring at varying degrees. PMID:11775964

  13. The Role of Acupuncture in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hong Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to provide reliable evidence by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis for evaluating the role of acupuncture in assisted reproductive technology. All randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of acupuncture, including manual, electrical, and laser acupuncture (LA techniques, on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR and live birth rate (LBR of in vitro fertilization (IVF or artificial insemination were included. The controlled groups consisted of no acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. The sham acupuncture included sham acupuncture at acupoints, sham acupuncture at non- or inappropriate points, sham LA, and adhesive tapes. Twenty-three trials (a total of 5598 participants were included in this paper. The pooled CPR from all acupuncture groups was significantly higher than that from all controlled groups, whereas the LBR was not significantly different between the two groups. However, the results were quite distinct when the type of control and/or different acupuncture times were examined in a sensitivity analysis. The results mainly indicate that acupuncture, especially around the time of the controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, improves pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF. More positive effects from acupuncture in IVF can be expected if a more individualized acupuncture programs are used.

  14. ESHRE guideline: routine psychosocial care in infertility and medically assisted reproduction-a guide for fertility staffdagger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameiro, S.; Boivin, J.; Dancet, E.; Klerk, C. de; Emery, M.; Lewis-Jones, C.; Thorn, P.; Broeck, U. Van den; Venetis, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Wischmann, T.; Vermeulen, N.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Based on the best available evidence in the literature, what is the optimal management of routine psychosocial care at infertility and medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using the structured methodology of the Manual for the European Society of Human Repro

  15. Risk Communication in Assisted Reproduction in Latvia: From Private Experience to Ethical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Signe Mezinska; Ilze Mileiko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of risk communication in the context of assisted reproduction in Latvia. The paper is based on a qualitative methodology and two types of data: media analysis and 30 semi-structured interviews (11 patients, 4 egg donors, 15 experts). The study explores a broad definition of risk communication and explores three types of risks: health, psychosocial, and moral. We ask (1), who is involved in risk communication, (2), how risks are discussed using d...

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in bear (ursidae) conservation Ailuropoda Melanoleuca, Ursus Arctos and Usus Maritimus

    OpenAIRE

    Baldoví Sánchez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Póster The Ursidae family is severely threatened having 6 of the 8 bear species in danger of extinction. Due to its reproductive physiology characteristics, ursids have a low reproduction rate which aggravates in captivity. It is because of this, that reproductive assisted technology has become a key element in the conservation of this species. The following study is the compendium of the obtained results in this field in three ursid species: giant panda (Auliropoda melanoleuca), brown bea...

  17. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...

  18. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Louise; Vitonis Allison F; Altshul Larisa; Missmer Stacey A; Meeker John D; Cramer Daniel W; Hauser Russ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not...

  19. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif;

    2014-01-01

    It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...

  20. Ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction practice in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, J G; Shushan, A

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction technology (ART) that have been instituted in Asian countries. The data were collected by a questionnaire circulated to ART units in Asia. These are Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Iran, India, Jordan, Malaysia, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf countries. According to the survey, there are approximately 260 ART centers in Asia (half of which are in Japan). On a global basis each ART centre in Asia serves an average population of 13 million people. On the other hand, in those Asian countries where the standards of living are relatively high, the availability of ART services, including the more sophisticated and costly ART procedures like micromanipulation, is similar to that in the Western world. In most of the Asian countries practising ART, however, no state registry exists. Taiwan is the only country that has specific legislation, and in six other countries some kind of ministerial regulations are practised. We conclude that ART is now practised in 20 countries in Asia. The prevailing rules and cultural heritage in many of these Asian countries has a major influence on the implementation of ART in Asia. However, in view of the complicated and sensitive issues involved, and as no supervision on ART clinics exists in most of the Asian countries, we advocate that some kind of quality control should be urgently instituted in all centres practising ART. In this way, it is hoped that the highest standards be attained for all parties concerned. PMID:8671351

  1. Ocular Manifestations in Infants Resulted from Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART.

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    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many infertile couples can have child by assistant reproductive technology (ART. Always the undesirable effects of these methods on newborn are considered and are evaluated. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of ART on ocular and visual performances of infants born by these methods.In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 479 infants aged three-nine months presented to an optometry clinic of Child Health and Development Research Department (CHDRD, Tehran, Iran. Static retinoscopy, qualitative fixation evaluation, Hirschberg test, red reflex assessment and external eye examination were carried out. Other information such as birth weight and maturity of the infants was recorded.It was possible to assess only 320 out of 479 infants due to general condition of some participants. Comparison of mean refractive error in infants' right and left eyes did not show any significant difference. Our findings confirmed that 20.3% had poor fixation, while 2.9% revealed manifest strabismus. The results also revealed the prevalences of myopia, hyperopia and emmetropia are 2.9%, 87%, and 10.1%, respectively. Red reflex abnormalities were significantly found in boys and in preterm infants (p < 0.05. Failure of fixation control was seen more frequently with increasing refractive error, which significantly developed in preterm infants (p < 0.001.These results reflect the necessity of more comprehensive assessments and further follow-up of infants born by ART, especially for premature male ART infants. These results also suggest the probability of fixation condition and visual deficiencies in these infants. It is recommended to pay close attention to this preliminary report about the refractive and fixation condition of the infants born after ART.

  2. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2006: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Goossens, V; Bhattacharya, S; Castilla, J A; Ferraretti, A P; Korsak, V; Kupka, M; Nygren, K G; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2010-01-01

    In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers.......In this 10th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report, the results of assisted reproductive techniques from treatments initiated in Europe during 2006 are presented. Data were mainly collected from existing national registers....

  3. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O;

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  4. Assisted reproduction in polycystic ovarian disease: A multicentric trial in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Kumar; Natasha Nawani; Narendra Malhotra; Jaideep Malhotra; Madhuri Patil; Jayakrishnan, K; Sujata Kar; Padma Rekha Jirge; Nalini Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare ovarian response, oocyte, embryo quality, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidence, and pregnancy rates in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study on PCOS carried out in seven assisted reproduction centers in India between August 2008 and July 2010, as part of trial under the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction. A total of 192 women (77 in the PCOS group and 115 in th...

  5. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Nadimpally; Marwah, Vrinda; Shenoi, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality.This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies, particularly policy

  6. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini Nadimpally

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experience unprecedented growth, the limits of what can or should be bought and sold continue to be pushed. As such, bodies have emerged as sale-worthy economic capital. Commercial flows of reproductive material create and deploy the division of the body into parts over which ownership is claimed, in the process following 'modern routes of capital' and raising issues of structural inequality. This paper presents a brief picture of India's fertility industry with specific focus on its ground-level operation, nature and growth. It aims to explore the industry dimensions of ARTs, by highlighting the macro picture of health care markets and medical tourism in India, the proliferation of the ART industry, market features such as the social imperative to mother, costs, promotion and marketing, unverified claims, inflated success rates, deals and offers, actors and collaborations in the field, and finally, the absence of standards. This paper presents findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights. This research was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in the three states of Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu in India, and is one of the first of its kind, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry. As such, it forms a significant part of Sama's ongoing work on women and technologies

  7. CLINICAL ASSISTED REPRODUCTION: Updating Quality Control Assays in the Assisted Reproductive Technologies Laboratory with a Cryopreserved Hamster Oocyte DNA Cytogenotoxic Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Philip J.; Calinisan, J. Hazel; Corselli, Johannah U.; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Despite advances in assisted reproduction, there is no progress in quality control bioassays. The objectives were to develop a comet assay to measure DNA fragmentation in thawed cryopreserved oocytes and compare this assay with one-cell mouse embryo bioassay.

  8. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

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    Tabš Dunja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.. Even though estimating the ovarian reserve is the most objective test in assessing female fertility, it has a limited predictive value in younger women. A short protocol of ovulation induction showed best results in women with poor ovarian reserve, but recent studies recommend low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in these cases. Paternal age With aging, sperm parameters become worse, which points to the neglected role of the father in assisted reproduction. Conclusion Thus, parental age plays an important role in assisted reproductive programs.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive treatment

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    Kim You

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated cytogenetic results occurring with first trimester pregnancy loss, and assessed the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities after assisted reproductive treatment (ART and compared them with a control group. We also compared the rate of chromosomal abnormalities according to infertility causes in ICSI group. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was made of all patients who were referred to the Genetics Laboratory of Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center from 2005 to 2009 because of clinical abortion with a subsequent dilation and evacuation (D&E performed, and patients were grouped by type of conception as follows: conventional IVF (in vitro fertilization (n = 114, ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection (n = 140, and control (natural conception or intrauterine insemination [IUI] (n = 128. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results A total 406 specimens were referred to laboratory, ten abortuses were excluded, and in 14 cases, we did not get any spontaneous metaphase, chromosomal constitutions of 382 specimens were successfully obtained with conventional cytogenetic methods. Overall, 52.62% of the miscarriages were found to be cytogenetically abnormal among all patients, the frequency was 48.4% in the control group, 54.3% of miscarriages after ICSI and 55.3% after conventional IVF (p = 0.503. The most prevalent abnormalities were autosomal trisomy, however, nine (11.69% sex chromosome aneuploidy were noted in the ICSI group vs. four (6.45% and two (3.23% cases in the conventional IVF group and control group. We compared chromosomal abnormalities of miscarriages after ICSI according to infertility factor. 55.71% underwent ICSI due to male factors, 44.29% due to non-male factors. ICSI group having male factors showed significantly higher risk of chromosomal abnormalities than ICSI group having non-male factors (65.8% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.009, odds ratio = 1.529, 95% CI = 1

  10. Reproductive rights in Hungarian law: a new right to assisted procreation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, J

    2000-01-01

    Hungary has a mixed record in terms of fulfilling reproductive rights as a whole, but in the context of artificially assisted procreation, it provides reproductive health services far beyond those offered by its neighbors, beyond what is stipulated by the ICPD Programme of Action, and, arguably, beyond the internationally accepted parameters of reproductive rights. Recent legislation on assisted procreation has established important new regulations and formulated a new "right to continuation of infertility treatment" applicable to women who have been widowed or divorced. The new legislation is examined in the context of the international reproductive rights movement, with comparisons to other European countries and with reference to Hungarian attitudes and laws on abortion and surrogacy. PMID:10796975

  11. Assisted Reproduction and the Courts: The Case of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Linda S.; Schmid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze appellate court cases heard in California between 1960 and 2000 that focus on the status of children conceived through reproductive technology in an effort to examine the role of the courts in defining parentage and family in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In the absence of legislation, the primary…

  12. Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarojini Nadimpally; Marwah Vrinda; Shenoi Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The escalation of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in India into a veritable fertility industry is the result of a multitude of reasons. This paper places the bio-genetic industry within the larger political economy framework of globalisation and privatisation, thus employing a framework that is often omitted from discussions on ARTs, but has direct and significant bearings on the ART industry in India. As markets for human organs, tissues and reproductive body parts experie...

  13. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    OpenAIRE

    Tabš Dunja; Radunović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.). Even though estimating the ova...

  14. Surrogate losses: Understandings of pregnancy loss and assisted reproduction among surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Zsuzsa

    2010-06-01

    I explore surrogate mothers' narrative construction of pregnancy loss on surrogacy support websites. Communicating via the Internet, women construct the public online world of surrogacy. Drawing on anthropological and sociological literature I investigate the connections between conceptualizations of loss and understandings of technological practices and the consequences of these understandings for assisted reproduction. Surrogate mothers define loss broadly, ranging from failure to conceive to miscarriage and stillbirth; loss means the failure to give a baby to the intended parents. Assisted reproductive technologies contribute to loss by raising expectations of success, by attempting to maximize results through the transfer of multiple fertilized ova, and by early monitoring and testing. However, surrogates collectively understand technology as a positive force and advocate for reproductive technology. Surrogates' resolve to "give the gift of life" makes them vulnerable to failure and loss, yet also informs repeated efforts to bear children for others with technological assistance. PMID:20550095

  15. Rules and economic features connected with adoption and medical assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemion Braho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief study is to analyze the phenomenon of adoption and the assisted reproductive technologies, not from a social point of view as experts often do, but on an economic point of view. This could be possible analyzing first of all the laws regulating these “markets” and the influence of this regulation on the economic aspects. Although it could seem immoral to study this social aspects connected with filiation, we know that the social desire of some parents or some individuals to have children and their possibility is oriented by laws, economic possibilities and economy in general. This study is based on an empirical methodology, taking as study-case Italy and trying not to give any ethic orientation.

  16. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk of...... unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that...

  17. First trimester screening for Down syndrome and assisted reproduction: no basis for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøjdemann, K R; Larsen, S O; Shalmi, A;

    2001-01-01

    In pregnancies obtained after assisted reproduction the false-positive rate of second trimester Down syndrome (DS) screening is increased by 1.5-3-fold. This may cause an increase in the number of amniocenteses and the fetal loss rate. The present study for the first time examined whether assisted...... OI pregnancies. Therefore the false-positive rate in Down syndrome screening should be independent of the method of conception....

  18. First trimester biochemistry in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Ekelund, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Pernille;

    Objective: To examine the effects of method of conception on first trimester PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and the dependency of gestational age at the time of sampling on these effects Methods: Data on more than 100 000 spontaneously conceived and on 6 859 pregnancies conceived by assisted reproducti...

  19. Why do singletons conceived after assisted reproduction technology have adverse perinatal outcome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Wennerholm, U B; Romundstad, L B; Loft, A; Aittomaki, K; Söderström-Anttila, V; Nygren, K G; Hazekamp, J; Bergh, C

    2013-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) is used worldwide, at increasing rates, and data show that some adverse outcomes occur more frequently than following spontaneous conception (SC). Possible explanatory factors for the well-known adverse perinatal outcome in ART singletons were evaluated....

  20. Infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) - with emphasis on In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) - with emphasis on In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). A literary study reviewing the epidemiology, pathology, investigation and treatment (with complications) of both male and female infertility. Causes of infertility in women include hostile cervical mucus, sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, tubal dysfunction, problems with ovulation, polycystic ovary syndrome, hormonal imbalance ...

  1. Conservative Management versus Aspiration of Functional Ovarian Cysts Before Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fiszbajn, Gabriel E.; Lipowicz, Rubén G.; Elberger, Laura; Grabia, Adriana; Papier, Sergio D.; Brugo Olmedo, Santiago P.; Chillik, Claudio F.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficiency of transvaginal ultrasound-guided functional ovarian cyst aspiration, withconservative management, in the outcome of patientsundergoing assisted reproductive technique (ART) (in vitrofertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection). Thesecysts were identified before ovarian stimulation begun andafter administration of a midluteal GnRH agonist.

  2. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  3. Evaluation and Treatment of Low Responders in Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Challenge to Meet

    OpenAIRE

    Fasouliotis, Sozos J.; Simon, Alex; Laufer, Neri

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the various methods of evaluationand treatment of patients with a low response to controlledovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: Review and analysis of relevant studies publishedin the last decade, identified through the literature and Medlinesearches. Results: While a universally accepted definition for lowresponders is still lacking, these patients are reported torepresent about 10% of the ART population. Several ovarianreser...

  4. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  5. Long-acting FSH versus daily FSH for women undergoing assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles, which is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections. Curr

  6. Long-acting FSH versus daily FSH for women undergoing assisted reproduction (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, A.W.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assisted reproduction techniques (ART) such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can help subfertile couples to create a family. It is necessary to induce multiple follicles; this is achieved by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) injections. Current

  7. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magir...

  8. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproducti...

  9. Prerequsite result of routine human immunodeficiency virus serology among infertile women before assisted reproduction technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abieyuwa Patricia Osemwenkha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV which causes or induces incurable fatal infections have been transmitted through Assisted Reproduction Technology and from infected mothers to the fetus or new born. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this chronic viral agent among infertile women recruited for Assisted Reproduction Technique programme in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Method: Sera (serum from Five hundred and Ninety infertile women attending Human Reproduction Research Programme/In-vitro fertilization Center at University of Benin Teaching Hospital were screened for the presence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus antibody using three algorithm or techniques of Determine, Unigold and Stat Pack kits. The age range of the infertile women was 20-49 years. Result: 28 (4.7% out of Five Hundred and fifty infertile women recruited for Assisted Reproduction Technique and screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus antibody were seropositive with increase in prevalence of 10. 0%, 8.5% and 7.5% among infertile women in age groups of (20 - 24, (25 - 29yrs and (30 - 34yrs. Chi-square statistical analysis of data shows insignificance in seroprevalence rate in relation to the number of infertile women screened (P > 0.0001 but the screening of these infertile women for the presence Human Immunodeficiency Virus should continue due to the attendant effects. Conclusion: Infertile women who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus carriers give a new dimension to assisted reproductive techniques. This will no doubt help to prevent further spread and adverse pregnancy outcome.

  10. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  11. Should we diagnose and treat minimal and mild endometriosis before medically assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Annie S; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of minimal or mild endometriosis prior to assisted reproduction (ranging from intrauterine insemination to in vitro fertilization [IVF]) to improve the likelihood of success is controversial. Ovulation suppression is commonly used in endometriosis to decrease pain, however, there is little evidence to suggest improvements in fertility associated with this technique. Moreover, current evidence is sparse and does not support ovarian suppression prior to intrauterine insemination with or without ovulation induction, while there is some evidence favoring ovarian suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists prior to IVF to improve pregnancy rates. However, the majority of studies were performed in women with moderate to severe endometriosis. There is currently conflicting evidence regarding surgical ablation or removal of endometriomas prior to IVF, and its outcome on pregnancy rates. This review highlights the paucity of data in the management of endometriosis prior to assisted reproductive technologies and suggests that further studies are needed. PMID:26616457

  12. Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Farm Animal - From Artificial Insemination to Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Verma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has become evident that advances in farm animal reproduction have become increasingly dependent on advance scientific research in addition to an understanding of the physiological processes involved in reproduction. The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART has helped owners to produce offspring from valuable farm animals that were considered infertile using standard breeding techniques. This chapter constitutes an update of recent developments in the field of assisted reproduction includes Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo cryopreservation, Sexing of semen and embryos, cloning, transgenesis, stem cell technology, embryo genomics, micro and nanotechnology has been included. Recently in some of these fields remarkable progress has been made. None the less, imperfections are remaining and sustained efforts will be required to optimize existing and invent new technologies. Before referring an animal for an ART, the practitioner should be able to identify the underlying cause of subfertility of that animal. Knowing the complexity as well as the risks of these techniques, enables practitioners to refer a sub-fertile animal to the least complex and most appropriate and successful ART that can overcome specific causes of infertility. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 301-310

  13. Assisted reproduction and the legal recognition of multiple parents: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) creates an opportunity for the creation of co-parenting arrangements involving donors and surrogates. Donor and surrogate involvement in the lives of children born using ART has received increased media attention recently and is a matter of considerable social significance. This dissertation attempts to test the law’s restriction to two parents in light of the potential for co-parenting arrangements. In order to do this, it adopts a socio-legal approach ...

  14. Long-term follow-up of children conceived through assisted reproductive technology*

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yue-hong; Wang, Ning; Jin, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Children conceived via assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are nowadays a substantial proportion of the population. It is important to follow up these children and evaluate whether they have elevated health risks compared to naturally conceived (NC) children. In recent years there has been a lot of work in this field. This review will summarize what is known about the health of ART-conceived children, encompassing neonatal outcomes, birth defects, growth and gonadal developments, physica...

  15. The paternal genome and the health of the assisted reproductive technology child

    OpenAIRE

    Sheena EM Lewis; Kishlay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As a number of children born by assisted reproductive technology (ART) are increasing each year across the developed world, the health of such offspring is a matter of public concern. Does the integrity of the paternal genome impact on offspring health? In societal terms, as birth rates fall, and the Western population become unsustainable, do the benefits outweigh the costs of creating and providing for this ART conceived sub population? There are little data to date to answer these question...

  16. Current progress on assisted reproduction in dogs and cats: in vitro embryo production

    OpenAIRE

    G.C. Luvoni

    2000-01-01

    International audience The objective of the development of assisted reproduction techniques in dogs and cats is their application to non-domestic canine and feline species, most of which are considered threatened or endangered. Among these techniques, an entirely in vitro system for embryo production is effectively an important tool for conservation of wildlife. In the last decade, progress has been made in embryo production in carnivores. It has been shown that canine oocytes can resume m...

  17. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Asgarini; Fariba Yazdkhasti; Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART) or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who v...

  18. Adnexal Torsion in Pregnancy after Assisted Reproduction – Case Study and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzer, D; Wirleitner, B.; Steiner, H.; Zech, N. H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, progress, management and outcome of adnexal torsion after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in embryo transfer cycles. Materials and Method: A retrospective analysis was done of 1007 patients of a private IVF centre. The literature on adnexal torsion is reviewed. Results: In the literature, the incidence of adnexal torsion after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is given as around 0.2 %. A significant increase of up to 33 % ...

  19. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G.; Betts, D. H.; Hyttel, P

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to creat...

  20. A global perspective on assisted reproductive technology fertility treatment: an 8-country fertility specialist survey

    OpenAIRE

    Audibert, Céline; Glass, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Procedures that may optimize success in achieving live births from assisted reproductive technology (ART) continue to be examined. Not yet considered are the perspectives of fertility specialists regarding important developments in the fertility treatment field, current unmet needs, and anticipated future advances. In the current study, an 8-country survey of fertility specialists was conducted to provide a comprehensive, global depiction of fertility treatments across different re...

  1. Parental mental representations during late pregnancy and early parenthood following assisted reproductive technology

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Francesca; Monti, Fiorella; Fagandini, Piergiuseppina; Duncan De Pascalis, Leonardo Llewellyn; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Blickstein, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between assisted reproduction technology (ART) and parental mental representations during late pregnancy and early parenthood. Study design: Women (n=25) following ART pregnancies were compared with their partners (n=23) and with women following spontaneous conceptions (n=39). Subjects were interviewed on mental representations at late gestation and three months postpartum. Results: Socio-demographic and obstetrical characteristics were similar betwee...

  2. Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and Subsequent Self-Reported Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivasaari-Pirinen, Paula; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare life satisfaction between women with successful or unsuccessful outcome after assisted reproductive treatment (ART) by taking into account the time since the last ART. Design Cohort study. Setting Tertiary hospital. Patients A total of 987 consecutive women who had undergone ART during 1996–2007 were invited and altogether 505 women participated in the study. Interventions A postal enquiry with a life satisfaction scale. Main Outcome Measure Self-reported life satisfactio...

  3. Quality of Life, Anxiety and Depression in Turkish Women Prior to Receiving Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Pinar; Hulusi Bulent Zeyneloglu

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the quality of life and anxiety-depression levels of patients prior to receiving assisted reproductive techniques. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted in the In-Vitro Fer¬tilization Unit of a private University’s Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Study participants consisted of 160 individuals diagnosed as infertile whose treatment plans were determined, as well as 160 reportedly healthy fertile indiv...

  4. A journey through people, places, and projects in equine assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-07-01

    A research study is a product of not only a question and its pursuit but also the people, places, and facilities available at the time. My work in equine assisted reproduction has progressed from embryo transfer to oocyte maturation, oocyte transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsy, embryo vitrification, and cloning, as a result of collaborations with an array of remarkable people. This is a summary of some of the stories behind the studies. PMID:27158129

  5. Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching ...

  6. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. PMID:26036898

  7. Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A; Shapiro, Heather M; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument "The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire" at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV. PMID:22957265

  8. Costs of medically assisted reproduction treatment at specialized fertility clinics in the Danish public health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel; Erb, Karin; Rizvanovic, Amra; Ziebe, Søren; Englund, Anne-Lis M; Hald, Finn; Boivin, Jacky; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the costs to the public health care system of couples in medically assisted reproduction. Design. Longitudinal cohort study of infertile couples initiating medically assisted reproduction treatment. Setting. Specialized public fertility clinics in Denmark. Sample. Seven...... hundred and thirty-nine couples having no child at study entry and with data on kind of treatment and live birth (yes/no) for each treatment attempt at the specialized public fertility clinic. Methods. Treatment data for medically assisted reproduction attempts conducted at the public fertility clinics...... – were estimated at 6607€. Costs per live birth of women <35 years at treatment initiation were 9338€ and 15 040€ for women ≥35 years. Conclusion. The public costs for live births after conception with medically assisted reproduction treatment are relatively modest. The results can be generalized to...

  9. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  10. Risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies following assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opdahl, S; Henningsen, A A; Tiitinen, A;

    2015-01-01

    underlying infertility, but a contribution from specific ART procedures has not been excluded. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Population-based cohort study, including sibling design with nationwide data from health registers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All...... registered ART pregnancies and a sample of SC pregnancies with gestational age ≥22 weeks from 1988 to 2007 were included. ART singleton pregnancies (n = 47 088) were compared with SC singleton pregnancies (n = 268 599), matched on parity and birth year. ART twin pregnancies (n = 10 918) were compared with SC...... of Copenhagen, the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Liaison Committee between the Central Norway Regional Health Authority and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. None of the authors has any...

  11. Investigation of Reproductive Traits and a Computer-Assisted Single Artificial Insemination Procedure in Mares in Subtropical Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    CHAN, Jacky Peng-Wen; WU, Jui-Te; CHENG, Feng-Pang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the reproductive traits of mares by ultrasonography and hormone analyses in subtropical Taiwan and the successful artificial breeding of mares using a self-developed computer-assisted single insemination technique. A previously developed computer-assisted image analysis technique at our reproduction centre was employed to determine the optimal time for artificial insemination (AI). In the 8 mares that underwent this AI procedure, ovulations all occurr...

  12. The impact of male overweight on semen quality and outcome of assisted reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lise hTomsen; Peter Humaidan; Leif Bungum; Mona Bungum

    2014-01-01

    It is well‑documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conlficting regarding the inlfuence of male body mass index(BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology(ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non‑obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility center. Self‑reported information on paternal height and weight were recorded and BMI was calculated. The men were divided into four BMI categories: underweight BMI30kgm−2. Conventional semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guideline and sperm DNA integrity was analyzed by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay(SCSA). No statistically signiifcant effect of male BMI was seen on conventional semen parameters(sperm concentration, total sperm count, seminal volume and motility) or on SCSA‑results. Furthermore, the outcome of ART regarding fertilization rate, number of good quality embryos(GQE), implantation and pregnancy outcome was not inlfuenced by the increasing male BMI.

  13. Legal and ethical considerations of assisted reproductive technology and surrogate motherhood in AOFOG countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K C; Ng, H T

    2001-04-01

    With increasing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and its related issues, the Ethics Committee of the Asia-Oceania Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AOFOG), after discussion at its council meeting, took up the mission to understand the current legal and ethical aspects of this special subject in Asia-Oceania area before making proper recommendations. This Committee drafted a questionnaire to all 22 country member societies in 1995, and again conducted the same survey in 2000 to track changes in each country/region's laws and regulations. The results show that the current attitude and status of country member societies vary in a wide range and do not have formal legal codes in majority regulating the ethical aspects of ART. The use of ART and surrogacy is obviously affected by local traditions, popularity in the use of such techniques and cultural/religious concerns. The changes in 5 years are not major. Three countries do not as yet practice such techniques. However, liberalization of surrogate motherhood has become a trend. Five countries, compared with two only in 1995, are now available for surrogate motherhood, though regulated by strict criteria. Based on the data collected and issues discussed, a detailed guideline may not be generally applicable as each region has its own rules, reflecting differences in the management of ART, especially in the surrogate motherhood. This Committee therefore recommends that ART must be performed by a board certified gynecologist in a certification laboratory and surrogate motherhood must be used only for medical reasons and not be commercialized. The patients of this special group must be treated individually, based on this recommendation and the regulations of their own country/region. PMID:11396645

  14. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M.Campagne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerablebody of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factorscan negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have beenshown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinicalattention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primaryrelevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnosticsand recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost,success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART, such as in vitrofertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, early efforts to improve malefertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal.A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, spermdefects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed forupcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies werereviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type;and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinicalrelevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of spacelimitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes ofmale infertility, their early detection, and treatment.

  15. A clinician's personal view of assisted reproductive technology over 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L

    2011-12-01

    This invited presentation is intended to cover clinical developments in the evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), a process which was attempted during the 1940's and 50's and culminated in the first fruition in 1978. The first in vitro fertilisation (IVF) child ensued following the partnership by a scientist with a focussed ambition (Nobel laureate Robert Edwards) joining with the gynaecologist who introduced laparoscopy to Britain in the late 60's (Patrick Steptoe). My journey commenced in 1976 as a clinician who became immersed in the embryological and endocrinological science, whence most progress in ART emanates, and continued into a medical directorship position from which this personal view is documented. Several clinical advances have been important developments in the understanding and management of sub-fertile patients. However evolution of the various laboratory sciences has been the major key essential to meeting both the immediate as well as the long-term needs for human reproduction. The future requires a much better understanding and control over gametogenesis and a laboratory process which much more closely duplicates intrinsic reproductive physiology, avoiding gamete and embryo exposure to the atmosphere.This invited presentation is intended to cover clinical developments in the evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), a process which was attempted during the 1940's and 50's and culminated in the first fruition in 1978. The first in vitro fertilisation (IVF) child ensued following the partnership by a scientist with a focussed ambition (Nobel laureate Robert Edwards) joining with the gynaecologist who introduced laparoscopy to Britain in the late 60's (Patrick Steptoe). My journey commenced in 1976 as a clinician who became immersed in the embryological and endocrinological science, whence most progress in ART emanates, and continued into a medical directorship position from which this personal view is documented. Several

  16. [A father's motherhood... or a mother's fatherhood? Transgender, assisted reproduction and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a transsexual pregnant male in the mass media has made people reassess if transsexuals should have access to assisted reproduction. The bioethical discussion should focus on the future child best interests. This article describes the story of this transsexual man, legally married to a woman in the state of Oregon in the United States. A brief overview of transsexuality and the specific characteristics of this case, with special considerations towards fertility in transsexual people is included. We suggest reflections on what constitutes motherhood and fatherhood and bioethical considerations brought forth by this groundbreaking event. PMID:19518023

  17. Assisted Reproductive Technology for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples:A Review of Current Controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary S. Nakhuda; Mark V. Sauer

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported as a viable means of helping HIV-1 serodiscordant couples achieve pregnancy while theoretically reducing the risk for viral transmission. While the sum of the evidence suggests that ART is effective and safe, numerous controversies still exist. The following review addresses several of the important issues involved in the use of ART for HIV-serodiscordant couples, including patient selection, semen processing techniques,post-process HIV testing, the use of IUI vs IVF-ICSI.

  18. The Role of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies on the Outcome of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Razavi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA is known to contribute one half of the genomic material to the offspring. The integrity of sperm DNA is important in fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, and postnatal child well being. The nature has created multiple barriers that allow only the fittest sperm to reach and fertilize an oocyte. However, assisted reproductive techniques (ART, like IVF and ICSI, may allow sperms with abnormal genomic material to enter the oocyte with minimal effort. This article describes structure of sperm DNA and different mechanism involved in sperm chromatin anomalies and DNA damage. Furthermore, this study elaborates possible sperm selection methods that may improve the outcome of ART.

  19. Pregnancy following breast cancer using assisted reproduction and its effect on long-term outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldrat, Oranite; Kroman, Niels; Peccatori, Fedro A; Cordoba, Octavi; Pistilli, Barbara; Lidegaard, Oejvind; Demeestere, Isabelle; Azim, Hatem A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We have previously shown that pregnancy is safe following breast cancer, even in endocrine sensitive disease. Yet infertility remains common following systemic treatment. To date, no study has evaluated the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) after breast cancer...... were eligible. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether ART following primary systemic therapy was performed to achieve pregnancy. We evaluated the association between ART use and clinic-pathological characteristics, pregnancy outcome and long-term breast cancer outcome. RESULTS: A...

  20. Are there optimal numbers of oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milachich, Tanya; Shterev, Atanas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this overview is to discuss the current information about the search for the optimum yield of gametes in assisted reproduction, as one of the major pillars of IVF success. The first topic is focused on the number of male gametes and the possible impact of some genetic traits on these parameters. The number of spermatozoa did not seem to be crucial when there is no severe male factor of infertility. Genetic testing prior to using those sperm cells is very important. Different methods were applied in order to elect the "best" spermatozoa according to specific indications. The next problem discussed is the importance of the number of oocytes collected. Several studies have agreed that "15 oocytes is the perfect number," as the number of mature oocytes is more important. However, if elective single embryo transfer is performed, the optimal number of oocytes will enable a proper embryo selection. The third problem discussed concerns fertility preservation. Many educational programs promote and encourage procreation at maternal ages between 20-35 years, since assisted reproduction is unable to fully overcome the effects of female aging and fertility loss after that age. It is also strongly recommended to ensure a reasonable number of cryopreserved mature oocytes, preferably in younger ages (strategy suggests the vitrification of good embryos, therefore quality is prior to number and patient recruitment for this strategy should be performed cautiously. PMID:27584608

  1. Cost-effectiveness of varicocele surgery in the era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Chiles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of innovative techniques for addressing infertility has made for exciting times in the arena of andrology. The success of microTESE for retrieving sperm has enabled azoospermic men to have the opportunity to father biological children when it was previously impossible. The ability to offer a variety of assisted reproductive techniques that includes intracytoplasmic sperm injection has opened the door for couples with male factor infertility who were otherwise untreatable. With the multitude of options available to infertile couples, however, comes an unsurprising degree of controversy regarding what treatments should be offered and when. Complicating the picture is the question of if and when varicocele repair should be undertaken, and the financial implications of the treatment decisions that are made. The infertile couple with varicocele warrants careful consideration. The overall efficacy of varicocele repair as well as cost-effectiveness of repair compared to immediate microTESE in azoospermic men and assisted reproductive technology in men with suboptimal semen parameters will be reviewed.

  2. Long-term outcomes in children conceived with assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, E

    2014-10-01

    Over five million children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART) and access to ART treatment is increasing yearly. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental and behavioral outcomes in the children conceived with ART are often confounded by parental and other social, environmental and medical factors, including multiplicity, prematurity and low birth weight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term conditions observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery and low birth weight, or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Health-related outcomes of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Currently, our knowledge and understanding of the long-term health risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:25245993

  3. The role of varicocele repair in the new era of assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 10-15% of couples who are trying to conceive, and half of the cases are due to male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is increasingly being used to overcome multiple sperm deficiencies. Due to its effectiveness, some have proposed ICSI as a solution for all cases of male infertility, regardless of the cause. Hence, even men with potentially treatable causes of infertility have sought the aid of assisted reproductive technology, rather than undergo specific therapies to treat their infertility. Varicoceles are the most frequent physical finding in infertile men; indeed, they may be responsible for nearly one-third of cases of male infertility. Varicocele management, however, has always been a controversial issue because very few randomized, controlled studies have been performed to examine varicocelectomy as an infertility treatment. Significant evidence suggests that varicoceles have a harmful effect on the testis and that varicocelectomy can not only prevent progressive decline in testicular function but also reverse the damage. However, the degree to which varicocele repair improves pregnancy rates and the success of assisted reproductive technology remains controversial.

  4. Role of early cleavage in predicting success of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection in assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Gopalakrishnan, Sanjeeva Reddy Nellapalli, Muthiah sinvaniah surulimuthu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The present study is aimed to carry out the impact of early cleavage over late cleavage in assessing the pregnancy outcome using of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI in assisted reproductive technologies. Materials and Methods A total of 154 patients enrolled for Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI fulfilling the selection criteria were recruited for the study at a tertiary care assisted reproductive centre. ICSI was performed 3–5 h after oocyte aspiration with the prepared sperm. All embryos were checked for early cleavage at 27 hours post intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. They were divided into two groups. Group I- Embryos which cleaved before 27 hours after Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI. Group II- Embryos which cleaved after 27 hours. The pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups. Results: All the 154 patients were analysed. There was no difference in the mean age, duration of ovarian stimulation, number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization, cleavage rates and embryo quality between the two groups. Early cleavage was observed in 98 patients (63.64 %. Late cleavage was observed in 56 patients (36.36%. The clinical pregnancy was confirmed in 59 patients (60.20% in Group I and 20 patients (35.71% in Group II which was statistically significant P <0.001. Conclusion: Early cleavage is a strong predictor of embryo quality and can predict ICSI outcome.

  5. Maternal Exposure to Second-hand Smoke and Super Ovulation Outcome for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Ganji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of smoking cigarettes is followed by diverse effects on ovaries anddeveloping follicles but the effect of passive smoking on ovarian function is unknown. On the otherhand, the ovarian response to induction is a very important step in assisted reproduction. The aimof this study is to compare ovarian response in passive smokers and non-passive smokers in anassisted reproductive program.Materials and Methods: In a cohort study at the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, there were 72women in the passive smoker group and 72 women in the non-passive smoker group who underwentan assisted reproductive technology (ART program. The follicle number at administration of humanchorionic gonadotropin (HCG, number of gonadotropin ampoules and duration of super ovulationinduction were compared.Results: Statistical analyses indicated that the number of mature follicles in the passive smoker groupwas not different from the control group; but the number of unresponsive cycles to super ovulation inthe passive smoker group (33.3% was significantly higher than the control group (12.5%. Durationof induction and number of gonadotropin ampoules were not different between the two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show that exposure to second-hand smoke increases the chanceof unresponsiveness to ovulation induction. This condition may be due to the result of decline inovarian reserve in second-hand smokers. The duration of induction and number of gonadotropinampules is similar in the two groups. Furthermore, the results show that exposure to cigarette smokedoes not clinically impact women with good ovarian reserve.

  6. The relational ecology of the transition to parenthood in couples that conceived spontaneously or through Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gameiro, Carla Sofia Marques Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Background. Infertility is a reproductive health problem defined by the World Health Organization as the inability of a couple to achieve conception or to bring a pregnancy to term after a year or more of regular, unprotected intercourse (WHO, 1992), that affects 9% of the population worldwide (Boivin, Bunting, Collins, & Nygren, 2007). Due to the strain of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments infertile couples have to undergo in order to pursue a much desired parenthood...

  7. Psychiatric disorders among women and men in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Hageman, Ida; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are complex causal associations between mental disorders, fertility treatment, fertility treatment outcome and infertility per se. Eating disorders cause endocrine disturbances, anovulation and thereby infertility, and research has shown that infertility as well as unsuccessful...... assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment are potential risk factors for developing a depression on a long-term basis. Despite the fact that worldwide more than 400 000 ART treatment cycles are performed every year, the causal associations between mental disorders, use of medication for mental...... disorders and ART treatment in both sexes have only been sparsely explored. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The main objective of this national register-based cohort study is to assess women's and men's mental health before, during, and after ART treatment in comparison with the mental health in an age...

  8. Risk of stillbirth and infant deaths after assisted reproductive technology: a Nordic study from the CoNARTaS group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Wennerholm, U. B.; Gissler, M.;

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of stillbirth and perinatal deaths increased after assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared with pregnancies established by spontaneous conception (SC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A significantly increased risk of stillbirth in ART singletons was only observed before 28 + 0...... gestational weeks. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The current literature indicates that children born after ART have an increased risk of perinatal death. The knowledge on stillbirth in ART pregnancies is limited. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A population based case-control study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND...... weeks 22 + 0 to 27 + 6 was 2.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.78] for ART versus SC singletons. After 28 + 0 gestational weeks there was no significant difference in the risk of stillbirth between ART and SC singletons. ART twins had a lower risk of stillbirth compared with SC twins, but when...

  9. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Ortoft, G; Loft, A;

    2015-01-01

    Medical Birth register. Furthermore, control groups of naturally conceived (NC) singletons and twins were extracted. Cervical diagnoses were obtained from the Danish Pathology register. Cervical conization included both cold knife cone and LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure) but not cervical......STUDY QUESTION: Does cervical conization add an additional risk of preterm birth (PTB) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) singleton and twin pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very PTB in ART twin pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART and...... cervical conization are both risk factors for PTB. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this national population-based controlled cohort study, we included all ART singletons and twin deliveries from 1995 to 2009 in Denmark by cross-linkage of maternal and child data from the National IVF register and the...

  10. Prenatal testing among women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques in Denmark 1995-2000: a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women pregnant after assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are generally older than women with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and are consequently more likely to carry a child affected by a chromosomal disorder. Furthermore, a significantly increased rate of chromosomal...... abnormalities after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the use and results of prenatal invasive diagnostic testing in a national Danish cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ICSI pregnancies. Additionally, we examined to what extent second...... trimester serum screening was used. METHODS: We used a register-based cohort study including all ongoing clinical pregnancies achieved by IVF/ICSI in 1995-2000 in Denmark. Data on fertility treatment, pregnancy and pregnancy outcome together with data on cytogenic testing and the use of triple test were...

  11. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granucci, G.; Ricci, D.; Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cavinato, M. [F4E C/Josep Pla2, Torres Diagonal Litoral - Building 83 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mattei, M. [CREATE via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tudisco, O. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations.

  12. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations

  13. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granucci, G.; Ricci, D.; Cavinato, M.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Mattei, M.; Stober, J.; Tudisco, O.

    2014-02-01

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations.

  14. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not. He...... compared to women having conceived spontaneously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not....... Hence, we did not aim to compare unipolar depression in women who received ART treatment with women who did not. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis (2) was published recently which shows no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted reproduction...

  15. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups......STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population...

  16. Assisted reproductive technology in India: A 3 year retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology (ART has grown by leaps and bounds in the last few years. India has one of the highest growths in the ART centers and the number of ART cycles performed every year. Very soon India will be the leader in the world of ART in terms of a number of cycles. With the advances of technology and availability of techniques even in tier II and tier III cities our country, the results still vary dramatically. There is no standardization of protocols and reporting is very inadequate. Furthermore, there are only ART guidelines and no law still exists. Our first and the biggest challenge is to document the tremendous work being done in India and on the basis of analysis of this work, a proper registry can be made and guidance given to all on standardization and improvement. This is the 8 th edition of National ART Registry of India being presented and analyzed.

  17. Semen cryopreservation and usage rate for assisted reproductive technology in 898 men with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Iris; Oude Ophuis, Ralph J A; Broekmans, Frank J M; Lock, Tycho M T W

    2016-02-01

    An undesired side effect of cancer treatment is potential subfertility or infertility. Timely cryopreservation of semen is the best modality to ensure fertility. This retrospective data analysis established the usage rate of cryopreserved semen from cancer patients. Pubertal and post-pubertal patients who could become infertile as a result of cancer (treatment) were offered the option to cryopreserve semen prior to treatment. Of the 898 patients who cryopreserved their semen in our hospital, 96 (10.7%) used this for assisted reproductive technology. The live birth rates for intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cryopreserved embryo transfer were 13%, 29%, 32% and 17%, respectively. Of all couples involved, 77% achieved parenthood, i.e. 60 of the 78 patients (with complete follow-up) fathered at least one child. PMID:26687904

  18. Guidelines for risk reduction when handling gametes from infectious patients seeking assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sangita K; Rawlins, Richard G; Muller, Charles H; Drobnis, Erma Z

    2016-08-01

    According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), couples with blood-borne viruses that lead to infectious disease cannot be denied fertility treatment as long as the direct threat to the health and safety of others can be reduced or eliminated by a modification of policies or procedures. Three types of infectious patients are commonly discussed in the context of fertility treatment: those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C or hepatitis B. Seventy-five per cent of hepatitis C or HIV positive men and women are in their reproductive years, and these couples look to assisted reproductive techniques for risk reduction in conceiving a pregnancy. In many cases, only one partner is infected. Legal and ethical questions about treatment of infectious patients aside, the question most asked by clinical embryologists and andrologists is: "What are the laboratory protocols for working with gametes and embryos from patients with infectious disease?" The serostatus of each patient is the key that informs appropriate treatments. This guidance document describes protocols for handling gametes from seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples with infectious disease. With minor modifications, infectious patients with stable disease status and undetectable or low viral load can be accommodated in the IVF laboratory. PMID:27235103

  19. [Medical and Social Problems of Assisted Reproductive Technologies from the Perspective of Pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Belyaeva, I A; Bombardirova, E P; Smirnov, I E

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a literature review over the last few years devoted to the health status and development peculiarities of children born using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) procedures. The statistics shows an explosive increase in the frequency of ART application as a fertility treatment method. The presented data analysis reflects the perinatal outcomes after ART in children, the frequency of congenital malformations and genetic diseases in this population, possible long-term malconditions and pathologies in children born using ART. The overwhelming majority of investigators consider the adverse effect of ART on a child's body to be the result of prematurity and multiple pregnancy (transfer multiple embryos followed by partial reduction). It is stated that the widespread introduction of ART may contribute to the vertical transmission of parental infertility factors in the population. The application of ARTprocedures in some cases is associated with controversial ethical and legal issues (surrogacy, oocyte donation). Further improvements in ART procedures (preimplantation training, medical and genetic diagnosis, reducing the frequency of multiple pregnancy) cannot be stated as an alternative to the general medical and social prevention of reproductive disorders in adolescents and youth. PMID:26495718

  20. Oxidative Stress and its Role in Female Infertility and Assisted Reproduction: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in physiological functions and act as mediators invarious signaling processes. Elevated or sustained generation of free radicals and non radicalspecies derived from free radicals can lead to an imbalance in the intracellular redox homeostasis.Normally, any excess levels of reactive radical and nonradical species generated are interceptedby antioxidants. An excess of the free radicals however, can precipitate pathologies in thefemale reproductive tract. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in various pathological conditionssuch as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal teratogenecity, preterm labor andintrauterine growth retardation, all of which lead to an immense burden of maternal and fetal,morbidity and mortality. In addition evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in theproinflammatory changes seen with polycystic ovarian disease and also in the pathogenesisof endometriosis and tubal factor infertility. Our review captures the role of OS in assistedreproduction specifically in in vitro fertilization (IVF/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI and in vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM. We also examine the role antioxidants playin modifying the fertility outcomes with assisted reproductive techniques. Finally in vivo andin vitro strategies to modulate the influence of ROS and establish an optimal redox state arealso discussed.

  1. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  2. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Barad, David H.; Albertini, David F.; Darmon, Sarah K.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. Methods We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). Results During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P 44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Conclusions Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Précis Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women. PMID:27159215

  3. The use of semen evaluation and assisted reproduction in Spix's macaws in terms of species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Neumann, Daniel; Purchase, Cromwell; Bouts, Tim; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Wehrend, Axel; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is the rarest parrot on earth. The remaining captive population consists of 79 individuals. Captive propagation is ongoing to increase the number of individuals for future reintroduction back into the wild. Unfortunately, from 2004 to 2012, only 33 chicks hatched from 331 eggs. Semen evaluation and assisted reproduction might help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a recently developed electro-stimulated semen collection technique was used in Spix's macaws. Semen collection was successful in 39 of 78 attempts in 10 out of 17 males. Examination of the semen included evaluation of volume, color, consistency, contaminations and pH, as well as determination of motility, viability, morphology, concentration, and total count of spermatozoa. The median volume of semen samples was 5.6 µl. On average, 34.7 ± 21.9% (median 30%) of the sperm were motile and 23.1 ± 22.1% (median 16.5%) were progressively motile. In addition to spermatozoa, round cells were detected in the samples. Median sperm concentration was 15,500/µl (range 500-97,500/µl) and median viability was 50% (range 5-87%). Morphological examination revealed in 26.5% normal spermatozoa, high numbers of malformations of the head (50.2%) and tail region (20.5%), with 29% of all sperm showing multiple abnormalities. Artificial insemination was performed in three females; two eggs laid after artificial insemination had spermatozoa present on the perivitelline layer, suggesting the possible success of the insemination technique. Although no fertilization could be demonstrated, these preliminary results are promising, as they indicate that assisted reproduction might be a tool for species conservation in the Spix's macaw. PMID:24752991

  4. Oral contraceptive pill, progestogen or estrogen pre-treatment for ovarian stimulation protocols for women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, B.; Oirschot, S.M. van; Farquhar, C.; Rombauts, L.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many subfertile women, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is the only hope for a pregnancy and live birth. The combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) given prior to the hormone therapy in an IVF cycle may result in better pregnancy outcomes of ART. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether p

  5. What is the role of assisted reproduction technology in the management of age-related infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Gerasimos; Nikolaou, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Although in the UK the upper age limit for National Health Service (NHS) provision of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is 39 years of age there has been an increase in number of women having fertility treatment in their 40s. However, the success rates of IVF and intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in this group remain low. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) data from 2006 showed that the live-birth rate from IVF in the UK was 11% in the age group 40-42, 4.6% in the age group 43-44 and less than 4% in women over 44. We performed a literature search for studies using terms and combinations of terms in online databases and published meta-analyses reporting the outcome of interventions in older women. This review showed that assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) continue to have low live-birth rates in women over 40. Trials showed that assisted hatching may increase the chance of pregnancy in women with poor history. Blastocyst transfer is associated with better outcome, whereas application of pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) in older women has not increased the success rates. It appears that, with the exception of egg-donation, ART has no answer yet to age-related decline of female fertility. PMID:21329469

  6. AMH and AMHR2 Polymorphisms and AMH Serum Level Can Predict Assisted Reproduction Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Peluso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In human assisted reproduction, the ovarian response to exogenous recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH therapy is variable and difficult to predict. The standard protocol of ovarian hyperstimulation can result in satisfactory response; however, an unsatisfactory response necessitates FSH dose adjustment or results in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Polymorphisms in AMH and AMHR2 genes appear to affect hormone biological activities, thus affecting follicle recruitment and development, leading to infertility. We aimed to evaluate AMH and AMHR2 polymorphisms in infertile women, and correlate those findings with AMH, FSH and estradiol serum level response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, as well as assisted reproduction outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 186 infertile women that underwent one cycle of high complexity assisted reproductive treatment. Blood samples were collected and a TaqMan assay was used for AMH G146T/rs10407022 and AMHR2 A-482G/rs2002555, A10G/rs11170555, C1749G/rs2071558 and G4952A/rs3741664 genotyping, and FSH, estradiol and AMH levels were measured. The findings were correlated to human reproduction outcomes. Results: AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555 polymorphisms were not associated with hormonal measurements, whereas AMHR2 rs11170555 and rs3741664 were positively associated with AMH, estradiol and FSH levels. The genotype distribution of AMH and AMHR2 genes according to Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation did not show a positive association. However, an association with AFC, degree of oocyte maturation (allele G of AMHR2 rs2071558 the number of embryos produced (alleles T and G of AMH rs10407022 and AMHR2 rs2002555, respectively and frozen embryo (allele G of AMHR2 rs11170555 were found to be statistically associated. Considering COH, serum AMH and AFC were a positive predictor to OHSS. Regarding serum AMH and assisted reproduction outcomes, a positive correlation

  7. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  8. Just Molly and me, and donor makes three: lesbian motherhood in the age of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The psychological experiences of lesbian mothers, both coupled and single, are compared and contrasted with heterosexual and gay parents who use assisted reproductive technology, focusing on issues of parental desire, fertility, babies conceived from science rather than sex, presence of an outside party in conception, genetic asymmetry, social anxieties, legal protections, disclosure, and gender. The psychological meaning of the donor or surrogate as "extra" and "missing" piece of the family, along with the interactive effects of homophobia and "reproductive technophobia" are considered. Lesbian families are recognized to be constructing a new narrative of a bio-social family as they define and live their experience. PMID:19042730

  9. Combining gene-based methods and reproductive technologies to enhance genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection based on DNA markers is most useful for traits that are hard to measure and have low heritability. It allows earlier and more accurate selection, increasing short- and medium-term selection response, and may aid in targeting genotypes for specific production environments or markets. The use of genotypic information in breeding programmes for within-breed selection will generally have limited extra benefit, unless selection based on phenotype is difficult or advanced reproductive technologies are used. Novel reproductive technologies boost reproductive rates of breeding animals and may allow reproduction at juvenile ages. The benefit arises from increased selection intensity, as well as from increased selection accuracy due to larger families and decreased generation interval, as higher reproductive rates result in lower optimal ages for breeding animals. Increased reproductive rates and early selection rely more on between-family selection and potentially decrease effective population size, therefore increasing inbreeding. Selection needs to be optimized with respect to inbreeding and merit. Extra benefit from scenarios with unlimited use of reproductive technologies is restricted by the need to maintain genetic diversity. Benefits from marker assisted selection are higher in breeding programmes that use reproductive technologies, as the value of providing information about genotype is more beneficial for selection of young animals before they have a phenotype. Moreover, genotype information exploits variation within families, which is beneficial in breeding programmes where loss of genetic diversity is to be controlled. In developing countries, use of genotype information is likely to be most useful in marker assisted introgression programmes, where valuable genes are introgressed from one breed into another. A large variety of genetic resources in developing countries exists across breeds and populations, and utilization and management of this variation

  10. Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B virus among infertile women recruited for Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osemwenkha, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sexually transmissible diseases such as Hepatitis B virus (HBV causes or induces incurable often fatal infections have been transmitted through Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART. This study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV among infertile women recruited for intrauterine insemination (I.U.I.Methodology and Results: A 5mL of blood was collected and serum aspirated. The detection of HBV was carried out using global one-step rapid test kit relative sensitivity of 99% and specific of 97%. Age range of infertile women was 20 – 49 years. Approximately 30 (5.9% out of the 512 recruited women were seropositive for HBV with increase in prevalence rate among age group of (25 – 29 years and (30 – 34 years. The rate of infection of HBV was found to be insignificant in this study using chi-square statistical analysis (p > 0.0001.Conclusion, Significance and Impact of Study: Though the rate of the virus infection were statistically insignificant but the screening should be a continuous exercise and be carried out by all fertility center.

  11. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment. PMID:26212077

  12. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART. PMID:26825777

  13. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  14. Soy food intake and treatment outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jose C.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L.; Wright, Diane L.; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of dietary phytoestrogens intake and clinical outcomes of women undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technology (ART). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility center in an academic hospital. Participants 315 women who collectively underwent 520 ART cycles between 2007 and 2013. Interventions None Outcomes Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per initiated cycle. Results Soy isoflavones intake was positively related to live birth rates in ART. Compared to women who did not consume soy isoflavones, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of live birth (95% confidence interval) for women in increasing categories of soy isoflavone intake were 1.32 (0.76–2.27) for women consuming 0.54–2.63 mg/d, 1.87 (1.12–3.14) for women consuming 2.64- 7.55 mg/d, and 1.77 (1.03–3.03) for women consuming 7.56- 27.89 mg/d. Conclusions Dietary soy intake was positively related to the probability of having a live birth during infertility treatment with ART. PMID:25577465

  15. Assisted reproduction in Indonesia: policy reform in an Islamic culture and developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Taylor E

    2015-11-01

    This article considers how religious and economic factors shape assisted reproductive technology (ART) policy in Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country. Infertility clinic policies are grounded on both the views of the country's powerful Islamic coalition and those of the worldwide Islamic community. Indonesian government officials, physicians, and Islamic scholars have expressed concern over who can use ART and which procedures can be performed. Indonesia has also faced economic challenges related to ART, including inadequate health insurance coverage, inequitable access to ART, and maintenance of expensive ART infrastructure. The prohibitive price of infertility treatment and regional differences in the provision of health care prohibit most Indonesians from obtaining ART. In the absence of a shift in religious mores and a rapid reduction in poverty and inequality, Indonesia will need to adopt creative means to make ART both more available and less necessary as a solution to infertility. This paper suggests policy reforms to promote more affordable treatment methods and support preventative health programmes to reduce infertility rates. This country-specific analysis of the laws and customs surrounding ART in Indonesia reveals that strategies to reduce infertility must be tailored to a country's unique religious and economic climate. PMID:26371707

  16. Obstetric outcomes of monochorionic pregnancies conceived following assisted reproductive technology: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. Settings : University teaching hospital. Study Design : A case-control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. Results : The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50% than the DCDA group (10%, with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%. Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. Conclusions : Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome.

  17. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  18. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  19. Is there a role for assisted reproductive technology in recurrent miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Rosa; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2011-11-01

    Unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) is a significant health problem for which no effective treatment is available yet. In only 50% of couples with RM a cause can be found. In clinical practice, a frequently asked question is whether assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a treatment option. The scientific rationale and the chances of success for ART in couples with unexplained RM are still controversial. Presently, there is not enough evidence to justify IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a treatment option. Research on oocyte donation has been reported in one article. It is questionable whether couples with unexplained RM would undergo the potential risks and emotional aspects of ART. There is insufficient data on whether preimplantation genetic diagnosis improves the live birthrate in carriers of a structural chromosome rearrangement with a history of RM. No randomized controlled trials are available for preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for unexplained RM. A recently published review concluded that the live birthrate for IVF/PGS and natural conception groups appears to be quite similar. Because evidence is lacking, we recommend refraining from ART in couples with recurrent miscarriage. PMID:22161467

  20. Viagra for temporary erectile dysfunction during treatments with assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, I; Segal, S; Moffa, F; Massobrio, M; Meltzer, S

    1999-07-01

    During treatments with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some men may have difficulties in producing spermatozoa on demand at the time of insemination, either for intrauterine insemination (IUI) or for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). This situation imposes tremendous stress on the couple and may cause cancellation of the treatment. Here we describe, for the first time, the use of sildenafil citrate (ViagraTM) for temporary erectile dysfunction in couples undergoing ART. The first case was a man who could not produce spermatozoa for the first IVF treatment after an exhausting trial for 12 h, despite the fact that he never had problems in providing sperm samples during previous IUI cycles. Using Viagra enabled him to provide spermatozoa, but the delay in oocyte insemination resulted in no embryonic development. This prompted us to be more alert to this option and to suggest the use of Viagra to men who had a history of erectile dysfunction during previous ART cycles. In these cases, the use of Viagra was planned in advance and it successfully solved any unpredictable erectile dysfunction on the day of insemination. Such cases emphasize the need to think in advance of this potential use of Viagra during ART. PMID:10402389

  1. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paolo Busardò; Matteo Gulino; Simona Napoletano; Simona Zaami; Paola Frati

    2014-01-01

    Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR), involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF), and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 ...

  2. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos Tsagkas; George Valasoulis; Konstantinos Zikopoulos; Calliope Zerzi; Ioannis Mitselos; Ioannis Koutoulakis; Nikolaos Tzampouras; Theodor Stefos

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vas...

  3. Emotional distress in infertile women and failure of assisted reproductive technologies: meta-analysis of prospective psychosocial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, J.; Griffiths, E; Venetis, C A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether pretreatment emotional distress in women is associated with achievement of pregnancy after a cycle of assisted reproductive technology. Design Meta-analysis of prospective psychosocial studies. Data sources PubMed, Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PsychNET, ISI Web of Knowledge, and ISI Web of Science were searched for articles published from 1985 to March 2010 (inclusive). We also undertook a hand search of reference lists and contacted 29 authors. Eligible studies wer...

  4. Pregnancy Complications and Neonatal Outcomes in Multiple Pregnancies: A Comparison between Assisted Reproductive Techniques and Spontaneous Conception

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbod Kaveh; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh; Fatemeh Davari Tanha; Fatemeh Nayeri; Zahra Keramati; Mamak Shariat; Azadeh Ghaheri

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study compared neonatal outcome and maternal complications in multiple pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to spontaneous pregnancies. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed medical records of 190 multiple pregnancies and births conceived by ART or spontaneous conceptions between 2004 and 2009 in Women Hospital. Obstetric history and outcomes were recorded and compared between these two groups. SPSS version 1...

  5. Investigation of Personality Traits between Infertile Women Submitted to Assisted Reproductive Technology or Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Asgarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality traits affect human relationships, social interactions, treatment procedures, and essentially all human activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate the personality traits -including sensation seeking, flexibility, and happiness - among a variety of infertile women who were apt to choose assisted reproductive technology (ART or surrogacy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 251 infertile women who visited Isfahan and Tehran Reproductive Medicine Center. These fertility clinics are located in Isfahan and Tehran, Iran. In this study, 201 infertile women who underwent treatment using ART and 50 infertile women who tended to have surrogacy were chosen by convenience sampling. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V, Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (adapted from NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ were used as research instruments. All participants had to complete the research instruments in order to be included in this study. Data were analyzed by descriptive-analytical statistics and statistical tests including multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and Z Fisher. Statistically significant effects were accepted for P<0.05. Results: In the sensation-seeking variable, there was a meaningful difference between under-study groups. However, the flexibility and happiness variables did not have a significant difference between under-study groups (P<0.001. Interaction between education, employment, and financial status was effective in happiness of infertile women underwent ART (P<0.05, while age, education and financial status were also effective in happiness of infertile women sought surrogacy (P<0.05. A positive meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and flexibility variables in both groups (P<0.05. And a negative meaningful relationship was seen between sensation seeking and happiness in infertile

  6. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology —

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. 1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. 2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from ...

  7. The effect of a 'vanishing twin' on biochemical and ultrasound first trimester screening markers for Down's syndrome in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A C; Loft, A; Pinborg, Anja; Christiansen, M; Tabor, A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that 1 in 10 in vitro fertilization (IVF) singletons originates from a twin gestation. First trimester Down's syndrome screening markers are altered in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) pregnancies compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The...

  8. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patel; Bayard Roberts; Samantha Guy; Louise Lee-Jones; Lesong Conteh

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...

  9. Refractive Error and Fixation Conditions of Infants Born by Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the refractive error and oculomotor conditions of infants born by assisted reproductive techniques (ART in patients referring to Royan Institute as well as Child Health and Development Center.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 ART-exposed infants aged less than 9 months were tested by retinoscopy, fixation conditions, Hirschberg and Doll's eye maneuver.Results: The average refractive error of these infants shows hyperopic Shift +0.9±1.1 D. The average astigmatism recorded in these infants is -0.6±0.6D. The prevalence of refractive errors in these infants is myopia 6%, hyperopia 85% and emmetropia 9%. Impairment of fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll's eye maneuver was respectively observed in 20.4, 1.4 and 3.7% of the studied infants.Conclusion Given the sensitivities in the visual system development process and critical period which is important for every infant in the very first months of birth, it seems that visual-ocular studies are more important in ART-exposed infants who were exposed to different factors until their birth. The results of refractive errors, fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll’s head maneuver which was conducted in this study for these infants reveal that, it is likely that visual impairment in these infants is higher than the results of foreign studies. However, lack of access to population studies in infants below 1 year of age in Iran necessitates more extensive studies and follow-ups of vision of ART-exposed infants more seriously.

  10. Assisted reproductive techniques and the risk of anorectal malformations: a German case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwink Nadine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART for treatment of infertility is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, various health effects have been reported including a higher risk of congenital malformations. Therefore, we assessed the risk of anorectal malformations (ARM after in-vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods Data of the German Network for Congenital Uro-REctal malformations (CURE-Net were compared to nationwide data of the German IVF register and the Federal Statistical Office (DESTATIS. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were determined to quantify associations using multivariable logistic regression accounting for potential confounding or interaction by plurality of births. Results In total, 295 ARM patients born between 1997 and 2011 in Germany, who were recruited through participating pediatric surgeries from all over Germany and the German self-help organisation SoMA, were included. Controls were all German live-births (n = 10,069,986 born between 1997 and 2010. Overall, 30 cases (10% and 129,982 controls (1% were born after IVF or ICSI, which translates to an odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 8.7 (5.9–12.6 between ART and ARM in bivariate analyses. Separate analyses showed a significantly increased risk for ARM after IVF (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 6.2–19.0; P  Conclusions There is a strongly increased risk for ARM among children born after ART. Elevations of risk were seen after both IVF and ICSI. Further, separate analyses of patients with isolated ARM, ARM with associated anomalies and those with a VATER/VACTERL association showed increased risks in each group. An increased risk of ARM was also seen among both singletons and multiple births.

  11. Hydrosalpinx functional surgery or salpingectomy? The importance of hydrosalpinx fluid in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Mandakini; Mirge, Aparna; Hasabe, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    The first IVF baby, Louise Brown, was born in a natural cycle IVF of a woman who had bilateral tubal block making IVF the only option for having a child. The last 3 decades has seen astounding progress in the field of ART. Today thanks to ART, tubal disease and tubal factor infertility is easily overcome. The accepted theory today is that the hydrosalpinx fluid plays a causative role in the reduced pregnancy rate with ART. It is well known that the success of ART for patients with tubal disease with hydrosalpinx is reduced by half compared with patients without hydrosalpinx. Ideal would be removal of a hydrosalpinx by laparoscopic salpingectomy to improve pregnancy rates. However in some cases this is not feasible due to dense pelvic adhesions making access difficult. In such cases it is recommended that even de-linking the tube from the uterus would help in improving the ART outcome. There is suggestion that sonographically visible hydrosalpinges and those affected bilaterally have a poorer prognosis than those seen incidentally at laparoscopy. While there is clinical evidence supporting the causative role of the fluid itself, there is a lack of knowledge as to how the fluid exerts its negative effects. It is generally believed that the fluid holds a key position in impairing implantation potential. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of identifying hydrosalpinges and its association with reduced fertility outcome using assisted reproductive technologies. Here we have discussed the different options available for the same, and highlighted the current modes of treatment. PMID:22442504

  12. The risk of birth defects in dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Tomoyuki; Matsubara, Shigeki; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Watanabe, Takashi; Izumi, Akio; Honma, Yoko; Yada, Yukari; Shibahara, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dichorionic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART; intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], in vitro fertilization [IVF], gamete-intrafallopian tube transfer [GIFT]) have a higher risk of birth defects compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally. We reviewed the medical records of 406 mothers with dichorionic twin pregnancies, who received continuous antenatal care from or = 24 weeks of gestation in our institute. Birth defects were diagnosed at the time of hospital discharge according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Occurrence of birth defects was compared between twins conceived by ART and those conceived naturally using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 51 of 812 infants (51/812 = 6.2%) had birth defects. The incidence of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was significantly higher than that of naturally conceived twins with an odds ratio of 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1, 22.5), 3.7 (95% CI 1.2, 12.0), and 4.3 (95% CI 1.4, 14.3) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. The higher frequency of birth defects in ART-conceived twins was still significant after adjusting for higher maternal age in the ART group, with an adjusted odds ratio of 6.7 (95% CI 2.1, 21.9), 3.6 (95% CI 1.1, 11.5), and 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.8) for ICSI, IVF, and GIFT, respectively. Dichorionic twins conceived by ART, compared to dichorionic twins conceived naturally, had a much higher risk for birth defects diagnosed at hospital discharge. PMID:15193165

  13. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, J.; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M.B.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4–11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n = 642) and fathers (n = 439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  14. Restricting Access to ART on the Basis of Criminal Record : An Ethical Analysis of a State-Enforced "Presumption Against Treatment" With Regard to Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become increasingly popular, debate has intensified over the ethical justification for restricting access to ART based on various medical and non-medical factors. In 2010, the Australian state of Victoria enacted world-first legislation that denies access to ART for all patients with certain criminal or child protection histories. Patients and their partners are identified via a compulsory police and child protection check prior to commencing ART and, if found to have a previous relevant conviction or child protection order, are given a "presumption against treatment." This article reviews the legislation and identifies arguments that may be used to justify restricting access to ART for various reasons. The arguments reviewed include limitations of reproductive rights, inheriting undesirable genetic traits, distributive justice, and the welfare of the future child. We show that none of these arguments justifies restricting access to ART in the context of past criminal history. We show that a "presumption against treatment" is an unjustified infringement on reproductive freedom and that it creates various inconsistencies in current social, medical, and legal policy. We argue that a state-enforced policy of restricting access to ART based on the non-medical factor of past criminal history is an example of unjust discrimination and cannot be ethically justified, with one important exception: in cases where ART treatment may be considered futile on the basis that the parents are not expected to raise the resulting child. PMID:25701147

  15. Application of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Disorders of Reproductive Endocrine System%生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 陈子江

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine system regulates reproductive phenomena, including ovulation, implantation, maintenance of gestation, et al. Disorders of this system result in female infertility; over 30% of female infertility are caused by the reproductive endocrinopathies. The classify of those disorders is very complicated. The pathophysiological mechanism is related with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different level. In this review, treatment and management of disorders of the reproductive endocrine system were concisely introduced, which was based on the mainstream guidelines published by international associations and Chinese Medical Association.%排卵、着床、妊娠维持等生殖过程皆是在生殖内分泌系统的调控下完成的,生殖内分泌系统出现异常可能会导致女性不孕症的发生。各类生殖内分泌疾病约占女性不孕症的1/3,病种分类繁杂,病理机制复杂,涉及性腺轴的多个环节。以国际共识及中华医学会发布的诊疗指南为蓝本,针对生殖内分泌疾病如何导致不孕症,提纲挈领地介绍主要生殖内分泌疾病的助孕策略。

  16. Transnasal endoscopy-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Aldo M

    2006-09-01

    Skull base surgery (SBS), which originated in the 19th century, became refined in the 20th century in parallel with technological advancements and is now in the midst of further refinements largely driven by advances in endoscopic sinus surgery. With the development of modern SBS, lesions that were once inoperable and potentially fatal can now be eradicated successfully by means of endoscopy-assisted procedures that reduce or completely eliminate intracranial trauma, minimize postsurgical morbidity, and make full recovery possible. It is absolutely mandatory to have the appropriate instrumentation for endoscopy-assisted SBS. Among the new technologies available are advanced endoscopes, high-speed suction irrigation drills, digital video cameras, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and systems for 3-dimensional computer-assisted image-guided surgical navigation. An experienced endoscopic surgeon working with multidisciplinary teams, and using new instrumentation and techniques, can bring SBS to new levels of success in the 21st century. PMID:17040018

  17. Cultural and ethical challenges of assisted reproductive technologies in the management of infertility among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Fayemiwo, Adetona S

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. Twenty-five In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 couples of reproductive age who have never conceived or brought pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse, 4 adult males, 4 adult females, a gyneacologist, a nurse, a herbalist and 2 religious leaders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against children born through ART, psychological problems and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are the ethical challenges. The findings have methodological implications for conducting infertility research in non-western societies. PMID:21243924

  18. Variation of DNA Fragmentation Levels During Density Gradient Sperm Selection for Assisted Reproduction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Monica; Tarozzi, Nicoletta; Cambi, Marta; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Passaro, Claudia; Luppino, Benedetta; Nadalini, Marco; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta; Borini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one main goal of the present research on assisted reproduction. To understand whether density gradient centrifugation (DGC), used to select sperm, can affect sperm DNA integrity and impact pregnancy rate (PR), we prospectively evaluated sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) by TUNEL/PI, before and after DGC. sDF was studied in a cohort of 90 infertile couples the same day of IVF/ICSI treatment. After DGC, sDF increased in 41 samples (Group A, median sDF value: 29.25% [interquartile range, IQR: 16.01–41.63] in pre- and 60.40% [IQR: 32.92–93.53] in post-DGC) and decreased in 49 (Group B, median sDF value: 18.84% [IQR: 13.70–35.47] in pre- and 8.98% [IQR: 6.24–15.58] in post-DGC). PR was 17.1% and 34.4% in Group A and B, respectively (odds ratio [OR]: 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95–7.04, P = 0.056). After adjustment for female factor, female and male age and female BMI, the estimated OR increased to 3.12 (95% CI: 1.05–9.27, P = 0.041). According to the subgroup analysis for presence/absence of female factor, heterogeneity in the association between the Group A and B and PR emerged (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.16–15.30 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 0.23–10.40, respectively, for couples without, n = 59, and with, n = 31, female factor). This study provides the first evidence that the DGC procedure produces an increase in sDF in about half of the subjects undergoing IVF/ICSI, who then show a much lower probability of pregnancy, raising concerns about the safety of this selection procedure. Evaluation of sDF before and after DGC configures as a possible new prognostic parameter of pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI. Alternative sperm selection strategies are recommended for those subjects who undergo the damage after DGC. PMID:27196465

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism after assisted reproductive technology in Japan: comparison between multiples and singletons, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki Syuichi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between congenital hypothyroidism (CH and multiple pregnancy has not been fully studied in Japan. Methods Complete nationwide data of assisted reproductive technology (ART in Japan from 2005 to 2009 presented by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which include information on CH and birth defects were used for analyses. Diseases were reclassified according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10, 2003 version. The relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI of the incidence rate for CH was calculated with singletons as the reference group. Additional birth defects with CH were examined. The probandwise concordance rate of multiples and recurrence risk ratio were calculated. Results There were 18 patients with CH, consisting of 12 singletons and 6 multiples. The incidence rates of CH per 1,000 live births in singletons and multiples are 0.14 (=12/87,145 and 0.31 (=6/19,533, respectively. The incidence rate was more than twofold higher in multiple births than in singleton births, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR=2.2, 95% CI 0.8–5.9. Additional birth defects were present in three patients with CH (17%=3/18. The multiples were affected by other birth defects more frequently (33%=2/6 than the singletons (8%=1/12. The six multiple-births patients were derived from one concordant twin pair, which consisted of two twin patients; three discordant twin pairs, which consisted of three twin patients; and one discordant triplets set, which consisted of one triplet patient. Thus, the probandwise concordance rate was 33.3% (=2/(2+4. The estimated recurrence risk ratio was 1976 (for the total ART population or 609 (for the Japanese general population. Conclusions CH was more frequent in multiples compared to singletons. A higher percentage of additional birth defects was also observed in multiples compared to singletons. The familial aggregation of CH

  20. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  1. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EARLY 0-7 DAYS OUTCOME OF BABIES BORN AFTER ART ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Retrospective study of early (0-7 days outcome of babies born after ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology In vitro fertilization (IVF is the fertilization of a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm in a laboratory dish. In vitro means “outside the body.” Fertilization means the sperm has attached to and entered the egg. IVF is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This means special medical techniques are used to help a woman become pregnant. There are five basic steps to IVF- Step 1: Stimulation, also called super ovulation, Step 2: Egg retrieval, Step 3: Insemination and Fertilization, Step 4: Embryo culture, Step 5: Embryo transfer. OBJECTIVE: To study the early (0-7 days outcome of babies born after ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in Department of Pediatrics, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur between Jan 2009- Jan 2010. Inclusion criteria consists of all IVF babies born at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur and exclusion criteria consists of all out born babies and IVF babies delivered at another center. CONCLUSION: There were 54.28% male and 45.72% female babies. Most of the babies were above 1.5 kg (44.28% NBW +45.71% LBW= 89.99%. There were only 5.71% babies born before 32 weeks of gestation. 61.42% were Singleton. Complication rate was low with Respiratory Distress in 10 babies, Sepsis in 4 babies and Jaundice in 22. All were treated successfully. There was no mortality.

  2. Ultrasound in assisted reproduction: a call to fill the endometrial gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko-Klement, Anat; Tepper, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound offers essential details and an overall view of the anatomic features of the reproductive organs, as well as physiologic assessment. There is still a great gap, however, in our understanding and interpretation of endometrial sonographic findings. Endometrial thickness, growth, and sonographic patterns have been repeatedly tested and compared with pregnancy rates in IVF cycles, yielding conflicting results. Generally, the data accrued so far suggest refraining from clinical decisions based solely on endometrial thickness. The three-layer ultrasound pattern reflects normal follicular/proliferative dynamics, and its presence in the pre-hCG period was reported to carry a better outcome: Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates were found in patients with this pattern on the day of hCG administration among IVF cohorts. Subendometrial contractility (endometrial "waves") offers a tool that can be used in cases of repeated implantation failure in patients reporting cramps around the planned time of embryo transfer, or as a reassuring modality to assess uterine quiescence during preparations for embryo transfer. We support the creation of an integrated endometrial score incorporating conservative endometrial measurements, endometrial-myometrial junction studies, and endometrial contractility, as well as new concepts that remain to be tested, such as endometrial surface area. Such scores may enable us to improve the effectiveness of endometrial ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting. PMID:27140291

  3. Assistive Technology Based on Robotics and Rise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoyu; WANG Kaixuan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assistive technology based on robotics,rehabilitation robot and intelligent assistive devices.Domestic intelligence assistive devices include intelligent prosthetics,intelligent orthotics,intelligent walker,assistive devices for smart home environment control,intelligent life assistive devices; Domestic intelligent rehabilitation robot include upper limb rehabilitation robot,hand rehabilitation robot,lower limb rehabilitation robot,robotic smart wheelchair,intelligent nursing bed,daily care robot,the development trend of intelligent assistive devices and rehabilitation robot.

  4. Use of assisted reproductive technology to separate sperm from human immunodeficiency virus infected men resulting in pregnancy among serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Schuffner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to HIV care improvement, discordant couples more frequently seek help in order to conceive their own biological child. Besides the advance of antiretroviral therapy, unprotected intercourse is not a complete safe option, carrying a low but still present risk of HIV transmission. We report 10 serodiscordant couples in whom the male partner is HIV positive, submitted to sperm washing and intrauterine insemination. The procedure resulted in four pregnancies and no HIV transmission to mother or child was observed. Techniques of assisted reproduction can help HIV discordant couples to conceive biological offspring and is a safer option than unprotected intercourse.

  5. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research clinical practice ethics legal issues and policyEuropean Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C.; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogent...

  6. Real reproduction and evaluation of color based on BRDF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Yang, Weiping; Yang, Jia; Li, Hongning; Luo, Yanlin; Long, Hongli

    2013-12-01

    It is difficult to reproduce the original color of targets really in different illuminating environment using the traditional methods. So a function which can reconstruct the characteristics of reflection about every point on the surface of target is required urgently to improve the authenticity of color reproduction, which known as the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function(BRDF). A method of color reproduction based on the BRDF measurement is introduced in this paper. Radiometry is combined with the colorimetric theories to measure the irradiance and radiance of GretagMacbeth 24 ColorChecker by using PR-715 Radiation Spectrophotometer of PHOTO RESEARCH, Inc, USA. The BRDF and BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) values of every color piece corresponding to the reference area are calculated according to irradiance and radiance, thus color tristimulus values of 24 ColorChecker are reconstructed. The results reconstructed by BRDF method are compared with values calculated by the reflectance using PR-715, at last, the chromaticity coordinates in color space and color difference between each other are analyzed. The experimental result shows average color difference and sample standard deviation between the method proposed in this paper and traditional reconstruction method depended on reflectance are 2.567 and 1.3049 respectively. The conclusion indicates that the method of color reproduction based on BRDF has the more obvious advantages to describe the color information of object than the reflectance in hemisphere space through the theoretical and experimental analysis. This method proposed in this paper is effective and feasible during the research of reproducing the chromaticity.

  7. Vision-based solutions for driver assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nowosielski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review on vision-based solutions for driver assistance. These solutions support the driver to keep safe travel conditions. They use diverse sensing modalities for the recognition of the environment around the vehicle. Upon detection a critical safety situation they supply the driver with the warning. Four assistance systems have been addressed: TSR - Traffic Sign Recognition, CAV - Collision Avoidance, LDW - Lane Departure Warning, and driver fatigue detection. Their structure and some existing approaches are presented. Furthermore, a solution for lane detection and another one for a driver fatigue detection are proposed in the article. They are prepared as the combination of existing image processing algorithms with the aim of presentation the ease of own limited solution creation. For the real-world and diverse working scenarios they would require a great deal of improvements.

  8. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. PMID:26380863

  9. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Peter A; Almany, Glenn R; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H; Hamilton, Richard J; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A; Rhodes, Kevin L; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small-the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km(2). This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km(2) using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km(2) no-take LMMA to 1-2 km(2) would protect approximately 30-50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools. PMID:27069662

  10. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    KAUST Repository

    Waldie, Peter A.

    2016-03-09

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.

  11. Ultrasound screening of chromosomal pathology in pregnant women in assisted reproduction in II trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the differences, and hence the effectiveness of ultrasound screening markers in the II trimester in women with complicated reproductive history and in physiological pregnancy. Revealed that quantitative and qualitative ultrasound markers of chromosomal pathology in II trimester are informative for both spontaneous and induced pregnancies

  12. Luteal phase support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin® (progesterone) vaginal insert

    OpenAIRE

    Check, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    Jerome H CheckThe University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Camden, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing mis...

  13. Access to assisted human reproductive technologies in the light of Islamic ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the hypothesis that infertile Muslim couples living in secular societies or otherwise are unduly restricted in their approach in making use of the facilities now available through modern human reproductive technologies. This is mainly because of the unbending and categorical fixation of the early interpretations of Islamic allegorical verses of the Qur’an by Islamic jurists who remain steadfast in refusing to contemplate the present advanced nature of...

  14. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the...... performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  15. The effect of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on stress in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technlogy (ART) treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Signe Maria Schneevoigt; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary; Zachariae, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Infertile couples undergoing fertility treatments may experience stress and could benefit from psychological intervention. Expressive Writing Intervention (EWI) has shown promising results on various psychological outcomes, yet only one study has applied the method to infertility......-related stress. Our aim was to assess feasibility and effectiveness of EWI for patients in treatment with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). Design and participants. Patients enrolling in their first ART treatment at the fertility clinic, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark were offered to participate. A...... total of 82 participants (45 women, 37 men), mean age: 33.17, were randomized to home-based EWI or neutral writing control group and completed an infertility-related stress questionnaire at treatment enrollment, 3 weeks later (at the time of down regulation), and 6 weeks after the intervention. The...

  16. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Tsagkas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS. On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS; she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques- IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental.

  17. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkas, Nikolaos; Valasoulis, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos; Zerzi, Calliope; Mitselos, Ioannis; Koutoulakis, Ioannis; Tzampouras, Nikolaos; Stefos, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental. PMID:26579320

  18. Ascites in the Puerperium in the Context of a Woman with Turner Syndrome Who Conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkas, Nikolaos; Valasoulis, George; Zikopoulos, Konstantinos; Zerzi, Calliope; Mitselos, Ioannis; Koutoulakis, Ioannis; Tzampouras, Nikolaos; Stefos, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The case is about a young female who delivered twins by caesarean section (CS). On the 4th postoperative day, she presented with ascites which was resistant to empirical antibiotic and diuretic treatment. The woman was affected by Turner syndrome (TS); she had a medical background of chronic use of hormonal medication since puberty and conceived through ART- (assisted reproduction techniques-) IVF-oocyte donation. It is important to exhibit high suspicion for clot formation in the hepatic vasculature during the puerperium, especially in the case of history of chronic hormone treatment. Ascites albumin gradient and Doppler values lead to the diagnosis of thrombosis and the administration of high doses of anticoagulants is considered to be fundamental. PMID:26579320

  19. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Caroline A; Grant Suzanne; Lyttleton Jane; Cochrane Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key com...

  20. Care for the beginning of life. The revised Ethical and Religious Directives discuss abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, J; O'Rourke, K D

    1995-01-01

    Part 4 of the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services--which discusses such controversial issues as abortion, contraception, and assisted reproduction--is informed by a profound respect for human life and the institution of marriage. The controversies are familiar. But many in Catholic healthcare may be less familiar with the principles underlying Church teaching on these issues. Appropriate interpretation and application of these directives require that all concerned be educated in both the theological-ethical and the clinical dimensions of care giving. Directives 38 through 43 deal with reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. Directives 52 and 53 express the Church's consistent teaching on contraceptive interventions. Directives 45 to 48, 50 to 51, and 54 reiterate the Church's firm stance on the inviolability of human life, including nascent human life. However, the directives also say that not all medical interventions resulting in fetal death are prohibited abortions. However, appropriate regard for human life, marriage, and the family require more than mere adherence to the directives' prescriptions and proscriptions. Ethics committees in Catholic healthcare should study clinical data as well as theological materials. PMID:10145132

  1. Considerations for clinics and practitioners treating foreign patients with assisted reproductive technology: lessons from experiences at Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sutter, Petra

    2011-11-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is not a new concept, having been around since the beginning of assisted reproductive technology. Countries having taken the lead in developing new technologies have seen an influx of patients from other countries, because of legal limitations or the unavailability of good-quality care in their home country. This paper describes the experience of the Ghent University Hospital fertility centre with Dutch and French patients and tries to set out standards of care for CBRC patients. Dutch patients usually have longer histories, more complex pathology and are better informed, more outspoken and more financially secure. Thus, the care for these patients is challenging. The standards of care should be the same for local patients and CBRC patients; however, the nature of the complexity of the problems they come with will necessitate more time investment. Experience shows that many patients who have no access to treatment in their own country obtain reasonably good results. Some of them, however, are beyond possible help and these patients need a high standard of psychological care. All should be done to avoid that cross-border patients compromise the local care system. Special arrangements should be taken to manage possible complications following treatment. PMID:21945265

  2. The biology and methodology of assisted reproduction in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Monika; Duselis, Amanda R.; Graft, Audrey; Pryor, William; Crossland, Janet; Vrana, Paul B.; Szalai, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Although laboratory-reared species of the genus Peromyscus - including deer mice - are used as model animals in a wide range of research, routine manipulation of Peromyscus embryogenesis and reproduction has been lagging. The objective of the present study was to optimize conditions for oocyte/embryo retrieval and for in vitro culturing. On average, 6.4 oocytes per mouse were recovered when two doses of 15 IU of PMSG was given 24 h apart, followed by 15 IU of hCG 48 h later. Following this ho...

  3. [Assisted reproductive techniques in single women: Which proposals for which demands?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanter, C

    2016-05-01

    The French bio-ethic law concerning ART is more restricted than in other countries. Techniques can only be applied in heterosexual couples presenting a documented infertility. Nevertheless, concerns about fertility planning are numerous in young women, leading to a growing demand of reproductive medicine consultations. Two situations can be distinguished: firstly, single patients wishing sperm donation and, secondly, single patients who wish to preserve their fertility for future parenting project. This latter situation can be discussed in the French legislative context while the other will require soliciting the neighboring European teams. PMID:26997464

  4. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Pagliardini; Paola Vigano’; Michela Molgora; Paola Persico; Andrea Salonia; Simona Helda Vailati; Alessio Paffoni; Edgardo Somigliana; Enrico Papaleo; Massimo Candiani

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-h...

  5. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction. PMID:23347607

  6. Use of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology in non-obese young infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøtrød, S B; Carlsen, S M; Rasmussen, P E;

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  7. Expression of complement binding proteins (CD55 and CD59) on spermatozoa of patients included in the program for assisted reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djarkova, T.; Mollova, M.; Ivanova, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Todorov, P.; Dimitrov, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2001), s. 5-9. ISSN 0303-4569 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EU1985 Keywords : assisted reproduction * spermatozoa * proteins CD55, CD59 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2001

  8. Sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques inherit deletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of the Y chromosome and the DAZ gene copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, C; Juul, A; McElreavey, K;

    2008-01-01

    number, supplemented with haplogroup typing in deleted patients, were performed, in combination with clinical assessments in 264 fathers and their sons conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART), and in 168 fertile men with normal sperm concentration. RESULTS: In the ART fathers group, a...

  9. Parental Age and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Tourette Syndrome in a Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takafumi; Kitamoto, Atsushi; Todokoro, Ayako; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kim, Soo-Yung; Watanabe, Kei-ichiro; Minowa, Iwao; Someya, Toshikazu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Kano, Yukiko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether advanced parental age and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are risk factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette syndrome (TS). Clinical charts of Japanese outpatients with ASD (n = 552), ADHD (n = 87), and TS (n = 123) were reviewed. Parental age of…

  10. GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

  11. Comparison of semen quality and outcome of assisted reproductive techniques in Chinese men with and without hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Ping Zhou; Xiao-ling Hu; Yi-Min Zhu; Fan Qu; Sai-Jun Sun; Yu-Li Qian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 916 men (457 HBV-positive and 459 HBV-negative) seeking fertility assistance from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Women's Hospital in the School of Medicine at Zhejiang University were analysed for semen parameters. Couples in which the men were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-seropositive were categorized as HBV-positive and included 587 in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and 325 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles from January 2004 to December 2009; negative controls were matched for female age, date of ova retrieval, ART approach used (IVF or ICSI) and randomized in a ratio of 1:1 according to the ART treatment cycles (587 for IVF and 325 for ICSI). HBV-infected men exhibited lower semen volume, lower total sperm count as well as poor sperm motility and morphology (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that HBV infection independently contributed to increased rates of asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia/azoospermia (P<0.05) as well as decreased rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy in ICSI cycles (P<0.05). Our results suggest that HBV infection in men is associated with poor sperm quality and worse ICSI and embryo transfer outcomes but does not affect the outcome of IVF and embryo transfer.

  12. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pagliardini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OHD were examined. Median 25(OHD concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OHD levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OHD levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OHD levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OHD levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple’s infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences.

  13. Dilemas de la reproducción asistida Dilemmas in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zegers-Hochschild

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La Fecundación In Vitro (FIV y la Transferencia de Gametos a la Trompa de Falopio (GIFT han hecho posible el nacimiento de cientos de miles de niños. Estas tecnologías han puesto al hombre frente a frente a la posibilidad de intervenir en los inicios de su propia existencia. La pregunta es si aquello que es científica y técnicamente factible es bueno para el hombre. La respuesta requiere de una reflexión multidisciplinaria. La filosofía, la bioética y las distintas corrientes religiosas tienen un grano de arena que aportar a este gran desafío.Modern reproductive technologies, particularly in vitro fertilization (IVF and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT, have made possible the establishment of new families through the birth of hundreds of thousands of children worldwide. Meanwhile, these technologies have compelled men to face the possibility of intervening at the very origins of their own biological existence, hence creating doubts and questions beyond the domain of medical science. Society is now asking itself whether all that is scientifically and technically possible is necessarily beneficial to mankind. The answer to this question is not to be found in biological science alone, but instead requires multidisciplinary reflection including all forms of knowledge: philosophical, bioethical, and religious, all contributing to the unavoidable adventure that we are endowed with in the search for a better life.

  14. Anti-Mullerian Hormone as A Predictive Factor in Assisted Reproductive Technique of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Fallahi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and other hormonal markers and results of assisted reproductive techniques (ART in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS patients. This cohort study was conducted on 60 PCOS patients who were candidates for assisted reproductive techniques. In all patients the serum levels of AMH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2, free testosterone (fT, testosterone (T and inhibin B were measured in the 3rd day of menstrual cycle. The relationship between serum level of measured hormonal markers with retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, the number of transferred fetus and pregnancy rate were assessed. The cut-off value for the serum level of AMH and retrieved oocytes were determined. There was a significant direct correlation between the serum mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS level with number of total picked up oocytes (r=0.412, mature oocytes (r=0.472 and embryo transfer (r=0.291. There was a linear and significant correlation between inhibin B and fertilization (r=0.283 Cut-off point for AMH level according to presence or absence of pregnancy was 4.8 ng/ml and it was not statistically significant (P=0.655. Area under curve (AUC was 0.543. Cut-off point for MIS according to picked up oocytes was 2.7 ng/ml with area under the curve (ROC curve of 0.724 (CI= 0.591-0.831 (P=0.002. Patients with PCOS who had AMH more than 2.7 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes (6 or more was higher than MIS/AMH <2.7 ng/ml (P=0.002. As a marker of ovarian responsiveness to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH and despite a small sample size of our study, it is revealed that pretreatment MIS/AMH is highly associated with the number of mature oocytes retrieved during COH in PCOS women.

  15. Luteal phase support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin® (progesterone vaginal insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome H Check

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerome H CheckThe University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Camden, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A® had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin® vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects.Keywords: progesterone vaginal tablets, luteal phase, miscarriage, pregnancy rates

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliardini, Luca; Vigano', Paola; Molgora, Michela; Persico, Paola; Salonia, Andrea; Vailati, Simona Helda; Paffoni, Alessio; Somigliana, Edgardo; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OH)D were examined. Median 25(OH)D concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OH)D levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OH)D levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple's infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences. PMID:26633484

  17. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  18. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  19. [Planned children--supporting and inhibiting influences on the development of personality and relationships after technology-assisted reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, Karin J

    2016-03-01

    In the western industrial countries more and more couples with an unfulfilled desire for a child use assisted reproductive technology (ART). This focusses on physical processes and doesn't sufficiently provide necessary supportive psychological/psychotherapeutic guidance.Neglecting the psychological dimension causes ART to enhance the risk for negative processes of emotional development of a child.After a brief overview of prevalence and summarizing the legal situation three areas will be discussed which involve a high risk potential and their influences on relationship- and personality development will be described: • The psychological burden for potential parents during the treatment. • Wishes of perfection and high expectations concerning the child which can turn normative crises into severe problems. • The frequent handling of the treatment as a taboo which can become a destructive family secret between parents and child.The paper will conclude with thoughts concerning prevention and treatment.Every person working in the field of childhood and adolescence can contribute to a healthy psychological development of these children. This means acknowledging and working through the emotional burden and the wishes and explaining about the dangers of taboos like in foster care and adoption. PMID:26868833

  20. A retrospective study of New Zealand case law involving assisted reproduction technology and the social recognition of 'new' family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Fitzgerald, R; Frank, N

    2007-01-01

    The New Zealand Human Assisted Reproductive Technology (HART) Act became law in 2004. In this article, we provide a retrospective analysis of New Zealand case law from September 1990 to March 2004, leading up to the creation of the HART Act. We examine the new understandings of parenting (developed through the routine use of ART in New Zealand) which the case law attempted to test. We examine these concepts against the previous understandings of family enshrined in the pre-existing legislation, which formed the basis for judicial rulings in the various cases to which we refer. In conclusion, we provide a brief summary of the 2004 HART legislation and draw comparisons between the old and new legislative and bureaucratic frameworks that define and support New Zealand family structure. We suggest that a change in cultural backdrop is occurring from the traditional western ideology of the nuclear family towards the traditional Maori concept of family formation, which includes a well-accepted traditional practice of guardianship and a more open and extended family structure. This 'new' structure reflects the contemporary lived experience of family kinship in western societies as individualized and open to choice. PMID:16963485

  1. Effect of male body mass index on clinical outcomes following assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, W; Su, S-H; Shi, L-H; Zhang, J-F; Wu, D-L

    2016-05-01

    Overweight and obese males might exhibit a great risk of infertility. However, according to the current studies, the association between elevated male body mass index (BMI) and the clinical adverse results after assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of raised male BMI on clinical outcomes following ART. PubMed, EMBASE and three Chinese databases were used to identify relevant studies. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included live birth rate and sperm parameters. A total of 5262 male participants from 10 cohort studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results indicated that overweight or obese had no significant impact on clinical pregnancy rate [in vitro fertilisation (IVF): odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-1.39; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.15], live birth rate (IVF: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.06; ICSI: OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.50-1.99) and sperm concentration (SMD, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.65 to 0.08) compared with normal weight following IVF/ICSI treatments. Exclusion of any single study and almost all the sensitivity analyses showed that our results were reliable. At present, the role of male BMI in the process of ART is only partly understood and should be further investigated. PMID:26276351

  2. Audio reproduction for personal ambient home assistance: concepts and evaluations for normal-hearing and hearing-impaired persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rainer; Meis, Markus; Klink, Karin; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Within the Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing (GAL), a personal activity and household assistant (PAHA), an ambient reminder system, has been developed. One of its central output modality to interact with the user is sound. The study presented here evaluated three different system technologies for sound reproduction using up to five loudspeakers, including the "phantom source" concept. Moreover, a technology for hearing loss compensation for the mostly older users of the PAHA was implemented and evaluated. Evaluation experiments with 21 normal hearing and hearing impaired test subjects were carried out. The results show that after direct comparison of the sound presentation concepts, the presentation by the single TV speaker was most preferred, whereas the phantom source concept got the highest acceptance ratings as far as the general concept is concerned. The localization accuracy of the phantom source concept was good as long as the exact listening position was known to the algorithm and speech stimuli were used. Most subjects preferred the original signals over the pre-processed, dynamic-compressed signals, although processed speech was often described as being clearer. PMID:25148557

  3. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele affects approximately 35%-40% of men presenting for an infertility evaluation. There is fair evidence indicating that surgical repair of clinical varicocele improves semen parameters, decreases seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation, and increases the chances of natural conception. However, it is unclear whether performing varicocelectomy in men with clinical varicocele prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART improve treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of varicocelectomy on ART pregnancy outcomes in nonazoospermic infertile men with clinical varicocele. An electronic search was performed to collect all evidence that fitted our eligibility criteria using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until April 2015. Four retrospective studies were included, all of which involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and accounted for 870 cycles (438 subjected to ICSI with prior varicocelectomy, and 432 without prior varicocelectomy. There was a significant increase in the clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19-2.12, I 2 = 25% and live birth rates (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55-3.06, I 2 = 0% in the varicocelectomy group compared to the group subjected to ICSI without previous varicocelectomy. Our results indicate that performing varicocelectomy in patients with clinical varicocele prior to ICSI is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes.

  4. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  5. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  6. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Sialakouma; Palmer, G A; M. Botsaki; X. Papanikou; N.M. Vaxevanidis

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratori...

  7. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Khan, Zainab; Whitten, Amanda N; Remes, Olivia; Phillips, Karen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-...

  8. Countdown to 2015: changes in official development assistance to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health, and assessment of progress between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Arregoces, MSc; Felicity Daly, DrPH; Catherine Pitt, MSc; Justine Hsu, MSc; Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, PhD; Giulia Greco, PhD; Prof. Anne Mills, PhD; Prof. Peter Berman, PhD; Dr. Josephine Borghi, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tracking of aid resources to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) provides timely and crucial information to hold donors accountable. For the first time, we examine flows in official development assistance (ODA) and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) in relation to the continuum of care for RMNCH and assess progress since 2003. Methods: We coded and analysed financial disbursements for maternal, newborn, and child hea...

  9. Deficiencies in reporting results of lesbians and gays after donor intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technology treatments: a review of the first emerging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A.; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    At a time when increasing numbers of lesbians and gays consider parenthood using reproductive assistance in infertility centers, the present review aims to summarize the results obtained so far by lesbians after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor spermatozoa (D-IUI and D-IVF, respectively) and gays entering into gestational-surrogacy programs. Data show that gays display normal semen parameters and lesbians exhibit no specific causes of female inferti...

  10. Concordance Rates of Birth Defects After Assisted Reproductive Technology Among 17 258 Japanese Twin Pregnancies: A Nationwide Survey, 2004–2009

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Background Most twins after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are dizygotic. Analysis of dizygotic twin pairs is useful in assessing familial aggregation in the development of birth defects. Methods Using nationwide post-ART data from the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, recurrence risk ratios (RRRs)—defined as probandwise concordance rates of birth defects in twins divided by the prevalence of birth defects in the general population—were calculated as indicators of familial a...

  11. The effect of peri-implantation administration of uterine relaxing agents in assisted reproduction treatment cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Dhillon, Rima K; Chu, Justin; Rajkhowa, Madhurima; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2016-04-01

    Sub-endometrial junctional zone peristalsis is increased by ovarian stimulation and traumatic embryo transfer, and is linked with decreased implantation and pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction treatments. Various agents have been used to inhibit uterine hyper-peristalsis at the time of embryo transfer with conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to identify if uterine relaxants administered in the peri-implantation period during assisted reproduction treatments could improve pregnancy outcomes through literature search with no language restrictions. The review reports on 3546 patients in 17 randomized controlled trials published between 1993 and 2014. Women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques who either received a uterine relaxant agent in the peri-implantation period versus placebo or no treatment were included. Primary outcome was live birth rate. The meta-analyses did not show statistically significant benefit of any uterine relaxing agents on live birth rate. Other meta-analyses did not show a significant effect on the clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rate. Most of the included studies were of low quality and lacked significant power to detect minimally important effect. Evidence is insufficient to recommend using these agents in routine practice. Further methodologically robust randomized controlled trials with more refined selection criteria might reveal a beneficial effect. PMID:26936145

  12. Current treatment status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques%中医药在辅助生殖技术中的治疗现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖娟; 程玲

    2012-01-01

    中医药近年在以体外受精-胚胎移植为代表的辅助生殖技术中常有报道,本文从体外受精-胚胎移植前治疗、移植周期中治疗、对子宫内膜容受性的调节、对并发症卵巢过度刺激综合征的调节、针刺治疗和食疗等方面综述了中医药在辅助生殖技术中的应用现状,从而认为祖国医学与现代辅助生殖技术相结合,可有效地提高不孕不育症治疗的成功率,减少并发症.%In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has been frequently reported in assisted reproductive techniques, especially in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation. This paper reviewed the current application status of traditional Chinese medicine in assisted reproductive techniques from treatment before in vitro fertilization-embryo transplantation, treatment during transplantation cycle, regulation of endometrial receptivity, regulation of concurrent ovarian hyperstimula-tion syndrome, acupuncture treatment, diet therapy and another aspects, thus concluding that the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and modern assisted reproductive techniques can effective improve the success rate of infertility disease treatment and reduce complications.

  13. Optimizing reproductive rates in cattle on low quality forage based diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many of the world's tropical regions, cattle on low quality forage based diets are exposed to varying periods of undernutrition which reduce reproductive efficiency. In such groups of animals, temperate zone concepts of high annual calving rates are often incompatible with high levels of survival of pregnant and lactating cows. Hence, optimal biological and economic levels of reproductive performance can be lower than those accepted as satisfactory elsewhere. Herd modelling techniques offer a useful approach to determining optimal levels of reproductive performance when other production traits such as growth and survival are incorporated. Net reproductive rate (NRR) calculations provide a compact picture of the balance between fertility and survival in a population. NRR is a useful statistic for defining stages of reproductive wastage in cattle in developing countries, in order best to develop appropriate strategies for improvements in fertility. Nutritional effects on reproduction are frequently expressed in live weight and body condition changes, which, though imprecise, are useful practical indicators of nutrient status. Climatic variables influencing reproduction in cattle on low quality roughages include pasture growth days and timing and extent of dry season rainfall, all of which are useful predictors of re-conception rates, and which are useful aids in making nutritional management decisions. Finally, regardless of the production systems involved, evaluation of nutritional and management technologies needs to be considered in both biological and economic terms. 30 refs, 7 tabs

  14. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  15. A healthy delivery of twins by assisted reproduction followed by preimplantation genetic screening in a woman with X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Joo; Lyu, Sang Woo; Seok, Hyun Ha; Park, Ji Eun; Shim, Sung Han; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to report a successful twin pregnancy and delivery in a female patient with X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) who underwent assisted reproductive technology followed by preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). A 29-year-old female with IP had a previous history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. A molecular analysis revealed the patient had a de novo mutation, 1308_1309insCCCCTTG(p.Ala438ProfsTer26), in the inhibitor of the kappa B kinase gamma gene located in the Xq28 region. IVF/ICSI and PGS was performed, in which male embryos were sexed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). After IVF/ICSI and PGS using aCGH on seven embryos, two euploid male blastocysts were transferred with a 50% probability of a viable male pregnancy. The dizygotic twin pregnancy was confirmed and the amniocentesis results of each twin were normal with regard to the mutation found in the mother. The patient delivered healthy twin babies during the 37th week of gestation. This case shows the beneficial role of PGS in achieving a successful pregnancy through euploid male embryo gender selection in a woman with X-linked dominant IP with a history of multiple male miscarriages. PMID:25599040

  16. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology —

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  17. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  18. Prediction of assisted reproductive technique outcome in elevated early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone with Mullerian inhibiting substance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Safdarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of best predictor of ovarian reserve in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH is one of the most important goals in assisted reproductive technique (ART.Objective: To evaluate whether high level of anti-mullerian hormone level is related to success of ART in patients with temporarily or consistently elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH.Materials and Methods: Sixty three women underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI with GnRH-agonist long protocol or intrauterine insemination (IUI in a prospective cohort study. FSH, inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels were measured in these women whom were divided to three groups (persistently elevated FSH, variably elevated FSH and, normal FSH level. Basal characteristics, stimulation parameters, and pregnancy occurrence were evaluated.Results: AMH was significantly higher in women with persistently elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy. Women with normal FSH did not have significant difference in AMH level between conceived and non conceived cycles. Women with only one elevated early follicular phase FSH achieving pregnancy did not have significant difference in AMH level with non pregnant women. Response to gonadotropin stimulation, recommendation to oocyte donation significantly differed between the groups.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that relatively young women with persistently or intermittently elevated day 3 FSH levels have diminished ovarian reserve and lower ART success. However, in women whose FSH levels were constantly elevated, AMH (not inhibin B concentrations were significantly higher in ART cycles resulting in pregnancy. Therefore, AMH level is a good predictor of ART outcome in patients with elevated early follicular phase serum levels of FSH.

  19. Evaluation of the Growth Process of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from Birth to 9 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Nateghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to recent scientific progress in assisted reproductive techniques (ART, infertile couples can now become fertile. Thus, a number of infants in our country are the results of these costly interventions. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the physical growth process of different methods of ART infants by standard growth charts from birth until nine months of age.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 333 infants conceived through ART [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and in vitro fertilization (IVF] at Royan Institute. A sequential, non-random sampling method in a period of 22 months was used. Their growth was assessed by measuring infants weight, height and head circumference, and physical examination. The growth patterns were calculated by recording the values in standard growth charts. The final analysis was done with SPSS version 16 and by using Chi-square test.Findings: In comparison with growth charts, the weights of one-third of the infants were less than two standard deviations (SD at birth and one-fourth had head circumference less than three SD at birth. Low birth weight (LBW infants were six times more than infants of normal population. From birth to six months of age, growth abnormalities were seen in a substantial number of infants. However, at nine months of age, there was no significant difference observed between infants conceived by different methods of ART (IVF and ICSI.Conclusion: Multiple births are the most important confounding factor impacting the growth process of ART infants. Multiple pregnancies can lead to low birth weight, height and head circumference, and growth abnormalities up to six months of age. This abnormality improves by increasing age of the infants.

  20. Hematocrit as a simple method to predict and manage ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taswin Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to analyze the hematocrit levels in cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS, syndrome occurring during in-vitro fertilization (IVF, and study its role as a prognostic indicator. Subjects and Methods: Two years data of 66 women at high risk for developing OHSS was analyzed. Twenty-seven women who developed OHSS were further analyzed based on their hematocrit levels on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU and the day of embryo transfer (ET to see if there was a prognostic trend. Results: Of the total 225 IVF cases, 66 were deemed high risk for developing OHSS. Twenty-seven of these developed OHSS (40.9%. Of these 27, 21 (77.8% had a hematocrit >35% on the day of OPU. The mean hematocrit in women developing OHSS on the day of OPU was 37.39% (standard deviation [SD] 2.66 as against 35.97% (2.80 in those not developing OHSS. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.043. On the day of ET, 23/27 (85.8% who developed OHSS had a hematocrit of >35%. The mean hematocrit was 39.29% (SD 3.85 in those who developed OHSS as against 34.7% (2.88 in those who did not. This difference (4.85 was statistically significant (P 35%. Those who required cancellation of ET had a hematocrit of >35% on the day of ET or showed a significant increase of 3% from OPU to ET.

  1. Reproductive health financing in Kenya: an analysis of national commitments, donor assistance, and the resources tracking process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidze, E.M.; Pradhan, J.; Beekink, E.; Maina, T.M.; Maina, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the flow of resources at the country level to reproductive health is essential for effective financing of this key component of health. This paper gives a comprehensive picture of the allocation of resources for reproductive health in Kenya and the challenges faced in the resource-trac

  2. Reprodução assistida como causa de morbidade materna e perinatal Assisted reproduction as a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pinto e Silva

    2005-12-01

    úmero entre as originadas de RA, que entre as crianças concebidas naturalmente, com RR de 1,4 a 2,0 (IC 95%: 1,3-2,7. Não há tempo e registro suficientes para analisar os resultados originados de gravidezes com embriões congelados. Não é claro se os achados devem-se às características dos casais que se submetem a estes procedimentos, ou às peculiariedades de cada método. Muitos dos problemas relacionados à morbidade materna e perinatal devem-se ao significativo número de gravidezes múltiplas originadas de RA.PURPOSE: to carry out a literature review to evaluate the impact of assisted reproductive techniques (ART on maternal and perinatal morbidity. METHODS: specialized data bases such as SCI and MEDLINE were used to identify studies related to the terms: "in vitro fertilization", "assisted reproduction" and "reproductive techniques" in combination with "morbidity", "maternal mortality", "perinatal mortality", and "neonatal mortality". RESULTS: data from published studies allow us to conclude that maternal morbidity is related to an increase in the number of multiple pregnancies. In addition, some studies have reported an increased incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes. Specialized multidisciplinary prenatal care has been recommended to obtain optimal results. An increase in the number of multiple pregnancies considerably increases maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. There is also evidence of an increase in congenital malformations. The particular characteristics of this group of women and the different techniques of assisted reproduction, particularly ICSI, in the etiology of congenital defects were discussed, but no clear differences have been established between the various procedures. Some recent metanalyses show that the number of fetal malformations in infants born as a result of ICSI is greater than in spontaneously conceived infants, but not more frequent than in those born as a result of other ART. There is no

  3. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... painless, although some women experience mild cramping. ASRM publishes guidelines regarding determination of how many embryos should ... an egg from the ovary. Ovulation induction. The administration of hormone medications (ovulation drugs) that stimulate the ...

  4. 对辅助生殖技术的几点思考%Reflection on the assistant reproductive technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一飞

    2006-01-01

    所谓辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)是指所有涉及体外操作人的卵子和精子或胚胎,以达到妊娠目的的方法。按照这个定义,1790年John Hunter将一位尿道下裂患者的精液采集后注入患者妻子的阴道内使其成功怀孕(artificial insemination by husband semen,AIH)以及1844年William Pancoast用一位捐赠者的精子使一位妇女受孕(artificial insemination by donor semen,AID),也应归入ART的范畴。当然学术界一般是以世界第1例试管婴儿——体外受精及胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer,IVF+ET)作为ART划时代的里程碑。近二十几年来,ART技术发展飞速,包括20世纪80年代的胚胎与卵子的冷冻保存(cryo-preservation),1992年的卵胞质内单精子注射(intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection,ICSI),20世纪90年代的着床前遗传学诊断(pre-implantation genetic diagnosis,PGD),胚胎共培养技术,胚胎辅助孵化技术,睾丸精子吸取技术(testicular sperm aspiration,TESA),未成熟卵母细胞体外培养技术(in vitro oocyte maturation,IVM)以及卵细胞核移植技术等,真可谓日新月异,层出不穷。

  5. Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: i. group A (n=254 were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254 were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M П oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade І embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results: Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade І embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two

  6. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin adjunct to an antagonist protocol in assisted reproductive technology: a randomized trial study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Aghahosseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adding low-dose hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin, as an LH active supplement, to a GnRH antagonist protocol in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques. In this parallel-group randomized clinical trial, 137 infertile female outpatients aged 20 - 39 years were randomized into two groups: hCG group and non-hCG group. All patients received r-FSH (150-300 IU and then a GnRH-antagonist, Cetrorelix (0.25 mg/day. Concomitantly with Cetrorelix, patients in the hCG group received low-dose hCG (200 IU daily, but the patients in the non-hCG group did not. 10,000 IU Urinary hCG (10,000 IU was injected to all patients, and ICSI was performed after oocyte retrieval. The primary outcome of this study was comparing the pregnancy rates between two study groups. Other differences between two groups such as serum estradiol concentration, fertilization rate, etc. were considered as secondary outcomes. A total of 130 patients completed this trial. No significant difference was detected between pregnancy rates of the two groups (P=0.52 as well as the fertilization, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates (P=0.11, P=0.75 and P=0.06 respectively. The only significant difference between two groups was a higher concentration of estradiol in the hCG-treated patients (P<0.05. HCG-treated patients experienced a shorter treatment duration and a lower r-FSH required dose than the non-hCG group, but none of these differences were statistically significant (P=0.19 and P=0.10, respectively. The findings of the current study did not support advantages of adding low-dose hCG to GnRH antagonist plus r-FSH protocol in an unselected population of patients. Well-designed trials with a larger sample size for specific patients' subgroups are warranted.

  7. Computer-assisted engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. P.; Johnson, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    General capabilities of data base management technology are described. Information requirements posed by the space station life cycle are discussed, and it is asserted that data base management technology supporting engineering/manufacturing in a heterogeneous hardware/data base management system environment should be applied to meeting these requirements. Today's commercial systems do not satisfy all of these requirements. The features of an R&D data base management system being developed to investigate data base management in the engineering/manufacturing environment are discussed. Features of this system represent only a partial solution to space station requirements. Areas where this system should be extended to meet full space station information management requirements are discussed.

  8. The issue of constitutional law legitimacy on "human assisted reproduction" between reasonableness of the choices and effectiveness of the protection of all involved subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This artiche analyzes the constitutionality petition to the constitutional Court against Law 40 of 2004 on "human assisted reproduction", where it prohibits the "preimplantatory genetical diagnosis", because it could be against the mother's right to health (art. 32 Italian Constitution) and the egalitarian protection clause (art. 3 Italian Constitution). In the constitutionally petition the ordinary judge proposes an interpretation in accordance with Constitution of the contested disposition (art. 13 of Law 40 of 2004) and this could be the possibility to teste the "living law" theory and its relation with the "adequate interpretation" of the law and the Constitution. PMID:17393800

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ae Ra; Kim, Hye Ok; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese ...

  10. Assisted reproductive technology and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; McCleary, Nicola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaila, Minna; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures has increased globally over the last three decades. Recent observational studies suggest that children conceived through ART may be at increased risk of asthma and atopic disease compared with children conceived naturally, but findings are mixed. We aim to synthesise the evidence on the impact of ART on the risk of asthma and atopic disease in the offspring. Methods and analysis We will identify relevant studies by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, Google Scholar, AMED, Global Health, PsychINFO, CAB International and the WHO Global Health Library from 1978 to 2016. We will locate additional studies through searching databases of the proceedings of international conferences, contacting international experts in the field, and searching the references cited in identified studies. We will include analytic observational studies (cohort studies, case–control studies and cross-sectional studies) that have investigated the impact of any type of ART on offspring's asthma and atopic disease. Screening of identified records, data extraction from eligible studies and risk of bias assessment of eligible studies will be independently undertaken by two reviewers, with arbitration by a third reviewer. The Effective Public Health Practice Project will be employed for risk of bias assessment. Estimates from studies judged to be clinically, methodologically and statistically homogeneous will be synthesised using random-effects meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study is based solely on the published literature, no ethics approval is required. We will publish our findings in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present the results at national and international scientific conferences. Protocol registration We will register a detailed protocol for the review with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) prior to starting

  11. Sperm selection in assisted reproductive technology: An update%辅助生殖中的精子优选研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋岳强; 沙艳伟

    2012-01-01

    精子优选是辅助生殖技术中的重要环节.精子活力和形态等常规参数是评估精子的重要内容,近年来精子超微结构、DNA完整性、凋亡和膜成熟度等特征逐渐受到关注,针对这些特征筛选精子成为精子优选技术发展的方向.本文介绍了近年来发展起来的电泳法、电动电位法、透明质酸结合法、膜联蛋白V选择法、形态选择性单精子注射技术(IMSI)和微流控芯片法的技术原理,除微流控芯片法外其它技术均已应用于IVF或ICSI治疗中,同时对各种技术的优缺点和应用效果等方面做一综述.%Sperm selection plays an important role in assisted reproductive technology. In recent years, sperm evaluation is not limited to the assessment of sperm motility and morphology, but involves more other sperm characteristics such as sperm infrastructure, DNA integrity, apoptosis and membrane. Assessment based on these characteristics is becoming the aim of sperm selection. This article gives an overview on several newly developed techniques for sperm selection according to different technical principles, such as electrophoretic separation, zeta potential, HA binding, Annexin V binding, intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) and microfluidic sperm sorter, which have all been applied to IVF or ICSI with the exception of microfluidic sperm sorter. It also introduces the advantages, disadvantages and application effects of these techniques.

  12. Reproductive planning in times of Zika: getting pregnant or delaying plans? The opinion of the Brazilian Society of Assisted Reproduction Committee - a basis for a bioethical discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Bruno R de; Taitson, Paulo F; Brandão, Karina S A G; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Nakagawa, Hitomi M; Silva, Adelino A; Lopes, Joaquim R C

    2016-01-01

    Although the causality between Zika virus, microcephaly, and other central nervous system disorders has been taken for granted by the scientific community, many uncertainties remain. The gap of knowledge at the moment is large enough to remove part of the confidence physicians have on the advice given to patients - and infertile women in particular - on their reproductive plans. Pretreatment serologic screening is a possible strategy to offer more confidence for individuals choosing to bear children regardless of the Zika virus, but the tests currently available do not seem to be sufficiently adequate. Until now, there is no formal recommendation to avoid pregnancy solely because of the Zika virus outbreak, and the choice of becoming pregnant has been regarded as a personal decision to be made by each woman and her family. PMID:27584610

  13. Electroencephalography (EEG) Based Control in Assistive Mobile Robots: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N. Murali; Mariappan, Muralindran; Muthukaruppan, Karthigayan; Hijazi, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad; Kitt, Wong Wei

    2016-03-01

    Recently, EEG based control in assistive robot usage has been gradually increasing in the area of biomedical field for giving quality and stress free life for disabled and elderly people. This study reviews the deployment of EGG based control in assistive robots, especially for those who in need and neurologically disabled. The main objective of this paper is to describe the methods used for (i) EEG data acquisition and signal preprocessing, (ii) feature extraction and (iii) signal classification methods. Besides that, this study presents the specific research challenges in the designing of these control systems and future research directions.

  14. Informatics-based Medical Procedure Assistance during Space Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-01-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-mo...

  15. Pattern of Breastfeeding in Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from birth to 6 months in Tehran - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kermani

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The most important factor which affects ART infants' nutrition pattern is their birth weight. The beginning time of feeding affects their weight and length increase till 6 months. Based on reproductive techniques, breastfeeding was similar in different methods of ART.

  16. Família: maternidade e procriação assistida Family: maternity and assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Reis Braga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata das transformações que se operam na idéia de família que desenvolvemos no Ocidente. Tais mudanças se devem, entre outros fatores, aos diferentes lugares que a mulher passou a ocupar na família e na sociedade e à constituição de sua identidade pela via da maternidade. Isso também é acompanhado pela decadência do modelo patriarcal, o que gera intensas discussões a respeito de um possível fator de feminilização da cultura e declínio da função paterna. A essas questões somam-se os avanços tecnológicos no campo da medicina da reprodução e as intervenções sobre o corpo feminino, o que tem proporcionado tanto mudanças quanto reforços no modelo de família tradicional ocidental.The present article discusses the transformations within the concepts of family in the Western society. These changes are due to (among others reasons the social position that women have assumed, and to the constitution of a feminine identity based on the fact of becoming a mother. These matters follow the decadence of a patriarchal pattern, which generates discussions regarding a supposed rising of a femininization of culture and the failure of the father role. To these questions recent development of reproductive medicine technologies, and medical interventions upon feminine body can be added, which has provide changes as well as reinforcements to a traditional family model.

  17. Gender-based violence and reproductive health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Coast, Ernestina; Leone, Tiziana; Malviya, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Ernestina Coast, Tiziana Leone, and Alankar Malviya find that gender-based violence is consistently under-reported and point to flawed government policies that assume married women are safe from violence.

  18. Hermite interpolation of scattered data based on the assistant surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quan-wei; LI Xue-yi; LI Bin; WANG Xiao-chun

    2006-01-01

    An assistant surface was constructed on the base of boundary that being automatically extracted from the scattered data. The parameters of every data point corresponding to the assistant surface and their applied fields were calculated respectively. In every applied region, a surface patch was constructed by a special Hermite interpolation.The final surface can be obtained by a piecewise bicubic Hermite interpolation in the aggregate of applied regions of metrical data. This method avoids the triangulation problem.Numerical results indicate that it is efficient and accurate.

  19. Related Research Progress of Ovarian Borderline Tumor Surgery Reproduction and Assisted Reproductive Technologies%卵巢交界性肿瘤术后再生育与辅助生殖技术的相关研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丽娜

    2012-01-01

    卵巢交界性肿瘤患者保留生育功能的手术进行辅助生殖技术可提高妊娠结局,行保守性手术相对安全,再生育成功率高,保守性手术治疗卵巢交界性肿瘤的术后复发率高于非保守性手术,但未增加患者肿瘤复发的病死率,促排卵治疗对预后影响不大.因此,无侵袭性种植的交界性肿瘤患者自发妊娠是可行的,保留生育功能手术后行辅助生殖技术也是卵巢交界性肿瘤患者妊娠良好的选择.%Fertility preservation operation on patients with borderline ovarian tumoi( BOT )with assisted reproductive technology can improve the pregnancy outcome,the conservative surgery is relatively safe, the success rate of fertility is higher, BOT recurrence of conservative surgery is higher than that of non-conservative surgery, but mortality is not increased; ovulation treatment has little effect on the prognosis. Therefore,spontaneous pregnancy in patients with borderline tumors receiving non-invasive plantis feasible , assisted reproductive technology to preserve fertility surgery is also a good choice for patients with borderline ovarian tumors.

  20. Malaysia; Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Technical Assistance report reviews the reforms undertaken by the Government of Malaysia for strengthening outcome-based budgeting (OBB). OBB builds on the previous output-based modified budgeting system, which was in place for more than two decades. OBB aims to improve the efficiency, the performance, and the prioritization of expenditures by aligning national and ministerial outcomes with programs and budgetary resources and by integrating planning, budgeting, and evaluation. OBB has m...

  1. Des usages éthiques du droit islamique : une réponse aux enjeux posés par la reproduction médicalement assistée Ethical Uses of Islamic Jurisprudence: a Response to the Issues Posed by Medically Assisted Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Houot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La reproduction médicale assistée, à l’instar de la fécondation in-vitro, constitue la pointe saillante de la réflexion bioéthique. Au-delà de sa dimension normative, attachée à la pratique médicale proprement dite, le champ de la jurisprudence islamique (fiqh intéresse également la réflexion éthique et les enjeux anthropologiques. Deux directions seront ainsi privilégiées. La première, qui repose sur les instruments auxiliaires du fiqh, pointe une éthique dynamique au regard des situations de « nécessité », que la reproduction médicale induit. En retour, la pratique jurisprudentielle est mise à l’épreuve par l’expérience bioéthique. La seconde direction, qui s’organise autour de cas d’espèce attachés au statut de l’embryon, témoigne d’enjeux anthropologiques. Notre présent objectif est de montrer la manière dont la reproduction médicale participe d’une dynamique du fiqh islamique et de son adaptation à l’ici et le maintenant.Since the development of in vitro fertilization, medically assisted reproduction has constituted the cutting edge of bioethical reflection. Beyond its normative dimension, and related to medical practice as such, the field of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh is interesting equally for its ethical reflections and its anthropological implications. This article takes two main tacks. The first, which involves the auxiliary tools of fiqh, points to a dynamic ethics with regard to situations “of necessity” such as medical reproduction involves. At the same time, jurisprudential practice is put to the test of bioethical experience. The second direction, involving the question of the categorical status of the embryo, has implications for anthropology.  Our objective in this article is to show the way in which medically assisted reproduction is involved in a dynamic fiqh and in its adaptation to the here and now.

  2. Development of new stem cell-based technologies for carnivore reproduction research

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J Travis; Kim, Yeunhee; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    New reproductive technologies based on stem cells offer several potential benefits to carnivore species. For example, development of lines of embryonic stem cells in cats and dogs would allow for the generation of transgenic animal models, which could be used to advance both veterinary and human health. Techniques such as spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testis xenografting offer new approaches to propagate genetically valuable individual males, even if they should die before prod...

  3. DSPIC BASED POWER ASSISTED STEERING USING BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R.P. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS using BLDC motor for a vehicle. Earlier the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS was implemented with DSP. This study shows the usage of a dsPIC to control the BLDC motor with an encoder. The BLDC motor here is driven by dsPIC through a three phase inverter system. IRAMS type of inverter is used which is cost efficient and space efficient. The dsPIC supplied with the input of the steering. In its higher capacity the vehicles speed controller acts as the assistance level controller for steering effort. At the lower capacity, the torque controller gives the effort level control. In reality this can be realized as torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the dsPIC. For actual implementation in the system, a dsPIC-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is used with Hall-effect sensor feedback. It is designed in such a way that the driver assistance can be varied at any time without any difficulty.

  4. Mental distress and personality in women undergoing GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Toftager, M.; Hjordt, L. V.;

    2015-01-01

    . Rather, our data highlight the potential importance of (i) rapid increases in ovarian steroids and (ii) addressing personality traits indexing negative emotionality, i.e. Neuroticism, in women undergoing ART treatment, to optimize both emotional adjustment and, possibly, the chances of obtaining......STUDY QUESTION: Do mental distress and mood fluctuations in women undergoing GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols for assisted reproductive technology (ART) differ depending on protocol and the personality trait, neuroticism? SUMMARY ANSWER: ART treatment did not induce elevated levels...... characteristics, such as personality traits indexing negative emotionality, e.g. neuroticism, are likely to affect mental distress during ART treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 83 women undergoing their first ART cycle were consecutively randomized 1:1 to GnRH antagonist (n = 42) or GnRH agonist...

  5. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat. PMID:26526156

  6. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  7. Gender based violence and its effects on women's reproductive health: the case of Hatcliffe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanangana, Festus; Moyo, Stanzia; Zvoushe, Alfred; Rusinga, Oswell

    2014-03-01

    Gender based violence (GBV) negatively impacts on women's reproductive health (R.H) and is contrary to human rights and RH statutory instruments. The study triangulates quantitative and qualitative research methods with women in the reproductive age group being the target group. The study noted that 95% of the respondents experienced physical violence, 31% rape by a stranger, 92% spousal rape and 65% forced marriages. Socio-cultural, religious, economic and policy implementation factors underlie a culture of silence that prevails among the victims of GBV. The study recommends economic empowerment of women and information, education, counselling pertaining to the negative effects of GBV to both males and females. There is need for education about grievance procedures and scaling up of policy enforcement in order to curb the gruesome effects of GBV. PMID:24796175

  8. Bringing X, Y, Z Generations Together to Facilitate School-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Kamrani, Mahnaz; Yahya, Sharifah Syed

    2016-01-01

    This generic qualitative study explores the perspective of Malaysian teachers regarding the constraints of the current school-based sexual and reproductive health education in secondary schools of Klang-Valley Malaysia. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty eight science teachers of government schools. The majority of participants named the teaching strategy and capacity of teachers, the lack of co-operation from the school and parents, limited resources in teaching and students themselves as some of the challenges. We concluded that if sexual health education is to be effective, it needs to be provided by people who have some specialized training. The teachers should be trained to teach sexual reproductive health education classes at the basic level, and in-service training for teachers already in the field should be intensified. Local adaptation to culture, language, religion, and so forth is often necessary. PMID:27157180

  9. Associations between intrauterine bacterial infection, reproductive tract inflammation, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Melvin; Buddle, Bryce M; Heuer, Cord; Hussein, Hassan; Zheng, Tao; LeBlanc, Stephen J; McDougall, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive tract bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, can have a negative impact on reproductive performance. It has been hypothesized that the presence of E coli early postpartum may increase the risk of isolation of T pyogenes later postpartum. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between intrauterine bacterial infections with E coli and T pyogenes and any bacterial growth (irrespective of bacterial species), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), cytologic evidence of endometritis (an increased proportion of polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]), and reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 272) from six herds were examined at Days 0 (median, 2 days in milk), 21 and 42 postpartum. From each cow two intrauterine samples were collected via triple-guarded cytobrush at Days 0 and 21. The first cytobrush was used for bacteriologic culture. Escherichia coli and T pyogenes were isolated by culture, and E coli isolates were assigned to one of four phylogenetic groups using a two-step triplex polymerase chain reaction. In addition, T pyogenes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The second cytobrush was used to prepare a cytology slide. Nucleated cells (n = 200) were categorized as epithelial cells, PMNs, or macrophages. Cows were also assessed for body condition score, PVD score, the presence of a CL, and pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariable models. There was no association between the presence of E coli at Day 0 and probability of isolation of T pyogenes 3 weeks later; however, E coli positive cows at Day 0 were more likely to be diagnosed with E coli at Day 21 (relative risk [RR] = 2.0, P Cows with any bacterial growth at Day 21, irrespective of species, were less likely to conceive within 3 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding program (RR = 0.8; P = 0.05). Interestingly, cows with 25% PMNs or greater at Day 0 had shorter time to pregnancy (hazard

  10. CLEO: a knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-11-01

    A computer software system, CLEO, is used to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. CLEO, an acronym for Cloned LEO, is a logic-based computer program written in Pascal. It imitates the processes that the refueling expert for FFTF performs in organizing the refueling of FFTF. The computer assistant seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects that tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  11. CLEO: a knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer software system, CLEO, is used to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. CLEO, an acronym for Cloned LEO, is a logic-based computer program written in Pascal. It imitates the processes that the refueling expert for FFTF performs in organizing the refueling of FFTF. The computer assistant seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects that tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field

  12. Case-based User Profiling in a Personal Travel Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Waszkiewicz, Pawel; Cunningham, Padraig

    1999-01-01

    [Introduction] In this paper we present an architecture for a Personal Travel Assistant (PTA). We focus on the ability of this PTA to elaborate a user?s travel requirements and evaluate offers. These decisions are based on a User Profile that has the interesting characteristic that it adopts a lazy policy on learning from a user?s past behavior. Information on user behaviour is stored in a case base in the form of a Case Retrieval Net (Lenz, Auriol & Manago, 1998). A Retrieval ...

  13. Coste de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en un hospital público Cost of assisted reproduction technology in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Navarro Espigares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La mayoría de trabajos sobre costes de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA identifican el coste directo del procedimiento, sin considerar elementos como los costes estructurales o intermedios, de gran importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es calcular el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en un hospital público en 2003 y compararlo con los resultados de 1998 en el mismo centro. Métodos: El estudio se realiza en la Unidad de Reproducción Humana (URH del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada en 1998 y 2003. Partiendo de los costes totales de dicha unidad, y mediante una metodología de distribución de costes basada en la estructura de costes, calculamos el coste por proceso de las TRA realizadas en este centro, considerando los costes completos. Resultados: Entre 1998 y 2003, la actividad y los costes de la URH analizada evolucionan de forma distinta. El análisis de la actividad muestra la consolidación de técnicas, como la microinyección espermática (ICSI y la desaparición de otras (ciclo sin reproducción asistida e inseminación artificial conyugal intracervical. En todos los procesos, los costes unitarios por ciclo y por embarazo disminuyen en el período analizado. Conclusiones: Se han producido importantes cambios en la estructura de costes de las TRA de la URH-HUVN entre 1998-2003. Mientras algunos procesos desaparecen, otros se consolidan con una elevada actividad. Los avances técnicos y las innovaciones organizativas, junto con un «efecto aprendizaje», han alterado la estructura de costes de las TRA.Objectives: Most studies on the costs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART identify the total cost of the procedure with the direct cost, without considering important items such as overhead or intermediate costs. The objective of this study was to determine the cost per ART procedure in a public hospital in 2003 and to compare the results with those in the same hospital in 1998

  14. Combining gene-based methods and reproductive technologies to enhance genetic improvement of livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of molecular markers allows determination of actual genotype at gene loci, without error due to random and non-random environmental effects. In the ideal situation we can directly identify genotypes at loci containing genes with substantial effects on quantitative traits (QTL). When selection is on indirect markers there is no guarantee of QTL genotype as marker alleles linked to the preferred QTL allele can be different in different families. In such a case information about linkage phase needs to be accumulated based on phenotypic and pedigree information (e.g. a progeny test). Selection based on DNA markers, either direct markers: Genotype Assisted Selection (GAS) or indirect markers: Marker Assisted Selection (MAS), is most useful for traits that are hard to measure and have low heritability. Selection of animals based on (most probable) QTL genotype will allow earlier and more accurate selection, increasing short and medium term selection response and may aid in targeting genotypes for specific production environments or markets. Under optimal selection strategies, i.e. effectively under similar inbreeding scenarios, the additional response resulting from increased reproductive performance is constrained by maintaining sufficient effective population size. However, compared with natural mating strategies, response (after 10 years of selection) could be increased significantly, e.g. by about 20% and 35% for MOET and JIVET schemes, respectively. Use of GAS can increase genetic response initially but on the longer term (10 years) the advantage is much smaller even if major gene and polygenic response are optimally balanced. The initial benefit from applying GAS is lost later on because of loss of response from under utilizing the remaining polygenic part of the genetic variance. In the so-called 'juvenile schemes' where first selection occurs before the first phenotype has been measured, response based on phenotypic selection is difficult and GAS

  15. In vitro maturation and surrogacy in patients with vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome--a safe assisted reproductive technology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Marie-Eve; Child, Tim; Fatum, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with one of the highest maternal mortality rates of any condition. Patients with the vascular type of EDS are prone to spontaneous arterial and visceral ruptures. The occurrence of these severe and life-threatening complications is increased in pregnancy. Moreover, these patients carry a 50% risk of having an affected child. However, little is known about the risks of assisted conception treatments on these patients. We present the case of a 33-year-old woman suffering from EDS with a history of repeated ruptures of arterial aneurysms and a recently ruptured aneurysm of the splenic artery during her first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle who was then advised to undergo only unstimulated cycles. After a few natural ICSI cycles, the patient safely underwent two in vitro maturation cycles with pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in our unit. An unaffected blastocyst was transferred into a surrogate host. To our knowledge, this is the first case of EDS in assisted reproduction technologies including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to be reported in the medical literature. This case has shown that unstimulated in vitro maturation and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis can safely be offered for vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos patients. PMID:24758138

  16. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; S Nandakumar; M S Mohiyadeen

    2008-10-01

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of electrically assisted power steering (EAS) using BLDC motor for a vehicle. The control architecture consists of two layers of control, namely the vehicle speed associated control and the torque assist control. In the higher level of control architecture, the vehicle speed controller works as an assistance level controller for the steering effort. In the lower level, the torque controller gives the effort level control. This has been realized by torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the DSP. For implementing in the system, a DSP-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is specially designed using Hall-effect sensor feedback and a single dc-link current sensor. This work is implemented in a Light Commercial Vehicle having a recirculating ball type gear. This is for the first time (EAS) being implemented for this type of vehicle any where in the world. Generally, EAS having clutch to disconnect the motor in high speed or abnormal conditions from the gear box. In this implementation the motor is directly coupled to gearbox without clutch and all abnormalities are handled by the processor. This is implemented without modifying the vehicle supply system like changing the existing alternator or rating of the battery and using the existing sensors. The design is such a way that the feel of the driver assistance can be varied easily at any time. The performance of the control system is experimentally verified and it is tested in one of the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV).

  17. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  18. Zigbee/Google Earth based assisted driving system in mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN En-ji; NIETO Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The Assisted Driving System (ADS) for haul trucks operating in surface mining and construction sites is to reduce accidents related to low visibility conditions. This system is based on the GPS, Zigbee, and the Google-Earth engine as the graphic interface and mine-mapping server. The system has the capability to pin-point and track vehicles in real time using a 3D interface, which is based on user-based AutoCAD mine maps using the Google-Earth graphics interface. All equipped vehicles are shown in a 3D mine map stored in a local server through a wireless network. When low visibility conditions are present, the system indicates available exit/escape routes for driver safety. The ADS potentially increases reliability and reduces uncertainty in open pit mining operations.

  19. Informatics-based medical procedure assistance during space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, M S; Carruth, T N; Florez-Arango, J; Dunn, K

    2008-08-01

    Currently, paper-based and/or electronic together with telecommunications links to Earth-based physicians are used to assist astronaut crews perform diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions during space travel. However, these have limitations, especially during long duration missions in which telecommunications to earth-based physicians can be delayed. We describe an experimental technology called GuideView in which clinical guidelines are presented in a structured, interactive, multi-modal format and, in each step, clinical instructions are provided simultaneously in voice, text, pictures video or animations. An example application of the system to diagnosis and treatment of space Decompression Sickness is presented. Astronauts performing space walks from the International Space Station are at risk for decompression sickness because the atmospheric pressure of the Extra-vehicular Activity space- suit is significantly less that that of the interior of the Station. PMID:19048089

  20. Similar DNA methylation levels in specific imprinting control regions in children conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puumala Susan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a possible link between assisted reproductive technology (ART and rare imprinting disorders has been found, it is not clear if this is indicative of subtler disruptions of epigenetic mechanisms. Results from previous studies have been mixed, but some methylation differences have been observed. Methods Children conceived through ART and children conceived spontaneously were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Information about reproductive history, demographic factors, birth characteristics, and infertility treatment was obtained from maternal interview and medical records. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and buccal cell samples were collected from participating children. Methylation analysis was performed on five loci using pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis of methylation differences was performed using linear regression with generalized estimating equations. Results are reported as differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results A total of 67 ART children and 31 spontaneously conceived (SC children participated. No significant difference in methylation in lymphocyte samples was observed between groups for any loci. Possible differences were found in buccal cell samples for IGF2 DMR0 (Difference: 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.28, 4.42; p = 0.08 and IGF2R (Difference: -2.79; 95% CI: -5.74, 0.16; p = 0.06. Subgroup analysis indicated potential lower methylation in those whose parents used ART for unexplained infertility. Conclusions Observed differences in methylation between the ART and SC groups were small for all loci in the two sample types examined and no statistical differences were observed. It is still unclear whether or not small differences observed in several studies represent a real difference between groups and if this difference is biologically meaningful. Larger studies with long term follow-up are needed to fully answer these questions.

  1. Deficiencies in reporting results of lesbians and gays after donor intrauterine insemination and assisted reproductive technology treatments: a review of the first emerging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    At a time when increasing numbers of lesbians and gays consider parenthood using reproductive assistance in infertility centers, the present review aims to summarize the results obtained so far by lesbians after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) using donor spermatozoa (D-IUI and D-IVF, respectively) and gays entering into gestational-surrogacy programs. Data show that gays display normal semen parameters and lesbians exhibit no specific causes of female infertility except perhaps for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and some PCOS-related factors. Pair-bonded lesbians entering into D-IUI programs, tend to have higher pregnancy and delivery percentages following spontaneous or induced ovulation than single or pair-bound heterosexual women. The only single study reporting success percentages of lesbians after D-IVF provides, however, puzzling results. In particular, pair-bonded lesbians have lower pregnancy and live-birth percentages than pair-bonded heterosexual women in fresh D-IVF cycles but percentages are similar in frozen/thawed D-IVF cycles. Like in lesbians after D-IUI, surrogate women recruited by pair-bonded gays/single men tend to have higher pregnancy percentages and lower miscarriage percentages than surrogate women recruited by heterosexual couples. Notably, all the reports reviewed in the present study are methodologically flawed because of sampling bias, small sample sizes and inadequate use of statistical methods to control for the effects of influential covariates including age, smoking habits, previous gynecological problems, hormonal stimulation type and protocol, and number of prior treatment types and pregnancies/deliveries. Clinicians, reproductive biologists and editors of fertility/infertility journals should make efforts to prevent these deficiencies in future data reporting. PMID:26022418

  2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Sialakouma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratories and biochemical laboratories are required to apply a Quality Management System in order to ensure their correct, scientific and effective operation. Ultimately, it is a moral obligation for every health care organisation to supply the best possible care for the patient. The specific features and the diversity of clinical laboratories led to the introduction (2003 and, recently to the revision (2007 of the international standard ISO 15189, which is the first international standard developed specifically to address the requirements for accreditation of this type of laboratory. The basic principles for the quality assurance in the clinical laboratories are: x Complete and unambiguous standardized operating procedures. x Complete and unambiguous directives of operation. x Obligatory detailed written documentation, i.e., how each action is done, who will do it, where will this action take place and when. x Suitable scheduling of calibration/control/preventive maintenance of laboratory equipment and recording of each activity. x Distribution of responsibilities among the staff and continuous education and briefing according to current scientific data. x Complete and informed record file keeping. x Continuous improvement which is monitored with the adoption of quantified indicators. x Internal and external audit of all activities. x Troubleshooting. All these principles should be supported by the Management in order that the necessary adaptations should be made

  3. Grid-based performance evaluation of GCM-RCM combinations for rainfall reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danandeh Mehr, Ali; Kahya, Ercan

    2016-03-01

    Prior to hydrological assessment of climate change at catchment scale, an applied methodology is necessary to evaluate the performance of climate models available for a given catchment. This study presents a grid-based performance evaluation approach as well as an intercomparison framework to evaluate the uncertainty of climate models for rainfall reproduction. For this purpose, we used outputs of two general circulation models (GCMs), namely ECHAM5 and CCSM3, downscaled by a regional climate model (RCM), namely RegCM3, over ten small to mid-size catchments in Rize Province, Turkey. To this end, five rainfall-borne climatic statistics are computed from the outputs of ECHAM5-RegCM3 and CCSM3-RegCM3 combinations in order to compare with those of observations in the province for the reference period 1961-1990. Performance of each combination is tested by means of scatter diagram, bias, mean absolute bias, root mean squared error, and model performance index (MPI) measures. Our results indicated that ECHAM5-RegCM3 overestimates the total monthly rainfall observations whereas CCSM3-RegCM3 tends to underestimate. In terms of maximum monthly and annual maximum rainfall reproduction, ECHAM5-RegCM3 shows higher performance than CCSM3-RegCM3, particularly in the coastland areas. In contrast, CCSM3-RegCM3 outperforms ECHAM5-RegCM3 in reproducing the number of rainy days, especially in the inland areas. The results also revealed that if a GCM-RCM combination performs well for a portion (statistic) of a catchment, it is not necessarily appropriate for the other portions (statistics). Moreover, the MPI measure demonstrated the superiority of ECHAM5-RegCM3 to CCSM3-RegCM3 up to 33 % excelling for annual rainfall reproduction in Rize Province.

  4. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R L; Crayon, J J; Law, M A

    2006-11-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels--black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)--generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  5. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  6. The evolution of health policy guidelines for assisted reproduction in the Republic of Ireland, 2004-2009

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2011-06-24

    Abstract This analysis reports on Irish regulatory policies for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) from 2004-2009, in the context of membership changes within the Medical Council of Ireland. To achieve this, the current (2009) edition of the Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics was compared with the immediately preceding version (2004). The statutory composition of the Medical Council from 2004-2009 was also studied. Content analysis of the two editions identified the following differences: 1) The 2004 guide states that IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has failed to reveal a treatable cause of the infertility", while the 2009 guide indicates IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective"; 2) The 2004 stipulation stating that fertilized ovum (embryo) "must be used for normal implantation and must not be deliberately destroyed" is absent from the 2009 guidelines; 3) The option to donate "unused fertilised ova" (embryos) is omitted from the 2009 guidelines; 4) The 2009 guidelines state that ART should be offered only by "suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to the international best practice"; 5) The 2009 guidelines introduce criteria that donations as part of a donor programme should be "altruistic and non-commercial". These last two points represent original regulatory efforts not appearing in the 2004 edition. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 reduced the number of physicians on the Medical Council to 6 (of 25) members. The ethical guidelines from 2004 preceded this change, while the reconstituted Medical Council published the 2009 version. Between 2004 and 2009, substantial modifications in reproductive health policy were incorporated into the Medical Council\\'s ethical guidelines. The absence of controlling Irish legislation means that patients and IVF providers in Ireland must rely upon these guidelines by default. Our critique traces the

  7. Effects of the use of assisted reproductive technologies and an obesogenic environment on resistance artery function and diabetes biomarkers in mice offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Ramirez-Perez

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  9. [Anti mullerian hormone (AMH)--is it a new reliable marker of the ovarian reserve? Its role in predicting the ovarian response in assisted reproductive technology (ART)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshiek, Jonia Amer; Lessing, Joseph B; Amit, Ami; Azem, Foad

    2012-07-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is predominantly known for its important role in the differentiation of the male and female sexual system during the early embryonic period. Recently, many animal and human researches have been studying the role of the AMH in the postnatal ovarian function. In the female, AMH is produced by the granulosa cells of early developing follicles. It plays a major role in the folliculogenesis and seems to be able to inhibit the initiation of the growth of primordial follicles and FSH-induced follicles. As AMH is expressed throughout the folliculogenesis, from the primary follicular stage to the antral stage, the serum levels of AMH may represent both the quantity and the quality of ovarian follicles. Thus, the AMH levels may be useful as a new potential marker of the ovarian reserve. As compared to other ovarian reserve tests, the AMH has unique characteristics which make it a favorable marker. The measurement of AMH levels may be useful in the prediction of poor response and cycle cancellation as well as hyper-response and the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We assume that the measurement of AMH Levels may play a role in the individualization of treatment strategies among patients who are treated by ART. However, the AMH cannot predict the qualitative ovarian response in ART. In men, the AMH was not found to have satisfactory clinical utility as a single marker of spermatogenesis. PMID:23002694

  10. Developmental and Reproductive Effects of SE5-OH: An Equol-Rich Soy-Based Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray A. Matulka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and their structural analogues is generally considered beneficial to human health. Equol is not found in soy, but is converted from daidzein by human gut bacterial flora. Research indicates that between 30–50% of the population is capable of converting daidzein to equol; therefore, there has been recent development of a new equol-rich functional food that relies on bacterial conversion of daidzein to equol under strictly controlled conditions. Therefore, a new equol-rich soy product (SE5-OH has been developed, based on the bacterial conversion of daidzein; and its reproductive and developmental toxicity has been evaluated in a two-generation study and a developmental toxicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day by gavage. SE5-OH contains approximately 0.65% equol, 0.024% daidzein, 0.022% genistein, and 0.30% glycitein. From the reproductive study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for SE5-OH determined for both male and female rats is 1000 mg/kg/day (6.5 mg equol/kg/day. In the developmental toxicity phase of the study, no effects by SE5-OH were found in the embryo-fetus at any of the doses tested. The NOAEL for developmental effects of SE5-OH is 2000 mg/kg/day (13 mg equol/kg/day.

  11. Developmental and Reproductive Effects of SE5-OH: An Equol-Rich Soy-Based Ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, glycitein, and their structural analogues is generally considered beneficial to human health. Equol is not found in soy, but is converted from daidzein by human gut bacterial flora. Research indicates that between 30-50% of the population is capable of converting daidzein to equol; therefore, there has been recent development of a new equol-rich functional food that relies on bacterial conversion of daidzein to equol under strictly controlled conditions. Therefore, a new equol-rich soy product (SE5-OH) has been developed, based on the bacterial conversion of daidzein; and its reproductive and developmental toxicity has been evaluated in a two-generation study and a developmental toxicity study with Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day by gavage. SE5-OH contains approximately 0.65% equol, 0.024% daidzein, 0.022% genistein, and 0.30% glycitein. From the reproductive study, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for SE5-OH determined for both male and female rats is 1000 mg/kg/day (6.5 mg equol/kg/day). In the developmental toxicity phase of the study, no effects by SE5-OH were found in the embryo-fetus at any of the doses tested. The NOAEL for developmental effects of SE5-OH is 2000 mg/kg/day (13 mg equol/kg/day).

  12. The economic bases of demographic reproduction: from the domestic mode of production to wage-earning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillassoux, C

    1983-10-01

    This paper explores the economic basis of demographic reproduction through an analysis of the shift from self-sustaining agricultural production to wage earning in the industrial sector. In subsistence societies, the upper limits of demographic reproduction are set more by agricultural capacities than by women's natural fecundity. An increase in the productivity of agriculture is a necessary precondition for demographic growth. Such societies are based on intergenerational circulation of surplus product, i.e., the community contains preproductive members who are fed and bred until they reach a productive age, producers whose surplus product exceeds their individual consumption, and postproducers who depend on the younger generation for their subsistence. The domestic mode of collective labor becomes weakened, however, when producer members become wage earners as a result of temporary or permanent rural exodus. Under such conditions, the investment of the older generation in the next may be lost to the benefit of the industrial sector employing the rural migrants. The shift has 2 major implications. 1st, population growth is no longer tied to domestic agricultural productivity or the storage capcity of the community; rather, it is related to access to cash, wage levels, employment duration, and food prices. These circumstances foster a higher probability of demographic growth. 2nd, disruption of the circulation of subsistence produces depopulation of the rural areas and severe deterioration of the living conditions in these areas. PMID:12266014

  13. Reproductive Technologies and Genomic Selection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humblot, Patrice; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Fritz, Sebastien; Colleau, Jean Jacques; Gonzalez, Cyril; Guyader Joly, Catherine; Malafosse, Alain; Heyman, Yvan; Amigues, Yves; Tissier, Michel; Ponsart, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of genomic selection induces dramatic changes in the way genetic selection schemes are to be conducted. This review describes the new context and corresponding needs for genomic based selection schemes and how reproductive technologies can be used to meet those needs. Information brought by reproductive physiology will provide new markers and new improved phenotypes that will increase the efficiency of selection schemes for reproductive traits. In this context, the value of the reproductive techniques including assisted embryo based reproductive technologies (Multiple Ovaluation Embryo Transfer and Ovum pick up associated to in vitro Fertilization) is also revisited. The interest of embryo typing is discussed. The recent results obtained with this emerging technology which are compatible with the use of the last generation of chips for genotype analysis may lead to very promising applications for the breeding industry. The combined use of several embryo based reproductive technologies will probably be more important in the near future to satisfy the needs of genomic selection for increasing the number of candidates and to preserve at the same time genetic variability. PMID:20981298

  14. Comparison of Congenital Abnormalities of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques versus Infants with Natural Conception in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gourabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries, 1 to 3% of newborn infants are conceived by assisted reproductivetechniques (ART. Despite the success of ART, there is concern about the risk of congenitalmalformations among these infants. We report our experience to determine whether use of ARTis associated with an increase in major congenital malformations or adverse pregnancy outcomes.Materials and Methods: Historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCMwas performed in 978 births from January 2008 to December 2010. The data for this analysiswere derived from a Tehran’s ART linked data file by simple sampling method. In our study, therisk of congenital malformations was compared in 326 ART infants and 652 naturally conceived(NC infants. We also performed multiple logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio(OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the independent association of ART on each outcome.Results: We found 56 infants with major congenital malformations, these included 29 NC infants(4.4% and 27 ART infants (8.3%. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant1.94-fold increased risk of MCM.After adjustment for maternal age, infant’s sex stillbirth,abortion and type of delivery, we found a relatively small difference in risk (OR=2.04. Inthis study the majority (94.3% of all infants were normal but 5.7% of infants had at least oneMCM. The prevalence rate for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was 6.5% for the Invitro fertilisation (IVF group was 15.9% or 2.73-fold higher than ICSI group (P=0.018. Alsowe ignore the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformationsin ART infants.Conclusion: Other studies have shown a slightly increased risk of major congenital malformationsin pregnancies resulting from ART. Likewise, this study reports a greater risk ofMCMs in ART infants than in naturally conceived infants. We also found evidence of a differencein risk of MCMs between IVF

  15. Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare-Up versus Ultrashort GnRH Agonist Combined with Fixed GnRH Antagonist in Poor Responders of Assisted Reproductive Techniques Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Khani; Fariba Yousefnejad; Farnaz Mohammadian; Maryam Eftekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study compares the microdose flare-up protocol to the ultrashort gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) agonist flare combined with the fixed multidose GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 women who were candidates for assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and had histories of one or more failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with three or fewer retrieved oocytes were pros...

  16. Evidence-based medicine in canine reproduction: quality of current available literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, S; Dicty, V; Heuwieser, W

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published literature on reproduction in dogs. A systematic search in online databases revealed 287 papers that met the inclusion criteria. For evaluation a questionnaire comprising 40 criteria regarding materials and methodology, study design, statistics, presentation and information content, applicability and conclusions was developed. In a pre-test including seven independent scientists the applicability and explanatory power of the questionnaire and its results were validated. Out of 287 publications evaluated, 90 (31.4%) were classified as clinical trials. The remaining 197 publications were case reports or contained information based on personal experience. Not a single meta-analysis was found. Sixty (66.7%) of the 90 clinical trials included a control group. Randomization was conducted in 23 and blinding in eight articles respectively. In total five articles were determined as randomized, controlled and blinded clinical trials. Information content of the publications was variable concerning details on included animals, type or dosage of used remedies or conducted interventions. For example, in 99.7% of the articles, the exact number of animals was given, but in 79.8%, housing and feeding of the animals were not described. Statistical procedures of clinical trials were determined adequate in 55.6%. However, the data of 67.9% of the articles were evaluated to be not sufficient to draw valid conclusions. This study revealed evidence of deficits in the field of canine reproduction. The demand for more high quality clinical research is obvious. Requisite for the further implementation of the evidence-based veterinary medicine is an improvement of the quantity and the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trials. The practitioner should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. PMID:19563501

  17. An egocentric vision based assistive co-robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhe; Zhuang, Lishuo; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Yameng; Meng, Yan; Hua, Gang

    2013-06-01

    We present the prototype of an egocentric vision based assistive co-robot system. In this co-robot system, the user is wearing a pair of glasses with a forward looking camera, and is actively engaged in the control loop of the robot in navigational tasks. The egocentric vision glasses serve for two purposes. First, it serves as a source of visual input to request the robot to find a certain object in the environment. Second, the motion patterns computed from the egocentric video associated with a specific set of head movements are exploited to guide the robot to find the object. These are especially helpful for quadriplegic individuals who do not have needed hand functionality for interaction and control with other modalities (e.g., joystick). In our co-robot system, when the robot does not fulfill the object finding task in a pre-specified time window, it would actively solicit user controls for guidance. Then the users can use the egocentric vision based gesture interface to orient the robot towards the direction of the object. After that the robot will automatically navigate towards the object until it finds it. Our experiments validated the efficacy of the closed-loop design to engage the human in the loop. PMID:24187290

  18. Measuring reproductive tourism through an analysis of Indian ART clinic Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonandan R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Raywat Deonandan, Mirhad Loncar, Prinon Rahman, Sabrina OmarInterdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CanadaObjectives: India is fast becoming the most prominent player in the global industry of reproductive tourism, in which infertile people cross international borders to seek assisted reproduction technologies. This study was conducted to better understand the extent and manner in which Indian clinics seek foreign clients.Methods: A systematic search of official Indian assisted reproduction technologies clinic Websites was undertaken, and instances noted where foreign clients were overtly targeted, and where maternal surrogacy was overtly offered.Results: A total of 159 clinics with Web addresses were identified, though only 78 had functioning Websites. All were published in English, with the majority clustered in the states of Maharashtra (14 and Gujarat (9. Of the 78 functioning Websites, 53 (68% featured some mention of maternal surrogacy services, and 42 (54% made overt overtures to foreign clients. Qualitative appeals to foreigners included instructions for international adoption, visa application, and the legal parental disposition of the surrogate. All Maharashtran clinic Websites that mentioned surrogacy also overtly featured reproductive tourism. Preimplantation diagnosis services were not offered disproportionately by clinics mentioning reproductive tourism.Conclusions: Based upon clinic online profiles, reproductive tourism comprises a substantial fraction of India’s assisted reproduction technologies clinics’ business focus, clustering around its most tourist-friendly locales, and surrogacy may be a strong motivator for international clientele.Keywords: assisted reproduction, global health, social media, marketing, development, IVF, surrogacy, PGD

  19. The influence of female and male body mass index on live births after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent and combined associations between female and male body mass index (BMI) on the probability of achieving a live birth after treatments with in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) under adjustment for relevant covariates....... DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Danish national registers. PATIENT(S): Patients with permanent residence in Denmark receiving IVF or ICSI treatment with use of autologous oocytes from January 1, 2006, to September 30, 2010. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth....... Analyses were adjusted for age and smoking at treatment initiation and results stratified by BMI groups and presented by IVF/ICSI treatment. RESULT(S): In total, 12,566 women and their partners went through 25,191 IVF/ICSI cycles with 23.7% ending in a live birth. Overweight and obese women with regular...

  20. Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproductive technologies (ART are increasingly utilised for resolving difficulties conceiving. These technologies are expensive to both the public purse and the individual consumers. Acupuncture is widely used as an adjunct to ART with indications that it may assist reducing the time to conception and increasing live birth rates. Heterogeneity is high between treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key components of best practice acupuncture during an ART cycle, and to establish an acupuncture protocol by consensus. Methods Fifteen international acupuncturists with extensive experience treating women during ART interventions participated in 3 rounds of Delphi questionnaires. The first round focused on identifying the parameters of acupuncture treatment as adjunct to ART, the second round evaluated statements derived from the earlier round, and the third evaluated specific parameters for a proposed trial protocol. Consensus was defined as greater than 80% agreement. Results Significant agreement was achieved on the parameters of best practice acupuncture, including an acupuncture protocol suitable for future research. Study participants confirmed the importance of needling aspects relating to the dose of acupuncture, the therapeutic relationship, tailoring treatment to the individual, and the role of co-interventions. From two rounds of the Delphi a consensus was achieved on seven treatment parameters for the design of the acupuncture treatment to be used in a clinical trial of acupuncture as an adjunct to ART. The treatment protocol includes the use of the traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture, use of manual acupuncture, a first treatment administered between day 6–8 of the stimulated ART cycle which is individualised to the participant, two treatments will be administered on the day of embryo transfer, and will include points SP8, SP10, LR3, ST29, CV4

  1. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    We summarized the findings of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies on carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs). Placental transfer of fullerenes in rats and single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs in mice was shown after intravenous injection. SWCNTs appeared to be embryolethal and teratogenic in mice when given by intravenous injection and induced death and growth retardation in chicken embryos. In mice-administered MWCNTs, fetal malformations after intravenous and intraperitoneal injections and intratracheal instillation, fetal loss after intravenous injection, behavioral changes in offspring after intraperitoneal injection, and a delay in the delivery of the first litter after intratracheal instillation were reported. Oral gavage of MWCNTs had no developmental toxicity in mice and rats. MWCNTs produced morphological defects, developmental arrest, and death in zebrafish embryos. Intratracheal instillation of carbon black (CB) induced testicular toxicity in adult mice. Maternal airway exposure to CB in gestation had testicular toxicity and altered postnatal behavior, renal development, immune and genotoxic responses, and brain morphology in mouse offspring. Nanodiamonds and graphite nanoparticles inhibited vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Graphene oxide (GO) induced malformations in zebrafish embryos. Intravenous injection of reduced GO during late gestation caused maternal death and abortion in mice. Oral administration of GO during lactation caused growth retardation of offspring. Overall, the available data provide initial information on the potential reproductive and developmental toxicity of CNMs. However, confirmatory studies using well-characterized CNMs, state-of-the-art study protocol and appropriate route of exposure, are required to clarify the findings and provide information suitable for risk assessment. PMID:26375634

  2. Best practices for team-based assistive technology design courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mary R; Pearlman, Jonathan L

    2013-09-01

    Team-based design courses focused on products for people with disabilities have become relatively common, in part because of training grants such as the NSF Research to Aid Persons with Disabilities course grants. An output from these courses is an annual description of courses and projects but has yet to be complied into a "best practices guide," though it could be helpful for instructors. To meet this need, we conducted a study to generate best practices for assistive technology product development courses and how to use these courses to teach students the fundamentals of innovation. A full list of recommendations is comprised in the manuscript and include identifying a client through a reliable clinical partner; allowing for transparency between the instructors, the client, and the team(s); establishing multi-disciplinary teams; using a process-oriented vs. solution-oriented product development model; using a project management software to facilitate and archive communication and outputs; facilitating client interaction through frequent communication; seeking to develop professional role confidence to inspire students' commitment to engineering and (where applicable) rehabilitation field; publishing student designs on repositories; incorporating both formal and informal education opportunities related to design; and encouraging students to submit their designs to local or national entrepreneurship competitions. PMID:23536114

  3. Mainstreaming Gender in the Health Sector : Prevention of Gender-Based Violence and Male Involvement in Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    Betron, Myra; Fort, Lucía

    2006-01-01

    The Bank has hosted various conferences to address issues of male involvement in reproductive health and gender-based violence, yet no projects in the World Bank's portfolio have directly addressed either topic.1 Recent gender-related work in the World Bank's health projects in Latin America has made evident the limited capacity of health personnel and communities to integrate men into fam...

  4. Conference examines technology-based assistive education for disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Better education for the disabled through technologies will be the focus of the second annual conference, "Making the Connections '05: Ideas in Assistive Technology and Augmentative Communication (AT and Aug Com)" sponsored by the Virginia Department of Education's (DOE) Training and Technical Assistance Center at Virginia Tech. The training sessions will be held on Thursday and Friday, June 23 and 24, at the Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center.

  5. Male reproductive health and yoga

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice cel...

  6. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  7. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 1992, Congress enacted the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act (FCSRCA). The act requires CDC to collect data from clinics and submit an annual...

  8. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  9. A microsystem-based assay for studying pollen tube guidance in plant reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel microsystem-based assay to assess and quantify pollen tube behavior in response to pistil tissues. During plant reproduction, signals from female tissues (pistils) guide the sperm-carrying pollen tube to the egg cell to achieve fertilization and initiate seed development. Existing pollen tube guidance bioassays are performed in an isotropically diffusive environment (for example, a semi in vivo assay in petri dishes) instead of anisotropically diffusive conditions required to characterize guidance signal gradients. Lack of a sensitive pollen tube guidance bioassay has therefore compounded the difficulties of identifying and characterizing the guidance signals that are likely produced in minute quantities by the ovules. We therefore developed a novel microsystem-based assay that mimics the in vivo micro-environment of ovule fertilization by pollen tubes in the model research plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this microdevice, the pollen tube growth rate, length and ovule targeting frequencies were similar to those obtained using a semi in vivo plate assay. As a direct measure of the microdevice's utility in monitoring pollen tube guidance, we demonstrated that in this device, pollen tubes preferentially enter chambers with unfertilized ovules, suggesting that the pollen tubes sense the concentration gradient and respond to the chemoattractants secreted by unfertilized ovules

  10. The association between mastitis and reproductive performance in seasonally-calved dairy cows managed on a pasture-based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CI Gómez-Cifuentes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess association between clinical, subclinical mastitis, body condition score and the reproductive performance of cows under seasonally calving conditions in a pasture-based management system. Data from 182 cows calved during 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed considering pregnancy at the end of breeding season and number of services as dependent variables, whereas clinical and subclinical mastitis and other variables related to the animal that could have an effect on the dependent variables (e.g. parity, BCS, concurrent diseases were considered as independent variables. Lactation number, calving difficulty, interval from calving to the beginning of breeding season and body condition score had a significant effect on pregnancy at the end of breeding season. Cows with one or two lactations (P = 0.031, those with no difficulty at calving (P = 0.003, those with more days from calving to the beginning of breeding season (P = 0.001, and those with body condition score > 2.5 (P = 0.007 were most likely to become pregnant. Subclinical mastitis affected reproductive performance increasing the number of services (P = 0.03. Also, breeding season influenced number of services, since summer-calving cows needed more services to become pregnant (P = 0.046. Clinical mastitis was not associated with pregnancy as a final measure of reproductive performance (P = 0.863. Although subclinical mastitis influenced reproductive performance, several parameters related to reproductive and nutritional management, significantly affected the outcome variables under experimental conditions of this study. This information can be valuable to improve reproductive performance in similar management systems.

  11. Autonomous Vision-Based Tethered-Assisted Rover Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dorian; Nesnas, Issa A.D.; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    Many intriguing science discoveries on planetary surfaces, such as the seasonal flows on crater walls and skylight entrances to lava tubes, are at sites that are currently inaccessible to state-of-the-art rovers. The in situ exploration of such sites is likely to require a tethered platform both for mechanical support and for providing power and communication. Mother/daughter architectures have been investigated where a mother deploys a tethered daughter into extreme terrains. Deploying and retracting a tethered daughter requires undocking and re-docking of the daughter to the mother, with the latter being the challenging part. In this paper, we describe a vision-based tether-assisted algorithm for the autonomous re-docking of a daughter to its mother following an extreme terrain excursion. The algorithm uses fiducials mounted on the mother to improve the reliability and accuracy of estimating the pose of the mother relative to the daughter. The tether that is anchored by the mother helps the docking process and increases the system's tolerance to pose uncertainties by mechanically aligning the mating parts in the final docking phase. A preliminary version of the algorithm was developed and field-tested on the Axel rover in the JPL Mars Yard. The algorithm achieved an 80% success rate in 40 experiments in both firm and loose soils and starting from up to 6 m away at up to 40 deg radial angle and 20 deg relative heading. The algorithm does not rely on an initial estimate of the relative pose. The preliminary results are promising and help retire the risk associated with the autonomous docking process enabling consideration in future martian and lunar missions.

  12. Female mate choice based on pheromone content may inhibit reproductive isolation between distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marianne GABIROT; Pilar L(O)PEZ; José MART(I)N

    2013-01-01

    The Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanica forms part of a species complex with several morphologically and genetically distinct types and populations,which may or may not be reproductively isolated.We analyzed whether female mate choice based on males' chemical signals may contribute to a current pre-mating reproductive isolation between two distinct populations of P.hispanica from central Spain.We experimentally examined whether females choose to establish territories on areas scent-marked by males of their own population,versus areas marked by males of the other population.Results showed that females did not prefer scent-marks of males from their own population.In contrast,females seemed to attend mostly to among-individual variation in males' pheromones that did not differ between populations.Finally,to test for strong premating reproductive isolation,we staged intersexual encounters between males and females.The population of origin of males and females did not affect the probability nor the duration of copulations.We suggest that the different environmental conditions in each population might be selecting for different morphologies and different chemical signals of males that maximize efficiency of communication in each environment.However,females in both populations based mate choice on a similar condition-dependent signal of males.Thus,male signals and female mate choice criteria could be precluding premating reproductive isolation between these phenotypically “distinct” populations.

  13. Thiol-based redox regulation in sexual plant reproduction: new insights and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso, Jose A.; Pulido, Amada; Rodríguez-García, María I.; Alché, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    The success of sexual reproduction in plants involves (i) the proper formation of the plant gametophytes (pollen and embryo sac) containing the gametes, (ii) the accomplishment of specific interactions between pollen grains and the stigma, which subsequently lead to (iii) the fusion of the gametes and eventually to (iv) the seed setting. Owing to the lack of mobility, plants have developed specific regulatory mechanisms to control all developmental events underlying the sexual plant reproduct...

  14. Variation of DNA Fragmentation Levels During Density Gradient Sperm Selection for Assisted Reproduction Techniques: A Possible New Male Predictive Parameter of Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Monica; Tarozzi, Nicoletta; Cambi, Marta; Boni, Luca; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Passaro, Claudia; Luppino, Benedetta; Nadalini, Marco; Marchiani, Sara; Tamburrino, Lara; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta; Borini, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Predicting the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one main goal of the present research on assisted reproduction. To understand whether density gradient centrifugation (DGC), used to select sperm, can affect sperm DNA integrity and impact pregnancy rate (PR), we prospectively evaluated sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) by TUNEL/PI, before and after DGC. sDF was studied in a cohort of 90 infertile couples the same day of IVF/ICSI treatment. After DGC, sDF increased in 41 samples (Group A, median sDF value: 29.25% [interquartile range, IQR: 16.01-41.63] in pre- and 60.40% [IQR: 32.92-93.53] in post-DGC) and decreased in 49 (Group B, median sDF value: 18.84% [IQR: 13.70-35.47] in pre- and 8.98% [IQR: 6.24-15.58] in post-DGC). PR was 17.1% and 34.4% in Group A and B, respectively (odds ratio [OR]: 2.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-7.04, P = 0.056). After adjustment for female factor, female and male age and female BMI, the estimated OR increased to 3.12 (95% CI: 1.05-9.27, P = 0.041). According to the subgroup analysis for presence/absence of female factor, heterogeneity in the association between the Group A and B and PR emerged (OR: 4.22, 95% CI: 1.16-15.30 and OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 0.23-10.40, respectively, for couples without, n = 59, and with, n = 31, female factor).This study provides the first evidence that the DGC procedure produces an increase in sDF in about half of the subjects undergoing IVF/ICSI, who then show a much lower probability of pregnancy, raising concerns about the safety of this selection procedure. Evaluation of sDF before and after DGC configures as a possible new prognostic parameter of pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI. Alternative sperm selection strategies are recommended for those subjects who undergo the damage after DGC. PMID:27196465

  15. Multispectral image compression for spectral and color reproduction based on lossy to lossless coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multispectral image compression based on lossy to lossless coding, suitable for both spectral and color reproduction. The proposed method divides a multispectral image data into two groups, RGB and residual. The RGB component is extracted from the multispectral image, for example, by using the XYZ Color Matching Functions, a color conversion matrix, and a gamma curve. The original multispectral image is estimated from RGB data encoder, and the difference between the original and the estimated multispectral images, referred as a residual component in this paper, is calculated in the encoder. Then the RGB and the residual components are encoded by JPEG2000, respectively a progressive decoding is possible from the losslessly encoded code-stream. Experimental results show that, although the proposed method is slightly inferior to JPEG2000 with a multicomponent transform in rate-distortion plot of the spectrum domain at low bit rate, a decoded RGB image shows high quality at low bit rate with primary encoding of the RGB component. Its lossless compression ratio is close to that of JPEG2000 with the integer KLT.

  16. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  17. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  18. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary "forensic endocrine" analysis of events relevant to our specialty. PMID:27186562

  19. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  20. Towards a knowledge-based system to assist the Brazilian data-collecting system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valter; Simoni, P. O.; Oliveira, P. P. B.; Oliveira, C. A.; Nogueira, C. A. M.

    1988-01-01

    A study is reported which was carried out to show how a knowledge-based approach would lead to a flexible tool to assist the operation task in a satellite-based environmental data collection system. Some characteristics of a hypothesized system comprised of a satellite and a network of Interrogable Data Collecting Platforms (IDCPs) are pointed out. The Knowledge-Based Planning Assistant System (KBPAS) and some aspects about how knowledge is organized in the IDCP's domain are briefly described.

  1. Energy-Based Analysis of Ultrasonically Assisted Turning

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Volkov; Bratov, V. A.; Gruzdkov, A.A.; Babitsky, V.I.; Petrov, Y. V.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    The process of ultrasonically-assisted turning (UAT) is a superposition of vibration of a cutting tool on its standard movement in conventional turning (CT). The former technique has several advantages compared with the latter, one of the main being a significant decrease in the level of cutting forces. In this paper the effects observed in UAT are analysed employing ideas of dynamic fracture mechanics. The active stage of loading duration depends heavily on ultrasonic frequency and the cutti...

  2. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral. PMID:24004295

  3. "Cycling overseas": care, commodification, and stratification in cross-border reproductive travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Andrea; Speier, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Cross-border reproductive travel involves the movement of patients to undertake assisted reproductive treatment through technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and associated procedures otherwise denied to them due to cost, access, or regulatory restrictions. Based on fieldwork in Thailand, the United States, and the Czech Republic, we explore the commodification of reproductive bodies within this trade and the reduction of the nurturing affective labor of reproduction to exchange value. Second, we examine the intensification and globalization of the stratification of reproduction. These inequalities are illustrated though discussion of the trade in poor women's bodies for surrogacy and ova donation. Even reproductive body parts, ova, sperm, and embryos are stratified-marketed according to place of origin, the characteristics of their donors, and gender. PMID:21082483

  4. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye Setegn; Yihunie Lakew; Kebede Deribe

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representati...

  5. What is the position of Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine in its scholarly journal network based on journal metrics?

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine (CERM) converted its language to English only beginning with the first issue of 2011. From that point in time, one of the goals of the journal has been to become a truly international journal. This paper aims to identify the position of CERM in its scholarly journal network based on the journal's metrics. Methods The journal's metrics, including citations, countries of author affiliation, and countries of citing authors, Hirsch index, ...

  6. The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M A; Hiscock, S J; Filatov, D A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily). These species form a hybrid zone, yet remain morphologically and ecologically distinct, despite active gene exchange. Here, we report a high-density genetic map of the Senecio genome and map hybrid breakdown to one large and several small quantitative trait loci (QTL). Loci under diversifying selection cluster in three 5 cM regions which are characterized by a significant increase in relative (F(ST)), but not absolute (d(XY)), interspecific differentiation. They also correspond to some of the regions of greatest marker density, possibly corresponding to 'cold-spots' of recombination, such as centromeres or chromosomal inversions. Morphological QTL for leaf and floral traits overlap these clusters. We also detected three genomic regions with significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD), possibly indicating accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities between these recently diverged species. One of the TRD regions overlapped with a cluster of high species differentiation, and another overlaps the large QTL for hybrid breakdown, indicating that divergence of these species may have occurred due to a complex interplay of ecological divergence and accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities. PMID:26414668

  7. CLEO: A knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLEO is computer software system to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility. It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. The computer system seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects which tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field

  8. CLEO: A knowledge-based refueling assistant at FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.E.; Kocher, L.F.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-07-01

    CLEO is computer software system to assist in the planning and performance of the reactor refueling operations at the Fast Flux Test Facility. It is a recently developed application of artificial intelligence software with both expert systems and automated reasoning aspects. The computer system seeks to organize the sequence of core component movements according to the rules and logic used by the expert. In this form, CLEO has aspects which tie it to both the expert systems and automated reasoning areas within the artificial intelligence field.

  9. Progress and problems in the technique of assisted reproduction%辅助生育技术进展及存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠

    2001-01-01

    @@1921年1月出生。 1941年于上海圣约翰 大学毕业,获理学学士 学位。1944年获医学 博士学位。1946~1949 年在美国进行博士后工 作。1949~1951年受 聘于英国伦敦的医院做 临床工作。1950年10 月获英国皇家妇产科学 院资格。1951年7月 回国,任上海圣约翰大 学医学院妇产科副教 授。1952年调北京医 科大学。1958年北京医科大学附属三院创建,历任妇产科 主任、副教授、教授、博士生导师、国家重点学科学术带头 人。发表学术论文100多篇。主编有:"中国大百科全书医 学卷妇产科分册","妇产科经验教训101例",并参加编写 其它妇产科参考书。培育祖国大陆首例试管婴儿,首例配 子输卵管内移植婴儿,首例赠卵试管婴儿,首例冻融胚胎试 管婴儿,首例代孕母亲试管婴儿,都属第一完成者。获北京 市科技进步一等奖、全国科技进步二等奖及卫生部科技进 步奖等。被国内外誉为神州试管婴儿之母。曾任中华妇产 科学会副理事长、顾问。现任中华妇产科杂志副主编、中华 医学杂志英文版编委。曾获全国"三·八"红旗手、全国卫生 先进工作者、全国优秀归侨侨眷知识分子等荣誉称号。 辅助生育技术 (assisted reproductive technique, ART) 包 括两种不同的解释:广意的包括人工授精,同源或异源人工 授精 (artificial insemination by husband, AIH 或 artificial in semination by donor,AID), 宫腔内人工授精 (intrauterine in semination, IUI 及其衍生的新方法,如腹腔内人工授精(di rect intraperitoneal insemination, DIPI)、 直接卵泡内人工授 精(direct intrafollicular insemination, DIFI) 等, 都不包括取 卵的技术。

  10. Psychological conditions of pregnant women received assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术妊娠妇女心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵丽华; 张小建; 曹学华; 罗宏; 马静; 刘朗; 代玲

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术(ART)妊娠妇女心理健康状况,为ART妊娠妇女心理护理提供理论依据.方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)中国修订版进行问卷调查,选择2009年6月至2010年6月在我院生殖中心接受ART的妊娠妇女110例作为研究对象,分孕早期、孕中期、孕晚期三次进行问卷调查,并与在我院产科门诊做系统保健的110例自然妊娠妇女作对照分析.结果:妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.189,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女的焦虑因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.219,P<0.01);妊娠早期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.176,P<0.05);妊娠晚期ART妊娠妇女抑郁因子分值高于自然妊娠妇女(t=2.183,P<0.01).结论:ART妊娠妇女心理健康明显低于自然妊娠妇女,加强对ART妊娠妇女心理干预势在必行.%Objective: To explore the psychological conditions of the pregnant woman received assisted reproductive technology (ART) which can provide reference for clinical care. Methods: Chinese revised version of Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) was used in this survey. A total of 110 cases of pregnancy who received ART from June 2009 to June 2010 in our hospital enrolled in this study. The other 110 cases of natural pregnancy were selected as comparative group. All of them had been investigated three times when they were in the time of early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy. Results: In early pregnancy and late pregnancy, the anxiety factor scores of the pregnant woman received ART in both early and late stage of pregnancy were significantly higher than the natural pregnant women (t=2.189, P<0.05 and t=2.219, P<0.01). Meanwhile, the depression factor scores in both early and late stage of pregnant women after ART were higher than the natural pregnancy women (t=2.176, P<0.05 and (=2.183, P<0.01)Conclusion: Mental health of pregnant women received ART was significantly

  11. 辅助生殖技术治疗子宫畸形合并不孕%Assisted Reproduction Techniques Outcome for Congenital Uterine Malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高军; 徐艳文; 王琼; 苗本郁; 李洁; 邓明芬; 王子莲; 周灿权

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the reproductive outcome of 64 women with uterine malformation who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET). [ Methods ] Database of First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Ye-sen University were indexed to seek patients who with uterine malformation undergo ART from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2009. Patients were grouped according to the type of uterine malformation and their clinical and laboratory data were be compared. Once the patient was pregnant we followed up until delivery. The miscarriage rate, preterm delivery rate, term delivery rate, weight of newborn, gestation weeks and congenital malformation rate were compared. [ Results ] We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 64 patients with the following types of congenital uterine malformation: 13 arcuate, 19 unicomate, 18 didelphys, 14 subseptate. There were no significant differences in the age, duration of infertility, bFSH, the number of oocytes retrived, fertility rate, cleavage rate, good quality embryo rate when the various types of uterine malformation were compared. Patients with subseptate uterus had significantly higher accumulation pregnant rate compared with patients with arcuate uterus and didelphys uterus(P < 0.05). There was no difference in miscarriage rate, preterm delivery rate, take baby home rate, multiple pregnancy rate, weight of newborn, gestation weeks between four groups. There was no ectopic pregnancy and fetal anomaly in each group. [Conclusion] Clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate are worse in patients with uterine malformation compare with patients without uterine malformation. Patients with subseptate uterus underwent metroplasty before assisted reproduction had better clinical pregnancy rate compare with patients with arcuate uterus and didelphys uterus.%[目的]分析64名子宫畸形患者行体外受精/单精子卵泡浆注射(IVF

  12. Study of difference in child rearing practice based on sex of child among married women of reproductive age group in urban slum of Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul C. Bedre; Giri, Purushottam A; Mangala M. Bote

    2015-01-01

    Background: India a vast country has left behind a number of stigmas and prejudices to move ahead as one nation. Still in a number of states, villages, cities and towns, gender bias is persistent leading to female discrimination. Objective: To study the difference in child rearing practices based on sex of child among married women of reproductive age group in urban slum of Mumbai. Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 married women of reproductive ag...

  13. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Reproductive Medicine: An Evidence-Based Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Carter M.; Goldstein, Ellen H.; Clayton, Janine A; Segars, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health disparities in reproductive medicine exist across the life span and are costly and burdensome to our healthcare system. Reduction and ultimate elimination of health disparities is a priority of the National Institutes of Health who requires reporting of race and ethnicity for all clinical research it supports. Given the increasing rates of admixture in our population, the definition and subsequent genetic significance of self-reported race and ethnicity used in health...

  14. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita; Tehrani Fahimeh R; Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, ...

  15. Reproductive patterns and cancer incidence in women: a population-based correlation study in the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remennick, L I

    1989-09-01

    Many of the known or suspected risk factors of sex hormone-dependent cancers in women (low parity, delay in childbearing, etc) are typical features of modern reproductive behaviour. Within the USSR regional variations in principal reproductive characteristics and the incidence of breast and cervical cancers have been studied using standard correlation and regression analysis. The associations identified in previous analytical studies are generally present in the overall USSR population. However, the demographic peculiarities of this country (low mean ages at marriage and first birth, high rate of induced abortions, etc) introduce specificity into these relationships. The principal findings are: prevailing influence of parity versus age at first birth on regional variation of breast cancer incidence; consistent association between abortion rates (total, out-of-hospital and in primigravidas) and incidence of both breast and cervical cancers; suggested positive associations of early marriage and first birth with cervical cancer risk. Most of the reproductive variables studied affect the incidence of breast and cervical cancers in opposite ways. PMID:2807650

  16. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  17. Interventions in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  18. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  19. 辅助生殖技术中锌抑制精子氧化损伤作用%Zinc protects sperm from being damaged by reactive oxygen species in assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芦地; 吴金香; 王正尧; 谢远志

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨辅助生殖技术中锌对精子损伤的保护作用。方法以辅助生殖技术中常用的密度梯度离心法优选后的精子为研究对象,以过氧化氢为损伤刺激物,应用国联精子检测系统、光学显微镜以及精子DNA碎片分析试剂盒的方法比较精子的活力与存活率,精子质膜完整性以及精子DNA碎片形成,从而分析锌抑制过氧化氢对精子的损伤作用。结果过氧化氢刺激后精子的活动力与存活率差,精子质膜完整性破坏,大量精子DNA损伤,而锌能明显保护精子的损伤作用。结论精子损伤与氧化刺激密切相关,在辅助生殖技术中锌可抑制精子的损伤作用。%Objective To explore the protective action of zinc insperm damage during assisted reproductive technology.Methods Preferring the sperm samples which were selected by density gradient centrifugation in assisted reproductive technology were used for the study. Uder stimulation of hydrogen peroxide, sperm motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation were detected by Goodline sperm detection system, optical microscopy and sperm DNA fragmentation assay kit respectively, and the effect of Zinc on sperm damage from hydrogen peroxide was evaluated.Results The motility and vitality of sperms were decreased, the membrane integrity was destroyed and lots of sperm DNA were damaged under hydrogen peroxide stimulation. However, Zinc could protect sperm from damage obviously.Conclusion Sperm injury is closely associated with oxidative stimulation. Zinc could induce sperm damage in assisted reproductive technology.

  20. Modeling And Implementation Of Cognitive-Based Supervision and Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xingguang; Mosebach, Henning Hajo; Gamrad, Dennis; Lemmer, Karsten; Söffker, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    This contribution presents firstly the implementation of an automated cognitive-based supervision concept of a real vehicle. The concept employs a Situation-Operator-Modelling (SOM) approach as a representational level to model and formalize the logic of interaction between driver, vehicle and environment based on sensor and video data. The programmed implementation is realized by a Java-Application which can be connected with the ViewCar, the DLR experimental vehicle equipped with specialize...

  1. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  2. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  3. Genetic improvement of dairy cow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B

    2008-07-01

    The welfare of cow along with profitability in production are important issues in sustainable animal breeding programmes. Along with an intense/intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance has declined in many countries, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship. The largely unchanged genetic trend in female fertility and calving traits for Scandinavian Red breeds shows that it is possible to avoid deterioration in these traits if they are properly considered in the breeding programme. Today's breeding is international with a global selection and extensive use of the best bulls. The Nordic countries have traditionally recorded and performed genetic evaluation for a broad range of functional traits including reproduction. In recent years many other countries have also implemented genetic evaluation for these traits. Thus, the relative emphasis of dairy cattle breeding objectives has gradually shifted from production to functional traits such as reproduction. Improved ways of recording traits, e.g. physiological measures, early indicator traits, assisted reproductive techniques and increased knowledge of genes and their regulation may improve the genetic selection strategies and have large impact on present and future genetic evaluation programmes. Extensive data bases with phenotypic recordings of traits for individuals and their pedigree are a prerequisite. Quantitative trait loci have been associated to the reproductive complex. Most important traits, including reproduction traits are regulated by a multitude of genes and environmental factors in a complex relationship, however. Genomic selection might therefore be important in future breeding programmes. Information on single nucleotide polymorphism has already been introduced in the selection programmes of some countries. PMID:18638109

  4. Fluxos migratórios de mulheres para o trabalho reprodutivo: a globalização da assistência Migratory flows of women for reproductive work: the globalization of assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Kleba Lisboa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma experiência vivenciada como integrante do grupo que trabalhou a temática da migração de mulheres na Internationale Frauen Universität (IFU em 2000, apresento neste artigo uma discussão sobre os fluxos migratórios de mulheres que deixam os países periféricos movendo-se em direção aos países de Primeiro Mundo para trabalhar como empregadas domésticas. Ocorre nesse processo uma verdadeira globalização da assistência, formando-se inclusive cadeias entre mulheres de diferentes nações, classes e etnias. As principais causas das migrações estão ligadas à luta pela sobrevivência, oportunidade de trabalho e estudo e conquista da independência em relação à opressão e à violência. Como proposta final, sugiro que, para conter os fluxos migratórios, são necessárias políticas públicas que venham ao encontro das necessidades básicas das mulheres em seus países de origem.Based on an experience as a member of the group that worked with the theme of migration of women at the Internationale Frauen Universität (IFU in 2000, this article presents a discussion about the migratory flows of women who work as domestic servants. There is a true globalization of assistance in this process, which even establishes chains between women of different nations, classes and ethnicities. The main causes of the migrations are linked to the struggle for survival and the opportunity to work, study and achieve independence from violence and oppression. I propose that, to contain migratory flows, public policies that meet the basic needs of the women in their countries of origin are necessary.

  5. Photo-assisted reduction in nanostructured cerium-based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured cerium-based coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates exposed to sunlight under ambient conditions had an ∼30% increase in Ce(III) species compared to unexposed coatings as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A decrease in film cracks and shift in bandgap from 2.5 eV to 2.7 eV were also measured. Visible changes in color, from yellow to translucent, with exposure were also observed and suggest that cerium-based coatings are reduced by light exposure in humid environments

  6. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  7. Somos muchos (we are so many): population politics and "reproductive othering" in Mexican fertility clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Lara

    2013-03-01

    Although Mexican state officials have long attributed Mexico's "overpopulation problem" to its "high" fertility rate, that rate is almost at replacement level today. Nevertheless, anxieties about overpopulation rooted in reproduction persist. Based on my ethnographic fieldwork in Mexico City fertility clinics, this article examines how overpopulation anxieties affect infertile women as they use assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) to try to conceive children. I examine how these women attempt to justify their seemingly out-of-place use of ARTs in this "overpopulated" context by evoking discourses of "reproductive othering." Through these discourses they lay claim to a whiter, worthier status than racialized Others on the basis of their purported reproductive practices. I contend that their discourses reveal that infertility and its care are potent sites for the local production and reproduction of personhood, parenthood, and citizenship. PMID:23674326

  8. An evaluation of the sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis L. (Clusiaceae, based on reproductive features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasithorn Pangsuban

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis was evaluated regarding the basic structural specialization and reproductive characters under natural conditions. The species is gynodioecious with females (trees producing pistillate flowers, but hermaphrodites (trees producing perfect flowers co-occurred in the study site.Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between pure female and hermaphroditic flowers. Hermaphrodites have relatively long-filament flowers and produce abundant fertile pollen grains, whereas the females produce pollenless anthers. They also differ significantly in reproductive characters. Hermaphrodite flowers have more flowers per inflorescence than female flowers, but they gradually drop off before fruit setting. In contrast, female trees had relatively greater ovules per flower, larger fruits and more seeds per fruit than hermaphrodite trees. Moreover, average seed number from female trees was at least 1.7 times higher than that of the hermaphrodite trees. Interestingly, the fruit diameter of hermaphrodites was positively correlated to the number of seeds, whereas it was unrelated in females.

  9. Conflicts of assisted reproduction in the public sphere: an analysis in the agenda-setting on the television program Fantastico/Globo TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lívia Tallon Bozi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the role of massmedia in structuring the discussions in society about the advances in biotechnology and the possibilities of intervention in human reproduction. It analyzes the agenda-setting of the matter in the television program Fantastico, Globo TV, that motivated the public to comment about the right of the maternity in cases of egg donation and replacement uterus. The article indicates the complexity of the relationship of the public and private routing of personal conflicts but related to moral and ethical issues of the society, they need, because it, a broad and pluralistic debate in the public sphere.

  10. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85 kA/cm2 and 1.95 kA/cm2 at 77 K and 300 K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  11. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Siddharth, E-mail: thakursiddarth.singh@stonybrook.edu; Kamoua, Ridha [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2014-06-07

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85 kA/cm{sup 2} and 1.95 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and 300 K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  12. Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Nagatani, Yukinori

    2013-01-01

    A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage to the specimen caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio...

  13. Gradient-based model calibration with proxy-model assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Wesley; Doherty, John

    2016-02-01

    Use of a proxy model in gradient-based calibration and uncertainty analysis of a complex groundwater model with large run times and problematic numerical behaviour is described. The methodology is general, and can be used with models of all types. The proxy model is based on a series of analytical functions that link all model outputs used in the calibration process to all parameters requiring estimation. In enforcing history-matching constraints during the calibration and post-calibration uncertainty analysis processes, the proxy model is run for the purposes of populating the Jacobian matrix, while the original model is run when testing parameter upgrades; the latter process is readily parallelized. Use of a proxy model in this fashion dramatically reduces the computational burden of complex model calibration and uncertainty analysis. At the same time, the effect of model numerical misbehaviour on calculation of local gradients is mitigated, this allowing access to the benefits of gradient-based analysis where lack of integrity in finite-difference derivatives calculation would otherwise have impeded such access. Construction of a proxy model, and its subsequent use in calibration of a complex model, and in analysing the uncertainties of predictions made by that model, is implemented in the PEST suite.

  14. Use of milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and computer applications for community based reproductive health services in smallholder dairy farms of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We trained veterinarians, inseminators and farmers to increase their skills and compliance with project activities, used AIDA Asia (a computer application) to record and evaluate fertility of bulls and performance of inseminators, introduced measurement of progesterone (P4) in milk by radioimmunoassay (RIA) to detect artificial insemination (AI) done at incorrect time and non-pregnant cows, and adopted community-based veterinary services for the management of dairy cattle health and reproduction. Training inseminators increased their skills in doing AI correctly and training veterinarians improved their confidence in the management of reproductive problems in cows. Training farmers increased their compliance to adopt the interventions that were introduced. Milk preserved with sodium azide maintained stable P4 concentrations for at least two weeks. Milk P4 concentration was intermediate (≥1 - 1 nmol/L) P4 concentration in milk on day 22.24 after AI, indicating non-pregnancy. More than 12% of cows that did not return to heat by 35.60 days after AI were non-pregnant upon rectal palpation. One-hundred and thirty-eight such cows were examined and 52% were anoestrous, 11% were repeat breeders, 14% had uterine infections and 17.4% had escaped oestrus detection. Various treatment regimes were tested for reproductive problems including anoestrus, repeat breeding and uterine infections, and those proven to be successful were adopted of wider application. Zebu bulls achieved 3.5% higher conception rate (50.8%; n 1275) than did crossbred bulls (47.3%; n = 1256). Conception rates achieved by individual inseminators ranged between 45.5% and 54.1%. In conclusion, milk progesterone RIA identified AIs done at the incorrect time and nonpregnant cows; on-farm veterinary services identified non-detected oestrous cows, which could be treated and inseminated; and AIDA Asia proved useful in evaluating fertility of bulls and skills of inseminators. (author)

  15. Computer-Assisted Search Of Large Textual Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James R.

    1995-01-01

    "QA" denotes high-speed computer system for searching diverse collections of documents including (but not limited to) technical reference manuals, legal documents, medical documents, news releases, and patents. Incorporates previously available and emerging information-retrieval technology to help user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual data bases. Technology includes provision for inquiries in natural language; statistical ranking of retrieved information; artificial-intelligence implementation of semantics, in which "surface level" knowledge found in text used to improve ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, in which user's judgements of relevance of some retrieved documents used automatically to modify search for further information.

  16. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and

  17. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  18. Open source, web-based machine-learning assisted classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Consarnau Pallarés, Mireia Roser

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a design overview of the web based machine learning assisted multi-user classification system. The design is based on open source standards both for multi-user environment written in PHP using the Laravel framework and a Python based machine learning toolkit, Scikit-Learn. The advantage of the proposed system is that it does not require the domain specific knowledge or programming skills. Machine learning classification tasks are done on the background...

  19. Improved color reproduction based on CIELAB color space in integrated multi-scale retinex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Wang-Jun; Lee, Tae-Hyoung; Lee, Cheol-Hee; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Recently, tone reproduction is widely used in the field of image enhancement and HDR imaging. This method is especially used to provide the proper luminance so that captured images give the same sensation as the scene. As a result, we can get high contrast and naturalness of colors. There is ample literature on the topic of tone reproduction that has the objective of reproducing natural looking color in digital images. In recent papers, IMSR (Integrated multi-scale Retinex) shows great naturalness in the result images. Most methods, including IMSR, work in RGB or quasi-RGB color spaces, although some method adopted the use of luminance. This raises hue distortion from the point of the human visual system, that is, hue distortion in CIELAB color space. Accordingly, this paper proposes an enhanced IMSR method in a device-independent color space, CIELAB, to preserve hue and obtain high contrast and naturalness. In order to achieve the devised objectives, a captured sRGB image is transformed to the CIELAB color space. IMSR is then applied to only L* values, thus the balance of colors components are preserved. This process causes unnatural saturation, therefore saturation adjustment is performed by applying the ratio of chroma variation at the sRGB gamut boundary according to the corrected luminance. Finally, the adjusted CIELAB values are transformed to sRGB using the inverse transform function. In the result images of the proposed method, containing both high and low luminance regions, visibility in dark shadow and bright regions was improved and color distortion was reduced.

  20. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. PMID:27578347

  1. Can Graduate Teaching Assistants Teach Inquiry-Based Geology Labs Effectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…

  2. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  3. Learning Achievement in Solving Word-Based Mathematical Questions through a Computer-Assisted Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Hua; Liu, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a computer-assisted mathematical problem-solving system in the form of a network instruction website to help low-achieving second- and third-graders in mathematics with word-based addition and subtraction questions in Taiwan. According to Polya's problem-solving model, the system is designed to guide these low-achievers…

  4. Listening Strategy Use and Influential Factors in Web-Based Computer Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates second and foreign language (L2) learners' listening strategy use and factors that influence their strategy use in a Web-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) system. A strategy inventory, a factor questionnaire and a standardized listening test were used to collect data from a group of 82 Chinese students…

  5. Reproductive performance in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Rigét, Frank F.;

    2009-01-01

    quotient (RQ) evaluation to more quantitatively evaluate the effect risk on reproduction (embryotoxicity and teratogenicity) based on the critical body residue (CBR) concept and using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We applied modelling approaches to PCBs, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin...

  6. Assessment of walking performance in robot-assisted gait training: A novel approach based on empirical data

    OpenAIRE

    Banz, R; Riener, R.; Lünenburger, L; Bolliger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation and voluntary drive of patients can be improved by applying biofeedback during robot-assisted rehabilitation trainings. Biofeedback systems were traditionally based on theoretical assumptions. In this paper, we present a novel approach to calculate biofeedback during robot-assisted gait training. Our method was based on empirical data that were obtained from healthy subjects when simulating distinctive degrees of walking performance during robot-assisted gait training. This empiric...

  7. Computer-assisted design of Nb-based in-situ composites and superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights a computer-assisted alloying approach for designing ductile Nb solid solution alloys. An extension of this approach to improve the fracture resistance of Nb-based silicides, Laves phases, and in-situ composites is described and its utility is evaluated against experimental data. Possible application of this approach to designing Nb-based superalloys containing a microstructure of Nb (bcc) solid solution with ordered B2 or L12 intermetallics is elucidated to identify potential obstacles. (orig.)

  8. EDP-assisted system solutions in machine monitoring and quality assurance based on acoustic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many fields of engineering and technology, experienced staff are able to assess the condition of machines, plants and production processes by changes in both noise and vibrations ('old hand's touch'). Similar to these subjective methods based on mental expertise, complete EDP-assisted system solutions are needed to implement reliable and objective monitoring based on acoustic signals. The author describes such a system including its mature hardware components, problem-oriented software and engineering people ware. (orig./DG)

  9. Computer Assisted Learning for Bases of Electronics. From LAN to Hypermedia Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Topa, Marina Dana; Festila, Lelia; Burian, Adrian; Neag, Marius

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a Computer Assisted Learning system, from Local Area Networks to Hypermedia environment. The user Professor is endowed with authoring support for tutorials and multiple-choice tests, with knowledge data-bases managing facilities and with access to complete records of students results. The user Student can attend a tutorial or take a test on a self-initiative base or during a session managed interactively by the Professor. The LAN system, implemented i...

  10. Inhibitors of tick-borne flavivirus reproduction from structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Dueva, Evgenia V; Dotsenko, Victor V; Rogova, Yulia V; Frolov, Konstantin A; Krivokolysko, Sergey G; Romanova, Ekaterina G; Morozov, Alexey S; Karganova, Galina G; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Pentkovski, Vladimir M; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2013-09-12

    Flaviviruses form a large family of enveloped viruses affecting millions of people over the world. To date, no specific therapy was suggested for the infected people, making the treatment exclusively symptomatic. Several attempts were performed earlier for the design of fusion inhibitors for mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas for the tick-borne flaviviruses such design had not been performed. We have constructed homology models of envelope glycoproteins of tick-transmitted flaviviruses with the detergent binding pocket in the open state. Molecular docking of substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyrido[2,1-b][1,3,5]thiadiazines was made against these models, and 89 hits were selected for the in vitro experimental evaluation. Seventeen compounds showed significant inhibition against tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, or Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus in the 50% plaque reduction test in PEK cells. These compounds identified through rational design are the first ones possessing reproduction inhibition activity against tick-borne flaviviruses. PMID:24900762

  11. NGS-Based Assay for the Identification of Individuals Carrying Recessive Genetic Mutations in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulí, Anna; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Veiga, Anna; Armengol, Lluís; Barri, Pedro N; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Estivill, Xavier

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the capacity of carrier screening in gamete donation (GD) programs. We have developed and validated an NGS carrier-screening test (qCarrier test) that includes 200 genes associated with 368 disorders (277 autosomal recessive and 37 X-linked). Carrier screening is performed on oocyte donation candidates and the male partner of oocyte recipient. Carriers of X-linked conditions are excluded from the GD program, whereas donors are chosen who do not carry mutations for the same gene/disease as the recipients. The validation phase showed a high sensitivity (>99% sensitivity) detecting all single-nucleotide variants, 13 indels, and 25 copy-number variants included in the validation set. A total of 1,301 individuals were analysed with the qCarrier test, including 483 candidate oocyte donors and 635 receptor couples, 105 females receiving sperm donation, and 39 couples seeking pregnancy. We identified 56% of individuals who are carriers for at least one genetic condition and 1.7% of female donors who were excluded from the program due to a carrier state of X-linked conditions. Globally, 3% of a priori assigned donations had a high reproductive risk that could be minimized after testing. Genetic counselling at different stages is essential for helping to facilitate a successful and healthy pregnancy. PMID:26990548

  12. New evidence of reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. I. Ovulate organ Homevaleia gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2007-07-01

    This study describes Homevaleia gouldii H. Nishida, Pigg, Kudo et Rigby gen. et sp. nov., an ovule-bearing glossopterid organ, based on a combination of recently collected permineralized specimens from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, and on previously studied material from the 1977 Gould and Delevoryas study. Homevaleia, which resembles the compression-impression genus Dictyopteridium, is an inrolled megasporophyll with a distinct keel that bears numerous (over 70) stalked ovules on its adaxial surface. Ovules are small, oval, with an elaborate mesh-like structure that is developed from the outermost integumentary layers. Specimens interpreted as representing different developmental stages show there is an apparent interrelationship between megagametophyte development and the opening of the surrounding fertile structure for pollination. Together, new information provided by this material enables better understanding of glossopterid reproductive structure and its function in one distinctive form. PMID:17534692

  13. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  14. 24 CFR 5.613 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: PHA cooperation with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 tenant-based assistance program: PHA cooperation with welfare agency. 5.613 Section 5.613 Housing... cooperation with welfare agency. (a) This section applies to the public housing program and the Section 8 tenant-based assistance program. (b) The PHA must make best efforts to enter into cooperation...

  15. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Beef heifer development and lifetime productivity in rangeland-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A J; Funston, R N; Grings, E E; Petersen, M K

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional and environmental factors have been shown to cause epigenetic changes that influence characteristics of the offspring throughout life. In livestock, small differences in nutrition during gestation may alter lifetime production efficiency of offspring. Therefore, the potential for fetal programing should be considered when determining supplemental feeding strategies during gestation. For example, female offspring born to cows grazing dormant winter pasture supplemented with 1.1 kg/d of alfalfa hay during the last third of gestation were 10 kg heavier and had greater BCS at 5 yr of age than those from dams supplemented with 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay. These differences were beneficial for maintaining reproductive performance in offspring managed with fewer harvested feed inputs. Evaluation of female offspring from cows wintered on either low-quality or high-quality pasture for 30 to 45 d during the fifth to sixth month of gestation indicated a trend for longer duration of productivity in daughters from cows wintered on improved pasture. In recent studies comparing offspring from cows with or without protein supplementation while grazing dormant winter range during late gestation, heifers from protein-supplemented dams had greater BW at weaning. This BW increase persisted throughout pregnancy and to subsequent calving, and pregnancy rates were greater in heifers from protein-supplemented dams. Heifers from protein-supplemented dams had lower G:F compared with heifers from unsupplemented dams. Therefore, in utero exposure to nutritionally limited environments (nonsupplemented dams) may promote greater feed efficiency in the heifer offspring later in life. Nutrition during postweaning development may also affect lifetime productivity. Heifers developed on low-quality native range with RUP supplementation had greater retention beyond 3 yr of age than cohorts developed in a feedlot with higher quality feed and greater ADG. Collectively, these examples show

  16. Prioritization of candidate genes for cattle reproductive traits, based on protein-protein interactions, gene expression, and text-mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulsegge, Ina; Woelders, Henri; Smits, Mari;

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is of significant economic importance in dairy cattle. Improved understanding of mechanisms that control estrous behavior and other reproduction traits could help in developing strategies to improve and/or monitor these traits. The objective of this study was to predict and rank gene...

  17. Investigação e reprodução assistida no tratamento da infertilidade masculina Investigation and assisted reproduction in the treatment of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Firmbach Pasqualotto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infertilidade masculina afeta 10% dos casais em idade reprodutiva em todo o mundo e pode ser tratada em muitos casos. Além de outras etiologias bem documentadas como causadoras da infertilidade masculina, as causas genéticas cada vez mais têm sido diagnosticadas. Reconstrução microcirúrgica do trato reprodutivo ou varicocelectomia é preferível à captação de espermatozóides com fertilização in vitro e injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóides em homens vasectomizados ou com varicocele na ausência de fatores de risco para infertilidade feminina. Se ocorrer uma obstrução epididimária após a vasectomia ou se a mulher possuir uma idade avançada, a decisão para reconstrução microcirúrgica ou captação de espermatozóides com fertilização in vitro ou injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóides deve ser individualizada. Captação espermática com fertilização in vitro e injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóides é preferível ao tratamento cirúrgico quando o tratamento do fator feminino requer fertilização in vitro ou quando as chances de sucesso com a captação de espermatozóides e injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóides são superiores às chances com o tratamento cirúrgico.Male infertility affects 10% of couples in the reproductive age worldwide and is treatable in many cases. In addition to other well-described etiologies, genetic causes of male infertility are now more commonly diagnosed. In men with prior vasectomy or varicocele, microsurgical reconstruction of the reproductive tract or varicocelectomy is more cost-effective than sperm retrieval with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection if no female fertility risk factors are present. If epididymal obstruction after vasectomy is detected or advanced female age is present, the decision to use either microsurgical reconstruction or sperm retrieval with in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm

  18. Medical Assistant-based care management for high risk patients in small primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients...... with type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or chronic heart failure and a likelihood of hospitalization in the upper quartile of the population, as predicted by insurance data analysis. Intervention: We compared protocol-based care management including structured assessment, action...

  19. Computer-Assisted Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ablation Planning Based on 3-D Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Su, Zhongzhen; Xu, Erjiao; Guan, Peishan; Li, Liu-Jun; Zheng, Rongqin

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate computer-assisted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ablation planning based on 3-D ultrasound, 3-D ultrasound images of 60 HCC lesions from 58 patients were obtained and transferred to a research toolkit. Compared with virtual manual ablation planning (MAP), virtual computer-assisted ablation planning (CAP) consumed less time and needle insertion numbers and exhibited a higher rate of complete tumor coverage and lower rate of critical structure injury. In MAP, junior operators used less time, but had more critical structure injury than senior operators. For large lesions, CAP performed better than MAP. For lesions near critical structures, CAP resulted in better outcomes than MAP. Compared with MAP, CAP based on 3-D ultrasound imaging was more effective and achieved a higher rate of complete tumor coverage and a lower rate of critical structure injury; it is especially useful for junior operators and with large lesions, and lesions near critical structures. PMID:27126243

  20. Performance of Correspondence Algorithms in Vision-Based Driver Assistance Using an Online Image Sequence Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klette, Reinhard; Krüger, Norbert; Vaudrey, Tobi;

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses options for testing correspondence algorithms in stereo or motion analysis that are designed or considered for vision-based driver assistance. It introduces a globally available database, with a main focus on testing on video sequences of real-world data. We suggest the......) for demonstrating ideas, difficulties, and possible ways in this future field of extensive performance tests in vision-based driver assistance, particularly for cases where the ground truth is not available. This paper shows that the complexity of real-world data does not support the identification of...... report on hours of driving, and multiple hours of long video data may be segmented into basic sequences and classified into situations. This paper prepares for this expected development. This paper uses three different evaluation approaches (prediction error, synthesized sequences, and labeled sequences...

  1. Development of Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning Software for First Aid Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TEKEDERE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Today various facilities depending on the technological progresses have been continuing in use in education. The requirements for new applications in education come to the fore due to the factors such as the unavailability of students in the same place at the same time. In this study, web-assisted software was developed for conducting the first aid lessons in Vocational High School of Health Services over the web by the strategy of problem-based learning. This web-assisted software was designed by taking into consideration the teaching processes of problem-based learning strategy. At the same time, this software possesses a property of a frame model that gives students the opportunity of collaboration with different disciplines by its flexible structure.

  2. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Inquiry-Based Intervention on Human Reproduction in Relation to Students' Gender, Prior Knowledge and Motivation for Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…

  3. Recommendations to design environmental monitoring in the European bullhead, Cottus sp., based on reproductive cycle and immunomarker measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Villeret, Mélanie; Geffard, Alain; Palluel, Olivier; Blanchard, Christophe; Le Rohic, Cindy; Besson, Sylvain; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Minier, Christophe; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-06-30

    European bullhead is a relevant fish species to assess adverse effects of environmental stress on wild fish. Nevertheless, their complex reproductive cycle is very different between sites and could interfere with many physiological processes. Thus, prior to use biomarker to statute on environmental quality of rivers, we wanted to characterize reproductive profile (spawn number, GSI, gonad development). The major results demonstrated that the two types of reproductive cycle shown were strongly correlated to water temperature variation. In a second time, even if innate immunomarkers are highly relevant on biomonitoring program, hormonal variation seems to impact severely their responses. Thus, the link between reproductive status and immune activity (leucocyte distribution, cellular mortality, respiratory burst, phagocytosis activity) must also be study. Nonetheless, in the present work, immune capacities seems to be more correlated with season and environmental factors than reproduction. PMID:25599631

  4. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  5. Polarization assisted fast data encoding and transmission using coherence based spectral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for fast information encoding and free space communication are proposed, which are based on the rapid transitions in coherence-based (spatial and temporal) spectral anomalies called ‘spectral switches’. The information (data bits) could be encoded in terms of red and blue shifts in the source spectrum. The encoding process itself could be made fast by polarization assisted switching of spectral anomalies using a polarization selective device such as an electro-optic modulator. The advantages and limitations of this polarization based data processing mechanism are also discussed. (paper)

  6. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  7. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, P William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “b...

  8. A vision-based path planner/follower for an assistive robotics project

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini, Andrea; Oriolo, Giuseppe; Macri,Francesco; Aloise, Fabio; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella

    2007-01-01

    International audience Assistive technology is an emerging area where robots can be used to help individuals with motor disabilities achieve independence in daily living activities. Mobile robots should be able to autonomously and safely move in the environment (e.g. the user apartment), by accurately solving the self-localization problem and planning ef paths to the target destination speciied by the user. This paper presents a vision-based navigation scheme designed for Sony AIBO, in ASP...

  9. Lane Keeping Assistance with Learning-Based Driver Model and Model Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Stéphanie; Gao, Yiqi; Vasquez, Dizan; Tseng, H. Eric; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Borrelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a novel active Lane Keeping Assistance Systems (LKAS) which relies on a learning-based driver model. The driver model detects unintentional lane departures earlier than existing LKAS, and as a result the correction needed to keep the vehicle in the lane is smaller. When the controller has control of the car, the driver model estimates what the driver would do to keep the car in the lane, and the controller tries to reproduce that behavior as much ...

  10. The Reviewer's Assistant: Recommending Topics to Writers by Association Rule Mining and Case-base Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ruihai; Schaal, Markus; O'Mahony, Michael P.; Smyth, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Today, online reviews for products and services have become an important class of user-generated content and they play a valuable role for countless online businesses by helping to convert casual browsers into informed and satisfied buyers. As users gravitate towards sites that offer insightful and objective reviews, the ability to source helpful reviews from a community of users is increasingly important. In this extended abstract we describe the Reviewer’s Assistant, a case-based reasoning ...

  11. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tao, Meixia; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifie...

  12. Computer-Assisted Learning Based on Cumulative Vocabularies, Conceptual Networks and Wikipedia Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation we propose new methods and frameworks for computer-assisted learning based on self-designed and self-implemented software prototypes supplied with user testing. Motivated by previous research identifying possibly similar scale-free small-world properties in Wikipedia online encyclopedia, social networks and human brain networks, we suggest that collaboratively generated knowledge structures of Wikipedia can be used to support learning. After reviewing background ...

  13. Reproductive history and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Allan; Pedersen, Bo V; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Frisch, Morten

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting.......It has been suggested that reproductive factors may be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied associations of reproductive history with MS risk in a population-based setting....

  14. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  15. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yao; Liu, Qi; Fan, Jinchen, E-mail: Jinchen.fan@shiep.edu.cn; Shi, Penghui; Min, Yulin, E-mail: ahaqmylin@126.com; Xu, Qunjie [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-07-15

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 10{sup 4} S/m.

  16. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 104 S/m.

  17. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date. PMID:19010523

  18. Safety evaluation of the offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology with donor's semen%供精精液行辅助生殖技术出生子代安全性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁明; 张斌; 孙伟; 许蓬; 张州; 杨晓玉; 曹小蓉; 胡洪亮; 李铮

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the incidences of birth defects in the offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), including artificial insemination with the donor's semen (AID), in vitro fertilization with donor's semen (IVF-D) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with the donor's semen ( ICSI-D), and in those conceived through ART with the husband's semen, including AIH, IVF and ICSI, in order to further evaluate the safety of ART with the donor's semen.Methods: From January 2005 to October 2009, Shanghai Human Sperm Bank provided sperm copies to 11 medical institutions, which resulted in a total of 904 offspring born by ART.We followed up all these cases and investigated the status of the offspring.The control group included 4195 offspring of infertile couples from 4 Reproductive Medical Centers approved by health management administrations, which were conceived by ART in the same period.After investigating the number of offspring and cases of birth defects caused by various methods of assisted reproductive technology, we compared the incidence of birth defects resulting from the donor's semen and that from the husband's.Results: There were 7 cases of birth defects (0.77%) in the offspring bom by ART with the donor's semen, and 42 cases (1.00%) in those born by ART with the hnsband's semen, with no significant differences between the two groups (P >0.05).Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the category of birth defects between ART with the donor's semen and that with the husband's, while the incidence of birth defects resulting from ART with the donor's semen was significantly lower than that from ICSI in infertile couples.The present findings indicate a higher safety of ART with the donor's semen.%目的:本研究调查应用供精者精液实施辅助生殖技术(ART),包括供精人工授精(AID)、供精体外受精(IVF-D、ICSI-D)与应用丈夫精液经ART(AIH、IVF、ICSI)出生子代缺陷的发生率,从

  19. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges. PMID:27475417

  20. Development of a Mobile Language Learning Assistant System Based on Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Il; Lee, Young-Hun; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    One of the most important issues of the school education today is that learners are not able to apply their knowledge that they've learned from the classroom to their real life. Situated Learning Theory would be one of the best solutions to solve these problems. However, current methods which have been developed for instructional purpose until now don't seem to reflect Situated Learning Theory enough. It is vital to investigate better applicable methods that can be practiced in education field based on Situated Learning Theory. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to design and implement a Mobile Language Learning Assistant System using location awareness technology. This study has found that Mobile Language Learning Assistant System can be effectively utilized in providing authentic learning environment and also its future prospect is very bright according to the learner evaluation.

  1. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  2. Arabic Language Learning Assisted by Computer, based on Automatic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Terbeh, Naim

    2012-01-01

    This work consists of creating a system of the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) based on a system of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) for the Arabic language using the tool CMU Sphinx3 [1], based on the approach of HMM. To this work, we have constructed a corpus of six hours of speech recordings with a number of nine speakers. we find in the robustness to noise a grounds for the choice of the HMM approach [2]. the results achieved are encouraging since our corpus is made by only nine speakers, but they are always reasons that open the door for other improvement works.

  3. A Case-Based Personal Travel Assistant for Elaborating User Requirements and Assessing Offers

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Lorcan; Cunningham, Padraig; Hayes, Conor

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a case-based approach to user profiling in a Personal Travel assistant (based on the 1998 FIPA Travel Scenario). The ap-proach is novel in that the user profile is made up of a set of cases capturing previous interactions rather than as a single composite case. This has the advan-tage that the profile is always up-to-date and also allows for the borrowing of cases from similar users when coverage is poor. Profile data is retrieved from a database in an XML format and load...

  4. INS/EKF-based stride length, height and direction intent detection for walking assistance robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescianini, Dario; Jung, Jun-Young; Jang, In-Hun; Park, Hyun Sub; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We propose an algorithm used to obtain the information on stride length, height difference, and direction based on user's intent during walking. For exoskeleton robots used to assist paraplegic patients' walking, this information is used to generate gait patterns by themselves in on-line. To obtain this information, we attach an inertial measurement unit(IMU) on crutches and apply an extended kalman filter-based error correction method to reduce the phenomena of drift due to bias of the IMU. The proposed method is verifed in real walking scenarios including walking, climbing up-stairs, and changing direction of walking with normal. PMID:22275567

  5. The principle of equality and the right to assisted procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of equality is the foundation of developing an entire system of human rights, and its implementation represents the standard of respecting each right individually. With these premises as a starting point, the subject of the author’s interests is whether the right to assisted reproduction, as a segment of reproductive rights, is regulated in conformity with the equality principal. In order to reach an answer, the author examines the concept of human assisted reproduction and analyzes the application of reproductive technologies in the light of legal, social and political reforms which affected marriages, the family and partnership in general at the end of the 20th century. The author finds that the most significant ones among them are the emancipation of women, recognition and legal formation of same sex unions and statements prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, by considering the right to assisted reproduction in the context of other human rights with which it is interconnected and interdependent (the right to life, right to privacy, the right to a family life, health rights, children’s rights, the author finds there are no absolute, unlimited rights in the contemporary system of human rights, but that they inevitably have certain restrictions. Since the same limitation attribute also characterizes the right to assisted reproduction, the author further researches whether there is discrimination, positive or negative, towards the existing forms of limitations to this right. The following forms of limitations have been singled out, as the key ones for this analysis: request for (nonmarital status and heterosexual orientation, sexual affiliation and age and the accessibility (prohibition of applying certain methods of assisted reproduction which are primarily in the function of eliminating female sterility. The author concludes that there are elements of discrimination based on family status, sexual

  6. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Setegn

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country.We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005 Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000 and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005 women of reproductive age (15-49 years were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM. The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots.The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated with decreased odds

  7. Concentrations of steroid hormones, estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses in sheep estrous synchronized with different prostaglandin-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, S; Viñoles, C; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2016-04-01

    To determine estrous, ovarian and reproductive responses after different prostaglandin (PG)-based protocols, ewes were assigned to groups PG10, PG12, PG14 or PG16 (twoPG injections administered 10, 12, 14 or 16days apart; respectively). Experiment I (n=132) was conducted to evaluate the estrous response, ovulation rate (OR), conception and fertility. Experiment II (n=24) was conducted to evaluate ovarian follicle growth, steroid concentrations and the interval from the second PG injection to estrus (PG-estrus) and ovulation (PG-ovulation). Estrous response was less with the PG16 (Pgrowth and the intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups (P>0.05). From 8 to 4 days before estrus, progesterone (P4) concentrations were greater for the PG14 and PG16 than for the PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) groups. There were more days where concentrations of P4 were above 3.18nmol/L with the PG14 and PG16 than PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. Use of the PG14 and PG16 treatments resulted in greater estradiol (E2) at estrus and 12h later than use of the PG10 and PG12 treatments. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of the luteal phase and maximum E2 concentrations, and between duration of the luteal phase and days with E2 concentrations above 10pmol/L. Conception and fertility were greater with use of the PG14 compared with PG10 and PG12 (P<0.05) treatments. The administration of two PG injections 10, 12, 14 or 16 days apart resulted in different durations of the luteal phase that were positively associated with E2 concentrations and the reproductive outcome. The shorter luteal phases were associated with greater synchrony in time of estrus. The intervals for the variables PG-estrus, PG-ovulation and OR were similar among groups. PMID:26907940

  8. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided. PMID:20099183

  9. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources. PMID:25974951

  10. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  11. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. PMID:26709302

  12. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-CityVehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  13. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  14. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  15. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  16. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of rabbits does fed a half-simplified diet based on cassava byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Fróes Galuci Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 70 five-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits were assigned in a completely randomized design, over three reproductive cycles, with two treatments: a reference diet and a half-simplified diet containing 79.83% cassava byproduct. The study evaluated body weight and feed intake of does, feed cost, number and total body weight of kits at kindling and weaning per female during three cycles, number and percentage of mortality/female/cycle, and weight gain of kits from birth to weaning. No interaction was observed between the diets and among the reproductive cycles for any evaluated characteristics. The body weight of does at the moment of weaning was similar in both groups for all three reproductive cycles. However, does fed the half-simplified diet had lower feed intake during the three reproductive cycles and, consequently, more reproductive flaws. The number of kits at weaning, body weight of kits at kindling and weaning, weight gain of kits from birth to weaning, and total body weight of kits at weaning were lower for the group of does fed the half-simplified diet and, consequently, there was a higher number and percentage of dead kits in this group. The total numbers of kits at kindling and weaning and total body weight of kits at birth during all three reproductive cycles were similar between the groups; however, total body weight of weaning rabbits was higher for the animals receiving the reference diet. It is possible to conclude that although the use of the half-simplified diet decreases the reproductive performance of does, it reduces feed cost per kg of body weight by 23.63% compared with the reference diet, proving to be a viable nutritional option for rabbit production.

  17. [Assisted peritoneal dialysis: home-based renal replacement therapy for the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesholzer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    The number of elderly patients with end stage renal disease is constantly increasing. Conventional hämodiaylsis as the mainstay of renal replacement therapy is often poorly tolerated by frail eldery patients with multiple comorbidities. Although many of these patients would prefer a home based dialysis treatment, the number of elderly patients using peritoneal dialysis (PD) is still low. Impaired physical and cognitive function often generates insurmountable barriers for self care peritoneal dialysis. Assisted peritoneal dialysis can overcome many of these barriers and give elderly patients the ability of a renal replacement therapy in their own homes respecting their needs. PMID:23797681

  18. The NC (numerically controlled) assistant: Interfacing knowledge based manufacturing tools to CAD/CAM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge based computer program that assists programmers of numerically controlled (NC) machine tools is described. The program uses part features identified by the NC programmer and a set of expert system manufacturing rules to select cutting parameters and produce NC part programs. An expert system shell determines the NC sequence and the machining parameters. Several point-to-point NC functions are currently in production. A CAD/CAM system interface for milling and turning functions is also described. 2 refs., 24 figs.

  19. [The design and realized of medical MR uniform field assistant software based on COM communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mowen; Chen, Jinhong

    2011-11-01

    Traditional manual shimming measures and records data by highly accurate Tesla meters, then analyzes the data and puts small shimming magnet pieces to those are needed, and finally completes the shimming by repeating the above mentioned process. Because using Tesla meter to measure and record data takes much time, the efficiency of manual shimming is quite low. This article puts up an assisting way to shimming by using medical MRI shimming software designed and realized based on COM communications, thus enhances shimming efficiency greatly. PMID:22379774

  20. Robust Human Machine Interface Based on Head Movements Applied to Assistive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Perez; Natalia López; Eugenio Orosco; Carlos Soria; Vicente Mut; Teodiano Freire-Bastos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interface that uses two different sensing techniques and combines both results through a fusion process to obtain the minimum-variance estimator of the orientation of the user’s head. Sensing techniques of the interface are based on an inertial sensor and artificial vision. The orientation of the user’s head is used to steer the navigation of a robotic wheelchair. Also, a control algorithm for assistive technology system is presented. The system is evaluated by four ind...

  1. User Acceptance Test of Computer-Assisted Problem-Based Learning Assessment Tool (CAPBLAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qomaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based Learning (PBL is an instructional design method that is used by many lecturers to create more efficient and meaningful learning experiences. PBL emphasizes the lecturer in facilitating in collaborative learning. They conventionally play a little role in the formal assessment process. Peer-assessment and self-assessment are the most frequent methods of assessment employed by the lecturers in conducting PBL approach. This paper presents acceptance testing of a computer-based tool for peer-assessment and self-assessment in PBL approach, which called Computer-Assisted Problem-Based Learning Assessment Tool (CAPBLAT. The tool was designed to assist a lecturer in conducting PBL teaching method and assess students learning progress. Two PBL classes participated in the testing of the tool. During the study, questionnaires were administered to students. The results concerning the assessment tool acceptance demonstrate that using CAPBLAT in the PBL assessment process received better acceptance from both the students and lecturers.

  2. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  3. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  4. Spectral Separation for Multispectral Image Reproduction Based on Constrained Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constrained optimization method is employed to calculate the colorant values of the multispectral images. Because the spectral separation from the 31-dimensional spectral reflectance to low dimensional colorant values is very complex, an inverse process based on spectral Neugebauer model and constrained optimization method is performed. Firstly, the spectral Neugebauer model is applied to predict the colorants’ spectral reflectance values, and it is modified by using the Yule-Nielsen n-value and the effective area coverages. Then, the spectral reflectance root mean square (RRMS error is established as the objective function for the optimization method, while the colorant values are constrained to 0~1. At last, when the nonlinear constraints and related parameters are set appropriately, the colorant values are accurately calculated for the multispectral images corresponding to the minimum RRMS errors. In the experiment, the colorant errors of the cyan, magenta and yellow inks are all below 2.5% and the average spectral error is below 5%, which indicate that the precision of the spectral separation method in this paper is acceptable.

  5. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa for assisted reproductive technology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illingworth PJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Illingworth,1 Robert Lahoud,1 Frank Quinn,1 Kendal Chidwick,2 Claire Wilkinson,2 Gavin Sacks1 1IVFAustralia, Greenwich, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Scientific Affairs, Merck Serono Australia Pty Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Evaluation of patients’ ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use ­follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18–45 years. Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU. Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5–6 and 7–8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as “easy/very easy” to use (Questionnaire B on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B. Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs] were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Results: Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%–96.9% found the pen “easy” to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4% patients “strongly agreed/agreed” that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7% “strongly agreed/agreed” that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86

  6. LIVE AUTHORITY IN THE CLASSROOM IN VIDEO CONFERENCE-BASED SYNCHRONOUS DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Teaching Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARAL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the role of the assistant in a classroom environment where students are taught using video conference-based synchronous distance education. Qualitative research approach was adopted and, among purposeful sampling methods, criterion sampling method was preferred in the scope of the study. The study was carried out during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. A teaching assistant and a total of 9 sophomore or senior students from the Department of City and Regional Development, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, participated as subjects. The students included in the study sampling were taking lessons from the Middle East Technical University on the basis of synchronous distance education. Among the qualitative research methods, case study method was used and the study data were obtained from the semi-structured interview and observation results. Study data were analyzed with descriptive analysis methods. Data obtained at the end of the study were found to support the suggestion that there should be an authority in the video conference-based synchronous distance education. Findings obtained during the interviews made with the students revealed that some of the teacher’s classroom management related responsibilities are transferred to the assistant present in the classroom during the synchronous distance education. It was concluded at the end of the interviews that a teaching assistant’s presence should be obligatory in the undergraduate synchronous distance classroom environment. However, it was also concluded that there may not be any need for an authority in the classroom environment at the postgraduate education level due to the profile and expectations of the student, which differ from those of students at lower educational levels.

  7. Filiação e tecnologias de reprodução assistida: entre medicina e direito Filiation and usage of assisted reproductive technologies: between medicine and law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane da Costa Moás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o intuito de analisar os critérios jurídicos de determinação das relações parentais, propondo a reflexão sobre a paternidade ou maternidade homossexual como manifestação do direito à vida familiar. Para tanto, discute-se o impacto das seguintes inovações biotecnológicas: por um lado, a possibilidade de concepção fora do corpo humano, que ameaça quebrar o valor simbólico que sempre assimilou a categoria de genitor àquela de pai, ameaça esta que se apresenta de forma mais marcante quando a demanda pela reprodução assistida se dá por casais de mesmo sexo. Por outro, a disponibilidade de exames genéticos que permitem o acesso à verdade biológica com alto grau de confiabilidade, provocando verdadeiro embate entre o critério biológico de determinação da paternidade e o critério sócio-afetivo.The present work aims to analyze the juridical criteria for determining the paternal-filial relations, proposing a reflection about homosexual paternity or maternity as a natural consequence of the right to family life. Along these lines, it is necessary to analyze the current discussion on the impact of biotechnological innovations on important issues, such as: the possibility of conception outside the human body, threatening to crush the symbolic value that has always assimilated the category of genitor to that of father, markedly when the demand for assisted reproduction is made by couples of the same sex; the availability of genetic exams that allow access to the biological truth with high level of trustworthiness, causing a real clash between the biological and the social-affective criteria for determination of paternity.

  8. Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Pregnancy and Childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries Project

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Background The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries) is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we ...

  9. Achieving Identity-Based Cryptography in a Personal Digital Assistant Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martínez-Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous technological advances have allowed that mobile devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs, can execute sophisticated applications that more often than not must be equipped with a layer of security that should include the confidentiality and the authentication services within its repertory. Nevertheless, when compared against front-end computing devices, most PDAs are still seen as constrained devices with limited processing and storage capabilities.In order to achieve Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC, which was an open problem proposed by Adi Shamir in 1984, Bonehand Franklin presented in Crypto 2001, a solution that uses bilinear pairings as its main building block. Since then, IBC hasbecome an active area of investigation where many efficient IBC security protocols are proposed year after year. In this paper,we present a cryptographic application that allows the secure exchange of documents from a Personal Digital Assistant (PDAthat is wirelessly connected to other nodes. The architecture of our application is inspired by the traditional PGP (Pretty GoodPrivacy email security protocol. Our application achieves identity-based authentication and confidentiality functionalities at the 80-bit security level through the usage of a cryptographic library that was coded in C++. Our library can perform basic primitives such as bilinear pairings defined over the binary field and the ternary field , as well as other required primitivesknown as map-to-point hash functions. We report the timings achieved by our application and we show that they compare wellagainst other similar works published in the open literature.

  10. Image-based computer-assisted diagnosis system for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohigashi, Satoru; Nakamae, Koji; Fujioka, Hiromu

    2005-04-01

    We develop the image based computer assisted diagnosis system for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) that consists of the balance control system simulator, the 3D eye movement simulator, and the extraction method of nystagmus response directly from an eye movement image sequence. In the system, the causes and conditions of BPPV are estimated by searching the database for record matching with the nystagmus response for the observed eye image sequence of the patient with BPPV. The database includes the nystagmus responses for simulated eye movement sequences. The eye movement velocity is obtained by using the balance control system simulator that allows us to simulate BPPV under various conditions such as canalithiasis, cupulolithiasis, number of otoconia, otoconium size, and so on. Then the eye movement image sequence is displayed on the CRT by the 3D eye movement simulator. The nystagmus responses are extracted from the image sequence by the proposed method and are stored in the database. In order to enhance the diagnosis accuracy, the nystagmus response for a newly simulated sequence is matched with that for the observed sequence. From the matched simulation conditions, the causes and conditions of BPPV are estimated. We apply our image based computer assisted diagnosis system to two real eye movement image sequences for patients with BPPV to show its validity.

  11. Spatial sparsity based indoor localization in wireless sensor network for assistive healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhomayoun, Mohammad; Jin, Zhanpeng; Fowler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Indoor localization is one of the key topics in the area of wireless networks with increasing applications in assistive healthcare, where tracking the position and actions of the patient or elderly are required for medical observation or accident prevention. Most of the common indoor localization methods are based on estimating one or more location-dependent signal parameters like TOA, AOA or RSS. However, some difficulties and challenges caused by the complex scenarios within a closed space significantly limit the applicability of those existing approaches in an indoor assistive environment, such as the well-known multipath effect. In this paper, we develop a new one-stage localization method based on spatial sparsity of the x-y plane. In this method, we directly estimate the location of the emitter without going through the intermediate stage of TOA or signal strength estimation. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method using Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the proposed method is (i) very accurate even with a small number of sensors and (ii) very effective in addressing the multi-path issues. PMID:23366730

  12. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  13. Laser-assisted reduction of graphene oxide for paper based large area flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliu, E.; Andersson, H.; Engholm, M.; Forsberg, S.; Olin, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a promising method for fabrication of conductive tracks on paper based substrates by laser assisted reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO). Printed electronics on paper based substrates is be coming more popular due to lower cost and recyclability. Fabrication of conductive tracks is of great importance where metal, carbon and polymer inks are commonly used. An emerging option is reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), which can be a good conductor. Here we have evaluated reduction of GO by using a 532 nm laser source, showing promising results with a decrease of sheet resistance from >100 M Ω/Sqr for unreduced GO down to 126 Ω/Sqr. without any observable damage to the paper substrates.

  14. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  16. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  17. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  18. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  19. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrong With the Male Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... cutting off its blood supply, is also a medical emergency that, thankfully, is not common. Surgery is ...

  20. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. PMID:26204578

  1. Live Authority In The Classroom In Video Conference-Based Synchronous 
Distance Education: The Teaching Assistant

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan KARAL; ÇEBİ, Ayça; Yiğit Emrah TURGUT,

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the role of the assistant in a classroom environment where students are taught using video conference-based synchronous distance education. Qualitative research approach was adopted and, among purposeful sampling methods, criterion sampling method was preferred in the scope of the study. The study was carried out during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. A teaching assistant and a total of 9 sophomore or senior students from the Departmen...

  2. Intent and error recognition as part of a knowledge-based cockpit assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohal, Michael; Onken, Reiner

    1998-03-01

    With the Crew Assistant Military Aircraft (CAMA) a knowledge- based cockpit assistant system for future military transport aircraft is developed and tested to enhance situation awareness. Human-centered automation was the central principal for the development of CAMA, an approach to achieve advanced man-machine interaction, mainly by enhancing situation awareness. The CAMA-module Pilot Intent and Error Recognition (PIER) evaluates the pilot's activities and mission events in order to interpret and understand the pilot's actions in the context of the flight situation. Expected crew actions based on the flight plan are compared with the actual behavior shown by the crew. If discrepancies are detected the PIER module tries to figure out, whether the deviation was caused erroneously or by a sensible intent. By monitoring pilot actions as well as the mission context, the system is able to compare the pilot's action with a set of behavioral hypotheses. In case of an intentional deviation from the flight plan, the module checks, whether the behavior matches to the given set of behavior patterns of the pilot. Intent recognition can increase man-machine synergy by anticipating a need for assistance pertinent to the pilot's intent without having a pilot request. The interpretation of all possible situations with respect to intent recognition in terms of a reasoning process is based on a set of decision rules. To cope with the need of inferencing under uncertainty a fuzzy-logic approach is used. A weakness of the fuzzy-logic approach lies in the possibly ill-defined boundaries of the fuzzy sets. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) as introduced and elaborated on by T. Kohonen are applied to improve the fuzzy set data and rule base complying with observed pilot behavior. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to locate clusters of similar patterns in the maps. As introduced by Pedrycz, every feature is evaluated using fuzzy sets for each designated cluster. This approach allows to

  3. IDENTIFYING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES USING A COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental studies examining reproductive endpoints such as spontaneous abortion or fertility often rely on very select study groups (i.e., convenience samples, highly exposed, etc.) that cannot be easily generalized to the overall population. For exposures limited to a parti...

  4. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  5. Nursing Assistants for Long-Term Care. Performance-Based Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Vocational Education Services.

    This guide is intended to assist students enrolled in programs to train nursing assistants for employment in an Indiana long-term health care facility. The first part discusses human development (growth, aging, and dying); communication with residents; sexuality; legal, ethical, and professional responsibilities of nursing assistants in long-term…

  6. Educação não-formal sobre reprodução assistida: divulgação científica na Folha de S.Paulo Non-formal education on assisted reproduction: scientific divulging in the Folha de S. Paulo newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecí Körbes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos as matérias publicadas pelo jornal Folha de S.Paulo, no ano de 2005, sobre reprodução assistida (fertilização in vitro e outras técnicas. A análise é feita sob dois ângulos. Primeiramente, examinamos que informação é divulgada ao público sobre reprodução assistida, tendo como foco os direitos reprodutivos, o acesso público e privado às tecnologias de reprodução assistida, os interesses envolvidos e os riscos dessas tecnologias. Constatamos que não houve divulgação das leis que garantem acesso gratuito à reprodução assistida no Brasil, apesar da aprovação, naquele ano, da Política Nacional de Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos. As reportagens enfatizam o caráter privado do acesso às tecnologias reprodutivas e confrontam interesses comerciais envolvidos. Destacam os avanços tecnológicos como benefícios universais, sem discutir como as desigualdades sociais afetam o acesso a essas tecnologias e tratamentos. Na escassa referência aos riscos relacionados com os procedimentos, destacam a gravidez múltipla, que afeta, paradoxalmente, os casais mais pobres. Em segundo lugar, indagamos que tipo de educação não-formal é desenvolvido através dos artigos do jornal sobre reprodução assistida. Os artigos examinados mostram, ao mesmo tempo, características de divulgação científica e do mais tradicional papel desenvolvido pela mídia como formadora de opinião.In this article, we analyze pieces published by the Folha de S.Paulo newspaper, in 2005, about assisted reproduction (in vitro fertilization and other techniques. The analysis is done from two angles. First, we examine what information is disclosed to the public about assisted reproduction, focusing on reproductive rights, on public and private access to assisted reproduction technologies, the interests involved, and the risks of these technologies. We found that there was no discussion regarding the laws that guarantee free access to

  7. Third party assisted conception: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwa, Godfrey B

    2008-01-01

    The central importance of reproduction in all human cultures has given rise to many methods and techniques of assisting reproduction or overcoming infertility. Such methods and techniques have achieved spectacular successes in the Western world, where processes like in vitro fertilization (IVF) constitute a remarkable breakthrough. In this paper, the author attempts to reflect critically on assisted reproduction technologies (ART) from the background and perspective of African culture, a culture within which human reproduction is given the highest priority but which also exhibits a highly ambivalent attitude to modern technology-assisted methods of reproduction. The author considers the ethical crux of reproductive technologies to be linked to the issue of the moral status of the human embryo and argues that a morally significant line of demarcation cannot be drawn between embryos and other categories of humans. PMID:19067233

  8. Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids (IL-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min. The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  9. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO2 nanoparticles. Highlights: → Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. → Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. → Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. → Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  10. Admittance-based Upper Limb Robotic Active and Active-assistive Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two rehabilitation schemes for patients with upper limb impairments. The first is an active-assistive scheme based on the trajectory tracking of predefined paths in Cartesian space. In it, the system allows for an adjustable degree of variation with respect to ideal tracking. The amount of variation is determined through an admittance function that depends on the opposition forces exerted on the system by the user, due to possible impairments. The coefficients of the function allow the adjustment of the degree of assistance the robot will provide in order to complete the target trajectory. The second scheme corresponds to active movements in a constrained space. Here, the same admittance function is applied; however, in this case, it is unattached to a predefined trajectory and instead connected to one generated in real time, according to the user’s intended movements. This allows the user to move freely with the robot in order to track a given path. The free movement is bounded through the use of virtual walls that do not allow users to exceed certain limits. A human-machine interface was developed to guide the robot’s user.

  11. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: Influence of Gestation Length and Timing of Neonatal Examinations on Litter Data in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies with rodents use varied protocols for determining the timing of neonatal litter examinations and subsequent measurements. Most laboratories determine timing based on the day of birth (DOB); l.e., gestation le...

  12. Perinatal Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setenay Arzu Yilmaz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize perinatal outcomes and the congenital anomaly risk of IVF pregnancies and also examine the risks of different technologies including ICSI, blastocyst culture, and cryopreservation on this topic. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 575-586

  13. Swim-up in assisted reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teplá, O.; Pěknicová, Jana; Mrázek, M.; Margaryan, Hasmik; Cibulková, E.; Králová, Alena; Strnadová, J.

    Praha, 2008, s. 46-47. [XIV. Symposium českých reprodukčních imunologů s mezinárodní účastí. Žďár nad Sázavou (CZ), 30.5.208-1.6.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : swim-up * IVF * human spermatozoa Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth

  14. Sperm retrieval techniques for assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Different surgical methods such as PESA, MESA, TESA, TESE and micro-TESE have been developed to retrieve spermatozoa from either the epididymis or the testis according to the type of azoospermia, i.e., obstructive or non-obstructive. Laboratory techniques are used to remove contaminants, cellular debris, and red blood cells following collection of the epididymal fluid or testicular tissue. Surgically-retrieved spermatozoa may be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and/or cryopreservation. In this article, we review the surgical procedures for retrieving spermatozoa from both the epididymis and the testicle and provide technical details of the commonly used methods. A critical analysis of the advantages and limitations of the current surgical methods to retrieve sperm from males with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia is presented along with an overview of the laboratory techniques routinely used to process surgically-retrieved sperm. Lastly, we summarize the results from the current literature of sperm retrieval, as well as the clinical outcome of ICSI in the clinical scenario of obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.

  15. Simultaneous detection of eight swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens using a novel GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minxiu; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Khan, Mazhar I

    2015-11-01

    A new high-throughput GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler (GeXP) analyser-based multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of eight reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine. The reproductive and respiratory pathogens include North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-NA), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), swine influenza virus (SIV) (including H1 and H3 subtypes), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Nine pairs of specific chimeric primers were designed and used to initiate PCRs, and one pair of universal primers was used for subsequent PCR cycles. The specificity of the GeXP assay was examined using positive controls for each virus. The sensitivity was evaluated using serial ten-fold dilutions of in vitro-transcribed RNA from all of the RNA viruses and plasmids from DNA viruses. The GeXP assay was further evaluated using 114 clinical specimens and was compared with real-time PCR/single RT-PCR methods. The specificity of the GeXP assay for each pathogen was examined using single cDNA/DNA template. Specific amplification peaks of the reproductive and respiratory pathogens were observed on the GeXP analyser. The minimum copies per reaction detected for each virus by the GeXP assay were as follows: 1000 copies/μl for PRV; 100 copies/μl for CSFV, JEV, PCV-2 and PPV; and 10 copies/μl for SIV-H1, SIV-H3 and PRRSV-NA. Analysis of 114 clinical samples using the GeXP assay demonstrated that the GeXP assay had comparable detection to real-time PCR/single RT-PCR. This study demonstrated that the GeXP assay is a new method with high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of these swine reproductive and respiratory pathogens. The GeXP assay may be adopted for molecular epidemiological surveys of these reproductive and respiratory pathogens in swine populations. PMID:26259690

  16. Ethical aspects of advanced reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Joseph G

    2003-11-01

    The progress achieved during the last 25 years in the assisted reproductive technology field has been phenomenal. Many countries currently practice genetic material donation, human embryo cryopreservation, selective embryo reduction, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and surrogacy. While embryo research and therapeutic cloning are carried out only in a few centers, thus far human cloning has been universally condemned. Nonetheless, the rapid evolution and progress of these various techniques of assisted reproduction has opened a Pandora's box of ethical issues that must be urgently addressed. PMID:14644805

  17. Microwave assisted synthesis of fluorene-based copolymers with different conjugate degreed quinoxaline segments from reactive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we prepared three fluorene-based copolymers with different conjugate degreed quinoxaline segments from one reactive polymer by microwave assisted method. The obtained quinoxaline-based copolymers exhibited different bright color emissions, high photoluminescence quantum, low electron affinity and electron injection barrier. This approach not only simplified the steps of similar-structure polymers, but also avoided the monomer solubility problem. - Highlights: • Quinoxaline-based copolymers were prepared in microwave-assisted synthesis. • Polymer-synthesis containing different acceptors was simplified from reactive polymer. • Multi-functions were tuned by controlling reactive monomer structures

  18. Part-based Pedestrian Detection and Feature-based Tracking for Driver Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prioletti, Antonio; Møgelmose, Andreas; Grislieri, Paolo;

    2013-01-01

    gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This paper presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two-stage classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the Daimler Detection Benchmark data set and then validated through a......Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision systems due to the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusion, and high-speed vehicle motion. Much research has been focused on this problem in the last ten years and detectors based on classifiers have...... part-based histogram-of-oriented-gradient (HOG) classifier with the aim of lowering the number of false positives. The surviving candidates are then filtered with feature-based tracking to enhance the recognition robustness and improve the results' stability. The system has been implemented on a...

  19. Analysis of 1540 neonates with birth defects related to different assisted reproductive technique%不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的1 540例新生儿出生缺陷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 孙莹璞; 孔慧娟; 苏迎春; 郭艺红; 梁菊艳; 李朋粉

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨不同辅助生殖技术妊娠分娩的新生儿出生缺陷的发生情况及影响因素.方法 对1998年10月至2006年12月在郑州大学第一附属医院生殖医学中心接受体外受精(IVF)助孕[IVF、卵母细胞胞质内单精子注射(ICSI)、冻融胚胎移植(Thaw-ET)]妊娠的孕妇分娩的1271例新生儿(体外受精组)及同期接受人工授精妊娠的孕妇所分娩的269例新生儿(人工授精组)的临床资料进行分析,比较两组及不同辅助生殖技术后出生的新生儿情况、出生缺陷及出生缺陷受累系统.结果 体外受精组中,IVF、ICSI、Thaw-ET后出生的低体重(LBW)儿分别为20.0%(134/671)、22.4%(92/410)、18.9%(36/190),也均高于人工授精组的11.5%(31/269),差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 不同体外受精助孕后多胎率明显升高,由此造成的相关风险也随之增加,但新生儿的出生缺陷并没有明显增加;减少多胎妊娠是保护出生新生儿健康的关键.%Objective To investigate the incidence of and clinical factors influencing neonatal birth defects from different assisted reproductive technology. Methods Between October 1998 and December 2006,1271 newborns from mothers treated by in vitro fertilization techniques [ including in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (1CSI) and thaw embryo transfer (Thaw-ET) ] matched with 269 newborns from mothers treated by artificial insemination were enrolled in Reproductive Medicine Center in First Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University. Their medical information was analyzed retrospectively to compared neonatal characteristics, the incidence of birth defect and anomalous organs involved between in vitro fertilization group and artificial insemination group. Results In group of in vitro fertilization, those newborns with low birth weight from IVF, ICSI and Thaw-ET were 20. 0% ( 134/671 ), 22. 4% (92/410), 18.9% (36/190)respectively, which were more than 11.5% (31/269) cases

  20. Chemicals loading in acetylated bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silviana, Petermann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has a large tropical forest. However, the deforestation still appears annually and vastly. This reason drives a use of bamboo as wood alternative. Recently, there are many modifications of bamboo in order to prolong the shelf life. Unfortunately, the processes need more chemicals and time. Based on wood modification, esterifying of bamboo was undertaken in present of a dense gas, i.e. supercritical CO2. Calculation of chemicals loading referred to ASTM D1413-99 by using the phase equilibrium data at optimum condition by a statistical design. The results showed that the acetylation of bamboo assisted by supercritical CO2 required 14.73 kg acetic anhydride/m3 of bamboo for a treatment of one hour.