WorldWideScience

Sample records for base-in prism reading

  1. PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    societal issues , given countervailing moral , legal, and ethical interpretations, as well as suspicions PRISM 7, NO. 2 FEATURES | 13 COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL...to tell our story. Additionally, U.S. practi- tioners are bound by asymmetric legal, moral , and ethical constraints that often keep them from being...the founder of SpaceX and Tesla, withdrew from two business councils providing advice to the administration on economic issues . Further driving

  2. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health.

  3. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  4. Treatment of vestibular disorders with weak asymmetric base-in prisms : An hypothesis with a focus on Ménière’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Vente, P.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Regular treatments of Ménière’s disease (MD) vary largely, and no single satisfactory treatment exists. A complementary treatment popular among Dutch and Belgian patients involves eyeglasses with weak asymmetric base-in prisms, with a perceived high success rate. An explanatory

  5. The PRISM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilyardi, E.

    2003-04-01

    The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http://prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an opportunity for greater focus on scientific issues, including the necessary scientific diversity (models and approaches). The proposed PRISM system includes 1) the use - or definition - and promotion of scientific and technical standards to increase component modularity, 2) an end-to-end software environment (coupler, user interface, diagnostics) to launch, monitor and analyze complex Earth System Models built around the existing and future community models, 3) testing and quality standards to ensure HPC performance on a variety of platforms and 4) community wide inputs and requirements capture in all stages of system specifications and design through user/developers meetings, workshops and thematic schools. This science driven project, led by 22 institutes* and started December 1st 2001, benefits from a unique gathering of scientific and technical expertise. More than 30 models (both global and regional) have expressed interest to be part of the PRISM system and 6 types of components have been identified: atmosphere, atmosphere chemistry, land surface, ocean, sea ice and ocean biochemistry. Progress and overall architecture design will be presented. * MPI-Met (Coordinator), KNMI (co-coordinator), MPI-M&D, Met Office, University of Reading, IPSL, Meteo-France, CERFACS, DMI, SMHI, NERSC, ETH Zurich, INGV, MPI-BGC, PIK, ECMWF, UCL-ASTR, NEC, FECIT, SGI, SUN, CCRLE

  6. Effect of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms on the visual-evoked potential (VEP) in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naveen K; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    To assess quantitatively the effect and relative contribution of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms (BI) on visually-evoked potential (VEP) responsivity in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and the symptom of visual motion sensitivity (VMS), as well as in visually-normal (VN) individuals. Subjects were comprised of 20 VN adults and 15 adults with mTBI and VMS. There were four test conditions: (1) conventional pattern VEP, which served as the baseline comparison condition; (2) VEP with BNO alone; (3) VEP with 2 pd BI prisms before each eye; and (4) VEP with the above BNO and BI prism combination. In mTBI, the mean VEP amplitude increased significantly in nearly all subjects (∼90%) with BNO alone. In contrast, in VN, it decreased significantly with BNO alone in all subjects (100%), as compared to the other test conditions. These objective findings were consistent with improvements in visual impressions and sensorimotor tasks in the group with mTBI. Latency remained within normal limits under all test conditions in both groups. Only the BNO condition demonstrated significant, but opposite and consistent, directional effects on the VEP amplitude in both groups. The BNO-VEP test condition may be used clinically for the objectively-based, differential diagnosis of persons suspected of having mTBI and VMS from the VNs.

  7. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  8. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  9. Calibration of the Wedge Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    Since the introduction of plotless cruising in this country by Grosenbaugh and the later suggestion of using a wedge prism as an angle gauge by Bruce this method of determining basal area has been widely adopted in the South. One of the factors contributing to the occasionally unsatisfactory results obtained is failure to calibrate the prism used. As noted by Bruce the...

  10. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , governs deflections produced by prisms of refractive index n. The refractive power, n − 1, of most materials is of the order of unity for visible light, which therefore gets deflected through several degrees by a prism. X-rays and neutrons however ...

  11. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  12. The PRISM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching

  13. PRISMES. The INES microgrid platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barruel, F.; Vervaart, M.; Merten, J. [INES, 73 - Le Bourget-du-lac (FR). Lab. for Solar Systems (L2S)

    2010-07-01

    The massive penetration of fluctuating renewable energies will challenge the low voltage grids. Innovative solutions to address this issue need to be developed and tested. They may consist of intelligent energy management systems and the use of storage systems. For this purpose the PRISMES platform has been designed and implemented at the INES headquarter in Chambery. It is a universal test and development tool, such as stand alone hybrid systems and grid connected PV systems combined with a storage system and loads. This paper describes the PRISMES facility which will start operation in autumn 2008. (orig.)

  14. 21 CFR 886.1660 - Gonioscopic prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1660 Gonioscopic prism. (a) Identification. A gonioscopic prism is a device that is a prism intended to be placed on the eye to study the anterior chamber. The device may have angled mirrors to facilitate visualization of anatomical features. (b...

  15. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    strategy, regional security affairs, and global strategic problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM...suffer from illiteracy, poor health, and extreme poverty PRISM 1, no. 1 FRoM the FIeld | 89 The country’s maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates...problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM. Any copyrighted portions of this journal may not be

  16. Improving Student Teachers' Knowledge-Base in Language Education through Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, Mathias Bwanika

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the digital era is redefining education and the pedagogical processes in an unpredictable manner. In the midst of the increased availability of print and online resources, the twenty-first century language teacher educator expects her (or his) student teachers to be reading beings if they are to improve their knowledge-base in…

  17. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  18. Analysis of unscrammed events in PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to review the current PRISM design and describe the results from the SSC Code calculations performed at BNL, for a series of unscrammed accidents. 3 refs., 5 figs

  19. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  1. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking

  2. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  3. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  4. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  5. Porro prism lasers: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Porro prism lasers are insensitive to misalignment caused by, for example, shock and temperature variation, making them useful in field applications, for example in target designation and range-finding systems. This property is a result of the property of Porro prisms that they return a reflected beam parallel to the incident beam, regardless of any tilt on the prism. These lasers are generally used in a marginally stable or unstable configuration for low divergence, but in the stable configuration some interesting kaleidoscope modes can be modelled. In previous work on Porro prism resonators we formulated an analytical method of determining which Porro angles resonate and result in petal output modes, as well as the corresponding number of petals. This work has been verified using a numerical model as well as experimentally. We have developed this work further and have investigated the losses associated with a range of Porro angles as well as the effects of these losses on the resulting modes. We conclude by summarizing the design considerations for Porro prism lasers.

  6. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  7. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H.

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the proposal that prism

  8. GE advanced liquid metal reactor S-PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: Incentive for developing S-PRISM; Design and safety approach; Design description and competitive potential; Previous Licensing interactions; Planned approach to Licensing S-PRISM

  9. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  10. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  11. An improved prism for use in laser resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J.

    1981-08-01

    The use of compound total internal reflection prisms rather than Porro prisms in polarisation coupled lasers is proposed. Performance advantages resulting from the use of these prisms include higher output without the need to bias the Pockels cell, ability to give a larger range of output coupling and independence of performance on the refractive index of the prism. In conventional Q-switched lasers the use of the prism at the Pockels cell end of the resonator instead of the usual 100% reflecting mirror also leads to some advantages including better hold-off, elimination of the need to bias the Pockels cell and insensitivity in one plane to angular misalignment.

  12. Multivariable control for the PRISM ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the application of state variable control design methods in the conceptual design of two key system level controllers in the PRISM ALMR. The PRISM plant concept consists of three power blocks, each made up of three identical reactors and steam generator modules connected to one turbine. Operation of these physically distributed systems is directed by a hierarchy of controllers at the system, power block, and plant levels. The system level controllers in this paper are the reactivity controllers for movement of the six control rods in each of the nine reactor modules, and the feedwater control of the three parallel steam generators in each of the three power blocks. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Automated analysis of objective-prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; Bunclark, P.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Smith, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fully automated system for the location, measurement and analysis of large numbers of low-resolution objective-prism spectra is described. The system is based on the APM facility at the University of Cambridge, and allows processing of objective-prism, grens or grism data. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques to obtain the maximum signal-to-noise ratio from the data, both in the initial spectral estimation procedure and for subsequent feature identification. Comparison of a high-quality visual catalogue of faint quasar candidates with an equivalent automated sample demonstrates the ability of the APM system to identify all the visually selected quasar candidates. In addition, a large population of new, faint (msub(J)approx. 20) candidates is identified. (author)

  14. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Laure; Chabanat, Eric; Delporte, Ludovic; Revol, Patrice; Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.

  15. Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/''inherent'' shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program

  16. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  17. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  18. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  19. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  20. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ferran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

  1. PENGUKURAN KINERJA UMKM MENGGUNAKAN PERFORMANCE PRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agelina Purnomo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available UMKM XYZ merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan keripik buah nangka. Pada proses observasi langsung di lapangan, perusahaan mempunyai masalah dalam melakukan pengukuran kinerja. Pengukuran kinerja yang dilakukan hanya berdasarkan Net Profit Margin (rasio laba bersih dibandingkan dengan pendapatan tiap tahunnya. Pengukuran yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan tidak cukup representatif menilai kinerja perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan alat ukur kinerja yang tepat dan fleksibel, yaitu dengan metode Performance Prism. Proses penentuan Key Performance Indicator (KPI kinerja berdasarkan persetujuan dari pihak manajer perusahaan. Dengan periode dasar (tahun 2015 didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat 25 Key Performance Indicator yang terdiri dari: 2 KPI Investor, 8 KPI Konsumen, 4 KPI Suplier, 6 KPI Karyawan, dan 5 KPI Masyarakat Sekitar dengan nilai total kinerja keseluruhan sebagai pembanding dengan periode pengukuran adalah 2,232 (kategori cukup sehingga perlu ditingkatkan lagi pada periode selanjutnya berdasarkan saran-saran pada periode dasar.

  2. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  4. Accuracy assessment of ALOS optical instruments: PRISM and AVNIR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Iwata, Takanori; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the updated results of calibration and validation to assess the accuracies for optical instruments onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was successfully launched on January 24th, 2006 and it is continuously operating very well. ALOS has an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar called PALSAR and two optical instruments i.e. the Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution that is an objective of the ALOS mission. Therefore, geometric calibration is important in generating a precise DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. AVNIR-2 has four radiometric bands from blue to near infrared and uses for regional environment and disaster monitoring etc. The radiometric calibration and image quality evaluation are also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. This paper describes updated results of geometric calibration including geolocation determination accuracy evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2, image quality evaluation of PRISM, and validation of generated PRISM DSM. These works will be done during the ALOS mission life as an operational calibration to keep absolute accuracies of the standard products.

  5. Plant Reliability - an Integrated System for Management (PR-ISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukeman, M.C.; Leininger, E.G.; Carr, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Toledo Edison Company, located in Toledo, Ohio, United States of America, recently implemented a comprehensive maintenance management information system for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The system is called PR-ISM, meaning Plant Reliability - An Integrated System for Management. PR-ISM provides the tools needed by station management to effectively plan and control maintenance and other plant activities. The PR-ISM system as it exists today consists of four integrated computer applications: equipment data base maintenance, maintenance work order control, administrative activity tracking, and technical specification compliance. PR-ISM is designed as an integrated on-line system and incorporates strong human factors features. PR-ISM provides each responsible person information to do his job on a daily basis and to look ahead towards future events. It goes beyond 'after the fact' reporting. In this respect, PR-ISM is an 'interactive' control system which: captures work requirements and commitments as they are identified, provides accurate and up-to-date status immediately to those who need it, simplifies paperwork and reduces the associated time delays, provides the information base for work management and reliability analysis, and improves productivity by replacing clerical tasks and consolidating maintenance activities. The functional and technical features of PR-ISM, the experience of Toledo Edison during the first year of operation, and the factors which led to the success of the development project are highlighted. (author)

  6. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  7. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  8. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  9. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  10. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D; Izazaga-Pérez, R; Carrasco, E; Villalobos-Mendoza, B; De Paz, A Gil; Gallego, J; Iglesias, J

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result. (paper)

  11. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Igor A.; Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A model to describe the transverse field distribution of the output beam from porro prism resonators is proposed. The model allows the prediction of the output transverse field distribution by assuming that the main areas of loss are located at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed.

  12. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  13. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  14. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  15. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  16. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  17. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  18. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....

  19. Containment performance of S-prism under severe BDB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Dubberley, A.E.; Hui, M.; Iwashige, K.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated modular Fast Reactor called Super PRISM (S-PRISM). S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. An additional feature of S-PRISM involves the use an innovative containment system that reduces the required design basis containment pressure by a factor of two through the use of a controlled venting system. The performance of this innovative containment system is evaluated and described in this paper. (author)

  20. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  1. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Skagen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). PRISM is being implemented by a Canada-United States Shorebird Monitoring and Assessment Committee formed in 2001 by the Canadian Shorebird Working Group and the U.S. Shorebird Council. PRISM provides a single blueprint for implementing the shorebird conservation plans recently completed in Canada and the United States. The goals of PRISM are to (1) estimate the size of breeding population of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for each of these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. PRISM has four main components: arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding surveys, temperate non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys. Progress on, and action items for, each major component are described. The more important major tasks for immediate action are carrying out the northern surveys, conducting regional analyses to design the program of migration counts, and evaluating aerial photographic surveys for migration and winter counts.

  2. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  3. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  4. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  5. PRISM: An innovative liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Boardman, C.E.; Olich, E.E.; Switick, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled reactor concept employing small certified reactor modules coupled with a standardized steam generator system. The total plant employs nine PRISM reactors (power reactor inherently safe module) in three 415 MWe power blocks. The PRISM design concept utilizes inherent safety characteristics and modularity to improve licensability, reduce owner's risk, and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. It is proposed that a single PRISM module be used in a full-scale integrated reactor safety test. Results from the test would be used to obtain NRC certification of the standard design

  6. Intricacies of Feedback in Computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method for treatment of attentional disorders, such as neglect e.g. 1,2. The method involves repeated pointing at specified targets with or without prism glasses using a specifically designed wooden box. The aim of this study was to ascertain...... whether the PAT method can be executed with similar effect using a computer with a touch screen.   62 healthy subjects were subjected to two experimental conditions: 1) pointing out at targets using the original box, 2) pointing out at targets on a computer attached touch screen. In both conditions......, the subjects performed a pre-test consisting of 30 targets without feedback, then an exposure-test of 90 targets with prism glasses and feedback, and finally a post-test of 60 targets, with no glasses and no feedback. Two experiments were carried out, 1) the feedback was provided by showing a cross...

  7. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  8. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , independent of the angle of incidence. Thus an initial planar wavefront remains planar after reflection. This property was initially exploited in Michelson interferometers to relax the tolerances on mis-alignment, and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al1... 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prism Angle (Degrees) Nu mb er o f P et als divisions. These relationships lead to the following equation for the allowed angles of rotation of the prism edges relative to one another for repeatability...

  9. Petal–like modes in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al [1] as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry–Perot cavities by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over... of America OCIS codes: (140.4780) Optical resonators; (260.0260) Physical optics; (140.3410) Laser resonators; (230.5480) Prisms; (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics References and links 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz, “Crossed Roof...

  10. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  11. Anomalous refraction of light colors by a metamaterial prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G

    2009-05-15

    A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure may enable a broadband regime of anomalous dispersion, where the spectral components of light are separated in an unconventional way, so that "violet light" is less refracted than "red light." This phenomenon is fundamentally different from conventional anomalous dispersion effects, which are invariably accompanied by significant loss and are typically very narrow band.

  12. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the

  13. Reading: Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

  14. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  15. Characteristics of Fluid Force Reduction for Two Different Square Prisms in a Tandem Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Ki Deok; Kang, Chang Whan; Park, Kwon Ho [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The Characteristics of the flow fields of a square prism having a small square prism were investigated by measuring of lift and drag on the square prism and visualizing the flow field using PIV. The experimental parameters were the width ratios(H/B=0.2~0.6) of small square prisms to the prism width and the gap ratios (G/B=0~3) between the prism and the small square prism. The drag reduction rate of the square prism initially increased and then decreased with the G/B ratio for the same H/B ratio, and increased with the H/B ratio for the same G/B ratio. The maximum drag reduction rate of 98.0% was observed at H/B=0.6 and G/B=1.0. The lift reduction rate of the square prism was not affected by the width and gap ratios; the total average value was approximately 66.5%. In case of a square prism having a small square prism, the stagnation regions were represented in the upstream and downstream sides of the square prism.

  16. An assessment of the Crossed Porro Prism Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, B. A.; Fueloep, K.; Seymour, R.

    1980-08-01

    Lasers with crossed porro prism resonators for military laser rangefinder and designator applications are studied. Properties of these devices are reviewed and advantages over normal mirror resonators are examined. The theory of operating is treated and the mechanical stability and other features of the laser are examined and compared to standard mirror resonators.

  17. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However,

  18. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  19. A new ASE filter: the 20-fold prism monochromator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Freriks, J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new ASE filter is presented, consisting of 20 dispersion prisms and two spatial filters. The transmission of the filter is measured with a ring-dye laser. The 1 width of the filter is 0.23 nm. The transmission is approximately 80% for the transmitted wavelengths. The rejection is in the order of .

  20. Prism adaptation for spatial neglect after stroke: translational practice gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A M; Goedert, Kelly M; Basso, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Spatial neglect increases hospital morbidity and costs in around 50% of the 795,000 people per year in the USA who survive stroke, and an urgent need exists to reduce the care burden of this condition. However, effective acute treatment for neglect has been elusive. In this article, we review 48 studies of a treatment of intense neuroscience interest: prism adaptation training. Due to its effects on spatial motor 'aiming', prism adaptation training may act to reduce neglect-related disability. However, research failed, first, to suggest methods to identify the 50-75% of patients who respond to treatment; second, to measure short-term and long-term outcomes in both mechanism-specific and functionally valid ways; third, to confirm treatment utility during the critical first 8 weeks poststroke; and last, to base treatment protocols on systematic dose-response data. Thus, considerable investment in prism adaptation research has not yet touched the fundamentals needed for clinical implementation. We suggest improved standards and better spatial motor models for further research, so as to clarify when, how and for whom prism adaptation should be applied.

  1. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  2. THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...

  3. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  4. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F., E-mail: fankli@indiana.edu; Parnell, S. R.; Wang, T.; Baxter, D. V. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Hamilton, W. A. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Maranville, B. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Semerad, R. [Ceraco Ceramic Coating GmbH, Ismaning 85737 (Germany); Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pynn, R. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ∼30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ∼98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  5. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Parnell, S. R.; Hamilton, W. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Wang, T.; Semerad, R.; Baxter, D. V.; Cremer, J. T.; Pynn, R.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ˜30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ˜98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  6. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  7. Suffering Quantified? Feasibility and Psychometric Characteristics of 2 Revised Versions of the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets; PhD Marjet G.B.G. Blokhorst; MSc Jolene L.M. Reimus; MSc Annemieke M.A. van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2008-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) assesses suffering. In this article, the authors explored the feasibility and psychometric qualities of 2 revised versions of the PRISM-PRISM-R1 and PRISM-R2-that they used in 3 studies of participants with different medical problems.

  8. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  9. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  10. Train integrity detection risk analysis based on PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    GNSS based Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS) is an effective and low-cost detection scheme for train integrity detection. However, as an external auxiliary system of CTCS, GNSS may be influenced by external environments, such as uncertainty of wireless communication channels, which may lead to the failure of communication and positioning. In order to guarantee the reliability and safety of train operation, a risk analysis method of train integrity detection based on PRISM is proposed in this article. First, we analyze the risk factors (in GNSS communication process and the on-board communication process) and model them. Then, we evaluate the performance of the model in PRISM based on the field data. Finally, we discuss how these risk factors influence the train integrity detection process.

  11. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Rhow, S.K.; Wu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  12. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  13. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  14. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  15. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  16. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  17. Local Seismicity Recorded by ChilePEPPER: Implications for Dynamic Accretionary Prism Response and Long-term Prism Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, A.; Trehu, A. M.; Tryon, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary wedge updip from the patch of greatest slip during the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, 10 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small array with an inter-instrument spacing of ~12 km . Nine instruments were recovered, with 4 recording data on 3 intermediate-band 3-component seismometers and a differential pressure gauge and 5 recording data from absolute pressure gauges. [note: All instruments were also equipped with a fluid flow meter sensitive to flow rates as low as 0.0001 cm/yr in or out of the sediments. However, no flow signal was detected.] Here we present hypocenters for 569 local events that have S-P times less than 17 seconds (i.e. within ~125 km of the array) using hand-picked arrival times and a 1D velocity model derived from a 2D seismic refraction profile through the region (Moscoso et al 2011, EPSL). We analyze the distribution of seismicity in the context of published slip models, ChilePEPPER high-resolution seismic reflection data, critical taper analysis done by Cubas et al 2013 (EPSL), and offshore gravity data. The data show distinct segmentation within the outer prism. The northern section of the study area is characterized by a lack of seismicity, accretion of nearly all incoming sediment and a prism at critical taper. In contrast, abundant seismicity, significant sediment underthrusting at the deformation front and a prism below critical taper angle characterize the southern part of the study area. Both coseismic slip and post-rupture local seismicity can be related to density anomalies within the upper plate as revealed by free air gravity data corrected for the effects of bathymetry and the subducting plate. [ChilePEPPER - Project Evaluating Prism Post-Earthquake Response

  18. [Dental enamel prisms of Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839, compared with recent cercopithecids (Primates: Cercopithecidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, A; Zapfe, H

    1986-01-01

    The dental enamel prisms of Cercopithecidae were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main task of this study was to show the prism morphology representatives of different genera as well as their comparison with the fossil Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839. The method used to show the enamel prisms was to etch the tooth surface with hydrochloric acid. In this way the outlines of the prisms were better contrasted for the descriptive morphology of the prisms than in etching with phosphoric acid. Two types were determined, in accord with the systematic division into subfamilies. In the subfamily Cercopithecinae elongated slender prisms were dominating, some with pointed, others with truncated tops. Most characteristic of this type were Macaca and Cercopithecus. An exception was Papio hamadryas which had broader, rounded prisms. In this way it differed largely from P. anubis whose prisms were short and mostly triangular. A very interesting fact was that very different patterns were found in P. anubis and P. hamadryas, although these two species are regarded as only one species by many authors. The second subfamily, the Colobinae, was characterized by broader prisms with a rounded shape, nearly as long as wide. Exceptions of the 'Colobine type' were at first Colobus with prisms little longer than wide and secondly Nasalis, with mostly parallel sides and truncated tops of the prisms. The prism outlines of Mesopithecus showed the greatest similarity to those of Presbytis which represents the characteristic 'Colobine type'. This fact confirmed the actual systematic position of the fossil Mesopithecus within the subfamily Colobinae. In addition to previously known primitive features of Mesopithecus within the subfamily of Colobinae, we present here a further concrete, common feature with asiatic Colobines.

  19. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  20. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  1. PRISM -- A tool for modelling proton energy deposition in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a description of, and test results from, a new PC based software simulation tool PRISM (Protons in Semiconductor Materials). The model describes proton energy deposition in complex 3D sensitive volumes of semiconductor materials. PRISM is suitable for simulating energy deposition in surface-barrier detectors and semiconductor memory devices, the latter being susceptible to Single-Event Upset (SEU) and Multiple-Bit Upset (MBU). The design methodology on which PRISM is based, together with the techniques used to simulate ion transport and energy deposition, are described. Preliminary test results used to analyze the PRISM model are presented

  2. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  3. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-07-15

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  4. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1959-07-01

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  5. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  6. Prism reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-08-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  7. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. (author)

  8. Design of a fast runback feature for PRISM control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.K.; Rhow, S.K.; Daniel, W.R.; Dayal, Y.; Gaubatz, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The nine power reactor inherently safe modules (PRISM) are controlled and their operation coordinated by a hierarchical, distributed, digital plant control system (PCS). This paper describes the fast runback features of the PCS. Fast runback consists of PCS directed reactor module shutdown with accompanying reductions of coolant flows. Analyses have shown that the PCS fast runback adequately terminates duty cycle events initiated in the balance of plant and the steam generating system, results in lower thermal shock to the reactor than scram, and reduces the number of scrams by approximately a factor of five

  9. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Rosztoczy, Z.; Lane, J.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristics and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  10. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  11. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  12. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  13. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  14. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  15. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  16. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael, E-mail: gorazd.planinsic@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19 (Slovenia)

    2011-03-15

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  17. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd"2"+ doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m"2 g"−"1, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  18. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  19. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  20. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun, E-mail: hanxiaojun@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd{sup 2+} doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  1. Reading Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)

  2. ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.

  3. Asymmetric transmission in prisms using structures and materials with isotropic-type dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Funda Tamara; Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Cakmak, A Ozgur; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-09-21

    It is demonstrated that strong asymmetry in transmission can be obtained at the Gaussian beam illumination for a single prism based on a photonic crystal (PhC) with isotropic-type dispersion, as well as for its analog made of a homogeneous material. Asymmetric transmission can be realized with the aid of refraction at a proper orientation of the interfaces and wedges of the prism, whereas neither contribution of higher diffraction orders nor anisotropic-type dispersion is required. Furthermore, incidence toward a prism wedge can be used for one of two opposite directions in order to obtain asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric transmission is a general property of the prism configurations, which can be obtained by using simple geometries and quite conventional materials. The obtained results show that strong asymmetry can be achieved in PhC prisms with (nearly) circular shape of equifrequency dispersion contours, in both cases associated with the index of refraction 01. For the comparison purposes, results are also presented for solid uniform non-magnetic prisms made of a material with the same value of n. It is shown in zero-loss approximation that the PhC prism and the ultralow-index material prism (01. Possible contributions of scattering on the individual rods and diffraction on the wedge to the resulting mechanism are discussed. Analogs of unidirectional splitting and unidirectional deflection regimes, which are known from the studies of PhC gratings, are obtained in PhC prisms and solid uniform prisms, i.e. without higher diffraction orders.

  4. A mix-and-read drop-based in vitro two-hybrid method for screening high-affinity peptide binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naiwen; Zhang, Huidan; Schneider, Nils; Tao, Ye; Asahara, Haruichi; Sun, Zhiyi; Cai, Yamei; Koehler, Stephan A.; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Weitz, David A.; Chong, Shaorong

    2016-01-01

    Drop-based microfluidics have recently become a novel tool by providing a stable linkage between phenotype and genotype for high throughput screening. However, use of drop-based microfluidics for screening high-affinity peptide binders has not been demonstrated due to the lack of a sensitive functional assay that can detect single DNA molecules in drops. To address this sensitivity issue, we introduced in vitro two-hybrid system (IVT2H) into microfluidic drops and developed a streamlined mix-and-read drop-IVT2H method to screen a random DNA library. Drop-IVT2H was based on the correlation between the binding affinity of two interacting protein domains and transcriptional activation of a fluorescent reporter. A DNA library encoding potential peptide binders was encapsulated with IVT2H such that single DNA molecules were distributed in individual drops. We validated drop-IVT2H by screening a three-random-residue library derived from a high-affinity MDM2 inhibitor PMI. The current drop-IVT2H platform is ideally suited for affinity screening of small-to-medium-sized libraries (103–106). It can obtain hits within a single day while consuming minimal amounts of reagents. Drop-IVT2H simplifies and accelerates the drop-based microfluidics workflow for screening random DNA libraries, and represents a novel alternative method for protein engineering and in vitro directed protein evolution. PMID:26940078

  5. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  6. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  7. A VUV prism spectrometer for RICH radiator refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moyssides, P G; Fokitis, E

    2000-01-01

    A prism spectrometer has been developed to operate in the VUV wavelength range from 120 to 200 nm. It can be used as a pre- disperser in conjunction with a Fabry-Perot based gas refractometer. This instrument has also been used to measure the refractive index of the liquid radiator C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in various spectral lines. This radiator is used in the RICH detectors of the DELPHI experiment and has been proposed for ALICE, and LHCb experiments. The spectral resolution of the system is improved as the wavelength decreases and the data are consistent with a wavelength accuracy about 0.4 nm at 140 nm. The results for the dispersion curve of the above liquid are presented. (17 refs).

  8. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  9. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  10. Safety and licensing analysis of 471 MWt PRISM reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Independent analyses of unscrammed events postulated for the 471 MW t PRISM reactor module, as performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are discussed. Peak fuel, cladding, and sodium temperatures for several postulated events were compared against reference temperatures. In general, BNL could essentially duplicate GE's analytical results, by making GE's assumptions. For the postulated unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) events, the newly added Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), have improved the passive shutdown response. With respect to the unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS) event, there was little impact expected from the latest revisions, and little was found. For the unscrammed transient over-power (UTOP) events, uncertainties with respect to the behavior of ternary metal fuel leave unresolved the issue of how large a UTOP initiator (between 20 and 40 cents) may be acceptable. (author)

  11. FDS5 Simulation of PRISME INTEGRAL Test, PRSINT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on fire modeling has playing a key role in the risk-informed and performance-based fire protection field. The ability to accurately predict fire behavior using the fire models is of high utility for hazard assessment, investigations and performance based design. Validation is the process of determining the degree of agreement between fire model outputs and real world events for one or more results of interest. The goal of validation is to quantify confidence in the predictive capability of the model. Validation in NUREG-1824 entails comparing the model prediction with full-scale fire experiments and quantifying the results. The objectives of this study, focused on the fire model validation, are to compare the FDS5 prediction results with the PRISME INTEGRAL test data and to validate FDS5 model

  12. Stakeholder theory and reporting information The case of performance prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Nita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain the stakeholder theory in the context of performance measurement in integrated reporting. Main research methods used in the article include logical reasoning, critical analysis of academic literature, and observation. The principal result of the discussion is included in the statement that the stakeholder theory in the field of accounting is reflected in the so-called integrated reporting. Moreover, among the large variety of performance measurement methods, such as balanced scorecard and others, the concept of performance prism can be considered as the only method that fully takes into account the wide range of stakeholders. The analysis performed leads to the conclusion that development in accounting research takes into account the objectives of an organization in the context of the so-called corporate social responsibility as well as performance reporting oriented towards the communication of the company with its environment and the various stakeholder groups.

  13. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  14. Jones matrix formulation of a Porro prism laser resonator with waveplates: theoretical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Osher, Stanley; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  16. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  17. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Wan Maisarah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI, namely n=1.51(type BK7 and n=1.77(type SF11. Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape as light couplers.

  18. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Halim, Razman Mohd; Hassan, Hazirah

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI), namely n=1.51(type BK7) and n=1.77(type SF11). Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical) able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape) as light couplers.

  19. Fault structure, properties and activity of the Makran Accretionary Prism and implications for seismogenic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone is the widest accretionary prism in the world (~400km), generated by convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. It represents a global end-member, with a 7km thick incoming sediment section. Accretionary prisms have traditionally been thought to be aseismic due to the presence of unconsolidated sediment and elevated basal pore pressures. The seismogenic potential of the Makran subduction zone is unclear, despite a Mw 8.1 earthquake in 1945 that may have been located on the plate boundary beneath the prism. In this study, a series of imbricate landward dipping (seaward verging) thrust faults have been interpreted across the submarine prism (outer 70 km) using over 6000km of industry multichannel seismic data and bathymetric data. A strong BSR (bottom simulating reflector) is present throughout the prism (excluding the far east). An unreflective décollement is interpreted from the geometry of the prism thrusts. Two major sedimentary units are identified in the input section, the lower of which contains the extension of the unreflective décollement surface. Between 60%-100% of the input section is currently being accreted. The geometry of piggy-back basin stratigraphy shows that the majority of thrusts, including those over 50km from the trench, are recently active. Landward thrusts show evidence for reactivation after periods of quiescence. Negative polarity fault plane reflectors are common in the frontal thrusts and in the eastern prism, where they may be related to increased fault activity and fluid expulsion, and are rarer in older landward thrusts. Significant NE-SW trending basement structures (The Murray Ridge and Little Murray Ridge) on the Arabian plate intersect the deformation front and affect sediment input to the subduction zone. Prism taper and structure are apparently primarily controlled by sediment supply and the secondary influence of subducting basement ridges. The thick, likely distal, sediment

  20. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  1. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  2. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  3. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  4. Reading aids for adults with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Allcock, Claire; Evans, Jennifer R

    2018-04-17

    The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 12); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; BIREME LILACS, OpenGrey, the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The date of the search was 17 January 2018. This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared any device or aid used for reading to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. We did not compare low-vision aids with no low-vision aid since it is obviously not possible to measure reading speed, our primary outcome, in people that cannot read ordinary print. We considered reading aids that maximise the person's visual reading capacity, for example by increasing image magnification (optical and electronic magnifiers), augmenting text contrast (coloured filters) or trying to optimise the viewing angle or gaze position (such as prisms). We have not included studies investigating reading aids that allow reading through hearing, such as talking books or screen readers, or through touch, such as Braille-based devices and we did not consider rehabilitation strategies or complex low-vision interventions. We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcome of the review was reading speed in words per minute. Secondary

  5. Forward and inverse solutions for Risley prism based on the Denavit-Hartenberg methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Gonzalez, A.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Strojnik, M.; Flores, J. L.; Garcia-Luna, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism for pointing and scanning beam systems are developed. A more efficient and faster algorithm is proposed to make an analogy of the Risley prism system compared with a robotic system with two degrees of freedom. This system of equations controls each Risley prism individually as a planar manipulator arm of two links. In order to evaluate the algorithm we implement it in a pointing system. We perform popular routines such as the linear, spiral and loops traces. Using forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism it is also possible to point at coordinates specified by the user, provided they are within the pointer area of work area. Experimental results are showed as a validation of our proposal.

  6. Accurate geometrical optics model for single-lens stereovision system using a prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Guo, Qiyong; Wang, DaoLei

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new method for analyzing the image formation of a prism. The prism was considered as a single optical system composed of some planes. By analyzing each plane individually and then combining them together, we derived a transformation matrix which can express the relationship between an object point and its image by the refraction of a prism. We also explained how to use this matrix for epipolar geometry and three-dimensional point reconstruction. Our method is based on optical geometry and could be used in a multiocular prism. Experimentation results are presented to prove the accuracy of our method is better than former researchers' and is comparable with that of the multicamera stereovision system.

  7. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  8. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  9. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X)

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Dian Tanukhidah

    2004-01-01

    This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder...

  10. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  11. A study on suppressing transmittance fluctuations for air-gapped Glan-type polarizing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfa; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Li, Chuanzhi; Jiao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiumin; Song, Lianke

    2018-05-01

    Light intensity transmittance is a key parameter for the design of polarizing prisms, while sometimes its experimental curves based on spatial incident angle presents periodical fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel method for completely suppressing these fluctuations via setting a glued error angle in the air gap of Glan-Taylor prisms. The proposal consists of: an accurate formula of the intensity transmittance for Glan-Taylor prisms, a numerical simulation and a contrast experiment of Glan-Taylor prisms for analyzing the causes of the fluctuations, and a simple method for accurately measuring the glued error angle. The result indicates that when the setting glued error angle is larger than the critical angle for a certain polarizing prism, the fluctuations can be completely suppressed, and a smooth intensity transmittance curve can be obtained. Besides, the critical angle in the air gap for suppressing the fluctuations is decreased with the increase of beam spot size. This method has the advantage of having less demand for the prism position in optical systems.

  12. Use of yoked prisms in patients with acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Surbhi; Han, Esther; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical practices for prescribing yoked prisms, as well as to assess related patient responses, in a sample of visually-symptomatic patients having acquired brain injury (ABI). The clinical records of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) that were assessed for yoked prisms were reviewed retrospectively. This query resulted in 60 patient records for analysis between January 2011 and December 2012. The following diagnostic groups were analysed: homonymous hemianopsia (HH)/homonymous quadranopsia, abnormal egocentric localization (AEL) and visual neglect. HH/homonymous quadranopsia (58.3%) was the primary indication to prescribe yoked prisms, followed by visual neglect/unilateral spatial inattention (USI) (40.0%) and AEL (11.7%). The most common favourable patient responses were increased awareness of their blind visual field and improved gait, mobility and balance. The magnitude and direction of prisms prescribed were dependent upon the subjective responses in patients manifesting AEL. In contrast, base direction was dependent upon the direction of visual field loss in patients with HH/homonymous quadranopsia and visual neglect. Two-thirds of the present sample population responded favourably to the yoked prisms. The results of the present study should prove useful to clinicians for the successful prescription of yoked prisms as a treatment modality in patients presenting with the above three diagnoses.

  13. PRISM Software: Processing and Review Interface for Strong‐Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A continually increasing number of high‐quality digital strong‐motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey, as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, calls for automated processing of strong‐motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong‐motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch‐processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed‐source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a review tool, which is a graphical user interface for manual review, edit, and processing. To facilitate use by non‐NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand‐alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. All the computing features have been thoroughly tested.

  14. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  15. Effect of prism adaptation on left dichotic listening deficit in neglect patients: glasses to hear better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rode, G; Pavani, F; O'Shea, J; Giard, M H; Boisson, D; Rossetti, Y

    2010-03-01

    Unilateral neglect is a disabling syndrome frequently observed following right hemisphere brain damage. Symptoms range from visuo-motor impairments through to deficient visuo-spatial imagery, but impairment can also affect the auditory modality. A short period of adaptation to a rightward prismatic shift of the visual field is known to improve a wide range of hemispatial neglect symptoms, including visuo-manual tasks, mental imagery, postural imbalance, visuo-verbal measures and number bisection. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the beneficial effects of prism adaptation may generalize to auditory manifestations of neglect. Auditory extinction, whose clinical manifestations are independent of the sensory modalities engaged in visuo-manual adaptation, was examined in neglect patients before and after prism adaptation. Two separate groups of neglect patients (all of whom exhibited left auditory extinction) underwent prism adaptation: one group (n = 6) received a classical prism treatment ('Prism' group), the other group (n = 6) was submitted to the same procedure, but wore neutral glasses creating no optical shift (placebo 'Control' group). Auditory extinction was assessed by means of a dichotic listening task performed three times: prior to prism exposure (pre-test), upon prism removal (0 h post-test) and 2 h later (2 h post-test). The total number of correct responses, the lateralization index (detection asymmetry between the two ears) and the number of left-right fusion errors were analysed. Our results demonstrate that prism adaptation can improve left auditory extinction, thus revealing transfer of benefit to a sensory modality that is orthogonal to the visual, proprioceptive and motor modalities directly implicated in the visuo-motor adaptive process. The observed benefit was specific to the detection asymmetry between the two ears and did not affect the total number of responses. This indicates a specific effect of prism adaptation on

  16. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  17. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  18. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    by use of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings and is highly nonlinear.

  19. Developing reading literacy by reading badge

    OpenAIRE

    Rejc, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

  20. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  1. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM): A novel visual instrument to measure quality of life in dermatological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Beda; Büchi, Stefan; Schmidhauser, Simone; Jenewein, Josef; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2009-07-01

    To validate the PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) tool, a novel visual instrument, for the assessment of health-related quality of life in dermatological inpatients compared with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Skindex-29 questionnaires and to report qualitative information on PRISM. In an open longitudinal study, PRISM and Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires were completed and HRQOL measurements compared. Academic dermatological inpatient ward. The study population comprised 227 sequential dermatological inpatients on admission. Patients completed the PRISM tool and the Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires at admission and discharge. PRISM Self-Illness Separation (SIS) score; Skindex-29 and DLQI scores; and qualitative PRISM information by Mayring inductive qualitative context analysis. The PRISM scores correlated well with those from the Skindex-29 (rho = 0.426; P quality of life questionnaires to assess changes in the burden of suffering during hospitalization. Inductive qualitative context analysis revealed impairment of adjustment and self-image as major aspects. Patients overall expected symptomatic and functional improvement. In patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers, many expected no treatment benefit. The PRISM tool proved to be convenient and reliable for health-related quality of life assessment, applicable for a wide range of skin diseases, and correlated with DLQI and Skindex-29 scores. With the PRISM tool, free-text answers allow for the assessment of individual information and potentially customized therapeutic approaches.

  2. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  3. Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms for high performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Man; Li, Junru; Wei, Chengzhen; He, Yuyue; Huang, Yixuan; Li, Qiaoling

    2017-12-01

    Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have been successfully synthesized via a facile route. The process involves the preparation of nickel-cobalt-manganese acetate hydroxide by a simple co-precipitation method and subsequently the thermal treatment. The as-synthesized Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms had a large surface area (96.53 m2 g-1) and porous structure. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms showed a high specific capacitance of 1623.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1. Moreover, the porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms were also employed as positive electrode materials to assemble flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The resulting flexible device had a maximum volumetric energy density (0.885 mW h cm-3) and power density (48.9 mW cm-3). Encouragingly, the flexible device exhibited good cycling stability with only about 2.2% loss after 5000 charge-discharge cycles and excellent mechanical stability. These results indicate that porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have the promising application in high performance electrochemical energy storage.

  4. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  5. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  6. Rearing a reading habit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

  7. Yellow filters can improve magnocellular function: motion sensitivity, convergence, accommodation, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, N J; Fowler, S; Stein, J F

    2005-04-01

    The magnocellular system plays an important role in visual motion processing, controlling vergence eye movements, and in reading. Yellow filters may boost magnocellular activity by eliminating inhibitory blue input to this pathway. It was found that wearing yellow filters increased motion sensitivity, convergence, and accommodation in many children with reading difficulties, both immediately and after three months using the filters. Motion sensitivity was not increased using control neutral density filters. Moreover, reading-impaired children showed significant gains in reading ability after three months wearing the filters compared with those who had used a placebo. It was concluded that yellow filters can improve magnocellular function permanently. Hence, they should be considered as an alternative to corrective lenses, prisms, or exercises for treating poor convergence and accommodation, and also as an aid for children with reading problems.

  8. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  9. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  10. Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.R. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.

  11. Os experimentos prismáticos de Goethe Goethe's prismatic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Jordan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio pretende estimular a realização de experimentos prismáticos com recursos muito simples e, com isso, facilitar o acesso aos fundamentais estudos de Goethe sobre cor, a "Farbenlehre". O encarte anexo contém fotos de um processo prismático complementar, produzido por Imagens-Modelo em Claro-Escuro neutro. Contém ainda fotos de imagens prismáticas produzidas por Imagens-Modelo em cores.The essay intends to stimulate the carrying out of prismatic experiments with very simple resources and, therewith, ease the access to Goethe's fundamental color studies, the "Farbenlehre". The included folder contains photographs of a complementary prismatic process produced by neutral bright-dark Model-Images. It also contains photographs of prismatic images produced by colored Model-Images.

  12. Spherical Lenses and Prisms Lead to Postural Instability in Both Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13–17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13–16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of −1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with −3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the −1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the −3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  13. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1 over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3; viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum, was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  14. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  15. Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostamy, N.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Bugg, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 10 4 . The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer

  16. The application of the right rectangular prism in the process determining the value of terrain correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Oleg R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topographic masses on gravity were determined for the territory of Serbia by using the digital terrain model with resolution of 1 arch second in both directions. For the effect of distant masses, i.e. masses that are out of the territory of Serbia, a global digital model SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was used. All the topography masses were divided by using a right rectangle prism and classic terrain corrections was applied. Special attention was dedicated to the curvatures of the Earth surface and singularity points, where equations for first partial derivatives of prism gravity potential are not defined.

  17. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  18. On improvement of the series convergence in the problem of the vibrations of orhotropic rectangular prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashko, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new analytical presentation of the solution for steady-state oscillations of orthotopic rectangular prism is found. The corresponding infinite system of linear algebraic equations has been deduced by the superposition method. A countable set of precise eigenfrequencies and elementary eigenforms is found. The identities are found which make it possible to improve the convergence of all the infinite series in the solution of the problem. All the infinite series in presentation of solution are analytically summed up. Numerical calculations of stresses in the rectangular orthotropic prism with a uniform along the border and harmonic in time load on two opposite faces have been performed.

  19. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  20. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

  1. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, M.F.M.; Prins, J.B.; Knoop, H.; Verhagen, S.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue.

  2. PRISM: Processing routines in IDL for spectroscopic measurements (installation manual and user's guide, version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes procedures for installing and using the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software. PRISM provides a framework to conduct spectroscopic analysis of measurements made using laboratory, field, airborne, and space-based spectrometers. Using PRISM functions, the user can compare the spectra of materials of unknown composition with reference spectra of known materials. This spectroscopic analysis allows the composition of the material to be identified and characterized. Among its other functions, PRISM contains routines for the storage of spectra in database files, import/export of ENVI spectral libraries, importation of field spectra, correction of spectra to absolute reflectance, arithmetic operations on spectra, interactive continuum removal and comparison of spectral features, correction of imaging spectrometer data to ground-calibrated reflectance, and identification and mapping of materials using spectral feature-based analysis of reflectance data. This report provides step-by-step instructions for installing the PRISM software and running its functions.

  3. PRISM, a Novel Visual Metaphor Measuring Personally Salient Appraisals, Attitudes and Decision-Making: Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sensky

    Full Text Available PRISM (the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure is a novel, simple visual instrument. Its utility was initially discovered serendipitously, but has been validated as a quantitative measure of suffering. Recently, new applications for different purposes, even in non-health settings, have encouraged further exploration of how PRISM works, and how it might be applied. This review will summarise the results to date from applications of PRISM and propose a generic conceptualisation of how PRISM works which is consistent with all these applications.A systematic review, in the form of a qualitative evidence synthesis, was carried out of all available published data on PRISM.Fifty-two publications were identified, with a total of 8254 participants. Facilitated by simple instructions, PRISM has been used with patient groups in a variety of settings and cultures. As a measure of suffering, PRISM has, with few exceptions, behaved as expected according to Eric Cassell's seminal conceptualisation of suffering. PRISM has also been used to assess beliefs about or attitudes to stressful working conditions, interpersonal relations, alcohol consumption, and suicide, amongst others.This review supports PRISM behaving as a visual metaphor of the relationship of objects (eg 'my illness' to a subject (eg 'myself' in a defined context (eg 'my life at the moment'. As a visual metaphor, it is quick to complete and yields personally salient information. PRISM is likely to have wide applications in assessing beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making, because of its properties, and because it yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In medicine, it can serve as a generic patient-reported outcome measure. It can serve as a tool for representational guidance, can be applied to developing strategies visually, and is likely to have applications in coaching, psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions.

  4. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  5. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  6. Establishment and correction of an Echelle cross-prism spectrogram reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bayanheshig; Li, Xiaotian; Cui, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    The accuracy of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer depends on the matching degree between the spectrum reduction model and the actual state of the spectrometer. However, the error of adjustment can change the actual state of the spectrometer and result in a reduction model that does not match. This produces an inaccurate wavelength calibration. Therefore, the calibration of a spectrogram reduction model is important for the analysis of any echelle cross-prism spectrometer. In this study, the spectrogram reduction model of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer was established. The image position laws of a spectrometer that varies with the system parameters were simulated to the influence of the changes in prism refractive index, focal length and so on, on the calculation results. The model was divided into different wavebands. The iterative method, least squares principle and element lamps with known characteristic wavelength were used to calibrate the spectral model in different wavebands to obtain the actual values of the system parameters. After correction, the deviation of actual x- and y-coordinates and the coordinates calculated by the model are less than one pixel. The model corrected by this method thus reflects the system parameters in the current spectrometer state and can assist in accurate wavelength extraction. The instrument installation and adjustment would be guided in model-repeated correction, reducing difficulty of equipment, respectively.

  7. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  8. The Behaviour of Palm Oil Fibre Block Masonry Prism under Eccentric Compressive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kolop, Roslan; Baizura Hamid, Nor; Kaamin, Masiri; Farhan Rosdi, Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Dry-stacked masonry offers great benefits in constructing masonry buildings. Several examples from previous research show that dry masonry is reasonable alternative to the traditional building system. By addition of fibre, the ductility and the propagation of cracking will be improved. This study investigates the dry stack oil palm fibre block prisms which were subjected to eccentricity compression loads. These concrete blocks were cast using a single mould with suitable fibre-cement composition namely 1:4 (cement: sand) and 0.40 water to the cement ratio based on cement weight. Prisms test using 400 (length) × 150 (width) × 510 (height) mm specimen was carried under eccentric load. There were forty eight (48) prisms built with different configurations based on their volume of fibre. In this study, one types of grout were used namely the fine grout of mix 1:3:2 (cement: sand: aggregate (5mm maximum). Based on the test performed, the failure mechanism and influencing parameters were discussed. From compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with the increase of fibre used. Although the control sample has the higher strength compared to concrete with EFB, it can be seen from mode failure of masonry prism that fibre could extend the cracking time. These results show that the oil palm fibre blocks can improve the failure behaviour and suitable to be used as load bearing wall construction in Malaysia.

  9. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  10. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  11. Analysis of unscrammed loss of flow and heat sink for PRISM with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring an advanced liquid-metal reactor design by General Electric Company (GE) called PRISM. The intent is to design a reactor with passively safe responses to many operational and severe accidents. PRISM is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical assistance. Recently, the PRISM design has been modified to include three gas expansion modules (GEMs) on its core periphery. The GEMs were added to quickly reduce the power (by inserting negative reactivity) during loss-of-flow events to curtail peak fuel and clad temperatures predicted in the previous design. The GEM prototypes have been tested at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The significance of the GEMs in PRISM is discussed in this paper through the evaluation of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and loss of heat sink using the SSC code. It has been demonstrated in the past that SSC predicts results similar to GE and other liquid-metal reactor codes

  12. Numerical simulation of blast wave propagation in vicinity of standalone prism on flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valger, Svetlana; Fedorova, Natalya; Fedorov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    In the paper, numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of a standalone prism and a prism with a cavity in front of it was carried out. The modeling was based on the solution of 3D Euler equations and Fluent software was used as a main computational tool. The algorithm for local dynamic mesh adaptation to high gradients of pressure was applied. The initial stage of the explosion of condensed explosive was described with the help of "Compressed balloon method". The research allowed describing the characteristic stages of the blast in a semi-closed space, the structure of secondary shock waves and their interaction with obstacles. The numerical approach in Fluent based on combining inviscid gas dynamics methods and "Compressed balloon method" was compared with the method which had been used by the authors earlier with the help of AUTODYN and which is based on the use of the hydrodynamic model of a material to describe state of detonation products. For the problem of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of standalone prism the comparison of the simulation results obtained using both the methods with the experimental data was performed on the dependence of static pressure and effective momentum on time for the characteristic points located on prism walls.

  13. A compact and lightweight off-axis lightguide prism in near to eye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qijia; Surman, Phil; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-06-01

    We propose a method to improve the design of an off-axis lightguide configuration for near to eye displays (NED) using freeform optics technology. The advantage of this modified optical system, which includes an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a doublet lens, an imaging lightguide prism and a compensation prism, is that it increases optical length path, offers a smaller size, as well as avoids the obstructed views, and matches the user's head shape. In this system, the light emitted from the OLED passes through the doublet lens and is refracted/reflected by the imaging lightguide prism, which is used to magnify the image from the microdisplay, while the compensation prism is utilized to correct the light ray shift so that a low-distortion image can be observed in a real-world setting. A NED with a 4 mm diameter exit pupil, 21.5° diagonal full field of view (FoV), 23 mm eye relief, and a size of 33 mm by 9.3 mm by 16 mm is designed. The developed system is compact, lightweight and suitable for entertainment and education application.

  14. Nonlinear attractor dynamics in the fundamental and extended prism adaptation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.; Blau, Julia J.C.; Turvey, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation and re-adaptation processes are studied in terms of dynamic attractors that evolve and devolve. In doing so, a theoretical account is given for the fundamental observation that adaptation and re-adaptation processes do not exhibit one-trial learning. Moreover, the emergence of the latent aftereffect in the extended prism paradigm is addressed

  15. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  16. Corporate Privacy Policy Changes during PRISM and the Rise of Surveillance Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the NSA’s PRISM program demonstrated that Internet companies have become prime targets of government surveillance. But what role do companies themselves play in putting users’ privacy at risk? By comparing the changes in the privacy policies of ten companies—the nine in PRISM plus Twitter—I seek to understand how users’ privacy shifted. Specifically, I study how company practices surrounding the life cycle of user information (e.g. collection, use, sharing, and retention shifted between the times when companies joined PRISM and when PRISM news broke. A qualitative analysis of the changes in the privacy policies suggests that company disclosure of tracking for advertising purposes increased. I draw on business scholar Shoshana Zuboff’s conceptualization of “surveillance capitalism” and legal scholar Joel Reidenberg’s “transparent citizen” to explain the implications such changes hold for users’ privacy. These findings underscore why public debates about post-Snowden privacy rights cannot ignore the role that companies play in legitimizing surveillance activities under the auspices of creating market value.

  17. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  18. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  19. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoît, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations

  20. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  1. Theme: Parents and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

  2. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  3. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software

  4. Illusory reversal of causality between touch and vision has no effect on prism adaptation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu eTanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc. In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka, Homma & Imamizu (2011 Exp Brain Res demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal-order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  5. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  6. Illusory Reversal of Causality between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2011; Exp. Brain Res.) demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  7. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  9. Transfer of memory trace of cerebellum-dependent motor learning in human prism adaptation: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Soichi; Honda, Takeru; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the memory trace of ocular reflex adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei for consolidation through repetitions of training. However, the memory transfer is not well characterized in the learning of voluntary movement. Here, we implement our model of memory transfer to interpret the data of prism adaptation (Martin, Keating, Goodkin, Bastian, & Thach, 1996a, 1996b), assuming that the cerebellar nuclear memory formed by memory transfer is used for normal throwing. When the subject was trained to throw darts wearing prisms in 30-40 trials, the short-term memory for recalibrating the throwing direction by gaze would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, which was extinguished by throwing with normal vision in a similar number of trials. After weeks of repetitions of short-term prism adaptation, the long-term memory would be formed in the cerebellar nuclei through memory transfer, which enabled one to throw darts to the center wearing prisms without any training. These two long-term memories, one for throwing with normal vision and the other for throwing wearing prisms, are assumed to be utilized automatically under volitional control. Moreover, when the prisms were changed to new prisms, a new memory for adapting to the new prisms would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, just to counterbalance the nuclear memory of long-term adaptation to the original prisms in a similar number of trials. These results suggest that memory transfer may occur in the learning of voluntary movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  11. Reading Disabilities and PASS Reading Enhancement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

  12. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  13. Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility during Concrete Prism Testing through Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasonic Spectroscopy : TechBrief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The research has been conducted on laboratory-cast concrete prism specimens containing both fine and coarse aggregates obtained from different sources to provide a spectrum of reactivity for assessment through the developed NIRAS technique. The NIRAS...

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Hendam, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  15. Moving forward with prisms: Sensory-motor adaptation improves gait initiation in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Helen Bultitude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that the decreased walking speed; small, shuffling steps; and ‘freezing’ shown by patients with Parkinson’s disease could stem from an inability to tilt the body forward enough to provide sufficient forward propulsion. In two repeated-measures studies we examined whether adaptation to upward-shifting prisms, resulting in a downward after-effect, could improve gait initiation in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Faster forward stepping followed a brief (5 min exposure period for patients, and a longer (20 min exposure period for age-matched controls. Backward stepping was unchanged, and adaptation to downward-shifting prisms with control participants showed no effect on forward or backward stepping. These results suggest that adaptation of arm proprioception in the vertical plane may generalise to anterior-posterior postural control, presenting new possibilities for the treatment of gait disturbance in basal ganglia disorders.

  16. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  18. Using the accelerated Brazilian concrete prism test (ABCPT to evaluate alkali aggregate reaction (AAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    Full Text Available There are many test methods used in the laboratory to detect potential alkali-aggregate reactions (AAR. However, up to now, there is no consensus if they are reliable and efficient. This work presents the development of a new and accelerated concrete prism test called ABCPT (accelerate Brazilian concrete prism test as an attempt to create a reliable and fast test that can analyze and classify the potential reactivity of aggregates in the laboratory. For this research, six aggregates from different lithotypes were used. The methods CPT, ACPT and ABCPT were carried out with all the aggregates and a comparative analysis among all tests was performed. ABCPT seems to have a great potential to analyze and classify aggregates in the laboratory, although it needs further testing with other lithotypes to be confirmed as feasible.

  19. Progress on PRISM, an inherently safe, economic, and testable advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippets, F.E.; Salerno, L.N.; Boardman, C.E.; Kwant, W.; Murata, R.E.; Snyder, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports progress on the design of PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) under the DOE-sponsored innovative reactor program now in its third year at General Electric. The purpose of this program is to develop a design for an inherently safe, reliable, and marketable liquid metal fast reactor power plant. The PRISM design approach includes the following key elements: Compact sodium-cooled pool-type reactor modules that are sized to enable factory fabrication, economical shipment to inland as well as water-side sites, and economical full-scale prototype testing for design certification; Nuclear safety-related envelope limited to the reactor modules and their service systems; Inherent, passive shutdown heat removal for loss-of-cooling events; Inherent, passive reactivity shutdown for failure-to-scram events

  20. Analysis of the applicability of acceleration methods for a triangular prism geometry nodal diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro; Okumura, Keisuke

    2002-11-01

    A prototype version of a diffusion code has been developed to analyze the hexagonal core as reduced moderation reactor and the applicability of some acceleration methods have been investigated to accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution method. The hexagonal core is divided into regular triangular prisms in the three-dimensional code MOSRA-Prism and a polynomial expansion nodal method is applied to approximate the neutron flux distribution by a cubic polynomial. The multi-group diffusion equation is solved iteratively with ordinal inner and outer iterations and the effectiveness of acceleration methods is ascertained by applying an adaptive acceleration method and a neutron source extrapolation method, respectively. The formulation of the polynomial expansion nodal method is outlined in the report and the local and global effectiveness of the acceleration methods is discussed with various sample calculations. A new general expression of vacuum boundary condition, derived in the formulation is also described. (author)

  1. Watching Nanoscale Self-Assembly Kinetics of Gold Prisms in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Ou, Zihao; Jones, Matthew R.; Chen, Qian

    We use liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy to watch self-assembly of gold triangular prisms into polymer-like structures. The in situ dynamics monitoring enabled by liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, single nanoparticle tracking, and the marked conceptual similarity between molecular reactions and nanoparticle self-assembly combined elucidate the following mechanistic understanding: a step-growth polymerization based assembly statistics, kinetic pathways sampling particle curvature dependent energy minima and their interconversions, and directed assembly into polymorphs (linear or cyclic chains) through in situ modulation of the prism bonding geometry. Our study bridges the constituent kinetics on the molecular and nanoparticle length scales, which enriches the design rules in directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  2. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus di Plaza Hotel Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suliantoro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini Plaza hotel belum pernah melakukan pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi yang terdiri dari aspek finansial dan non finansial. Dilihat dari prosentase tingkat hunian yang tidak memenuhi target yang ditetapkan, maka pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi diharapkan mampu memberikan perbaikan kinerja yang diharapkan. Dengan menggunakan performance prism, dilakukan identifikasi kebutuhan dan kontribusi stakeholder secara keseluruhan sehingga didapat indikator kinerja dari kriteria strategi, proses dan kapabilitas yang dijadikan tolok ukur perbaikan kinerja.. tahap pengumpulan data dengan menyebarkan matriks perbandingan berpasangan sebagai dasar penyusunan bobot kepentingan pada AHP dan kuesioner target pencapaian kinerja sebagai dasar penetapan skor aktual pada OMAX. Dari analisis yang dilakukan setelah bobot kepentingan diperoleh dan perhitungan nilai performansi, dilakukan simulasi perbaikan satu-satuan nilai performansi agar didapat kriteria dan elemen apa saja yang mendapat prioritas perbaikan dan rekomendasi perbaikan yang perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja Plaza Hotel Semarang. Kata kunci : Performance Prism, AHP, OMAX, skor aktual

  3. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  4. Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... in the aftereffect. The findings have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  5.   Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

      Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  6. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  7. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eBolognini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010, we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of prism adaptation, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  8. PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] design concept enhances waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs

  9. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. In this paper, the authors describe the latest set of results from their SSC and MINET code calculations. Series of postulated events were analyzed, for the most current PRISM design, to evaluate the system performance under unscrammed conditions. The PRISM reactor utilizes a metal fuel composed of 27% Pu, 10% Zr, and 63% U, based on the fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program. The fuel has a small power and temperature defect as a result of the high fuel thermal conductivity of metal and a hard neutron spectrum. The reactivity feedbacks of the core are designed to provide a negative response to off-normal, high temperature conditions, by invoking negative responses from the thermal expansion of the fuel, control rods, and core radial dimensions. The core restraint system incorporates the limited free bowing feature, which generates an outward bow of the in-core portion of the fuel assembly when a temperature gradient exits. The core also has three Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs) placed around the periphery, which will remove a combined worth of -69 cents of reactivity when the pumps are tripped from full power conditions. In evaluating this passive shutdown response, in which the PRISM reactor power should decrease significantly in response to overheated conditions, one considers three classes of unscrammed events. These include the unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF), loss of heat sink (ULOHS), and transient over power (UTOP) events

  10. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  11. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Re...

  12. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  13. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  14. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  15. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  16. Reading: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  17. Teaching Reading with Puppets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…

  18. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  19. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  20. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  1. The PRISM reactor as a possible option to deal with the british civilian plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtlscherer, Christopher [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); ISR, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Boku) (Austria)

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with stocks of separated weapon-usable plutonium is a big challenge for our modern society. This work focuses on the British civil plutonium stockpiles, which amount to 103.3 tons. One option is seen in irradiating the plutonium in a fast reactor under development, namely the GE PRISM reactor. The PRISM reactor is a small modular, fast reactor which has a thermal power of 840 MW and an electrical output of 311 MW. It is intended to use MOX fuel and proponents claim, that it thus would be possible to produce clean energy, while making the plutonium proliferation resistant. A MCNP model of the reactor is built and depletion calculations with different target burnups of the fuel were conducted to check whether the burned material would fulfil the Spent-Fuel Standard. Particularly it was checked whether the spent fuel is self protecting, meaning that the dose rate does not fall below a limit of 1 Sv/h in 1 meter distance after a cooling period of 30 years. Based on the reactor model calculations the irradiation time to fulfill this limit for the spent fuel is calculated. Based on the needed target burnup, it can be verified, whether it is possible for the PRISM reactor to render the civil plutonium proliferation resistant in only 20 years as is is claimed by its proponents.

  2. The PRISM concept for a safe, economic and testable liquid metal fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Salerno, L.N.; Tippets, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM project is underway at General Electric as part of an advanced reactor conceptual design program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM concept emphasizes inherent safety, modular construction, and factory fabrication. These features are intended to improve the basis for public acceptance, reduce cost,improve licensability, and reduce the risk of schedule delays and cost increases during construction. A PRISM power plant comprises a number of reactor modules. The relatively small size of the reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features for safe accommodation of accidents. These inherent safety features permit simplification and reduction of conventional safety-related systems in the plant. Testing of a full-size prototype reactor module is planned in the late 1990's to demonstrate these inherent safety characteristics. It is intended that the results of the test be used to obtain certification of the design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission preparatory to use of reactor modules built to this standard design in licensed commercial plants

  3. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying spatial realignment during adaptation to optical wedge prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Heidi L; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Gavrilescu, Maria; Strudwick, Mark W; Loftus, Andrea; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-01

    Visuomotor adaptation to a shift in visual input produced by prismatic lenses is an example of dynamic sensory-motor plasticity within the brain. Prism adaptation is readily induced in healthy individuals, and is thought to reflect the brain's ability to compensate for drifts in spatial calibration between different sensory systems. The neural correlate of this form of functional plasticity is largely unknown, although current models predict the involvement of parieto-cerebellar circuits. Recent studies that have employed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions associated with prism adaptation have discovered patterns of parietal and cerebellar modulation as participants corrected their visuomotor errors during the early part of adaptation. However, the role of these regions in the later stage of adaptation, when 'spatial realignment' or true adaptation is predicted to occur, remains unclear. Here, we used fMRI to quantify the distinctive patterns of parieto-cerebellar activity as visuomotor adaptation develops. We directly contrasted activation patterns during the initial error correction phase of visuomotor adaptation with that during the later spatial realignment phase, and found significant recruitment of the parieto-cerebellar network--with activations in the right inferior parietal lobe and the right posterior cerebellum. These findings provide the first evidence of both cerebellar and parietal involvement during the spatial realignment phase of prism adaptation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Possibilities of magnet prism β-spectrometer application in on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, K.M.; Arynov, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main attention is paid to works with particle beam in up-to-date nuclear investigations. The application of magnet prism β-spectrometer for works in 'on-line' experiments is considered in this article. The source chamber and detector chamber are distanted from each other on great distance (4 m) and are out of operation field of spectrometer. There is a reliable defence of operating field of device from external parasitic fields by the magnetic screens system. The additional advantage is a factor that source (target) and detector could replacing in specific directions about few centimetres during the device operating. The main β-spectroscopic performances of device are compared with Grenoble spectroscopic complex. The liner depression of prism spectrometer account for from 3,6 up to 6 m; light force - from 2·10 -4 up to 6·10 -4 up to 4π; operating resolving power - 0,02-0,05% by impulse. Investigation range is from several keV up to 3 MeV. There are all opportunities for installing of the on-line magnetic prism spectrometer on the U-150 accelerator and the WWR-K reactor. Spectrometer application in 'on-line' experiments gives possibility to obtain more wide information. 4 refs

  6. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  7. Prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matched terahertz wave generation using a DAST crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizu, Koji; Shibuya, Takayuki; Uchida, Hirohisa; Kawase, Kodo

    2010-02-15

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation based on nonlinear frequency conversion is a promising method for realizing a tunable monochromatic high-power THz-wave source. Unfortunately, many nonlinear crystals have strong absorption in the THz frequency region. This limits efficient and widely tunable THz-wave generation. The Cherenkov phase-matching method is one of the most promising techniques for overcoming these problems. Here, we propose a prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matching (PCC-PM) method, in which a prism with a suitable refractive index at THz frequencies is coupled to a nonlinear crystal. This has the following advantages. Many crystals can be used as THz-wave emitters; the phase-matching condition inside the crystal does not have to be observed; the absorption of the crystal does not prevent efficient generation of radiation; and pump sources with arbitrary wavelengths can be employed. Here we demonstrate PCC-PM THz-wave generation using the organic crystal 4-dimethylamino-N-metyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) and a Si prism coupler. We obtain THz-wave radiation with tunability of approximately 0.1 to 10 THz and with no deep absorption features resulting from the absorption spectrum of the crystal. The obtained spectra did not depend on the pump wavelength in the range 1300 to 1450 nm. This simple technique shows promise for generating THz radiation using a wide variety of nonlinear crystals.

  8. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  9. A novel and compact spectral imaging system based on two curved prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Bin, Xiangli; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Yang

    2013-09-01

    As a novel detection approach which simultaneously acquires two-dimensional visual picture and one-dimensional spectral information, spectral imaging offers promising applications on biomedical imaging, conservation and identification of artworks, surveillance of food safety, and so forth. A novel moderate-resolution spectral imaging system consisting of merely two optical elements is illustrated in this paper. It can realize the function of a relay imaging system as well as a 10nm spectral resolution spectroscopy. Compared to conventional prismatic imaging spectrometers, this design is compact and concise with only two special curved prisms by utilizing two reflective surfaces. In contrast to spectral imagers based on diffractive grating, the usage of compound-prism possesses characteristics of higher energy utilization and wider free spectral range. The seidel aberration theory and dispersive principle of this special prism are analyzed at first. According to the results, the optical system of this design is simulated, and the performance evaluation including spot diagram, MTF and distortion, is presented. In the end, considering the difficulty and particularity of manufacture and alignment, an available method for fabrication and measurement is proposed.

  10. Reading, writing, rebelling. Propositions for a renewed critical stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Doubinsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from there instead of ending there. In other words, the instability of the reading is the only way to mirror the instability of the works, and to acknowledge their ever-changing form. Far from being innocent, critical reading therefore appears as a radical, but necessary action, a rebellion against the obvious and accepted definitions to which works are too often attached.

  11. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  12. Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Ulker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic success of the university students greatly depends on the mastery of an academic reading skill. However, students as well as teachers, take the learning of this skill for granted, as they tend to presuppose that reading skill is acquired as a part of their secondary education. As a result, most first-year students employ non university strategies to read academic texts, which leads to a surface approach to reading and prevents students from a better understanding of the material. This paper will discuss the strategies that involve students in taking a deep approach to reading academic texts.

  13. Reading use in preschool

    OpenAIRE

    Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

  14. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  15. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Vanany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder in hotel X such as: customer, employee, supplier, owner and investor, and regulator and community. From the performance measurement system design are obtained 36 types Key Performance Indicator (KPI such as: 6 KPI of customer, 9 KPI of staff manajerial, 9 KPI of staff operational, 4 KPI of supplier, 3 KPI of investor, and 5 KPI of regulator & community. Result of implementation performance measurement system with scoring system indicates that the amount of scor current performance indicator is 50,75%. Result of measurement can be based management act evaluation and choice planning improvement organization and all Stakeholder requirements must be request. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada sebuah perusahaan dalam bisnis hotel dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini, sistem pengukuran kinerja di Hotel X belum merepresentasikan kinerja organisasi secara komprehensif dan integratif. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan kembali sistem pengukuran kinerjanya. Dari kondisi objektif hotel X, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model Performance Prism dibanding model lain. Hasil rancangan menunjukkan bahwa stakeholder hotel X meliputi: konsumen, tenaga kerja, supplier, pemilik/investor, serta pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar lingkungan hotel. Sistem pengukuran kinerja memuat 36 KPI yang meliputi 6 KPI konsumen, 9 KPI staff manajerial, 9 KPI staff operasional, 4 KPI supplier, 3

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  17. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  18. INTEREST AND READING MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamdu Alhamdu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

  19. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  20. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  1. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  2. Behaviour of concrete beams reinforced withFRP prestressed concrete prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Dagmar

    The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) to reinforce concrete is gaining acceptance. However, due to the relatively low modulus of FRP, in comparison to steel, such structures may, if sufficient amount of reinforcement is not used, suffer from large deformations and wide cracks. FRP is generally more suited for prestressing. Since it is not feasible to prestress all concrete structures to eliminate the large deflections of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members, researchers are focusing on other strategies. A simple method for avoiding excessive deflections is to provide sufficiently high amount of FRP reinforcement to limit its stress (strain) to acceptable levels under service loads. This approach will not be able to take advantage of the high strength of FRP and will be generally uneconomical. The current investigation focuses on the feasibility of an alternative strategy. This thesis deals with the flexural and shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms. FRP prestressed concrete prisms (PCP) are new reinforcing bars, made by pretensioning FRP and embedding it in high strength grout/concrete. The purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility of using such pretensioned rebars, and their effect on the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range. Due to the prestress in the prisms, deflection of concrete beams reinforced with this product is substantially reduced, and is comparable to similarly steel reinforced beams. The thesis comprises both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the experimental part, nine beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms, and two companion beams, one steel and one FRP reinforced were tested. All the beams were designed to carry the same ultimate moment. Excellent flexural and shear behaviour of beams reinforced with higher prestressed prisms is reported. When comparing deflections of three beams designed to have the

  3. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  4. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  5. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  6. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  7. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  8. High-performance beam steering using electrowetting-driven liquid prism fabricated by a simple dip-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Clement, Carlos; Park, Sung-Yong, E-mail: mpeps@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, #07-08, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    A high degree of beam steering is demonstrated using an electrowetting-driven liquid prism. While prism devices have typically relied on complex and expensive laboratory setups, such as high-vacuum facilities for fabrication of dielectric layers, this work utilizes a simple dip-coating method to provide an ion gel layer as a dielectric, offering 2 or 3 orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm{sup 2}) than that of conventional dielectrics. Analytical studies present the effects of liquid selection and arrangement on overall prism performance. For experimental demonstrations of high-performance beam steering, we not only selected two immiscible liquids of water and 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BN) oil which provide the large refractive index difference (n{sub water} = 1.33 and n{sub 1-BN} = 1.65 at λ = 532 nm) between them, but also utilized a double-stacked prism configuration which increases the number of interfaces for incoming light to be steered. At a prism apex angle of φ = 27°, we were able to achieve significantly large beam steering of up to β = 19.06°, which is the highest beam steering performance ever demonstrated using electrowetting technology.

  9. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  10. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  11. Compact surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing an injection-molded prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chen, Chih-Han; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at a low cost and accessible diagnostic device in clinical practice, a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with a large dynamic range in high sensitivity is designed to satisfy commercial needs in food safety, environmental bio-pollution monitoring, and fast clinical diagnosis. The core component integrates an optical coupler, a sample-loading plate, and angle-tuning reflectors is injection-molded as a free-from prism made of plastic optics. This design makes a matching-oil-free operation during operation. The disposability of this low-cost component ensures testing or diagnosis without cross contamination in bio-samples.

  12. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bielewicz, Pawel [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Banday, Anthony [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Barbosa, Domingos [Grupo de Radio Astronomia Basic Sciences and Enabling Technologies Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barreiro, Belen [Instituto de Fìsica de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria) Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Bartlett, James [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris, Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bartolo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei" , Università degli studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Battistelli, Elia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Battye, Richard; Bonaldi, Anna [Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bendo, George [U.K. ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Benoȋt, Alain [Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bersanelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, Milano (Italy); Béthermin, Matthieu, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The data obtained will allow us to precisely measure the absolute sky brightness and polarization of all the components of the sky emission in the observed frequency range, separating the primordial and extragalactic components cleanly from the galactic and zodiacal light emissions. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM, which include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, detecting approximately 10{sup 6} clusters extending to large redshift, including a characterization of the gas temperature of the brightest ones (through the relativistic corrections to the classic SZ template) as well as a peculiar velocity survey using the kinetic SZ effect that comprises our entire Hubble volume; (2) a detailed characterization of the properties and evolution of dusty galaxies, where the most of the star formation in the universe took place, the faintest population of which constitute the diffuse CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background); (3) a characterization of the B modes from primordial gravity waves generated during

  13. Calculation of gravity and magnetic anomalies of finite-length right polygonal prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An equation is derived for the vertical gravity field due to a homogeneous body with polygonal cross‐section and finite strike‐length. The equation can be separated into the two‐dimensional (2-D) terms of Talwani et al. (1959) and exact terms for the contributions of the ends of the prism. Equations for the magnetic field due to a similar body were derived by Shuey and Pasquale (1973), who coined the term “two‐and‐a‐half dimensional” (2 1/2-D) to describe the geometry. Magnetic intensities are expressed as a vector sum, from which the common dot product formulation can be obtained by binomial expansion.

  14. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  15. Evaluation of postulated LOF [loss-of-flow] events in PRISM and SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, B.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Aronson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM and SAFR designs, as currently proposed by DOE, are designed for ''inherent'', as opposed to ''engineered'', safety. Brookhaven National Laboratory is supporting the initial NRC review of these advanced LMR concepts. A loss-of-flow (LOF) accident coupled with a failure of the reactor shutdown system is one of the major safety concerns in the advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) evaluation effort. The analysis discussed here covers: (1) primary pipe break without pump trip, (2) primary coolant pump seizure, and (3) primary coolant pump coastdown. The analytical modelling and the calculated thermal and hydraulic behavior are described in detail

  16. Simplified analysis of PRISM RVACS [Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System] performance without liner spill-over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified analysis of the performance of the PRISM RVACS decay heat removal system under off-normal conditions, i.e., without the liner spill-over, is described. Without the spilling of hot-pool sodium over the liner and the resultant down-flow along the inside of the reactor vessel wall, the RVACS system performance becomes dominated by the radial heat condition and radiation. Simple estimates of the resulting heat conduction and radiation processes support GE's contention that the RVACS performance is not severely impacted by the absence of spillover, and can improve significantly if sodium has leaked into the region between the reactor and containment vessels. 7 refs

  17. The eclipse of CI Cygni in 1980 on the objective prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The observations of CI Cyg were carried out with the Torun 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope with the objective prism giving a dispersion of 250 A/mm at H-gamma. Intensity traces of 20 selected spectra, made on the Kodak IIa-O plates, were made. The results were corrected for all instrumental effects and the interstellar extinction. The relative emission lines intensities have been obtained from the tracings after normalization to H-beta = 100. The spectra were typical for the quiet symbiotic star. So, all changes in the spectrum were caused by geometrical effects (eclipse). A preliminary analysis of the obtained spectra is presented. (Auth.)

  18. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  19. Byen prisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Winther, Mark; Jakobsen, Mikkel Broen

    Aleppo, Mosul, Kobane, Palmyra, Fallujah, Raqqa og Ramadi. Listen over byer, hvor der kæmpes eller er blevet kæmpet i Irak og Syrien, er lang. Kampen mod ISIL og den syriske borgerkrig er væsentlige eksempler på, at krigen og byerne i stigende grad er sammenhængende temaer. Verdens befolkningstal...

  20. CSAF Reading List 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Undaunted Zero Dark Thirty 101109-F-RH756-737 Raptor's Reveille Featured Books Featured Films Featured Art House To House House To House by David Bellavia and John Bruning One of the great heroes of the Iraq War /McMillan/Switzler Read More... Fearless Book: Fearless by Eric Blehm Read More... Zero Dark Thirty Zero

  1. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  2. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  3. Reading and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

  4. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  5. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  6. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  7. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  8. FDS5 Simulation for OECD PRISME Fire Test of DOOR PRSD5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bok; Park, Jong Seuk

    2009-01-01

    OECD/NEA PRISME Fire Project is an international co-operation project to investigate fire propagation by means of experiments and analyses for nuclear power plant applications. This project focuses on the generation of experimental data for fire and smoke propagation from the fire room to adjacent rooms under various conditions and room configurations. In addition, analyses using computer codes are performed to understand the phenomena of interest and to produce a consistent interpretation of the experimental results. The PRISME Project is composed of series of tests named as SOURCE, DOOR, LEAK and Global Tests. The SOURCE is composed of tests to characterize the fire source, and the DOOR is to study fire and smoke propagation through an open door, while the LEAK is to investigate hot gas leakages through other modes of openings such as holes, a slot, a duct, and a partially opened door. The Global test will be conducted as integral tests on the basis of the results of the previous separate effects tests. In this paper, simulations are performed with FDS5 computer code for the DOOR Test No.5 (PRS D 5) and the calculation results are compared with the corresponding experimental data to study the code capability to predict the phenomena of the hot gas propagation between two rooms

  9. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  10. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  11. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co. L.P, 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCA/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  12. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  13. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  14. Polygonal Prism Mesh in the Viscous Layers for the Polyhedral Mesh Generator, PolyGen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Polyhedral mesh has been known to have some benefits over the tetrahedral mesh. Efforts have been made to set up a polyhedral mesh generation system with open source programs SALOME and TetGen. The evaluation has shown that the polyhedral mesh generation system is promising. But it is necessary to extend the capability of the system to handle the viscous layers to be a generalized mesh generator. A brief review to the previous works on the mesh generation for the viscous layers will be made in section 2. Several challenging issues for the polygonal prism mesh generation will be discussed as well. The procedure to generate a polygonal prism mesh will be discussed in detail in section 3. Conclusion will be followed in section 4. A procedure to generate meshes in the viscous layers with PolyGen has been successfully designed. But more efforts have to be exercised to find the best way for the generating meshes for viscous layers. Using the extrusion direction of the STL data will the first of the trials in the near future

  15. On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  16. Development and commissioning of a double-prism spectrometer for the diagnosis of femtosecond electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2016-12-15

    Free-electron lasers as accelerator-driven light sources and wakefield-based acceleration in plasmas require the knowledge of the longitudinal extension and the longitudinal current profile of the involved electron bunches. These bunches can yield lengths below 10 μm, or durations shorter than approx. 33 fs, as well as charges less than 30 pC. During this work, transition radiation from relativistic electron bunches was investigated in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. A spectrometer using an arrangement of two consecutive zinc selenide prisms was developed, built and commissioned. The instrument covers the spectral range from 2 μm to 18 μm in a single shot. Measurements with the double-prism spectrometer were conducted at the FEL facilities FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany and FELIX at the Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The assessment of the spectrometer and comparative studies with established diagnostic devices at FLASH show high signal-to-noise ratios at bunch charges below 10 pC and confirm the obtained results.

  17. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (STUDI KASUS PADA PDAM TIRTA MOEDAL CABANG SEMARANG TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini PDAM Tirta Moedal belum memiliki sistem pengukuran kinerja. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja. Dari kondisi PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model performance prism  dibanding model lain. Sistem pengukuran kinerja ini memiliki 44 KPI yang meliputi 12 KPI pelanggan, 9 KPI karyawan, 11 KPI pemilik modal, 6 KPI supplier, 6 KPI pemerintah dan masyarakat di sekitar lingkungan. Dari hasil implementasi sistem pengukuran kinerja dengan proses scoring system menggunakan metode OMAX menunjukkan nilai current performance indicator yang telah dicapai oleh PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang adalah sebesar 75,1 %. Hasil pengukuran menjadi landasan pihak manajemen mengevaluasi dan menentukan rencana kerja perbaikan sehingga harapan dari semua stakeholder dapat terpenuhi Kata kunci : Pengukuran Kinerja, Performance Prism, PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang   Abstract This study describes the results of research on the performance measurement system design PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang with model Performance Prism. During this PDAM Tirta Moedal not have a performance measurement system. Therefore, it is necessary to design performance measurement systems. From the condition of PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, the exact model used is a prism model performance compared to other models. This performance measurement system has 44 KPIs which include 12 customer KPI, KPI 9 employees, 11 KPI owners of capital, supplier KPI 6, KPI 6 governments and communities around the neighborhood. From the results of performance measurement system implementation with the scoring system using the OMAX shows the current performance indicator has been achieved by PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang amounted to 75.1%. The basis of measurement results to evaluate and determine the management

  18. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  19. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  20. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Revised II (PRISM-RII) - a novel method to assess perceived burden of illness in diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, S.; Vingerhoets, A.J.M.M.; de, W.M.; Zandbelt, N.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review. Methods: Participants were 308 adult outpatients with

  1. Processing and review interface for strong motion data (PRISM) software, version 1.0.0—Methodology and automated processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, call for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM version 1.0.0 is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine and a review tool that has a graphical user interface (GUI) to manually review, edit, and process records. To facilitate use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate new processing techniques. This report provides a thorough description and examples of the record processing features supported by PRISM. All the computing features of PRISM have been thoroughly tested.

  2. Overview of the ANL advanced LMR system thermal-hydraulic test program supporting both GE/PRISM and RI/SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the ANL thermal-hydraulic water models of both the PRISM and SAFR reactors are presented, together with results from Phases I and II of the thermal-hydraulic test program. Phenomena discovered during these tests and modeling results are presented. Overall, these efforts demonstrate the acceptable thermal-hydraulic performance of both the PRISM and SAFR concepts

  3. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  4. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  5. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  6. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  7. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience......This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...

  8. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  9. Textbook Reading Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.

    1974-01-01

    Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)

  10. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  11. Reading-Boxing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

    1969-01-01

    The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

  12. Mechanical behavior in the Nankai inner accretionary prism, IODP Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. D., II; Saffer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control seismogenesis and stress state at subduction zones requires knowledge of fault zone and sediment physical and mechanical properties. As part of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Expedition 348 drilled into the Kumano forearc basin and underlying inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, located 35 km landward of the trench. One primary objective was to sample and characterize the mechanical behavior of the inner accretionary prism. Here we report on the frictional and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of mudstone samples and a clay-rich shear zone recovered from 2182-2209 meters below sea floor (mbsf), determined from triaxial deformation tests at confining pressures from 1 to 7 MPa (UCS measurements on mudstones) and 36 MPa (strength of fault zone). Our results show that at a confining pressure of 1 MPa, the wall rock sediments fail at a peak differential stress of 9.1 MPa with a residual stress of 2.8 MPa. A clear peak and evolution to residual strength remains present at 7 MPa, and both the peak and residual strengths of the mudstones increases systematically with confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 36 MPa, the shear zone sediment yields at a differential stress of 25.2 MPa followed by strain-hardening to a maximum stress of 33.1 MPa. The shear zone is frictionally weaker than the surrounding mudstones, with a friction coefficient (μ) of 0.26-0.31, versus µ = 0.45 for the wall rock. The suite of tests defines a UCS for the mudstone of 7.9 MPa. Our friction data suggest that the inner wedge may be weaker than commonly assumed in applications of critical wedge theory to estimate the properties and conditions in accretionary prisms. One key implication is that for a given basal detachment friction coefficient, higher basal pore pressures (or lower wedge pore pressures) would be required to sustain observed taper angles. Additionally, the

  13. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations between average weekly PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p < 0.05) correlations with anchor subscales. Cumulative distribution functions revealed significant differences between responders and non-responders. Analysis in a clinical trial setting demonstrated strong psychometric properties suggesting validity of PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an

  14. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  15. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  16. Reading Every Single Day: A Journey to Authentic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…

  17. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  18. "Read the Text, as if!"The Reading Retention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

  19. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple strategies. This intervention is child-centered and includes visual aids, talking, dictating, reading and writing stages. The study was performed in 35 sessions consisting of stages of a single sentence (5 sessions, two sentences (5 sessions, three sentences (20 sessions and the text stage (5 sessions. The intervention sessions were audio-taped. These recordings and the written responses to the reading comprehension questions provided the data for analysis. The findings on the reading intervention revealed positive outcomes. The student exhibited certain improvements at the levels of reading, reading rate and reading comprehension. These results were discussed in the literature and the findings suggest that child-centered reading strategies such as talking, dictating and writing should be the main focus of instruction for students with low reading literacy achievement to enable these students to meet the demands of the curriculum.

  20. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  1. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-29

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall.

  2. A Pilot Evaluation of On-Road Detection Performance by Drivers with Hemianopia Using Oblique Peripheral Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R. Bowers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Homonymous hemianopia (HH, a severe visual consequence of stroke, causes difficulties in detecting obstacles on the nonseeing (blind side. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of oblique peripheral prisms, a novel development in optical treatments for HH, on detection of unexpected hazards when driving. Methods. Twelve people with complete HH (median 49 years, range 29–68 completed road tests with sham oblique prism glasses (SP and real oblique prism glasses (RP. A masked evaluator rated driving performance along the 25 km routes on busy streets in Ghent, Belgium. Results. The proportion of satisfactory responses to unexpected hazards on the blind side was higher in the RP than the SP drive (80% versus 30%; P=0.001, but similar for unexpected hazards on the seeing side. Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that oblique peripheral prisms may improve responses of people with HH to blindside hazards when driving and provide the basis for a future, larger-sample clinical trial. Testing responses to unexpected hazards in areas of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic appears promising as a real-world outcome measure for future evaluations of HH rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving detection when driving.

  3. Pressure and Stress Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism: A Critical State Soil Mechanics Porosity-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Peter B.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2018-02-01

    We predict pressure and stress from porosity in the Nankai accretionary prism with a critical state soil model that describes porosity as a function of mean stress and maximum shear stress, and assumes Coulomb failure within the wedge and uniaxial burial beneath it. At Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1174 and 808, we find that pore pressure in the prism supports 70% to 90% of the overburden (λu = 0.7 to 0.9), for a range of assumed friction angles (5-30°). The prism pore pressure is equal to or greater than that in the underthrust sediments even though the porosity is lower within the prism. The high pore pressures lead to a mechanically weak wedge that supports low maximum shear stress, and this in turn requires very low basal traction to remain consistent with the observed narrowly tapered wedge geometry. We estimate the décollement friction coefficient (μb) to be 0.08-0.38 (ϕb' = 4.6°-21°). Our approach defines a pathway to predict pressure in a wide range of environments from readily observed quantities (e.g., porosity and seismic velocity). Pressure and stress control the form of the Earth's collisional continental margins and play a key role in its greatest earthquakes. However, heretofore, there has been no systematic approach to relate material state (e.g., porosity), pore pressure, and stress in these systems.

  4. Risk of fall (RoF) intervention by affecting visual egocenter through gait analysis and yoked prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Subramanian, Prem; Spurling, April; Jenness, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Following a neurologic event such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and chronic neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy a shift in the visual midline (egocenter) can directly affect posture, balance and spatial orientation. As a consequence, this increases the risk of fall (RoF) and injury that imposes a major financial burden on the public health system. To determine if there is a statistically significant change in balance with the intervention of yoked prisms to reduce the risk of fall in subjects with neurological impairments. Ambulation of thirty-six subjects was evaluated on a pressure sensitive mat before and after intervention with yoked prisms. Changes in gait and balance were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) axes during ambulation. T-tests for each measure comparing the difference-of-differences to a zero change at baseline returned statistically significant reductions in both AP (p <  0.0001; 95% CI: 1.368- 2.976) and ML (p = 0.0002; 95% CI: 1.472- 4.173) imbalances using specifically directed yoked prisms to correct the visual midline deviation. These findings demonstrate that yoked prisms have the potential to provide a cost-effective means to restore the visual midline thereby improving balance, reduce RoF and subsequent injury.

  5. The nature of the phenomenon “Event” in the prism of the conception by Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyugina Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the prism of the “event” conception by G. Deleuze the article explores the ambivalent language and social nature of the event. It analyses references between attributes of the event: sign, meaning, and significance. It also defines the role of "floating signifiers" in the event and implementation of the virulent ideas and names into the system of event.

  6. A 900 electrostatic prism for microparticle beam steering on a 2 MV van der Graaff dust accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Clarke, C.D.; McDonnell, J.A.M.; Dickason, R.E.; Flavill, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and construction of a 90 0 electrostatic prism is described. The device is used to deflect hypervelocity dust particles produced in a horizontal van der Graaff accelerator to simulate micrometeoroid impacts on dusty lunar and asteroidal surfaces where vertical incidence must be provided. (author)

  7. The influence of hardening conditions on the properties of masonry cement mortar prisms made in brick moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram, G.; Lourenco, P.B.; Hasseltine, B.A.; Vasconseles, G.

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of our investigation into the spacing of movement joints involved the short and long term deformation of mortar embedded in masonry. In this research the influence of hardening conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of masonry cement mortar [M5] were studied. Mortar prisms

  8. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  9. Islamic exorcism and the cinema fist: Analyzing exorcism among Danish Muslims through the prism of film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article I apply film theory as an analytic prism through which to examine the ritual mechanisms of a particular kind of Islamic exorcism (al-ruqya al-sharʿiyya). I show how these exorcisms operate as a ritual montage that conjures the absent presence of al-ghayb—a hidden world of power...... that only God can see in its totality and to which the possessed patients and the jinn spirits must succumb. These exorcisms thus provide healing, not in the sense of immediate “well-being” or “relief from pain” but in the sense of moral witnessing, an opportunity to testify to the limits of human seeing...

  10. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  11. Single-domain versus two-domain configuration in thin ferromagnetic prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Politi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent magnetic force microscopy observations in 30nm-thick patterned permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p c

  12. Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.

  13. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  14. Testing of seismic isolation bearings for advanced liquid metal reactor prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.; Kelly, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic isolation can significantly mitigate earthquake loads on liquid metal reactors (LMR), thus reducing the impact of seismic loads on design. This improves plant safety margins for beyond-design basis seismic events and enhances adaptability of a standardized design to a variety of sites, with potential cost benefits. The PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) LMR incorporates a horizontal isolation system which consists of high damping steel laminated rubber bearings. The results of an experimental program to determine the mechanical properties of the rubber compound and the bearing performance under different loading conditions are presented. The test results demonstrate the excellent performance of the bearings and their suitability for isolating compact LMR plants

  15. Astrophysical Information from Objective Prism Digitized Images: Classification with an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratsolis Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.

  16. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  18. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing Uncertainties Associated With Radioactive Waste Disposal: Task Group 4 Of The IAEA PRISM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  20. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  1. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  2. Subscales correlations between MSSS-88 and PRISM scales in evaluation of spasticity for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Patient-reported outcomes have been recognized as an important way of assessing health and well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between different subscales of Patient-Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 scales in the estimation of spasticity influence on different domains Methods. The study is a cross-sectional observational study. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales were analyzed in five domains (body-function domain, activity domain, participation domain, personal factors/wellbeing domain, and hypothesis. For statistical interpretation of the correlation we performed the Spearman’s ρ-test, concurrent validity, divergent validity, and the linear regression model. Results. We found a significant correlation between subscales of evaluated MSSS-88 and PRISM scales for body domains; the highest correlation was between the need for assistance/positioning (NA/P and walking (W. Spasticity has the weakest correlation with the need for intervention (NI. The presence of pain has a negative impact and significant positive correlation between pain discomfort and NI. In the domain of body function for males, there was a non-significant correlation between muscle spasms and NI. The same applies for social functioning and social embarrassment domains, as well as for emotional health and psychological agitation for personal factors / wellbeing domain. The differences between genders of MS patients persist in different domains; muscle spasms are strong predictors for NI, and body movement is a strong predictor versus W for NA/P. Conclusion. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales can be considered reliable in measuring different domains of disability for MS patients with spasticity. Because it is shorter, quicker, and simple to use, it is concluded that the PRISM scale can successfully compete with and replace the MSSS-88 scale in

  3. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B; Knoop, Hans; Verhagen, Stans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue. Quantitative and qualitative data of a previous randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for postcancer fatigue was used to assess convergent validity and sensitivity to change in a sample of 83 cancer survivors. The PRISM, yielding self-illness separation (SIS-fatigue = suffering due to fatigue; SIS-cancer = suffering due to cancer), fatigue severity (Checklist Individual Strength; CIS-fatigue), functional impairment, psychological well-being, quality of life, and coping with the experience of cancer (Impact of Event Scale; IES). Moderate significant correlations were found with the PRISM and the above-mentioned measures. On the basis of SIS scores, the sample was divided into two separate groups: cancer survivors who suffered more because of fatigue and cancer survivors who suffered more because they had cancer in the past. The two groups had different scores on CIS-fatigue and IES, in line with that aspect that caused them the most suffering. The qualitative data confirmed this finding. Participants in the CBT condition demonstrated a significant difference between SIS-fatigue at baseline versus 6 months later compared with those in the waiting list condition. No change of SIS-cancer was found. The PRISM seems to be a valuable tool in fatigue research and clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An intervention for caregivers of youth with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  6. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  7. Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Mendieta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out at five public educational institutions by a group of English teacher-researchers based in different regions of Colombia. Due to a shared concern about the development of reading skills and self-regulation in the L2 classroom, a multiple case action research study was designed to examine whether the use of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR (Klingner, Vaughn & Schumm, 1998; Klingner & Vaughn, 1998 could foster reading comprehension in learners and at the same time help them become self-directed learners. Student pre and post questionnaires, reading tests and learning logs, as well as teacher's journals constituted the data collection methods used during the study. Results indicate that the use of CSR impacted participants' learning attitudes and habits positively.

  8. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

    1984-01-01

    Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

  9. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  10. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  11. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  12. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  13. READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

  14. Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Errui [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guangshe [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Xinsong [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Wen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Liping, E-mail: lipingli@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9

  15. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  16. Computer Simulation of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leton, Donald A.

    In recent years, coding and decoding have been claimed to be the processes for converting one language form to another. But there has been little effort to locate these processes in the human learner or to identify the nature of the internal codes. Computer simulation of reading is useful because the similarities in the human reception and…

  17. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glickman, Theodore S; Gough, Michael

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  18. Time for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

  19. Recipe for Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jacquelyn W.; Shaul, Nancy Pera

    The program described in this paper was based upon the premise that the activity of cooking in the classroom is an excellent way of integrating all areas of learning and a very useful reading vehicle. Through cooking activities and related field trips, children can add to both their knowledge in basic subject areas and their motor skills as well…

  20. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  1. Reading, Perception and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  2. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

  3. Reading in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

  4. Reading the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Keith

    Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

  5. Reading's Next Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

  6. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  7. Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.

  8. Prism Adaptation Alters Electrophysiological Markers of Attentional Processes in the Healthy Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Laube, Inga; Koun, Eric; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T; Pisella, Laure

    2016-01-20

    Neglect patients typically show a rightward attentional orienting bias and a strong disengagement deficit, such that they are especially slow in responding to left-sided targets after right-sided cues (Posner et al., 1984). Prism adaptation (PA) can reduce diverse debilitating neglect symptoms and it has been hypothesized that PA's effects are so generalized that they might be mediated by attentional mechanisms (Pisella et al., 2006; Redding and Wallace, 2006). In neglect patients, performance on spatial attention tasks improves after rightward-deviating PA (Jacquin-Courtois et al., 2013). In contrast, in healthy subjects, although there is evidence that leftward-deviating PA induces neglect-like performance on some visuospatial tasks, behavioral studies of spatial attention tasks have mostly yielded negative results (Morris et al., 2004; Bultitude et al., 2013). We hypothesized that these negative behavioral findings might reflect the limitations of behavioral measures in healthy subjects. Here we exploited the sensitivity of event-related potentials to test the hypothesis that electrophysiological markers of attentional processes in the healthy human brain are affected by PA. Leftward-deviating PA generated asymmetries in attentional orienting (reflected in the cue-locked N1) and in attentional disengagement for invalidly cued left targets (reflected in the target-locked P1). This is the first electrophysiological demonstration that leftward-deviating PA in healthy subjects mimics attentional patterns typically seen in neglect patients. Significance statement: Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising tool for ameliorating many deficits in neglect patients and inducing neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects. The mechanisms underlying PA's effects are poorly understood but one hypothesis suggests that it acts by modulating attention. To date, however, there has been no successful demonstration of attentional modulation in healthy subjects. We provide the first

  9. Teachers’ beliefs about reading and use of reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    VASILIKA RRAKU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

  10. [Shared decision-making and individualized goal setting - a pilot trial using PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, S; Straub, S; Schwager, U

    2010-12-01

    Although there is much talk about shared decision making and individualized goal setting, there is a lack of knowledge and knowhow in their realization in daily clinical practice. There is a lack in tools for easy applicable tools to ameliorate person-centred individualized goal setting processes. In three selected psychiatric inpatients the semistructured, theory driven use of PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in patients with complex psychiatric problems is presented and discussed. PRISM sustains a person-centred individualized process of goal setting and treatment and reinforces the active participation of patients. The process of visualisation and synchronous documentation is validated positively by patients and clinicians. The visual goal setting requires 30 to 45 minutes. In patients with complex psychiatric illness PRISM was used successfully to ameliorate individual goal setting. Specific effects of PRISM-visualisation are actually evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  11. Iowa City Reads! The Reading Event Worth Shouting About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

  12. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  13. The Assessment of Reading Comprehension Difficulties for Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Gary

    2008-01-01

    There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

  14. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  15. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  16. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  17. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  18. Evaluating PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a measure of life quality for children with skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbardis Jørgensen, K.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    of age-dependant cognitive development on children's self-reported QoL. Methods and materials: A total of 43 children of both sexes aged 5-16, with a diagnosed dermatologic disease were asked to complete both PRISM and CDLQI. Children with a mental handicap, children who did not speak Danish or who were......Background: Changes in Quality of Life (QoL) are increasingly being used as an outcome measure in dermatology. For pediatric dermatology this poses special problems due to the natural cognitive development of the patients. QoL is mostly assessed using questionnaires. The use of a non......-verbal instrument may therefore be of particular relevance to pediatric patients. Purpose: To evaluate PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a non-verbal measure of QoL for children with skin diseases compared to CDLQI (Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index) and the possible influence...

  19. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  20. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  1. Scattering of a light wave by a thin fiber on or near a prism: experiment and analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Fumiaki; Nishiyama, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    We have performed an experiment of the scattering of the near field on a prism created by a laser wave, evanescent wave (EW), or plane wave (PW) of an incident angle slightly larger than or smaller than the critical angle, by a thin fiber of subwavelength diameter set above the prism, and we made an analytical theory of an adapted model for the experiment. We have been able to analyze the experimental data exactly by the model theory better than any other theory we have ever known. The importance of the multiple interaction of the wave between the fiber and the surface and also the close similarity of the scattering characteristics between the EW and the PW mentioned above have been acknowledged by the analysis of the data obtained.

  2. Stress distribution and pressure-bearing capacity of a high-pressure split-cylinder die with prism cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Liyan; Qu, Erhu; Yi, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    A novel high-pressure belt-type die with a split-type cylinder is investigated with respect to extending its lifetime and improving its pressure bearing capacity. Specifically, a tungsten carbide cylinder is split into several parts along the radial direction with a prism-type cavity. In this paper, the cylinders with different split numbers are chosen to study the stress distribution and compare them with the traditional belt-type die. The simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has much smaller stress than those in the belt-type cylinder, and the statistical analysis reveals that the split-pressure cylinder is able to bear higher pressure. Experimental tests also show that the high-pressure die with a split cylinder and prism cavity has a stronger pressure-bearing capacity than a belt-type die. The split cylinder has advantages of easy manufacturing, high pressure bearing capacity, and replaceable performance.

  3. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  4. Critically Tapered Wedges and Critical State Soil Mechanics: Porosity-based Pressure Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Saffer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We predict pore pressure from porosity measurements at ODP Sites 1174 and 808 in the Nankai Accretionary prism, offshore Japan. For a range of friction angles (5-30 degrees), we estimate that the pore pressure ratio (λ*) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8: the pore pressure supports 50% to 80% of the overburden. Higher friction angles result in higher pressures. For the majority of the scenarios, pressures within the prism parallel the lithostat and are greater than the pressures beneath it. Our results support previous qualitative interpretations at Nankai and elsewhere suggesting that lower porosity above the décollement than below reflects higher mean effective stress there. By coupling a critical state soil model (Modified Cam Clay), which describes porosity as a function of mean and deviator stress, with a stress model that considers the difference in stress states above and below the décollement, we quantitatively show that the prism porosities record significant overpressure despite their lower porosity. As the soil is consumed by the advancing prism, changes in both mean and shear stress drive overpressure generation. Even in the extreme case where only change in mean stress is considered (a vertical end cap model), significant overpressures are generated. The high pressures we predict require an effective friction coefficient (µb') at the décollement of 0.023-0.038. Assuming that the pore pressure at the décollement lies between the values we report for the wedge and the underthrusting sediments, these effective friction coefficients correspond to intrinsic friction coefficients of µb= 0.08-0.38 (f = 4.6 - 21°). These values are comparable to friction coefficients of 0.1-0.4 reported for clay-dominated fault zones in a wide range of settings. By coupling the critical wedge model with an appropriate constitutive model, we present a systematic approach to predict pressure in thrust systems.

  5. A model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro-prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the "petal" mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest-order modes of this type of resonator. Further use of the model reveals the formation of more complex beam patterns, and the nature of these patterns is investigated. Also, the output of stable and unstable resonator modes is presented.

  6. An analytic solution to the alibi query in the space-time prisms model for moving object data

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMSON, Rafael; KUIJPERS, Bart; OTHMAN, Walied

    2010-01-01

    Moving objects produce trajectories, which are stored in databases by means of finite samples of time-stamped locations. When also speed limitations in these sample points are known, space-time prisms (also called beads) (Egenhofer 2003, Miller 2005, Pfoser and Jensen 1999) can be used to model the uncertainty about an object’s location in between sample points. In this setting, a query of particular interest, that has been studied in the literature of geographic information systems (GIS), is...

  7. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-01-01

    More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national lon...

  8. Basal and prism dislocation cores in magnesium: comparison of first-principles and embedded-atom-potential methods predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasi, J A; Nogaret, T; Curtin, W A; Trinkle, D R; Qi, Y; Hector, L G Jr

    2009-01-01

    The core structures of screw and edge dislocations on the basal and prism planes in Mg, and the associated gamma surfaces, were studied using an ab initio method and the embedded-atom-method interatomic potentials developed by Sun et al and Liu et al. The ab initio calculations predict that the basal plane dislocations dissociate into partials split by 16.7 Å (edge) and 6.3 Å (screw), as compared with 14.3 Å and 12.7 Å (Sun and Liu edge), and 6.3 Å and 1.4 Å (Sun and Liu screw), with the Liu screw dislocation being metastable. In the prism plane, the screw and edge cores are compact and the edge core structures are all similar, while ab initio does not predict a stable prismatic screw in stress-free conditions. These results are qualitatively understood through an examination of the gamma surfaces for interplanar sliding on the basal and prism planes. The Peierls stresses at T = 0 K for basal slip are a few megapascals for the Sun potential, in agreement with experiments, but are ten times larger for the Liu potential. The Peierls stresses for prism slip are 10–40 MPa for both potentials. Overall, the dislocation core structures from ab initio are well represented by the Sun potential in all cases while the Liu potential shows some notable differences. These results suggest that the Sun potential is preferable for studying other dislocations in Mg, particularly the (c + a) dislocations, for which the core structures are much larger and not accessible by ab initio methods

  9. Encouraging Recreational Reading (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)

  10. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  11. High-precision angle sensor based on a Köster’s prism with absolute zero-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, V.; Oertel, E.; Manske, E.

    2018-06-01

    In this publication, a novel approach will be presented to use a compact white-light interferometer based on a Köster’s prism for angle measurements. Experiments show that the resolution of this angle interferometer is in the range of a commercial digital autocollimator, with a focal length of f  =  300 mm, but with clearly reduced signal noise and without overshoot artifacts in the signal caused by digital filters. The angle detection of the reference mirror in the Köster’s interferometer is based on analysing the rotation angle of the fringe pattern, which is projected on a CMOS-matrix. The fringe pattern is generated by two displaced spherical wave fronts coming from one fiber-coupled white-light source and getting divided into a reference and a measurement beam by the Köster’s prism. The displacement correlates with the reference angle mirror in one linear direction and with the angle aberrations of the prism in the other orthogonal direction on the CMOS sensor. We will present the experimental and optical setup, the method and algorithms for the image-to-angle processing as well as the experimental results obtained in calibration and long-term measurements.

  12. Summary of advanced LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] evaluations: PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] and SAFR [Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Kroeger, P.G.

    1989-10-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) [Berglund, 1987] and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) [Baumeister, 1987], were developed primarily by General Electric (GE) and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Technical support was provided to DOE, RI, and GE, by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), particularly with respect to the characteristics of the metal fuels. There are several examples in both PRISM and SAFR where inherent or passive systems provide for a safe response to off-normal conditions. This is in contrast to the engineered safety systems utilized on current US Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs. One important design inherency in the LMRs is the ''inherent shutdown'', which refers to the tendency of the reactor to transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly. This type of behavior was demonstrated in a series of unscrammed tests at EBR-II [NED, 1986]. The second key design feature is the passive air cooling of the vessel to remove decay heat. These systems, designated RVACS in PRISM and RACS in SAFR, always operate and are believed to be able to prevent core damage in the event that no other means of heat removal is available. 27 refs., 78 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO 2 quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO 2 exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO 2 retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO 2 through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N 2 adsorption. The as-prepared CeO 2 products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO 2 quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO 2 is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO 2 absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions

  14. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  15. Comparison of the Spectral Properties of Pansharpened Images Generated from AVNIR-2 and Prism Onboard Alos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, M.

    2012-07-01

    A considerable number of methods for pansharpening remote-sensing images have been developed to generate higher spatial resolution multispectral images by the fusion of lower resolution multispectral images and higher resolution panchromatic images. Because pansharpening alters the spectral properties of multispectral images, method selection is one of the key factors influencing the accuracy of subsequent analyses such as land-cover classification or change detection. In this study, seven pixel-based pansharpening methods (additive wavelet intensity, additive wavelet principal component, generalized Laplacian pyramid with spectral distortion minimization, generalized intensity-hue-saturation (GIHS) transform, GIHS adaptive, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and block-based synthetic variable ratio) were compared using AVNIR-2 and PRISM onboard ALOS from the viewpoint of the preservation of spectral properties of AVNIR-2. A visual comparison was made between pansharpened images generated from spatially degraded AVNIR-2 and original images over urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The similarity of the images was evaluated in terms of the image contrast, the color distinction, and the brightness of the ground objects. In the quantitative assessment, three kinds of statistical indices, correlation coefficient, ERGAS, and Q index, were calculated by band and land-cover type. These scores were relatively superior in bands 2 and 3 compared with the other two bands, especially over urban and agricultural areas. Band 4 showed a strong dependency on the land-cover type. This was attributable to the differences in the observing spectral wavelengths of the sensors and local scene variances.

  16. Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.

  17. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  18. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.; Clarke, S. L.; Guturu, H.; Chen, J.; Schaar, B. T.; McLean, C. Y.; Bejerano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  19. Efficient Geo-Computational Algorithms for Constructing Space-Time Prisms in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Space-time prism (STP is a key concept in time geography for analyzing human activity-travel behavior under various Space-time constraints. Most existing time-geographic studies use a straightforward algorithm to construct STPs in road networks by using two one-to-all shortest path searches. However, this straightforward algorithm can introduce considerable computational overhead, given the fact that accessible links in a STP are generally a small portion of the whole network. To address this issue, an efficient geo-computational algorithm, called NTP-A*, is proposed. The proposed NTP-A* algorithm employs the A* and branch-and-bound techniques to discard inaccessible links during two shortest path searches, and thereby improves the STP construction performance. Comprehensive computational experiments are carried out to demonstrate the computational advantage of the proposed algorithm. Several implementation techniques, including the label-correcting technique and the hybrid link-node labeling technique, are discussed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the proposed NTP-A* algorithm can significantly improve STP construction performance in large-scale road networks by a factor of 100, compared with existing algorithms.

  20. Methane fluxes and inventories in the accretionary prism of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yang, T. F.; Hong, W. L.; Chen, H. W.; Chen, H. C.; Hu, C. Y.; Huang, Y. C.; Lin, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, W. Z.; Sun, C. H.; Wang, P. L.; Yang, T.; Jiang, S. Y.; Liu, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments distributed across marine and terrestrial realms represent the largest methane reservoir on Earth. The degassing of methane facilitated through either geological structures or perturbation would contribute significantly to global climatic fluctuation and elemental cycling. The exact fluxes and processes governing methane production, consumption and transport in a geological system remain largely unknown in part due to the limited coverage and access of samples. In this study, more than 200 sediment cores were collected from offshore and onshore southwestern Taiwan and analyzed for their gas and aqueous geochemistry. These data combined with published data and existing parameters of subduction system were used to calculate methane fluxes across different geochemical transitions and to develop scenarios of mass balance to constrain deep microbial and thermogenic methane production rates within the Taiwanese accretionary prism. The results showed that high methane fluxes tend to be associated with structural features, suggesting a strong structural control on methane transport. A significant portion of ascending methane (>50%) was consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane at most sites. Gas compositions and isotopes revealed a transition from the predominance of microbial methane in the passive margin to thermogenic methane at the upper slope of the active margin and onshore mud volcanoes. Methane production and consumption at shallow depths were nearly offset with a small fraction of residual methane discharged into seawater or the atmosphere. The flux imbalance arose primarily from the deep microbial and thermogenic production and could be likely accounted for by the sequestration of methane into hydrate forms, and clay absorption.

  1. PRISM offers a comprehensive genomic approach to transcription factor function prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Wenger, A. M.

    2013-02-04

    The human genome encodes 1500-2000 different transcription factors (TFs). ChIP-seq is revealing the global binding profiles of a fraction of TFs in a fraction of their biological contexts. These data show that the majority of TFs bind directly next to a large number of context-relevant target genes, that most binding is distal, and that binding is context specific. Because of the effort and cost involved, ChIP-seq is seldom used in search of novel TF function. Such exploration is instead done using expression perturbation and genetic screens. Here we propose a comprehensive computational framework for transcription factor function prediction. We curate 332 high-quality nonredundant TF binding motifs that represent all major DNA binding domains, and improve cross-species conserved binding site prediction to obtain 3.3 million conserved, mostly distal, binding site predictions. We combine these with 2.4 million facts about all human and mouse gene functions, in a novel statistical framework, in search of enrichments of particular motifs next to groups of target genes of particular functions. Rigorous parameter tuning and a harsh null are used to minimize false positives. Our novel PRISM (predicting regulatory information from single motifs) approach obtains 2543 TF function predictions in a large variety of contexts, at a false discovery rate of 16%. The predictions are highly enriched for validated TF roles, and 45 of 67 (67%) tested binding site regions in five different contexts act as enhancers in functionally matched cells.

  2. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  3. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Tuyle, G.J. Van

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, liquid metal reactor, PRISM, by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40 cents unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40 cents UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40 cents

  4. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is continuing a pre-application review of the 471 MWt, Liquid Metal Reactor, PRISM by General Electric, with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical support. The revised design has been evaluated, using the SSC code, for an unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS), an unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) with and without the Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), and a 40 cents unscrammed transient overpower (UTOP) event. The feedback effects for U-27Pu-10Zr metal fuel were modeled in SSC. The ULOHS accident was determined to be a benign event for the design, with the reactor power transitioning down to a decay heat level within 500s. The power during the postulated ULOF events, with the GEMs functioning, transitioned to decay heat levels without fuel damage, and included a 300K margin to sodium saturation. The case without the GEMs had only a 160K margin to sodium saturation and higher fuel temperatures. In addition, the clad was predicted to quickly pass through the eutectic phase (between fuel and clad), and some clad wastage would result. The 40 cents UTOP was predicted to raise the power to 1.8 rated, which later stabilized near 1.2 times full power. SSC predicted some localized fuel melting for the event, but the significance of this localized damage has not yet been determined. If necessary, the vendor has options to reduce the maximum reactivity insertion below 40 cents

  5. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  6. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  7. Heteroleptic metallosupramolecular racks, rectangles, and trigonal prisms: stoichiometry-controlled reversible interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Subhadip; Lorenz, Yvonne; Engeser, Marianne; Samanta, Debabrata; Schmittel, Michael

    2013-06-17

    A simple approach toward preparation of heteroleptic two-dimensional (2D) rectangles and three-dimensional (3D) triangular prisms is described utilizing the HETPYP (HETeroleptic PYridyl and Phenanthroline metal complexes) concept. By mixing metal-loaded linear bisphenanthrolines of varying lengths with diverse (multi)pyridine (py) ligands in a proper ratio, six different self-assembled architectures arise cleanly and spontaneously in the absence of any template. They are characterized by (1)H and DOSY NMR, ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry as well as by Job plots and UV-vis titrations. Density functional theory (DFT) computations provide information about each structure. A stoichiometry-controlled supramolecule-to-supramolecule interconversion based on the relative amounts of metal bisphenanthroline and bipyridine forces the rectangular assembly to reorganize to a rack architecture and back to the rectangle, as clearly supported by variable temperature and DOSY NMR as well as dynamic light scattering data. The highly dynamic nature of the assemblies represents a promising starting point for constitutional dynamic materials.

  8. Role of prism decussation on fatigue crack growth and fracture of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-10-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near-threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of "short crack" behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth's surface.

  9. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  10. Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2001-01-01

    Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. Three different boundary layers (thick, medium and thin) were generated in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Pusan National University. The thick boundary layer having 670mm thickness was generated by using spires and roughness elements. The medium thickness of boundary layer(δ=270mm) was the natural turbulent boundary layer at the test section with fully long developing length(18m). The thin boundary layer with 36.5mm thickness was generated by on a smooth panel elevated 70cm from the wind tunnel floor. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the height of the model was 7.9X10 3 . The mean velocity vector fields and turbulent kinetic energy distribution were measured and compared. The effect of boundary layer thickness is clearly observed not only in the length of separation bubble but also in the reattachment points. The thinner boundary layer thickness, the higher turbulent kinetic energy peak around the model roof. It is strongly recommended that the height ratio between model and approaching boundary layer thickness should be a major parameter

  11. Variability of dose predictions for cesium-137 and radium-226 using the PRISM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Andersson, K.; Roejder, B.

    1984-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with dose predictions for cesium-137 and radium-226 in a specific ecosystem has been studied. The method used is a systematic method for determining the effect of parameter uncertainties on model prediction called PRISM. The ecosystems studied are different types of lakes where the following transport processes are included: runoff of water in the lake, irrigation, transport in soil, in groundwater and in sediment. The ecosystems are modelled by the compartment principle, using the BIOPATH-code. Seven different internal exposure pathways are included. The total dose commitment for both nuclides varies about two orders of magnitude. For cesium-137 the total dose and the uncertainty are dominated by the consumption of fish. The most important factor to the total uncertainty is the concentration factor water-fish. For radium-226 the largest contributions to the total dose are the exposure pathways, fish, milk and drinking-water. Half of the uncertainty lies in the milk dose. This uncertainty is dominated by the distribution factor for milk. (orig.)

  12. SU-G-IeP1-13: Sub-Nyquist Dynamic MRI Via Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B; Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated dynamic MRI is important for MRI guided radiotherapy. Inspired by compressive sensing (CS), sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI has been an active research area, i.e., sparse sampling in k-t space for accelerated dynamic MRI. This work is to investigate sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI via a previously developed CS model, namely Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM). Methods: The proposed method utilizes PRISM with rank minimization and incoherent sampling patterns for sub-Nyquist reconstruction. In PRISM, the low-rank background image, which is automatically calculated by rank minimization, is excluded from the L1 minimization step of the CS reconstruction to further sparsify the residual image, thus allowing for higher acceleration rates. Furthermore, the sampling pattern in k-t space is made more incoherent by sampling a different set of k-space points at different temporal frames. Results: Reconstruction results from L1-sparsity method and PRISM method with 30% undersampled data and 15% undersampled data are compared to demonstrate the power of PRISM for dynamic MRI. Conclusion: A sub- Nyquist MRI reconstruction method based on PRISM is developed with improved image quality from the L1-sparsity method.

  13. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  14. Initial Reading through Computer Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel

    The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…

  15. MisReading LIS Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…

  16. Teaching Reading in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This handbook on teaching reading in vocational education is designed to provide vocational education teachers with a resource to use in helping students to develop sound reading skills. Provided in the handbook are information sheets, self-checks, practice activities, and suggestions for further reading dealing with the following topics:…

  17. Encouraging Students to Read Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mary D.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the ability to read mathematics is an important skill--one that few of our students possess. A number of people have published some suggestions for helping students learn to read their mathematics textbooks. What these have in common is suggestions for getting students more active while reading. Using these resources as…

  18. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  19. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

  20. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  1. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  2. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  3. readShape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

  4. Emotional Landscapes of Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Samutina

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It presents a general characterization of fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing, drawing upon the influential works by H. Jenkins, A. Dericho, K. Tosenberger, and others. T...

  5. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  6. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  7. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  8. Reading aids for adults with low vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included nine small studies with a cross-over-like design (181 people overall) and one study with three parallel arms (243 participants) in the review. All studies reported the primary outcome, results for reading speed. Two studies including 92 participants found moderate- or low-quality evidence suggesting that reading speed is higher with stand-mounted electronic devices or electronic devices with the camera mounted in a ‘mouse’ than with optical magnifiers, which in these trials were generally stand-mounted or, less frequently, hand-held magnifiers or microscopic lenses. In another study of 20 participants there was moderate-quality evidence that optical devices are better than head-mounted electronic devices (four types). There was low-quality evidence from three studies (93 participants) that reading using head-mounted electronic devices is slower than with stand-based electronic devices. The technology of electronic devices may have changed and improved since these studies were conducted. One study suggested no difference between a diffractive spectacle-mounted magnifier and either refractive (15 participants) or aplanatic (15 participants) magnifiers. One study of 10 people suggested that several overlay coloured filters were no better and possibly worse than a clear filter. A parallel-arm study including 243 participants with age-related macular degeneration found that custom or standard prism spectacles were no different from conventional reading spectacles, although the data did not allow precise estimates of performance to be made. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence on the effect of different types of low-vision aids on reading performance. It would be necessary to investigate which patient characteristics predict performance with different devices, including costly electronic devices. Better-quality research should also focus on assessing sustained long-term use of each device

  9. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  10. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  11. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  12. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  13. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  14. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

  15. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in

  16. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  17. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  18. Does prism adaptation affect visual search in spatial neglect patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Liselotte; Ten Brink, Antonia F; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2018-03-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a widely used intervention for (visuo-)spatial neglect. PA-induced improvements can be assessed by visual search tasks. It remains unclear which outcome measures are the most sensitive for the effects of PA in neglect. In this review, we aimed to evaluate PA effects on visual search measures. A systematic literature search was completed regarding PA intervention studies focusing on patients with neglect using visual search tasks. Information about study content and effectiveness was extracted. Out of 403 identified studies, 30 met the inclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was evaluated: Rankings were moderate-to-high for 7, and low for 23 studies. As feature search was only performed by five studies, low-to-moderate ranking, we were limited in drawing firm conclusions about the PA effect on feature search. All moderate-to-high-ranking studies investigated cancellation by measuring only omissions or hits. These studies found an overall improvement after PA. Measuring perseverations and total task duration provides more specific information about visual search. The two (low ranking) studies that measured this found an improvement after PA on perseverations and duration (while accuracy improved for one study and remained the same for the other). This review suggests there is an overall effect of PA on visual search, although complex visual search tasks and specific visual search measures are lacking. Suggestions for search measures that give insight in subcomponents of visual search are provided for future studies, such as perseverations, search path intersections, search consistency and using a speed-accuracy trade-off. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  19. The SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit: Design Considerations and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Aganze, Christian; Escala, Ivana; Lopez, Mike; Choban, Caleb; Jin, Yuhui; Iyer, Aishwarya; Tallis, Melisa; Suarez, Adrian; Sahi, Maitrayee

    2016-01-01

    Various observational and theoretical spectral libraries now exist for galaxies, stars, planets and other objects, which have proven useful for classification, interpretation, simulation and model development. Effective use of these libraries relies on analysis tools, which are often left to users to develop. In this poster, we describe a program to develop a combined spectral data repository and Python-based analysis toolkit for low-resolution spectra of very low mass dwarfs (late M, L and T dwarfs), which enables visualization, spectral index analysis, classification, atmosphere model comparison, and binary modeling for nearly 2000 library spectra and user-submitted data. The SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit (SPLAT) is being constructed as a collaborative, student-centered, learning-through-research model with high school, undergraduate and graduate students and regional science teachers, who populate the database and build the analysis tools through quarterly challenge exercises and summer research projects. In this poster, I describe the design considerations of the toolkit, its current status and development plan, and report the first published results led by undergraduate students. The combined data and analysis tools are ideal for characterizing cool stellar and exoplanetary atmospheres (including direct exoplanetary spectra observations by Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, and JWST), and the toolkit design can be readily adapted for other spectral datasets as well.This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G. SPLAT code can be found at https://github.com/aburgasser/splat.

  20. Pathway to future sustainable land imaging: the compact hyperspectral prism spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Good, William S.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) program, managed through the Earth Science Technology Office, aims to develop technologies that will provide future Landsat-like measurements. SLI aims to develop a new generation of smaller, more capable, less costly payloads that meet or exceed current imaging capabilities. One projects funded by this program is Ball's Compact Hyperspectral Prism Spectrometer (CHPS), a visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer that provides legacy Landsat data products as well as hyperspectral coverage suitable for a broad range of land science products. CHPS exhibits extremely low straylight and accommodates full aperture, full optical path calibration needed to ensure the high radiometric accuracy demanded by SLI measurement objectives. Low polarization sensitivity in visible to near-infrared bands facilitates coastal water science as first demonstrated by the exceptional performance of the Operational Land Imager. Our goal is to mature CHPS imaging spectrometer technology for infusion into the SLI program. Our effort builds on technology development initiated by Ball IRAD investment and includes laboratory and airborne demonstration, data distribution to science collaborators, and maturation of technology for spaceborne demonstration. CHPS is a three year program with expected exiting technology readiness of TRL-6. The 2013 NRC report Landsat and Beyond: Sustaining and Enhancing the Nations Land Imaging Program recommended that the nation should "maintain a sustained, space-based, land-imaging program, while ensuring the continuity of 42-years of multispectral information." We are confident that CHPS provides a path to achieve this goal while enabling new science measurements and significantly reducing the cost, size, and volume of the VSWIR instrument.

  1. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  2. Spectral resolution enhancement of Fourier-transform spectrometer based on orthogonal shear interference using Wollaston prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin-xiao; Huang, Min; Cai, Qi-sheng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a multi-line interferogram stitching method based on orthogonal shear using the Wollaston prism(WP) was proposed with a 2D projection interferogram recorded through the rotation of CCD, making the spectral resolution of Fourier-Transform spectrometer(FTS) of a limited spatial size increase by at least three times. The fringes on multi-lines were linked with the pixels of equal optical path difference (OPD). Ideally, the error of sampled phase within one pixel was less than half the wavelength, ensuring consecutive values in the over-sampled dimension while aliasing in another. In the simulation, with the calibration of 1.064μm, spectral lines at 1.31μm and 1.56μm of equal intensity were tested and observed. The result showed a bias of 0.13% at 1.31μm and 1.15% at 1.56μm in amplitude, and the FWHM at 1.31μm reduced from 25nm to 8nm after the sample points increased from 320 to 960. In the comparison of reflectance spectrum of carnauba wax within near infrared(NIR) band, the absorption peak at 1.2μm was more obvious and zoom of the band 1.38 1.43μm closer to the reference, although some fluctuation was in the short-wavelength region arousing the spectral crosstalk. In conclusion, with orthogonal shear based on the rotation of the CCD relative to the axis of WP, the spectral resolution of static FTS was enhanced by the projection of fringes to the grid coordinates and stitching the interferograms into a larger OPD, which showed the advantages of cost and miniaturization in the space-constrained NIR applications.

  3. Adding methylphenidate to prism-adaptation improves outcome in neglect patients. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Villeneuve, Laurent; Roux, Adeline; Nash, Stuart; Bar, Jean-Yves; Chabanat, Eric; Cotton, François; Ciancia, Sophie; Sancho, Pierre-Olivier; Hovantruc, Patrick; Quelard, François; Sarraf, Thierry; Cojan, Yann; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Farné, Alessandro; Janoly-Dumenil, Audrey; Boisson, Dominique; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rode, Gilles; Rossetti, Yves

    2018-04-04

    Spatial neglect is one of the main predictors of poor functional recovery after stroke. Many therapeutic interventions have been developed to alleviate this condition, but to date the evidence of their effectiveness is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to test whether combining prism adaptation (PA) and methylphenidate (MP) could enhance the recovery of neglect patients at a functional level. RITAPRISM is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing PA plus placebo (control) versus PA plus MP. 24 patients were prospectively enrolled (10 in the placebo group and 14 in the MP group). The main result is a long-term functional improvement (on the functional independence measure (FIM) and on Bergego's scale) induced by MP combined with PA. No serious adverse event occurred. The long-term benefit on activities of daily living (ADL) obtained in this randomized controlled trial set this intervention apart from previous attempts and supports with a high level of evidence the value of combining PA and MP in order to improve the autonomy of neglect patients. Further studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism of this improvement. Although not specifically assessed at this stage, a part of the improvement in ADL might be related to the collateral effect of MP on mood, executive functions or fatigue, and/or the combined effect of PA and MP on motor intentional bias of neglect patients. This study provides Class I evidence that adding MP to PA improves the functional outcome of neglect patients. EUCTR2008-000325-20-FR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychedelics and cognitive liberty: Reimagining drug policy through the prism of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This paper reimagines drug policy--specifically psychedelic drug policy--through the prism of human rights. Challenges to the incumbent prohibitionist paradigm that have been brought from this perspective to date--namely by calling for exemptions from criminalisation on therapeutic or religious grounds--are considered, before the assertion is made that there is a need to go beyond such reified constructs, calling for an end to psychedelic drug prohibitions on the basis of the more fundamental right to cognitive liberty. This central concept is explicated, asserted as being a crucial component of freedom of thought, as enshrined within Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is argued that the right to cognitive liberty is routinely breached by the existence of the system of drug prohibition in the United Kingdom (UK), as encoded within the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (MDA). On this basis, it is proposed that Article 9 could be wielded to challenge the prohibitive system in the courts. This legal argument is supported by a parallel and entwined argument grounded in the political philosophy of classical liberalism: namely, that the state should only deploy the criminal law where an individual's actions demonstrably run a high risk of causing harm to others. Beyond the courts, it is recommended that this liberal, rights-based approach also inform psychedelic drug policy activism, moving past the current predominant focus on harm reduction, towards a prioritization of benefit maximization. How this might translate in to a different regulatory model for psychedelic drugs, a third way, distinct from the traditional criminal and medical systems of control, is tentatively considered. However, given the dominant political climate in the UK--with its move away from rights and towards a more authoritarian drug policy--the possibility that it is only through underground movements that cognitive liberty will be assured in the foreseeable future is

  5. Improvement of Navigation and Representation in Virtual Reality after Prism Adaptation in Neglect Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Glize

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is responsible for an expansion of sensori-motor after-effects to cognitive domains for patients with spatial neglect. One important question is whether the cognitive after-effects induced by PA may also concern higher aspects of spatial cognition, such as navigation and topographic memory, which are critical in everyday life. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiple sessions of right PA can affect navigation and topographic memory. Seven right brain-damaged (RBD patients with chronic neglect were included. We used a virtual supermarket named VAP-S which is an original paradigm, similar to the “shopping list test” during which patients had to purchase items from a list of eight products. Furthermore, in order to assess generalization of PA effects on constructing a spatial map from virtual information, each participant was then asked to draw the map of the virtual supermarket from memory. Regarding navigation performance, significant results were obtained: session duration reduction, fewer numbers of pauses and omissions, more items purchased on the left side and more items purchased over all. A long-lasting effect was noted, up to one month after PA. The representational task performance was also significantly increased for map drawing, with a reduction of the right shift of the symmetry axis of the map, more items drawn on the left side of maps and over all, and more items correctly located on the map. Some of these effects lasted for at least 7 days. These results suggest an expansion of PA benefit to a virtual environment. Crucially, the cognitive benefits induced by PA were noted for complex spatial cognition tasks required in everyday life such as navigation and topographic memory and this improvement was maintained for up to 1 month.

  6. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  7. Live ECG readings using Google Glass in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Roger; Salamin, Fanny; Jimenez Del Toro, Oscar Alfonso; Atzori, Manfredo; Muller, Henning; Widmer, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Most sudden cardiac problems require rapid treatment to preserve life. In this regard, electrocardiograms (ECG) shown on vital parameter monitoring systems help medical staff to detect problems. In some situations, such monitoring systems may display information in a less than convenient way for medical staff. For example, vital parameters are displayed on large screens outside the field of view of a surgeon during cardiac surgery. This may lead to losing time and to mistakes when problems occur during cardiac operations. In this paper we present a novel approach to display vital parameters such as the second derivative of the ECG rhythm and heart rate close to the field of view of a surgeon using Google Glass. As a preliminary assessment, we run an experimental study to verify the possibility for medical staff to identify abnormal ECG rhythms from Google Glass. This study compares 6 ECG rhythms readings from a 13.3 inch laptop screen and from the prism of Google Glass. Seven medical residents in internal medicine participated in the study. The preliminary results show that there is no difference between identifying these 6 ECG rhythms from the laptop screen versus Google Glass. Both allow close to perfect identification of the 6 common ECG rhythms. This shows the potential of connected glasses such as Google Glass to be useful in selected medical applications.

  8. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  9. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p....... 17), but with the electronic book, the materiality of reading becomes more ambiguous and malleable as the book as technology is being radically reconstructed. The purpose of this paper is to explore these changes through an investigation into the technology relations (Ihde, 1990) in fiction reading...

  10. Science teacher's discourse about reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

  11. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  12. Reliability of tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms: clinical implications from the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System Quality Assurance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Daly, M K; Cakiner-Egilmez, T; Baker, E

    2011-05-01

    Given the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System's recent introduction of single-use Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an alternative to Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs), this study had two aims: to conduct a large-scale quality assurance trial to assess the reliability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements of the Tonosafe disposable tonometer compared with GAT, particularly at extremes of pressure; to evaluate the suitability of Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an acceptable substitute for GATs and for clinic-wide implementation in an academic tertiary referral setting. Ophthalmology resident physicians measured the IOPs of patients in general and specialty eye clinics with the Tonosafe disposable tonometer and GAT. Tonosafe test-retest reliability data were also collected. A retrospective review of patient charts and data analysis were performed to determine the reliability of measurements. The IOPs of 652 eyes (326 patients) were measured with both GAT and Tonosafe, with a range of 3-34 mm Hg. Linear regression analysis showed R=0.93, slope=0.91, both of which supported the proposed hypothesis, and the y-intercept=-1.05 was significantly different from the hypothesized value. The Tonosafe test-retest repeatability (40 eyes of 40 patients), r=0.977, was very high, which was further supported by linear regression slope=0.993, y-intercept=0.118, and a Tonosafe repeatability coefficient of 2.06, similar to GAT repeatability. The IOP measurements by Tonosafe disposable prisms correlated closely with Goldmann measurements, with similar repeated measurement variability to GAT. This suggests that the Tonosafe is an acceptable substitute for GAT to measure IOP in ophthalmology clinic settings.

  13. The News Media PRISM: Shaping America’s Opinion of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    public gleans much of its knowledge of the political process. Accordingly, the tone of media coverage has a remarkable impact as people form their opinions...conditions in sweatshops and the corruption of public officials. This activist journalism, dubbed "muckraking" by President Theodore Roosevelt, led to...then rush to buy a paper and read all the shocking details." 1 9 Both Hearst and Pulitzer, along with E.W. Scripps, covered social and political issues

  14. Health-related quality of life and binocular vision in patients with diplopia in acute-onset comitant esotropia with press-on prism improves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effect of press-on prisms in patients with acute-onset comitant esotropia and diplopia, focusing primarily on vision-related quality of life and binocular vision. METHODS: Retrospective case-series study. Totally 16 acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia who received treatment in the Huzhou Central Hospital were included in this study from March 2014 to March 2017. Vision-related quality of life before press-on prism correction and 1mo after press-on prism correction were performed with the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire(CHI-NEI-VFQ-25. In each time of follow-up, we made a minute examination, includes worth four dot test and stereo tests. Data was statistically analyzed with paired sample t test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Except the degree of eye pain, color vision and perimetry, the indicators from CHI-NEI-VFQ-25 table including general health status, overall vision, mental health, social role difficulties, social functional, near activities, distant activities, independency and driving of acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia were obviously significant improved 1mo after press-on prism correction(PPCONCLUSION: Press-on prism correction may be helpful for binocular vision recovery in acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia, so as improve the vision-related quality of life.

  15. Reading assessment and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to ensure ourselves and the general public that the workers in the Nuclear Materials Processing Department (NMPD) could read, follow, and understand procedures. Procedures were randomly selected and analyzed for reading levels. A tenth grade reading level was established as the standard for all NMPD employees. Employees were tested to determine reading levels and approximately 12% could not read at the target level. A Procedure Walk-Through Evaluation was administered to each person not reaching tenth grade reading level. This was a job performance measure given to ensure that the worker was competent in his/her present job, and should remain there while completing reading training. A mandatory Reading Training Program utilizing Computer Based Training was established. This program is self-paced, individualized instruction and provided to the worker on Company time. Results of the CBT Program have been very good. Instruction is supplemented with test-taking skills seminars, practice exams, individual conferences with their own reading specialist, and some self-directed study books. This paper describes the program at Savannah River Site

  16. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national longing for an unspoiled nature, on another hand, the novel echoes the racism and violence directed at African Americans at this time.

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children ( N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  18. Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Promoting reading and good reading culture through the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the findings from existing literature on the mechanics of using book talks and story books to inculcate reading and the steps to develop good reading culture in children. This work is an ongoing action research work in selected private and public schools in Lagos Mainland. It has so far been established that the ...

  20. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

  1. The relationship between children's reading motivation and reading competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晴雪

    2016-01-01

    It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

  2. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  3. Reading the Web: Internet Guided Reading with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, David

    2015-01-01

    Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

  4. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakkonen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  5. Integrated Risk-Informed Decision-Making for an ALMR PRISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Denning, Richard S. [Self Employed

    2016-05-01

    Decision-making is the process of identifying decision alternatives, assessing those alternatives based on predefined metrics, selecting an alternative (i.e., making a decision), and then implementing that alternative. The generation of decisions requires a structured, coherent process, or a decision-making process. The overall objective for this work is that the generalized framework is adopted into an autonomous decision-making framework and tailored to specific requirements for various applications. In this context, automation is the use of computing resources to make decisions and implement a structured decision-making process with limited or no human intervention. The overriding goal of automation is to replace or supplement human decision makers with reconfigurable decision-making modules that can perform a given set of tasks rationally, consistently, and reliably. Risk-informed decision-making requires a probabilistic assessment of the likelihood of success given the status of the plant/systems and component health, and a deterministic assessment between plant operating parameters and reactor protection parameters to prevent unnecessary trips and challenges to plant safety systems. The probabilistic portion of the decision-making engine of the supervisory control system is based on the control actions associated with an ALMR PRISM. Newly incorporated into the probabilistic models are the prognostic/diagnostic models developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These allow decisions to incorporate the health of components into the decision–making process. Once the control options are identified and ranked based on the likelihood of success, the supervisory control system transmits the options to the deterministic portion of the platform. The deterministic portion of the decision-making engine uses thermal-hydraulic modeling and components for an advanced liquid-metal reactor Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module. The deterministic multi

  6. Residual stress measurement of electron beam welded copper plates using prism hole drilling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakkonen, M. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Eleven electron beam (EB) welded copper plates were measured in this investigation with Prism hole drilling equipment made by Stresstech Oy. All samples contained a linear weld in their center. Two different sets of plates were measured in this investigation. The first set included five samples (X436, X437, X438, X439 and X440) which were welded using four different welding speeds. Samples X439 and X440 were welded with the same speed but X440 is the only sample of the set that received a cosmetic pass. The second set received heat treatments at four different temperatures. Samples X456 and X458 were annealed at the same temperature but sample X456 received a cosmetic pass while X458 did not. Samples X455 and X457 were both annealed at a different temperature, with (X455) or without (X457) the cosmetic pass. Two areas were machined from the samples. About five millimeters was machined from the surfaces on the both of areas. Machined surfaces located on the top surfaces. The measurement points on the top surface are located on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld on machined areas. Lower surface measurements are located -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm from the weld. All measurements were about 122 mm from the edges perpendicular to the weld. The top surfaces of all samples were machined in two areas across the weld. About 5 mm were removed. Stress measurements on the top surfaces were performed in these two areas, on the weld and 20 mm and 120 mm away from the weld. Stresses were also measured on the back sides, at -20 mm, 20 mm and 120 mm distance from the weld. All measurement locations were about 122mm from the sample edges. Most of the measurements give tensile strengths from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Stresses parallel to the weld were slightly higher than weld stresses in transverse direction. The machined surfaces have residual stress values above 30 MPa near the surface. (orig.)

  7. Reading fiction during sick leave, a multidimensional occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Lena; Andersson, Christina

    2015-01-01

    In bibliotherapy, the therapeutic gains of reading fiction are ascribed to the literature. Viewing reading fiction as an occupation may give other explanations of its therapeutic function. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of reading fiction among women during a period of sick leave. A qualitative approach was applied. Eight women who had been reading fiction during sick leave were interviewed. An overarching theme: Supporting one's active self, comprised five categories of experiences: a prospect of ordinary life, a place of refuge, a life together with others, a source of power, and as supporting an active life. Based on the categories, reading fiction is seen to comprise intentional, functional, mental, relational, and personal dimensions. A tentative model of supporting one's active self is proposed, which may be helpful in clarifying the mechanisms of the process of change. The health-related dimensions of reading fiction suggest that reading fiction should be regarded as a significant occupation comparable with other, more highlighted ones. Understood in this way, it is argued that the results add to the knowledge base in occupational therapy focusing on how meaningful occupations connect to occupational life trajectories.

  8. Turkey Reading Culture Map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the project with the same name, the work was published into a book by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Libraries and Publications, the project coordinator. Goal of the project is defined as follows: "specifying the solutions to problems faced directly or indirectly in accessing information, making suggestions to related corporations and persons, determining the perception of libraries in the society, raising the quality of services provided at public libraries and children's libraries affiliated with the Ministry, diversifying these libraries and designating the road map for the future." Carried out with the "method of face-to-face surveys" with 6.212 people in 26 cities, the research revealed the society's habits of reading and library usage.

  9. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  10. Phonological coding during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Broadband IR polarizing beam splitter using a subwavelength-structured one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer embedded in a high-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, H K; Azzam, R M A

    2009-09-20

    An iterative procedure for the design of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a form-birefringent, subwavelength-structured, one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer (SWS 1-D PCL) embedded in a high-index cubical prism is presented. The PBS is based on index matching and total transmission for the p polarization and total internal reflection for the s polarization at the prism-PCL interface at 45 degrees angle of incidence. A high extinction ratio in reflection (>50 dB) over the 4-12 microm IR spectral range is achieved using a SWS 1-D PCL of ZnTe embedded in a ZnS cube within an external field of view of +/-6.6 degrees and in the presence of grating filling factor errors of up to +/-10%. Comparable results, but with wider field of view, are also obtained with a Ge PCL embedded in a Si prism.

  12. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations throughout the years 2008-09 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms). PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data were summarized to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  13. Cognitive Training and Reading Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2015-01-01

    Reading difficulties are experienced by children either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas, reading…

  14. Individualizing Teaching in Beginning Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald Connor, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The best way to teach children how to read has been debated for more than a century. Accumulating research now shows that there is no one best way to teach reading. The effect of various types of instruction depends on the constellation of skills learners bring to the classroom. In this article, we discuss the idea of…

  15. The Neurobiological Basis of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane; Noble, Kimberly; Eden, Guinevere

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults to study the reading process and notes that general networks of regions seem to be uniquely associated with different components of the reading process. Findings are evaluated in light of technical and experimental limitations and…

  16. Dyslexia and Severe Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    This handbook contains advice for the teacher in diagnosing dyslexia and developing an individualized program for overcoming severe reading problems. Observable characteristics of dyslexia are listed as an aid to the teacher's diagnosis, but it is emphasized that cooperation between the teacher and a reading specialist is of great importance in…

  17. How my brain stopped reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...

  18. Empathy, Reading, and Gender Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.

    2017-01-01

    For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…

  19. Reading Prosody in Spanish Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…

  20. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

  1. Schemata as a Reading Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Zaliha

    Reading is a multileveled, interactive, and hypothesis-generating process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text by using their knowledge of the world and of language. If reading involves grasping the significance of an input depending on the reader's mental cognitive-perceptual situation, then there is a form of background…

  2. The Joy of Reading Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

  3. Summertime...and Reading Beckons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Otto

    2000-01-01

    Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

  4. READ – developing literacy together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2015-01-01

    -home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...

  5. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2011-01-01

    the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...

  6. A Study of Boys' Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examined how reading attitudes of Year 6 boys in British primary schools were influenced by gender issues, peers, and peer group culture. Found that confidence and experience shown in private reading was at odds with boys' public attitudes in discussion with peers. Suggests that siblings and adults might provide more positive role models for…

  7. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; P contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  8. Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Borda, R.; Waluschka, E.; Pellicori, S.; Martins, J. V.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Cieslak, J. D.; Thompson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The design and construction of wide FOV imaging polarimeters for use in atmospheric remote sensing requires significant attention to the prevention of artificial polarization induced by the optical elements. Surface, coatings, and angles of incidence throughout the system must be carefully designed in order to minimize these artifacts because the remaining instrumental bias polarization is the main factor which drives the final polarimetric accuracy of the system. In this work, we present a detailed evaluation and analysis to explore the possibility of retrieving the initial polarization state of the light traveling through a generic system that has inherent instrumental polarization. Our case is a wide FOV lens and a splitter device. In particular, we chose as splitter device a Philips-type prism, because it is able to divide the signal in 3 independent channels that could be simultaneously analyze to retrieve the three first elements of the Stoke vector (in atmospheric applications the elliptical polarization can be neglected [1]). The Philips-type configuration is a versatile, compact and robust prism device that is typically used in three color camera systems. It has been used in some commercial polarimetric cameras which do not claim high accuracy polarization measurements [2]. With this work, we address the accuracy of our polarization inversion and measurements made with the Philips-type beam divider.

  9. Applying machine learning methods for characterization of hexagonal prisms from their 2D scattering patterns - an investigation using modelled scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, Emmanuel Oluwatobi; Hesse, Evelyn; Stopford, Chris; Davey, Neil; Sun, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Better understanding and characterization of cloud particles, whose properties and distributions affect climate and weather, are essential for the understanding of present climate and climate change. Since imaging cloud probes have limitations of optical resolution, especially for small particles (with diameter < 25 μm), instruments like the Small Ice Detector (SID) probes, which capture high-resolution spatial light scattering patterns from individual particles down to 1 μm in size, have been developed. In this work, we have proposed a method using Machine Learning techniques to estimate simulated particles' orientation-averaged projected sizes (PAD) and aspect ratio from their 2D scattering patterns. The two-dimensional light scattering patterns (2DLSP) of hexagonal prisms are computed using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) model. The 2DLSP cover the same angular range as the SID probes. We generated 2DLSP for 162 hexagonal prisms at 133 orientations for each. In a first step, the 2DLSP were transformed into rotation-invariant Zernike moments (ZMs), which are particularly suitable for analyses of pattern symmetry. Then we used ZMs, summed intensities, and root mean square contrast as inputs to the advanced Machine Learning methods. We created one random forests classifier for predicting prism orientation, 133 orientation-specific (OS) support vector classification models for predicting the prism aspect-ratios, 133 OS support vector regression models for estimating prism sizes, and another 133 OS Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for estimating the size PADs. We have achieved a high accuracy of 0.99 in predicting prism aspect ratios, and a low value of normalized mean square error of 0.004 for estimating the particle's size and size PADs.

  10. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  11. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading and/or Spelling Disorders in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuschka, Katharina; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-04-22

    3-11% of children and adolescents suffer from a reading andor spelling disorder. Their poor written-language skills markedly impair their scholastic performance and are often associated with other mental disorders. A great deal of uncertainty still surrounds the question of the appropriate methods of diagnosis and treatment. We systematically searched for pertinent publications in databases and literature reference lists, summarized the evidence in six tables, and examined some of it in a meta-analysis. Recommendations were developed in a consensus conference. A reading and/or spelling disorder should only be diagnosed if performance in these areas is below average. It should be determined whether an attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, or disorder of arithmetical skills is also present. Reading and spelling performance should be reinforced with systematic instruction about letter-sound and sound-letter correspondences, letter-syllable-morpheme synthesis, and sound-syllablemorpheme analysis (g' = 0.32) (recommendation grade A). Spelling ability responds best to spelling-rule training (recommendation grade A). Irlen lenses, visual and/or auditory perceptual training, hemispheric stimulation, piracetam, and prism spectacles should not be used (recommendation grade A). Evidence- and consensus-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of reading and/or spelling disorders in children and adolescents are now available for the first time. Reading and spelling abilities should be systematically and comprehensively reinforced, and potential comorbid disorders should be sought and treated appropriately. The efficacy of many treatments now in use has not been documented; if they are to be used in the future, they must be tested in randomized, controlled trials. For adult sufferers, adequate diagnostic instruments and therapeutic methods are not yet available.

  12. COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING IMPLEMENTATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Olivia Riani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia is participated as the participant of the study. The required data were collected through the use of questionnaire, observation checklist, and reading test. The data from the questionnaire indicated that 82% students had positive attitude toward the implementation of CSR. They feel that CSR improves their motivation in learning English and CSR brings more fun to the process of learning. Moreover, it was found from observation data that the students were actively participated during CSR implementation and they were motivated when comprehending a text by means CSR strategy. Finally, the study proved that CSR improved students’ reading comprehension. Students’ mean score of reading test in the beginning of the study was 67, meanwhile, after applying CSR as reading strategy, their mean scores improved to 88.

  13. Tectonic and Sedimentation Interactions in the East Caribbean Subduction Zone: AN Overview from the Orinoco Delta to the Barbados Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent marine geophysical acquisitions and piston-coring allow to better understand the close interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. Because of the morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the Orinoco turbiditic pattern system does not exhibit a classic fan geometry. The sea-floor geometry between the slope of the front of the Barbados prism and the slope of the South-American margin induces the convergence of the turbidite channels toward the abyssal plain, at the front of the accretionary prism. Also, whereas in most passive margins the turbidite systems are organized upstream to downstream as canyon, then channel-levee, then lobes, here, due to the tectonic control, the sedimentary system is organized as channel-levee, then canyons, then channelized lobes. At the edge of the Orinoco platform, the system has multiple sources with several distributaries and downward the channel courses are complex with frequent convergences or divergences that are emphasized by the effects of the undulating seafloor tectonic morphologies associated with active thrust tectonics and mud volcanism. On top of the accretionary prism, turbidite sediments are filling transported piggy-back basins whose timing of sedimentation vs. deformation is complex. Erosion processes are almost absent on the highly subsiding Orinoco platform and in the upper part of the turbidite system. Erosion processes develop mostly between 2000 and 4000 m of water depth, above the compressional structures of the Barbados prism (canyons up to 3 km wide and 300 m deep). In the abyssal plain, turbiditic channels develop on very long distance (> 1000 km) joining the mid-Atlantic channel (sourced mostly by the Amazon), filling several elongated basins corresponding to transform faults (notably the Barracuda Basin), and finally sourcing the Puerto-Rico trench, the deepest morphologic depression of this region

  14. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  15. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  16. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  17. Physical properties of the Nankai inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, IODP Expedition 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Manami; Kitajima, Hiroko; Henry, Pierre; Valdez, Robert; Josh, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 focused on deepening the existing riser hole at Site C0002 to ~3000 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to access the deep interior of the Miocene inner accretionary prism. This unique tectonic environment, which has never before been sampled in situ by ocean drilling, was characterized through riser drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), mud gas monitoring and sampling, and cuttings and core analysis. Shipboard physical properties measurements including moisture and density (MAD), electrical conductivity, P-wave, natural gamma ray, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed mainly on cuttings samples from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, but also on core samples from 2163 and 2204 mbsf. MAD measurements were conducted on seawater-washed cuttings ("bulk cuttings") in two size fractions of >4 mm and 1-4 mm from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, and hand-picked intact cuttings from the >4 mm size fractions within 1222.5-3058.5 mbsf interval. The bulk cuttings show grain density of 2.68 g/cm3 and 2.72 g/cm3, bulk density of 1.9 g/cm3 to 2.2 g/cm3, and porosity of 50% to 32%. Compared to the values on bulk cuttings, the intact cuttings show almost the same grain density (2.66-2.70 g/cm3), but higher bulk density (2.05-2.41 g/cm3) and lower porosity (37-18%), respectively. The grain density agreement suggests that the measurements on both bulk cuttings and intact cuttings are of good quality, and the differences in porosity and density are real, but the values from the bulk cuttings are affected strongly by artifacts of the drilling process. Thus, the bulk density and porosity data on handpicked cuttings are better representative of formation properties. Combined with the MAD measurements on hand-picked intact cuttings and discrete core samples from previous expeditions, porosity generally decreases from ~60% to ~20% from the seafloor to 3000 mbsf at Site C0002. Electrical

  18. Fourteen Autumns: A Reading Teacher Teaches Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo-Anne R.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary school reading teacher describes how she restructured her teaching methods by encouraging children to read and write as part of an integrated process, rather than teaching reading alone as a set of fragmented steps. (GC)

  19. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  20. The Habit of Reading: A Neglected Dimension of Adult Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Katherine T.; Devine, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    Less competent adult readers have not developed the habit of reading. Ways to cultivate adult reading habits include relevant material, environment saturated with reading material, reading aloud to adults, having them read to children, sustained silent reading, modeling, book sharing, author conferences, and recognition. (SK)