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Sample records for base na geoquimica

  1. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

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    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  2. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

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    Sato, Kei

    1998-07-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas-Mirante Complex (Sao Francisco Craton) and Caldas Brandao Massif (Borborema Province); 2 - On both continental masses, crustal evolution between 3.0 and 1.7 Ga is very similar; 3 - During Meso and Neoproterozoic times, the northwestern mass (Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons) remained virtually unaffected by tectono-orogenic events, while the southeastern mass is composed of smaller cratonic fragments, which later took part in the formation of two large supercontinents: Rodinia during the Mesoproterozoic, and Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic. (author)

  3. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from San Antonio El Bravo zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de manantiales termales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico

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    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    Isotopic and chemical analysis o water produced by 14 springs in the San Antonio El Bravo, Chihuahua, Mexico geothermal area, were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristics of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two samplings of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs in of sodium-bicarbonate-chloride type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content, that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 129 degrees celsius. The isotopic composition at Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs presents enrichment in {delta}{sup 18}O, product rock-water interaction at high temperature. The Agua Roque spring is located in the line of meteoric waters. Analysis of metals was carried out too, the concentration of gold element is 0.09 mg/l in Ojo Caliente and Infiernito springs, whereas silver, aluminum and iron elements were not detected. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S1, C3-S1, C3- S2, C4-S3 and C4-S4 types, that suggests that only the water from Agua Roque can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected but the concentration of the boron element is high for irrigation use (2.39 ppm). [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos e isotopicos de agua de 14 manantiales de la zona de San Antonio El Bravo. Chihuahua, Mexico, fueron realizados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicion quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo bicarbonatado-clorurado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes

  4. Geochemistry of the thermal springs from Piedras de Lumbre Zone, Chihuahua, Mexico; Geoquimica de los manantiales termales de la zona de Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico

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    Tello Hinojosa, Enrique [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    Chemical analysis of water produced by 12 hot springs in the geothermal areas of Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico were carried out in order to establish the geochemical characteristic of the groundwater and to know their interaction with deeper geothermal fluids. We made two sampling of water and gases in 1984 and 1995. The chemical composition of waters produced by the springs is of sulfate alkaline type. It was found, according to the Na:K:Mg relative content that most hot springs are located in the partial equilibrium zone, whereas the lowest temperature hot springs shift toward the groundwaters domain. The temperature estimated from gas geothermometry was 187 degrees celsius. It was found that the He has a deep origin, whereas the N{sub 2} is of atmospheric origin. Methane was not detected, suggesting that equilibria between gases and the liquid phase was reached at temperatures over 150 degrees celsius. The chemical compositions for the springs at Recubichi and Piedras de Lumbre zones are similar, so, it suggests that they have the same origin. The water quality of the springs for agricultural use, is classified between C2-S2 and C2-S3 types, that suggest that this water can be used for irrigation. The arsenic element was not detected and the concentration for the boron element is lower that 0.175 ppm. [Espanol] Los analisis quimicos de agua de 12 manantiales y 4 fumarolas de las zonas de Recubichi y Piedras de Lumbre, Chihuahua, Mexico fueron estudiados con el fin de conocer las caracteristicas geoquimicas del acuifero somero y su interaccion con fluidos geotermicos. Se realizaron 2 muestreos tanto de agua como de gases en 1984 y 1995. En ambos muestreos se encontro que la composicioon quimica del agua de todos los manantiales es del tipo sulfatado-sodico. De acuerdo con el contenido relativo de Na:K:Mg el agua de los manantiales mas calientes (93 grados celsius), se ubica en la zona de equilibrio parcial, mientras que en los de menor

  5. Geologic evolution of the Paraiba do Sul complex, in the central part of the Ribeira belt, based on the geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology studies; Evolucao geologica do complexo Paraiba do Sul, no segmento central da faixa Ribeira, com base em estudos de geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb

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    Valladares, Claudia Sayao

    1996-12-31

    Aiming the definition of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution, the work presents a geochronological approach by the U-Pb method, considered appropriate to study polideformed terrains. The minerals used to the U-Pb dating (zircon, titanite and monazite) provides information about the ages of rock generation and the successive geological events the rocks were submitted. The U-Pb geochronological approach is pioneer in the investigated area and two questions referent to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution in the central part of the Ribeira belt, were the aim of this approach. The first of them refers to the crystallization epoch and the gneisses metamorphism, interpreted here like orthogneisses, called Unidade Quirino of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul. The second refers to the metamorphism ages and meta sedimentary unit deformation. Looking for the contribution to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution understanding, this work presents the data based on the geologic map of this area, comprising part of the Folha Volta Redonda (1:50.000), including petrographic, structural and microtectonic studies. It also presents and discusses the results of: 17 U-Pb analysis in zircon and titanite of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul orthogneisses collection; 24 geochemical analysis of major, minor, trace elements and ETR of the same collection; an U-Pb analysis in titanite of the Unidade Sao Joao, 5 U-Pb analysis in titanites and/or monazites of granites and granitoids; 12 geochemical analysis including major, minor and trace elements and ETR, in granites and sills of leucogranites. Finally, the data achieved were integrated with the objective to elaborate an evolutive view of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul 157 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Geochemical evidences of the boiling phenomena in Los Humeros geothermal field; Evidencias geoquimicas del fenomeno de ebullicion en el campo de Los Humeros

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    Munguia Bracamontes, Fernando; Lopez Mendiola, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The geochemical behavior of the fluids in the geothermal field Los Humeros suggests the existence of a reservoir of relatively low permeability, with hydrostatic pressure gradients and thermodynamic conditions of pressure-temperature close to the boiling point in stationary conditions, that is, non-disturbed. Nevertheless, the fluid geochemistry also indicates the presence of steam under stationary conditions, mainly in the fault, fracture, fissure, etc. zones. The steam diminishes progressively as the extraction time increases, being replaced by boiling fluid. [Espanol] El comportamiento geoquimico de los fluidos en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros sugiere la existencia de un yacimiento de relativa baja permeabilidad, con gradientes de presion hidrostatica y condiciones termodinamicas de presion-temperatura cercanas al punto de ebullicion a condiciones estables; es decir, no perturbadas. Sin embargo, la geoquimica de los fluidos tambien indica la existencia de vapor bajo condiciones estables, principalmente en las zonas de fallas, fracturas, fisuras, etc. El vapor disminuye progresivamente conforme aumenta el tiempo de extraccion, siendo reemplazado por fluido en ebullicion.

  7. Magnetism in Na-filled Fe-based skutterudites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guangzong; Fan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Weitao; Ma, Yanming; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J

    2015-06-01

    The interplay of superconductivity and magnetism is a subject of ongoing interest, stimulated most recently by the discovery of Fe-based superconductivity and the recognition that spin-fluctuations near a magnetic quantum critical point may provide an explanation for the superconductivity and the order parameter. Here we investigate magnetism in the Na filled Fe-based skutterudites using first principles calculations. NaFe4Sb12 is a known ferromagnet near a quantum critical point. We find a ferromagnetic metallic state for this compound driven by a Stoner type instability, consistent with prior work. In accord with prior work, the magnetization is overestimated, as expected for a material near an itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point. NaFe4P12 also shows a ferromagnetic instability at the density functional level, but this instability is much weaker than that of NaFe4Sb12, possibly placing it on the paramagnetic side of the quantum critical point. NaFe4As12 shows intermediate behavior. We also present results for skutterudite FeSb3, which is a metastable phase that has been reported in thin film form.

  8. Kaolin-based geopolymers with various NaOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heah, C. Y.; Kamarudin, H.; Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M.; Bnhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Khairul Nizar, I.; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Liew, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    Kaolin geopolymers were produced by the alkali-activation of kaolin with an activator solution (a mixture of NaOH and sodium silicate solutions). The NaOH solution was prepared at a concentration of 6-14 mol/L and was mixed with the sodium silicate solution at a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 0.24 to prepare an activator solution. The kaolin-to-activator solution mass ratio used was 0.80. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of NaOH concentration on the compressive strength of kaolin geopolymers at 80°C for 1, 2, and 3 d. Kaolin geopolymers were stable in water, and strength results showed that the kaolin binder had adequate compressive strength with 12 mol/L of NaOH concentration. When the NaOH concentration increased, the SiO2/Na2O decreased. The increased Na2O content enhanced the dissolution of kaolin as shown in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. However, excess in this content was not beneficial for the strength development of kaolin geopolymers. In addition, there was the formation of more geopolymeric gel in 12 mol/L samples. The XRD pattern of the samples showed a higher amorphous content and a more geopolymer bonding existed as proved by FTIR analysis.

  9. Effect NaOH Concentration on Bagasse Ash Based Geopolymerization

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    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a natural adhesive material which can be developed as a substitute for cement. The natural ingredients which want to use should contain silica and alumina. This paper uses bagasse ash as a basic material of mortar geopolymer. As an adhesive, the bagasse ash should be mixed with water and another activator alkali such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The NaOHs molarity variation are 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 M with Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1,0 sand/bagasse ash = 2,75 and activator/bagasse ash = 0,42. This research use 50 × 50 × 50 mm cube sized specimen and conduct a compressive strength test with 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The fresh mortar test result showed that the use of NaOHs molarity variation influences the slump value and time setting. The bigger NaOH molarity variation that been used, the smaller slump value. But, the time setting is increased. While the result for density and compressive strength shown that the bigger NaOH molarity variation, the bigger density and the compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength resulted from the mixture of mortar geopolymer with 16 M concentration.

  10. Gas geochemistry of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Geoquimica de gases del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

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    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M; Nieva G, David; Portugal M, Enrique; Garcia G, Alfonso; Aragon A, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Torres A, Ignasio S [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Tovar A, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Gas data of Los Humeros geothermal field were analyzed. A new method, which is based on the Fischer-Tropch reactions and on the combined pyrite-magnetite mineral equilibrium, was used. Reservoir temperature and reservoir excess steam were estimated for the starting stage of the field by using early data taken from producing wells at controlled conditions. The same parameters were also obtained for the present stage by using 1997 gas data. Reservoir temperatures ranged from 275 and 337 Celsius degrees and positive values for reservoir excess steam fractions were obtained for the starting stage. For well H-1 no excess steam was found since this well was fed by the shallower liquid-dominated reservoir. Results for 1997 showed lower scattering compared to early data and the possible occurrence of a heating process in the shallower stratum which could due to exploitation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un analisis de datos de la fase gaseosa producida por pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros mediante un metodo que considera el equilibrio de la reaccion de Fischer-Tropsh y el equilibrio de minerales pirita-hematia y pirita-magnetita. Este metodo provee la temperatura del yacimiento y el exceso de vapor presente en la descarga total de los pozos. Los resultados se discuten tanto para el estado inicial del yacimiento utilizando los primeros datos de produccion en los que el flujo del pozo estuvo controlado y los obtenidos en 1997 que representan el estado actual del yacimiento. En el estado inicial se estimaron temperaturas de yacimiento de entre 275 y 337 grados Celsius y excesos de vapor positivos, con excepcion del pozo H-1 que se alimenta del estrato somero dominado por liquido. Los resultados obtenidos para 1997 muestran una dispersion menor y la probable ocurrencia de un proceso de calentamiento del estrato somero propiciado por la explotacion.

  11. Microstructural evolution in NaNbO3-based antiferroelectrics

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    Guo, Hanzheng; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Randall, Clive A.

    2015-11-01

    Our recent study found that CaZrO3 doping can effectively enhance the antiferroelectric P phase in NaNbO3 ceramics, leading to a double polarization hysteresis loop characteristic of a reversible antiferroelectric ↔ ferroelectric phase transition [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015)]. Here, a thorough transmission electron microscope study was performed to illustrate the CaZrO3 doping-assisted antiferroelectricity stabilization. In parallel to the bright-field imaging and selected area electron diffraction from multiple zone axes, detailed dark-field imaging was utilized to determine the superlattice structural origins, from either oxygen octahedral tilting or antiparallel cation displacements. By analogy with Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 and rare-earth doped BiFeO3 systems, the chemical substitutions are such as to an induced polar-to-antipolar transition that is consistent with a tolerance factor reduction. The resultant chemical pressure has a similar effect to the compressive hydrostatic pressure where the antiferroelectric state is favored over the ferroelectric state.

  12. Microbial control of food-related surfaces: Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficiency of photosensitization as surface sanitation alternative using model systems when food pathogens, their spores and biofilms were attached to the food-related surface (polyolefine). In addition it was important to compare antibacterial efficiency of Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization with conventional sanitizers. Obtained results indicate that Bacilluscereus ATCC 12826 and Listeriamonocytogenes ATCC 7644 as well as their thermoresistant strains B.cereus SV90 and L.monocytogenes 56LY were effectively inactivated (7 log) by Na-Chl-based photosensitization in vitro. Inactivation rate of thermoresistant strains was slower. The number of attached to the surface B.cereus ATCC 12826 and L.monocytogenes ATCC 7644 was reduced from 4-4.5 log to 0 log after photosensitization treatment. To achieve adequate inactivation of thermoresistant strains the higher Na-Chl concentration and longer illumination times had to be used. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveal that photosensitization is much more effective against all surface-attached B.cereus and L.monocytogenes strains than washing with water or 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite. It is important to note, that surface-attached B.cereus spores and L.monocytogenes biofilms can be eliminated from it by photosensitization as well. Our data support the idea that Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization has high antibacterial potential which may serve in the future for the development of human and environment friendly, non-thermal surface decontamination technique.

  13. Nanocomposite hydrogels based on water soluble polymer and montmorillonite-Na+

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    Fatiha Reguieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of composites hydrogels based on Poly (1,3-dioxolane (PDXL,water soluble polymer, were synthesized directly in water by free-radical homopolymerization of a,w-methacryloyloxy PDXL macromonomers using hydrophilic sodium Montmorillonite clay: Maghnite-Na+ (Mag-Na+ and potassium persulfate as an initiator. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (ATG and their equilibrium swelling behavior in water and were compared with those of pure hydrogels prepared without Mag-Na+. X-ray diffraction and Infrared spectroscopy confirmed insertion of clay into polymer. The thermal decomposition temperature of the hydrogels based on maghnite-Na+ was found to be higher than of pure hydrogels. At the same time, the influence of the macromonomer precursor molar mass value, its concentration and the quantities of Mag-Na+, on the values of the volume degree of equilibrium swelling were studied. The results showed that the volume degree of equilibrium swelling was investigated as a function of the clay content. However, whether the concentration of macromonomer precursor increased, the volume or weight degree of equilibrium swelling of hydrogels all decreased. The addition of Mag-Na+ particles changed the crosslinking density of hydrogels.

  14. In Situ Synthesis of NaY Zeolite with Coal-Based Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmei Liu; Zifeng Yan; Huaiping Wang; Yantuo Luo

    2003-01-01

    NaY zeolites were in-situ synthesized from coal-based kaolin via the hydrothermal method.The effects of various factors on the structure of the samples were extensively investigated. The sampleswere characterized by N2 adsorption, XRD, IR and DTG-DTA methods, and the results show that thecrystallization temperature and amount of added water play an important role in the formation of the zeo-lite structure. The 4A and P zeolites are the competitive phase present in the resulting product. However,NaY zeolites with a higher relative crystallinity, excluding impure crystals and the well hydrothermal sta-bility, can be synthesized from coal-based kaolin. These zeolites possess a larger surface area and a narrowpore size distribution, and this means that optimization of this process might result in a commercial routeto synthesize NaY zeolites from coal-based kaolin.

  15. Amostragem seqüencial com base na lei de Taylor para levantamento de Spodoptera frugiperda na cultura do milho

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    Farias Paulo Roberto Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta do cartucho do milho é uma das principais pragas do milho nas Américas, podendo ocorrer durante todos os estágios de crescimento da cultura, causando perdas de 15 a 37% na produção. Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição espacial dessa praga no campo, com a finalidade de desenvolver um sistema de amostragem para estimar sua densidade populacional. Na área cultivada com milho foram selecionados 3 campos experimentais de 40 m x 250 m cada, divididos em 100 parcelas cada. Foram contados o número de lagartas pequenas e grandes de S. frugiperda nas folhas e no cartucho das plantas, em 10 plantas ao acaso por parcela, num total de 1000 plantas por campo, em 5, 5 e 4 datas de amostragem, respectivamente. Lagartas menores que 1 cm eram consideradas pequenas e lagartas maiores que 1 cm, grandes. Foram estimados os parâmetros da lei de Taylor, sendo as estimativas dos parâmetros das regressões altamente significativas para todas as categorias larvais. O parâmetro b da lei de Taylor para lagarta pequena foi igual a 1,57, indicando que a forma de distribuição dessa categoria larval é agregada. Para lagartas grandes o parâmetro b foi igual a 0,79, o que conduz a um tipo de distribuição tendendo para aleatoriedade. Para o número total de lagartas os resultados são equivalentes aos obtidos para lagartas pequenas. Foi desenvolvido um plano de amostragem seqüencial com base nos parâmetros da lei de Taylor.

  16. Na2SO4- and NaCl- Induced Hot Corrosion Behaviors of a Nickel-Base Superalloy with Aluminide Diffusion Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hot-corrosion behaviors of nickel-base superalloy and aluminide diffusion coating have been investigated in conditions of contents of Na2SO4 and NaCl molten salts at 900℃ by means of XRD and SEM.Hot-corrosion scale of the superalloy and aluminide diffusion coating were analyzed and their surface morphologies were observed.The results demonstrate that both coated and uncoated specimens are not susceptible to various contents of NaCl.That may be resulted from the Al2O3 scale formation.Growth stress was characterized by the formation of convoluted scales.

  17. HEDONISMO E MORALISMO: CONSUMO NA BASE DA PIRÂMIDE

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    Marcus Wilcox Hemais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic stability in Brazil has allowed items that were formerly only accessible to the better-off social classes, to be consumed at ¨the bottom of the pyramid¨. This has aroused the interest of both the academic and business world and led to a desire for a better understanding of this phenomenon. Two lines of argument have arisen with distinct perspectives. The first supports a hedonistic approach, which believes that consumption at the base of the pyramid is driven by a wish to reduce poverty, while the other, where a moralistic standpoint is predominant, criticizes this view because it believes that people´s lives can only be improved by including people with less purchasing power in the production processes. One of the aims of this essay is thus to discuss how the literature on consumption at the bottom of the pyramid, shows features of these types of approaches. In addition, it seeks to encourage further studies by setting out a research agenda.

  18. Estudo bibliométrico do descritor “Ergonomia” na base LISA

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    Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O estudo analisa a produção científica sobre ergonomia utilizando a base de dados Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA. A base de dados LISA, iniciada em 1969, mantém sua cobertura temática na área de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação.Método: No estudo utilizou-se o método da bibliometria aplicada para verificar a produção científica indexada.Resultados: Entre os resultados da busca de termos indexados na base de dados LISA, encontraram-se 503 artigos com o termo “Ergonomic”; 352 artigos, com a expressão “Design”; 111 artigos com o descritor “Systems”; 110 artigos com o termo “Work”; e , 98 artigos com o termo “Evaluation”. Dentre os 34 títulos de periódicos, 4 títulos cobrem 79% dos artigos que tratam sobre Ergonomia na base LISA. Os demais 30 títulos de periódicos cobrem 21% dos artigos indexados sob essa temática.Conclusões: O presente estudo bibliométrico oferece possibilita um panorama de como a ergonomia é percebida na área da Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação.

  19. NaNet-10: a 10GbE network interface card for the GPU-based low-level trigger of the NA62 RICH detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2016-03-01

    A GPU-based low level (L0) trigger is currently integrated in the experimental setup of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment to assess the feasibility of building more refined physics-related trigger primitives and thus improve the trigger discriminating power. To ensure the real-time operation of the system, a dedicated data transport mechanism has been implemented: an FPGA-based Network Interface Card (NaNet-10) receives data from detectors and forwards them with low, predictable latency to the memory of the GPU performing the trigger algorithms. Results of the ring-shaped hit patterns reconstruction will be reported and discussed.

  20. Performance of the plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; MA Yan-Yun; QIN Xiu-Bo; ZHANG Zhe; CAO Xing-Zhong; YU Run-Sheng; WANG Bao-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing intense slow positron beam facility is based on the 1.3 GeV linac of Beijing ElectronPositron CoUider (BEPC) aiming to produce mono-energetic intense slow positron beam for material science investigation. The plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam section has been newly constructed to supply continuous beam time for the debugging of positron annihilation measurement stations and improve the Beijing intense slow positron beam time using efficiency. Performance testing result of the plugged-in 22Na based slow positron beam facility are reviewed in this paper, with the measurement of the beam transport efficiency, the view of beam spot, the adjustment of beam position, the measurement of beam intensity and energy spread etc. included.

  1. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  2. Heavy metals in geochemical sediment fractions of the border region between Baja California, Mexico, and California, USA; Metales pesados en fracciones geoquimicas de sedimentos de la region fronteriza de Baja California, Mexico, y California, EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Celaya, Julio A; Gutierrez-Galindo, Efrain A; Flores-Munoz, Gilberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C., (Mexico)

    1997-03-01

    water in the coastal zone are being transported outside the region. [Spanish] En este estudio se evalua la concentracion de los metales pesados Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn y Fe en las diferentes fracciones geoquimicas del sedimento, como una medida para conocer el impacto de las descargas de agua residuales sobre los sedimentos costeros de la region. Para este proposito, durante un crucero oceanografico realizado en abril de 1992 (ECOBAC IV), se recolectaron 20 muestras de sedimento superficial en la plataforma costera de la region fronteriza de Baja California (Mexico) y California (EUA). Las muestras de sedimento se sometieron a un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial, disenado para obtener las fracciones geoquimicas operacionalmente definidas como: intercambiable (F1), carbonatos (F2), oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn (F3), materia organica/sulfuros (F4) y residual o litogenica (F5). La especiacion operacional de los metales indica que las principales fases que acumulan metales en el sedimento son la matriz detrital o litogenica, los oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn y la materia organica/sulfuros, en este orden. La distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase reactiva (definida como la suma de F1-F4) presento, en general, una tendencia a aumentar en concentracion en sedimentos alejados de la costa. Los metales pesados en la fase reactiva aparentemente son controlados por la concentracion de hierro reactivo en los sedimentos, con excepcion del Pb, el Cd y la Ag. Esto sugiere que estos ultimos elementos son controlados por otros procesos, tales como el material particulado de origen biogenico. En contraste, la distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase detrital presento un comportamiento inverso, esto es, las mayores concentraciones de metales se encuentran cercanas a la costa frente a la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de Punta Bandera, Baja California. Las concentraciones promedio de metales totales (suma de F1-F5) fueron de 7.6, 40, 21, 68

  3. Tricalcium phosphate based resorbable ceramics: Influence of NaF and CaO addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, Zachary; Bandyopadhyay, Amit [W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Lab, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bose, Susmita [W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Lab, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)], E-mail: sbose@wsu.edu

    2008-01-10

    Resorbable bioceramics have gained much attention due to their time-varying mechanical properties in-vivo. Implanted ceramics degrade allowing bone in-growth and eventual replacement of the artificial material with natural tissue. Calcium phosphate based materials have caught the most significant attention because of their excellent biocompatibility and compositional similarities to natural bone. Doping these ceramics with various metal ions has significantly influenced their properties. In this study, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) compacts were fabricated via uniaxial compression with five compositions: (i) pure TCP, (ii) TCP with 2.0 wt.% NaF, (iii) TCP with 3.0 wt.% CaO, (iv) TCP with a binary of 2.0 wt.% NaF and 0.5 wt.% Ag{sub 2}O, and (v) TCP with a quaternary of 1.0 wt.% TiO{sub 2}, 0.5 wt.% Ag{sub 2}O, 2.0 wt.% NaF, and 3.0 wt.% CaO. These compacts were sintered at 1250 deg. C for 4 h to obtain dense ceramic structures. Phase analyses were carried out using X-ray diffraction. The presence of NaF in TCP improved densification and increased compression strength from 70 ({+-} 25) to 130 ({+-} 40) MPa. Addition of CaO had no influence on density or strength. Human osteoblast cell growth behavior was studied using an osteoprecursor cell line (OPC 1) to assure that the biocompatibility of these ceramics was not altered due to the dopants. For long-term biodegradation studies, density, weight change, surface microstructure, and uniaxial compression strength were measured as a function of time in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Weight gain in SBF correlated strongly with precipitation viewed in the inter-connected pores of the samples. After 3 months in SBF, all samples displayed a reduction in strength. NaF, CaO and the quaternary compositions maintained the most steady strength loss under SBF.

  4. Emulsion-based synthesis of NaA zeolite nanocrystals and its integration towards NaA membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Naskar; A Das; D Kundu; M Chatterjee

    2011-07-01

    NaA zeolite nanoparticles (seed crystals) of size 50–65 nm were synthesized using water-in-oil (w/o) type emulsions at a considerably low temperature of 65 ± 1°C in a short duration of 2 h. The emulsions were stabilized using non-ionic surfactants e.g. sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), polyoxyethylene(5)nonylphenylether with ethoxy numbers of 5 (Igepal CO-520) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of 4.3, 8.6, 10 and 15 respectively. Among the surfactants, the intermediate HLB values of 8.6 (Span 20) and 10 (Igepal CO-520) were effective in synthesizing highly dispersible NaA nanoparticles of size 50–65 nm. The membrane prepared hydrothermally in multi-steps at 65 ± 1°C, using the Span 20-derived seed crystals deposited on porous support, showed the formation of high quality interlocked NaA coating. Single gas nitrogen (N2) permeation of the membrane exhibited a permeance value of 1.01 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1 at ambient temperature (30°C).

  5. Alkali (NaOH) Pretreatment of Switchgrass by Radio Frequency-based Dielectric Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Wang, Yifen; Wen, Zhiyou

    Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pre-treatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform temperature profile. At 20% solid content, RF-assisted alkali pretreatment (at 0.1 g NaOH/g biomass loading and 90°C) resulted in a higher xylose yield than the conventional heating pretreatment. The enzymatic hydrolysis of RF-treated solids led to a higher glucose yield than the corresponding value obtained from conventional heating treatment. When the solid content exceeded 25%, conventional heating could not handle this high-solid sample due to the loss of fluidity, poor mixing, and heating transfer of the samples. As a result, there was a significantly lower sugar yield, but the sugar yield of the RF-based pretreatment process was still maintained at high levels. Furthermore, the optimal particle size and alkali loading in the RF pretreatment was determined as 0.25-0.50 mm and 0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, respectively. At alkali loading of 0.20-0.25 g NaOH/g biomass, heating temperature of 90°C, and solid content of 20%, the glucose, xylose, and total sugar yield from the combined RF pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis were 25.3, 21.2, and 46.5 g/g biomass, respectively.

  6. WEB based user's applications for NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Piwek, Mateusz

    1. Introduction The Master Thesis titled „Web based users applications for NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN” presents the World Wide Web technologies that has been used during development of the software suite for NA61/SHINE experiment. Presented software was implemented and is use by a group of approximately sixty users 1 . The NA61/SHINE is one of many projects that takes place in the European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN located near Geneva. 1.1. About CERN CERN (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire 2 ) was established on 29 th of September 1954. Poland is a member state since 1991, however a for a long time before joining CERN Poland as the only country of Communist Block had an observatory status. Nowadays Polish scientists are taking a part in a main CERN's experiments such as ALICE, ATLAS or CMS. CERN's essential scientific facilities are the particle physics accelerators and detectors. The beam provided by the accelerator or collider by interacting w...

  7. Fluoride gastrointestinal absorption from Na2FPO3/CaCO3- and NaF/SiO2-based toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, A; Tenuta, L M A; Cury, J A

    2013-01-01

    Depending on toothpaste formulation, part of the fluoride is insoluble and would not be totally absorbable in the gastrointestinal tract, thus changing dental fluorosis risk estimation. This hypothesis was tested with formulations with either all fluoride in a soluble form (NaF/SiO2-based toothpaste, 1,100 µg F/g as labeled, 1,129.7 ± 49.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed) or with around 20% of insoluble fluoride (Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste, 1,450 µg F/g as labeled, 1,122.4 ± 76.4 µg F/g soluble fluoride as analyzed). Toothpastes were evaluated either fresh or after accelerated aging, which increased insoluble fluoride to 40% in the Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpaste. In a blind, crossover clinical trial conducted in five legs, 20 adult volunteers ingested 49.5 µg of total fluoride/kg body weight from each formulation or purified water (control). Whole saliva and urine were collected as bioavailability indicators, and pharmacokinetics parameters calculated showed significantly (p toothpaste, which was reduced further after aging. A significant correlation between the amount of soluble fluoride ingested, but not total fluoride, and fluoride bioavailability was found (r = 0.57, p toothpastes should be calculated based on the toothpaste's soluble rather than total fluoride concentration.

  8. NaI(Tl) Detector Efficiency Computation Using Radioactive Parallelepiped Sources Based on Efficiency Transfer Principle

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMED S. BADAWI; Mona M. Gouda; Ahmed M. El-Khatib; Thabet, Abouzeid A.; Salim, Ahmed A.; Mahmoud I. Abbas

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency transfer (ET) principle is considered as a simple numerical simulation method, which can be used to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency (FEPE) of 3″×3″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector over a wide energy range. In this work, the calculations of FEPE are based on computing the effective solid angle ratio between a radioactive point and parallelepiped sources located at various distances from the detector surface. Besides, the attenuation of the photon by the source-to-detect...

  9. Inactivation of several strains of Listeria monocytogenes attached to the surface of packaging material by Na-Chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Zivile; Buchovec, Irina; Paskeviciute, Egle

    2010-12-02

    This study was focused on the possibility to inactivate thermosensitive Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3)C 7644 and thermoresistant 56 Ly strain by Na-Chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial efficiency of photosensitization with conventional surface cleaning was performed. Data indicate that both Listeria strains, after incubation with Na-Chl and following illumination (λ=400nm, 20mWcm(-2)), were inactivated by 7 log in vitro. This treatment cleaned both Listeria strains from packaging surfaces. Comparative analysis indicates that washing with water diminishes pathogens by less than 1 log, 200ppm Na-hypochlorite by 1.7 log, Na-Chl-based photosensitization by 4.5 log. Listeria biofilms were totally removed from the surface by photosensitization at higher photosensitizer concentrations and longer incubation times. In conclusion, both strains of L. monocytogenes can be effectively inactivated by photosensitization in vitro and on the surface of packaging. Listeria biofilms are susceptible to this treatment as well. Comparison of different surface decontamination treatments reveals that photosensitization is much more effective against both Listeria strains than washing with water or 200ppm Na-hypochlorite. Our data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization is an effective antimicrobial tool which may serve in the future for the development of human and environmentally friendly surface decontamination techniques.

  10. NaNet: a flexible and configurable low-latency NIC for real-time trigger systems based on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pantaleo, F.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-02-01

    NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34 Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modular architecture. Benchmarks for latency and bandwidth for GbE and APElink channels are presented, followed by a performance analysis on the case study of the GPU-based low level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 CERN experiment, using either the NaNet GbE and APElink channels. Finally, we give an outline of project future activities.

  11. NaNet: a flexible and configurable low-latency NIC for real-time trigger systems based on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Frezza, O; Lamanna, G; Lonardo, A; Cicero, F Lo; Paolucci, P S; Pantaleo, F; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Sozzi, M; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2014-01-01

    NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34~Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modular architecture. Benchmarks for latency and bandwidth for GbE and APElink channels are presented, followed by a performance analysis on the case study of the GPU-based low level trigger for the RICH detector in the NA62 CERN experiment, using either the NaNet GbE and APElink channels. Finally, we give an outline of project future activities.

  12. Understanding the Effect of Na in Improving the Performance of CuInSe2 Based Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Kevin D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-11-17

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film photovoltaic technology is in the early stages of commercialization with an annual manufacturing capacity over 1 GW and has demonstrated the highest module efficiency of any of the thin film technologies. However there still is a lack of fundamental understanding of the relationship between the material properties and solar cell device operation. It is well known that the incorporation of a small amount of Na into the CIGS film during processing is essential for high efficiency devices. However, there are conflicting explanations for how Na behaves at the atomic scale. This report investigates how Na is incorporated into the CIGS device structure and evaluates the diffusion of Na into CIGS grain boundaries (GBs) and bulk crystallites. Participants: This project was carried out at the Institute of Energy Conversion at the University of Delaware, collaborating with the Rockett group at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champagne. Significant Findings: The significant outcomes of this project for each task include; Task 1.0: Effect of Na in Devices Fabricated on PVD Deposited CIGS; Na diffusion occurs through the Mo back contact via GBs driven by the presence of oxygen; Na reversibly compensates donor defects in CIGS GBs,Task 2.0: Na Incorporation in Single Crystal CIGS; and bulk Na diffusion proceeds rapidly such that grains are Na-saturated immediately following CIGS thin film manufacture. Industry Guidance: The presented results offer interesting concepts for modification of manufacturing processes of CIGS-based PV modules. Possible approaches to improve control of Na uptake and uniformly increase levels in CIGS films are highlighted for processes that employ either soda-lime glass or NaF as the Na source. Concepts include the potential of O2 or oxidative based treatments of Mo back contacts to improve Na diffusion through the metal film and increase Na uptake into the growing CIGS. This project has also offered

  13. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que fomenten el consumo de productos nativos y autóctonos. Al elaborar productos con materia prima disponible en el país logramos disminuir la dependencia externa y promover el trabajo interno y por ende contribuir a garantizar la Soberanía Alimentaria. La Soberanía Alimentaria es el derecho de los pueblos a definir sus propias políticas y estrategias sustentables de producción, distribución y consumo de alimentos que garanticen el derecho a la alimentación para toda la población, con base en la pequeña y medi

  14. An Energy Dense-AI-NaBH4-PEMFC Based Power Generator for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    combination of two hydrides (NaBH4 and KBH4) in the presence ofNaOH stabilizer resulted in the improvement in mechanical and chemical stability of...liquid phases in the NaBH4 slurry. Furthermore, KBH4 is less reactive than NaBH4 in aqueous so lutions which also adds to the improved chemical ...generation unit consisting ofNaBH4 delivery system, AI-NaBH4 hydrolysis reactor and PEMFC has been designed, assembled and performance tested. The unit ’ s

  15. NaNet: a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Fantechi, Riccardo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Stanislao Paolucci, Pier; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-06-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCIe Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  16. NaNet:a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, Roberto; Fantechi, Riccardo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-01-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCI2 Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  17. Geochemistry of the waters of the Descoberto River hydrographic basin, Brasilia/DF - Brazil; Geoquimica das aguas da bacia hidrografica do Rio Descoberto, Brasilia/DF - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcileia Silva do [Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcileia@ufpa.br; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Oliveira, Edivan Costa [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Para (CEFET-PA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the physical and chemical quality of the water of the Descoberto River during the dry and rainy seasons by measuring pH, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, color, alkalinity and NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NH{sub 4}+, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}-, and the elements Sr, Mo, Cd, Y, Ti, Ca, V, Mg, Fe, Si, Ni, Zr, Cu, Al, Cr, Mn, Ba, Co, Zn, P, Na and K. The results showed high concentrations in both seasons, with dilution along the course of the river, minimizing for a while problems that compromise the quality of the water of this source. However, a progressive deterioration can occur due to an increase in the discharge of pollutants, resulting from population growth, agricultural activities and other factors. (author)

  18. Estudo bibliométrico na base LISA: um enfoque nos artigos sobre os surdos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romario Antunes da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise bibliométrica de uma lista de referências de artigos de periódicos localizados na base de dados LISA e tem por objetivo verificar como a literatura na Ciência da Informação aborda aspectos relacionados às pessoas com deficiência, especialmente pessoas com diferentes condições sensoriais auditivas. Foram utilizados os softwares Microsoft Word, Infotrans, Dataview, Mainview e Microsoft Excel para a análise bibliométrica da lista de referências. Obteve-se como resultado uma lista com os descritores mais utilizados nos periódicos, a relação dos periódicos mais importantes, os autores com maior produção, a produção dos autores por ano de publicação, as fontes por ano de publicação e, por fim, foi elaborada uma rede de relacionamento com os principais descritores. Conclui-se que o descritor “deaf” (surdo ainda é pouco utilizado e o maior número de artigos apresenta o termo “disabled people” (pessoa deficiente, que também é empregado para designar outras limitações sensoriais ou cognitivas.

  19. Produção de conhecimento sobre autismo na escola: uma revisão sistemática na base Scielo

    OpenAIRE

    Kelda de Fátima Pereira; Beatriz Dittrich Schmitt

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analisar a produção de artigos científicos sobre autismo nas escolas, disponibilizados na base de dados Scielo. Método: os descritores utilizados foram “autismo” combinado com “escola”. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos originais em língua portuguesa; artigos completos publicados em periódicos nacionais; pesquisas de campo no ambiente escolar; e, amostra composta por crianças com autismo. Os dados coletados versam sobre: a revista, o ano de publicação, os objetivos, as estraté...

  20. NaBH4 generator integrated with energy conversion device based on hydrogen combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netskina, O. V.; Fursenko, R. V.; Komova, O. V.; Odintsov, E. S.; Simagina, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device operating on the heat generated by a hydrogen diffusion microflame has been developed. For the first time, a NaBH4 hydrogen generator has been employed as a source of fuel for such type of power generator. A 1%Ru-3%Co/Sibunit catalyst ensures hydrogen generation at a rate of 3 cm3 s-1 during 3 h. Power and efficiency characteristics of the integrated system consisting of a hydrogen generator and an energy converter based on combustion technologies have been studied experimentally. The total efficiency and the generated power of the system were measured to achieve values of up to 1.23% and 0.25 W, respectively. Ways to further improve the system's power output and efficiency characteristics have been discussed.

  1. Studies on the acid-base properties of the ZnBr2NaBr molten salt system

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The acid-base properties of the ZnBr2-NaBr melts at 623 K were investigated on the basis of the electromotive forcemeasurements of a zinc-zinc concentration cell. The following two chemical equilibria were postulated to describe theacid-base character of the melts.

  2. Base de dados INDEX PSI: recurso informacional na área de psicologia utilizando interface WWWIsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Vivona B. de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A Base de Dados Bibliográfica INDEX PSI (http://www.psicologia-online.org.br/index.html surgiu de um convênio firmado entre o Sistema de Bibliotecas e Informação da PUC-Campinas e o Conselho Federal de Psicologia, objetivando a organização da produção científica nacional na área de Psicologia, focalizando artigos de periódicos publicados no período de 1980 a 1999 com a finalidade de disseminação da informação gerada e preservação da memória científica. Utilizou-se, para entrada de dados, o software CDS-Microisis, versão 3.07 para DOS e interface WWWIsis para acesso via WEB. A Base INDEX PSI será objeto de construção de Biblioteca Virtual na área de Psicologia. The bibliographic database INDEX PSI was established through an agreement between the Information and Library System of PUC-Campinas and the Brazilian Federal Psychology Council, aiming at the organization of the national scientific production in the Psychology field. It focuses on serial articles published from 1980 to 1999, in order to disseminate the information produced and to preserve the scientific memory. To input data at this database it was used the software CDS-Microisis DOS version 3.07, and the interface WWWIsis to access through WEB. INDEX PSI as intended to be the beginning of a Psychology Virtual Library.

  3. Characterization of Na-based phosphate as electrode materials for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghib, K.; Trottier, J.; Hovington, P.; Brochu, F.; Guerfi, A.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    We report the electrochemical properties of submicron-sized particles of NaFePO 4. Two materials have been studied and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, EIS and Raman experiments: the maricite phase synthesized by hydrothermal method and the olivine phase obtained from delithiation of LiFePO 4. NaFePO 4 materials have an electrochemical activity in Na cell using NaPF 6-EC-DEC electrolyte, but only in the heterosite phase, and the capacity is reduced already in the second cycle. The two-phase system at intermediate compositions has also been analyzed.

  4. Meditation-based treatment yielding immediate relief for meditation-naïve migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Makenzie E; Wachholtz, Amy B

    2014-03-01

    Meditation is gaining popularity as an effective means of managing and attenuating pain and has been particularly effective for migraines. Meditation additionally addresses the negative emotional states known to exist with migraines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of meditation as an immediate intervention for reducing migraine pain as well as alleviating emotional tension, examined herein as a negative affect hypothesized to be correlated with pain. Twenty-seven migraineurs, with two to ten migraines per month, reported migraine-related pain and emotional tension ratings on a Likert scale (ranging from 0 to 10) before and after exposure to a brief meditation-based treatment. All participants were meditation- naïve, and attended one 20-minute guided meditation session based on the Buddhist "loving kindness" approach. After the session, participants reported a 33% decrease in pain and a 43% decrease in emotional tension. The data suggest that a single exposure to a brief meditative technique can significantly reduce pain and tension, as well as offer several clinical implications. It can be concluded that single exposure to a meditative technique can significantly reduce pain and tension. The effectiveness and immediacy of this intervention offers several implications for nurses.

  5. The necessity of renovation of the fundamental concepts of geochemistry for the geothermal systems; La necesidad de renovacion de los conceptos fundamentales de geoquimica para los sistemas geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahendra Jaiswal, Pal Verma [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the exhaustive experimentation of the compilation of the experimental data of quartz solubility is presented along with the saturation curve water - steam and in the zone of compressed liquid. On the base of these data a regression relation was derived, which is valid for the entire range of temperature from 0 to 374 Celsius degrees. This study was developed by Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, researcher of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el experimento exhaustivo de la recopilacion de los datos experimentales de la solubilidad de cuarzo a lo largo de la curva de saturacion agua - vapor y en la zona de liquido comprimido. Sobre la base de estos datos se derivo una relacion de regresion, la cual es valida para todo el rango de temperatura desde 0 a 374 grados Celsius. Este estudio fue desarrollado por Mahendra Pal Verma Jaiswal, investigador del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE)

  6. Hydrocarbons origin and classification of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin: geochemical characterization; Origem e classificacao dos hidrocarbonetos da Bacia Sergipe-Alagoas: caracterizacao geoquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinski, Nelson A.; Santos, Regina C.R. dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1987-05-01

    Researches made on Sergipe-Alagoas sedimentary basin, found some oil and gas accumulations. Geochemical characterization based on isotopics and chromatographic studies, and chemical analysis of these oils are discussed. These analysis permitted identification of three oils types with distinct characteristics. The correlation between these oils with the generator rocks, construction of a model to demonstrate the generation, transport and accumulation of oil on these basin, are also related. 12 figs., 5 refs

  7. GPU-based Real-time Triggering in the NA62 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years the GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) paradigm represented a remarkable development in the world of computing. Computing for High-Energy Physics is no exception: several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in high level trigger of different experiments. On the other hand the use of GPUs in the low level trigger systems, characterized by stringent real-time constraints, such as tight time budget and high throughput, poses several challenges. In this paper we focus on the low level trigger in the CERN NA62 experiment, investigating the use of real-time computing on GPUs in this synchronous system. Our approach aimed at harvesting the GPU computing power to build in real-time refined physics-related trigger primitives for the RICH detector, as the the knowledge of Cerenkov rings parameters allows to build stringent conditions for data selection at trigger level. Latencies of all components of the trigger chain have...

  8. DDTC-Na-based colorimetric chemosensor for the sensing of cyanide in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC-Na) was demonstrated to be a new colorimetric cyanide chemosensor by utilizing an indirect trick. First, some copper ions were added to the colorless aque- ous solution of DDTC-Na. Then, the resultant brown solution was studied upon the addition of different anions, including Cl-, I-, IO3-, SO42-, NO-2, Br-, H2PO4-, F-, SCN-, HSO-4, ClO-4 and CN-. It was observed by naked eyes that the brown solution changed to colorless immediately after the addition of the trace cyanide, but there were no changes towards other anions, making DDTC-Na a good selective cyanide chemosensor in pure water.

  9. Ionic conductivity and battery characteristic studies of a new PAN-based Na+ ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Jyothi, N.; Vijaya Kumar, K.; Sunita Sundari, G.; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Sodium ion conducting gel polymer electrolytes based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with ethylene carbonate and dimethyl formamide as plasticizing solvents are prepared by the solution cast technique. These electrolyte films are free standing, transparent and dimensionally stable. Na+ ions are derived from NaI. The structural properties of pure and complex formations have been examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies and differential scanning calorimetric studies. The variation of the conductivity with salt concentration ranging from 10 to 40 wt% is studied. The sample containing 30 wt% of NaI exhibits the highest conductivity of 2.35 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature (303 K) and 1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 373 K. The conductivity-temperature dependence of polymer electrolyte films obeys Arrhenius behavior with activation energy in the range of 0.25-0.46 eV. The transport numbers both electronic ( t e) and ionic ( t i) are evaluated using Wagner's polarization technique. It is revealed that the conducting species are predominantly due to ions. The ionic transport number of highest conducting film is found to be 0.991. Solid-state battery with configuration Na/(PAN + NaI)/(I2 + C + electrolyte) is developed using the highest conducting gel polymer electrolyte system and the discharge characteristics of the cell are evaluated over the load of 100 KΩ.

  10. A novel salinity proxy based on Na incorporation into foraminiferal calcite

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, J. C.; L. J. de Nooijer; Wolthers, M.; Reichart, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and temperature determine seawater density and differences in both thereby control global themohaline circulation. Whereas numerous proxies have been calibrated and applied to reconstruct temperature, a direct and independent proxy for salinity is still missing. Ideally, a new proxy for salinity should target one of the direct constituents of dissolved salt, such as [Na+] or [Cl−]. This study investigates the impact of salinity on foraminiferal Na/Ca values by laser abla...

  11. Na+/D-glucose cotransporter based bilayer lipid membrane sensor for D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugao, N; Sugawara, M; Minami, H; Uto, M; Umezawa, Y

    1993-02-15

    A new type of amperometric blosensor for glucose was fabricated using a Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as the signal-transducing sensory element that exploits the D-glucose-triggered Na+ ion current through bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The planar BLM was formed by the folding method across a small aperture of a thin Teflon film. The Na+/D-glucose cotransporter, isolated and purified from small intestinal brush border membrane of guinea pigs, was embedded into BLMs through proteoliposomes. The number of the protein molecules thus incorporated in the present sensing membrane was estimated to be ca. 10(7). The sensor response was measured as an ionic current through the BLM arising from cotransported Na+ ion flux under a constant applied potential and was only induced by D-glucose above 10(-9) M, but not by the other monosaccharides except for D-galactose. The effect of applied potentials, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations, and the addition of a competitive inhibitor, phlorizin, were scrutinized to characterize the sensor output. The results were briefly discussed in terms of the potential use of the Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as a sensory element for D-glucose.

  12. DDTC-Na-based colorimetric chemosensor for the sensing of cyanide in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU XiaoDing; LI Zhen; QIN JinGui

    2009-01-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC-Na) was demonstrated to be a new colorimetrlc cyanide chemosensor by utilizing an indirect trick. First, some copper ions were added to the colorless aque-ous solution of DDTC-Na. Then, the resultant brown solution was studied upon the addition of different anions, including CI-, I-, IO-3, SO2-4, NO-2, Br-, H2PO--4, F-, SCN-, HSO-4, CIO-4 and CN-. It was observed by naked eyes that the brown solution changed to colorless immediately after the addition of the trace cyanide, but there were no changes towards other anions, making DDTC-Na a good selective cyanide chemosensor in pure water.

  13. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months

  14. Exergames: uso pedagógico e suas bases teóricas na educação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fronza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Os exergames são tecnologias digitais dirigidas a atividade física que tem sido utilizado mundialmente em escolas de maneira lúdica ou pedagógica. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e caracterizar os estudos que usam exergames na escola, apontar quais as potencialidades pedagógicas destes jogos para a educação e se suas bases teóricas estão consolidadas para seu uso escolar. O estudo é uma revisão sistemática em bases importantes na área de educação e saúde com os descritores exergames e educação em inglês. Foram selecionados 4 artigos, com sujeitos de pesquisa constituídos por crianças e professores de escolas, de cunho empírico porém nem todos seguiram protocolos específicos de avaliação. A metade deles se respaldou em alguma teoria para justificar seus achados, e as contribuições foram relevantes tanto para alunos e professores a partir da vivência empírica com o uso dos exergames na escola. Conclui-se que as respostas físicas e comportamentais dos estudantes nos jogos estudados foram significativas nas escolas, no entanto os estudos avaliados não se basearam em quaisquer teorias consolidadas da área.

  15. The COSINUS project: Development of new NaI-based cryogenic detectors for direct dark matter search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütlein, A.; Angloher, G.; Gotti, C.; Hauff, D.; Maino, M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Pagnanini, L.; Pessina, G.; Petricca, F.; Pirro, S.; Pröbst, F.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Seidel, W.

    2017-02-01

    The current results of direct dark matter searches are controversial. The long-standing dark-matter claim from the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration is excluded by null-results of several other experiments. However, a comparison of the results by experiments with different detector materials introduces model dependencies. The R&D project COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) aims to develop cryogenic detectors based on (hygroscopic) sodium iodide (NaI). If successful, such detectors could be used in future experiments to investigate the origin of the annual modulation signal seen by the NaI-based scintillation detectors of the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. COSINUS detectors should be able to simultaneously detect phonons and scintillation light produced by a particle interaction inside the NaI crystal. This technique allows for an active suppression of β/γ backgrounds as well as detailed studies of a large variety of dark-matter models predicting nuclear interactions. For such kind of studies only moderate exposures of ≲ 100 kg-days are needed. In addition to the projected sensitivities of COSINUS detectors, we also show the result of first tests using (only mildly hygroscopic) caesium iodide (CsI) crystals as target material. For this measurement we achieved an energy threshold of ∼4.7 keV for nuclear recoils.

  16. Uma crítica da epistemologia da prática com base na categoria de totalidade.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Maria Regina Candelária

    2009-01-01

    Esta pesquisa é de cunho bibliográfico e tem como objetivo a crítica da epistemologia da prática com base na categoria de totalidade. O referencial teórico do estudo é o materialismo histórico a partir dos autores Karel Kosik e Istiván Mészáros. Pretendeu-se demonstrar que o conhecimento é uma totalidade e, por isso, contrário á fragmentação. Os objetivos foram alcançados na medida em que o trabalho se configura como uma contribuição teórica para estudos à respeito do tema. A dissertação comp...

  17. PERSPECTIVAS PARA CONSTRUÇÃO PARTICIPATIVA DO ECOTURISMO DE BASE COMUNITÁRIA NA RESEX CASSURUBÁ

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nos municípios de Caravelas e Nova Viçosa, extremo sul da Bahia, existe o complexo estuarino Cassurubá que, por sua importância social, cultural e ambiental, está inserido na área da recém criada Reserva Extrativista Cassurubá. Nesta unidade de conservação de uso sustentável está sendo proposto um projeto de ecoturismo de base comunitária que envolve 15 famílias ribeirinhas e 13 instituições atuantes na localidade. A finalidade do projeto é iniciar a implantação deste tipo de turismo proporci...

  18. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-06-07

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  19. The atom-surface interaction potential for He-NaCl: A model based on pairwise additivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.; Fowler, P. W.

    1986-08-01

    The recently developed semi-empirical model of Fowler and Hutson is applied to the He-NaCl atom-surface interaction potential. Ab initio self-consistent field calculations of the repulsive interactions between He atoms and in-crystal Cl - and Na + ions are performed. Dispersion coefficients involving in-crystal ions are also calculated. The atom-surface potential is constructed using a model based on pairwise additivity of atom-ion forces. With a small adjustment of the repulsive part, this potential gives good agreement with the experimental bound state energies obtained from selective adsorption resonances in low-energy atom scattering experiments. Close-coupling calculations of the resonant scattering are performed, and good agreement with the experimental peak positions and intensity patterns is obtained. It is concluded that there are no bound states deeper than those observed in the selective adsorption experiments, and that the well depth of the He-NaCl potential is 6.0 ± 0.2 meV.

  20. The COSINUS project - a NaI-based cryogenic calorimeter for direct dark matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Cassina, L; Gironi, L; Gotti, C; Gütlein, A; Hauff, D; Maino, M; Nagorny, S S; Pagnanini, L; Pessina, G; Petricca, F; Pirro, S; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Seidel, W

    2016-01-01

    At present the results in the field of direct dark matter search are in tension: the positive claim of DAMA/LIBRA versus null results from other experiments. However, the comparison of the results of different experiments involves model dependencies, in particular because of the different target materials in use. The COSINUS R&D project aims to operate NaI as a cryogenic calorimeter. Such a detector would not only allow for a direct comparison to DAMA/LIBRA, but would also provide a low(er) nuclear recoil threshold and particle discrimination.

  1. Corrosion resistance of FeAl intermetallic phase based alloy in water solution of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebulski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recognizing of corrosion mechanisms in liquid mediums can lead to obtain corrosion-proof material e.g. by applying passivation phenomenon. In this paper attention was paid to determine the corrosion resistance of Fe40Al intermetallic phase based alloy in corrosive medium of liquid NaCl. Research of material susceptibility to surface activation in the pipeline of corrosion processes are conducted.Design/methodology/approach: In the corrosion research electrolyser, potentiostat „Solartron 1285” and computer with „CorrWare 2” software were used. Results of the research were worked out with „CorrView” software. The potentials values were determined in relation to normal hydrogen electrode (NEW. The recording of potential/density of current - time curve was conducted for 300 s. Polarization of samples were conducted in range of potential from 300 mV lower than stationary to Ecor + 1500 mV. Potential change rate amounted 10 mV/min every time.Findings: The results of research conducted in 3% NaCl solution, the best electrochemical corrosion resistance were showed by samples after annealing during 72 hours. It was confirmed by the lowest value of corrosion current density, low value of passive current density, pitting corrosion resistance much higher than in other samples.Practical implications: The last feature is the reason to conduct the research for this group of materials as corrosion resistance materials. Especially FeAl intermetallic phase based alloys are objects of research in Poland and all world during last years.Originality/value: The goal of this work was to determine the influence of passivation in water solutions of H2SO4 and HNO3 on corrosion resistance of Fe40Al intermetallic phase based alloy in 3% NaCl solutions.

  2. Direct Ink Writing of Three-Dimensional (K, NaNbO3-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A kind of piezoelectric ink was prepared with Li, Ta, Sb co-doped (K, NaNbO3 (KNN powders. Piezoelectric scaffolds with diameters at micrometer scale were constructed from this ink by using direct ink writing method. According to the micro-morphology and density test, the samples sintered at 1100 °C for 2 h have formed ceramics completely with a high relative density of 98%. X-ray diffraction (XRD test shows that the main phase of sintered samples is orthogonal (Na0.52K0.4425Li0.0375(Nb0.87Sb0.07Ta0.06O3. The piezoelectric constant d33 of 280 pC/N, dielectric constant ε of 1775, remanent polarization Pr of 18.8 μC/cm2 and coercive field Ec of 8.5 kV/cm prove that the sintered samples exhibit good electrical properties. The direct ink writing method allows one to design and rapidly fabricate piezoelectric structures in complex three-dimensional (3D shapes without the need for any dies or lithographic masks, which will simplify the process of material preparation and offer new ideas for the design and application of piezoelectric devices.

  3. Photomultiplier tube calibration based on Na lidar observation and its effect on heat flux bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan Z; Guo, Yafang

    2016-11-20

    Na lidar can measure vertical wind and temperature at high temporal and vertical resolutions, enough to resolve gravity wave perturbations. Heat flux due to dissipating gravity waves is an important quantity that can be derived from such perturbations. When lidar signals are high, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) used to count incoming photons may suffer from the saturation effect, and its output count is not linearly related to incoming photon counts. Corrections to this effect can be measured in a laboratory setting but may have large errors at high count rates. We show that the errors in the PMT correction can cause significant bias in the heat flux calculation due to the inherent correlation between wind and temperature errors. Using the measurements made by Na lidar at the Andes Lidar Observatory with Hamamatsu PMTs, we developed a calibration procedure to remove such PMT correction errors from laboratory measurements. By applying the revised PMT correction curve we demonstrated that the heat flux bias can be removed through this procedure.

  4. Processing and Properties of Porous (K,Na)NbO3-based Lead-free Piezoceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BABA Ryosuke; KARAKI Tomoaki; FUJII Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Porous piezoceramics are of interest for applications such as low frequency hydrophones. Porous (K,Na,Li)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Na)TiO3 lead-free piezoceramics having vertical morphotropic phase boundary composition were fabricated by adding 30μm-diameter acrylic resins. The ceramic powders were synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method and then mixed with the resins. Volume ratios of ceramics to resin were 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. After burning out the resins and binder, the specimens were sintered at 1170–1190℃ for 5 h. The porous specimen with 30 vol% acrylic resin had longitudinal acoustic velocity of 4518 m/s, acoustic impedance of 16.44 Mkg/(m2·s), and hydrostatic figure of merit of 405×10-15 m2/N. The hydrostatic figure of merit was about 4 times of that of mono-lithic ceramics. Compared with monolithic ceramics, the porous specimen had a better transducer sensitivity for under-water applications.

  5. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  6. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  7. Multicolor light emitters based on energy exchange between Tb and Eu ions co-doped into ultrasmall β-NaYF 4 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Podhorodecki, Artur P.

    2012-01-01

    Multicolor emission is reported from ultrasmall (<10 nm) β-NaYF4:Eu,Tb nanocrystals depending on the excitation wavelengths or emission detection delay time. Detailed optical investigations of three samples (NaYF4:Eu, NaYF4:Tb and NaYF4:Eu,Tb) obtained by a co-thermolysis method have been carried out. Photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and emission decay time obtained at different excitation wavelengths have been measured. Excitation mechanisms of Eu and Tb ions have been explained based on the experimental results and calculations using Judd-Ofelt theory. It has been shown that efficient energy transfer from Tb to Eu ions accounts for the efficient red emission of NaYF4:Tb,Eu nanocrystals. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  8. Produção de conhecimento sobre autismo na escola: uma revisão sistemática na base Scielo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelda de Fátima Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar a produção de artigos científicos sobre autismo nas escolas, disponibilizados na base de dados Scielo. Método: os descritores utilizados foram “autismo” combinado com “escola”. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos originais em língua portuguesa; artigos completos publicados em periódicos nacionais; pesquisas de campo no ambiente escolar; e, amostra composta por crianças com autismo. Os dados coletados versam sobre: a revista, o ano de publicação, os objetivos, as estratégias metodológicas e os principais resultados. A busca ocorreu em fevereiro de 2016. Resultados: foram encontrados 21 artigos, sendo que seis atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram selecionados para análise. As publicações ocorreram entre 2007 a 2015, nas Revistas: Psicopedagogia (n=02, Brasileira de Educação Especial (n=02, Educação e Pesquisa (n=01 e Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa (n=01. Os objetivos dos artigos variaram desde avaliação do perfil psicomotor e da competência social entre crianças típicas e atípicas, avaliação da funcionalidade de crianças com autismo, avaliação dos efeitos de programas de intervenção, verificação do preparo de professores de educação inclusiva e descrição do ensino de habilidades matemáticas. Quanto ao delineamento utilizado, há predomínio de pesquisas quantitativas (n=05. As pesquisas se caracterizaram como transversais (n=03 e longitudinais (n=03. Os participantes dos estudos foram indivíduos com autismo e seus pares sem deficiência, crianças sem diagnóstico concluído e professores. Considerações finais: os resultados demonstraram que programas de intervenção são benéficos para os indivíduos com autismo, quanto a psicomotricidade, cognição, linguagem, interações sociais e habilidades matemáticas (adição e subtração. As avaliações indicaram que os indivíduos com autismo têm melhores desempenhos em testes do que muitas vezes a literatura

  9. A model of the high count rate performance of NaI(Tl)-based PET detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wear, J.A.; Karp, J.S.; Freifelder, R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Mankoff, D.A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Muehllehner, G. [UGM Medical Systems, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    A detailed model of the response of large-area NaI(Tl) detectors used in PET and their triggering and data acquisition electronics has been developed. This allows one to examine the limitations of the imaging system`s performance due to degradation in the detector performance from light pile-up and deadtime from triggering and event processing. Comparisons of simulation results to measurements from the HEAD PENN-PET scanner have been performed to validate the Monte Carlo model. The model was then used to predict improvements in the high count rate performance of the HEAD PENN-PET scanner using different signal integration times, light response functions, and detectors.

  10. Water Resistance of Soy Protein Based Adhesives Enhanced by Na-MMT%钠基蒙脱土增强豆胶的耐水性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂成胜; 刘小青; 吴(頔); 王古月; 朱锦

    2012-01-01

    The adhesion strength and water resistance of soy protein based adhesives were enhanced by adding Na-montmorillonite(Na-MMT). The adhesion strength and water resistance were the highest when 1 wt% Na-MMT was added. The adhesion strength and type- Ⅱ wet strength of the poplar plywood were improved by 20.5% and 18.8% respectively. The water resistance mechanism of Na-MMT enhanced soy protein based adhesion was analyzed by using XRD, TEM, FTIR and contact angle.%钠基蒙脱土(Na-MMT)的加入,提高了大豆蛋白胶黏剂的预压性能、粘接强度和耐水性,当Na-MMT的加入量为大豆分离蛋白的1 wt%时,增强效果最好,可以使杨木胶合板的干强度和Ⅱ类湿强度分别提高20.5%和18.8%;利用XRD、TEM、FUR、接触角等分析方法研究了Na-MMT增强豆胶耐水性的机理.

  11. Regulation of branchial V-H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE2 in response to acid and base infusions in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Katoh, Fumi; Fenton, Heather; Jasinska, Edyta; Goss, Greg G

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of branchial acid-base regulation, Pacific spiny dogfish were infused intravenously for 24 h with either HCl (495+/- 79 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or NaHCO(3) (981+/-235 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Infusion of HCl produced a transient reduction in blood pH. Despite continued infusion of acid, pH returned to normal by 12 h. Infusion of NaHCO(3) resulted in a new steady-state acid-base status at approximately 0.3 pH units higher than the controls. Immunostained serial sections of gill revealed the presence of separate vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H(+)-ATPase)-rich or sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase)-rich cells in all fish examined. A minority of the cells also labeled positive for both transporters. Gill cell membranes prepared from NaHCO(3)-infused fish showed significant increases in both V-H(+)-ATPase abundance (300+/-81%) and activity. In addition, we found that V-H(+)-ATPase subcellular localization was mainly cytoplasmic in control and HCl-infused fish, while NaHCO(3)-infused fish demonstrated a distinctly basolateral staining pattern. Western analysis in gill membranes from HCl-infused fish also revealed increased abundance of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 2 (213+/-5%) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (315+/-88%) compared to the control.

  12. Energy-based scatter correction for 3-D PET scanners using NaI(T1) detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, L E; Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    2000-05-01

    Earlier investigations with BGO positron emission tomography (PET) scanners showed that the scatter correction technique based on multiple acquisitions with different energy windows are problematic to implement because of the poor energy resolution of BGO (22%), particularly for whole-body studies. We believe that these methods are likely to work better with NaI(TI) because of the better energy resolution achievable with NaI(TI) detectors (10%). Therefore, we investigate two different choices for the energy window, a low-energy window (LEW) on the Compton spectrum at 400-450 keV, and a high-energy window (HEW) within the photopeak (lower threshold above 511 keV). The results obtained for our three-dimensional (3-D) (septa-less) whole-body scanners [axial field of view (FOV) of 12.8 cm and 25.6 cm] as well as for our 3-D brain scanner (axial FOV of 25.6 cm) show an accurate prediction of the scatter distribution for the estimation of trues method (ETM) using a HEW, leading to a significant reduction of the scatter contamination. The dual-energy window (DEW) technique using a LEW is shown to be intrinsically wrong; in particular, it fails for line source and bar phantom measurements. However, the method is able to produce good results for homogeneous activity distributions. Both methods are easy to implement, are fast, have a low noise propagation, and will be applicable to other PET scanners with good energy resolution and stability, such as hybrid NaI(TI) PET/SPECT dual-head cameras and future PET cameras with GSO or LSO scintillators.

  13. Microstructural evolution in NaNbO{sub 3}-based antiferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hanzheng, E-mail: hug17@psu.edu; Randall, Clive A. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shimizu, Hiroyuki [Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma 370-3347 (Japan)

    2015-11-07

    Our recent study found that CaZrO{sub 3} doping can effectively enhance the antiferroelectric P phase in NaNbO{sub 3} ceramics, leading to a double polarization hysteresis loop characteristic of a reversible antiferroelectric ↔ ferroelectric phase transition [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015)]. Here, a thorough transmission electron microscope study was performed to illustrate the CaZrO{sub 3} doping-assisted antiferroelectricity stabilization. In parallel to the bright-field imaging and selected area electron diffraction from multiple zone axes, detailed dark-field imaging was utilized to determine the superlattice structural origins, from either oxygen octahedral tilting or antiparallel cation displacements. By analogy with Pb(Zr{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} and rare-earth doped BiFeO{sub 3} systems, the chemical substitutions are such as to an induced polar-to-antipolar transition that is consistent with a tolerance factor reduction. The resultant chemical pressure has a similar effect to the compressive hydrostatic pressure where the antiferroelectric state is favored over the ferroelectric state.

  14. Conhecimento de performance com base no Teste do Desempenho Motor do Nado Crawl, na aprendizagem do nado crawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Izabel Katzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos do conhecimento de performance (CP, com base no teste do desempenho motor do nado crawl (TDMND (Corazza et al., 2006, na aprendizagem do nado crawl. Participaram do estudo 41 adultos. Enquanto um grupo recebeu CP após boas tentativas, o outro recebeu CP após as más tentativas. O TDMNC, composto por 29 itens, foi usado para a elaboração das informações de CP, assim como para a constatação dos níveis de aprendizagem. Para ambos os grupos, independentemente do CP fornecido, foi detectada diferença entre o pré e o pós-teste, o que indica sucesso no processo de aprendizagem. No entanto, na comparação entre os pós-testes, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos. A complexidade do teste e a dificuldade dos aprendizes em discriminar entre boas e más tentativas de prática são discutidos.

  15. Phase transition and piezoelectric properties of Nd3+ doped nonstoichiometric (K,Na)NbO3-based lead free ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jie; Tan, Zhi; Jiang, Laiming; Wu, Yangjie; Yue, Yang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiagang; Zhang, Wen; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    0.968[(K0.48Na0.52)]1-3xNdxNb0.95+ySb0.05O3-0.032(Bi0.5Na0.5)ZrO3[KNNdxNb0.95+yS-BNZ] lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared via conventional solid state technique for improving the piezoelectric properties. The influences of Nd3+ with excess Nb5+ on the phase structure, electrical properties, and temperature stability were investigated systematically. The rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary was observed in the ceramics with 0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.004, y ≥ 0.01 at room temperature. Rietveld refinement is performed to explore the phase evolution in ceramics. There is a piezoelectric property enhancement in the ceramic with x = 0.001 y = 0.01: d33 = 414 pC/N, kp ˜ 48%, and TC ˜ 227 °C. All results suggest that KNNdxNb0.95+yS-BNZ ceramics developed in this study are expected to be suitable substitutes for lead-based ceramics.

  16. Magnetic zeolite NaA: synthesis, characterization based on metakaolin and its application for the removal of Cu2+, Pb2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Peng, Shuchuan; Shu, Lin; Chen, Tianhu; Bao, Teng; Frost, Ray L

    2013-06-01

    The optimum parameters for synthesis of zeolite NaA based on metakaolin were investigated according to results of cation exchange capacity and static water adsorption of all synthesis products and selected X-ray diffraction (XRD). Magnetic zeolite NaA was synthesized by adding Fe3O4 in the precursor of zeolite. Zeolite NaA and magnetic zeolite NaA were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD. Magnetic zeolite NaA with different Fe3O4 loadings was prepared and used for removal of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+)). The results show the optimum parameters for synthesis zeolite NaA are SiO2/Al2O3=2.3, Na2O/SiO2=1.4, H2O/Na2O=50, crystallization time 8h, crystallization temperature 95 °C. The addition of Fe3O4 makes the NaA zeolite with good magnetic susceptibility and good magnetic stability regardless of the Fe3O4 loading, confirming the considerable separation efficiency. Additionally, Fe3O4 loading had a little effect on removal of heavy metal by magnetic zeolite, however, the adsorption capacity still reaches 2.3 mmol g(-1) for Cu(2+), Pb(2+) with a removal efficiency of over 95% in spite of 4.7% Fe3O4 loading. This indicates magnetic zeolite can be used to remove metal heavy at least Cu(2+), Pb(2+) from water with metallic contaminants and can be separated easily after a magnetic process.

  17. Na2SO4-based solid electrolytes for SOx sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Schoonman, J.; Toft Sørensen, O.

    1992-01-01

    Na2SO4-based solid electrolytes with compositions Na2SO4 + x mol% Y2 (SO4)3 (x = 0, 3,5,6,9,12,15) and Na2SO4 + y mol% La2(SO4)3 (y = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) were synthesized by solid state reaction. The crystal struCture, phaseS, and, electrical conductivity of these solid electrolytes were studied by XRD......$ + 4 mol% La2(SO4)3 solid solutions exhibit the highest ionic conductivity values (at 400-degrees-C, 1.76 X 10(-2) S cm-1 and 2.95 X 10(-2) S cm-1, respectively) and lowest activation enthalpies (0.38 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively). When x greater-than-or-equal-to 12 or y greater-than-or-equal-to 8...... higher than that of undoped Na2SO4. In the ionic conductivity measurements of Na2SO4 + 4 mol% La2 (SO4)3 + Na2WO4 system, an unusual Arrhenius behaviour has been observed, i.e. the activation enthalpy at higher temperatures being larger than that at lower temperatures. This behaviour is discussed based...

  18. Controle ácido-básico na hipotermia The acid-base management in hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Gomes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O emprego da hipotermia profunda tem se constituído, atualmente, numa Importante estratégia para melhoria da qualidade técnica e resultados em cirurgia cardiovascular. A hipotermia reduz os danos teciduais induzidos pela isquemia por diminuir o metabolismo e preservar os fosfatos energéticos. A regulação do pH tecidual durante a hipotermia é fundamental para a manutenção da homeostasia celular, já que a hipotermia induz alterações desse pH pela mudança provocada na constante de dissociação da água. A questão do melhor manuseio dos gases sangüíneos durante a hipotermia induzida tem sido objeto de controvérsia. Duas abordagens têm sido preconizadas para o manejo das alterações iónicas durante a hipotermia. A regulção pH-stat envolve a manutenção do pH constante de 7,40 em todas as temperaturas com ajustes da PaCO2 e a regulação α-stat permite a variação do pH sangüíneo, que aumenta conforme a diminuição da temperatura e o conteúdo total corpóreo de CO2 é mantido constante. Nesta presente revisão a relação entre pH sangüíneo e intracelular e as alterações iónicas induzidas pela hipotermia são discutidas.Deep hypothermia is a usefull tool to improve technical results in cardiovascular surgery and is nowadays the major strategy used to reduce ischemic injury. Hypothermia reduces metabolism and preserves cellular stores of high-energy phosphates. The regulation of tissue pH during hypothermia is important for cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, hypothermia has important effects on pH by altering the dissociation constant of water and various metabolics intermediates and the question of optimal blood gas management during deliberate hypothermia has been subject of much controversy. Two approaches have been advocated for pH management during hypothermia, the first termed pH strategy, where blood pH is maintained constant at 7,40 at all temperatures with PaCO2 adjustment, and in the second type of

  19. A simulation-based study of the neutron backgrounds for NaI dark matter experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with a significance of 9.2$\\sigma$. Recently, Jonathan Davis claimed that the DAMA modulation may be interpreted on the basis of the neutron scattering events induced by the muons and neutrinos together. We tried to simulate the neutron backgrounds at the Gran Sasso and Yangyang laboratory with and without the polyethylene shielding to quantify the effects of the ambient neutrons on the direct detection experiments based on the crystals.

  20. O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2-based electrode for symmetric sodium ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Kuan; Yang, Jianhua; He, Shiyang

    2016-10-01

    Layered materials Na0.67+3xNi0.33LixTi0.67-xO2 with Li-substitution as x = 0, 0.05 and 0.11 have been synthesized and investigated as "bi-functional" electrodes for symmetric sodium ion cells. The samples with lithium substitution up to 0.11 are confirmed to be a single phase without impurities and introducing lithium into the transition metal layer increases the interlayer space of the layered materials. It is found that O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2 exhibits two electrochemical working windows, 0.4-0.8 V and 3.1-3.75 V, for sodium ion storage. The as-proposed material thus can be employed as both positive and negative electrodes. As positive electrode, it shows a high working voltage of ca. 3.75 V versus Na+/Na and an initial capacity of 91 mAh g-1 with 19% capacity loss after 100 cycles. When utilized as negative electrode, it delivers a low average voltage of ca. 0.65 V versus Na+/Na, along with a reversible capacity of 125 mAh g-1 and 76% capacity retention after 200 cycles. A symmetric full cell based on the O3-type NaNi0·33Li0·11Ti0·56O2 "bi-functional" electrode has been developed. The cell exhibits a high voltage of 3.1 V and an energy density of 100 W h kg-1 based on the total mass of active electrode materials.

  1. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  2. Concept relation extraction using Naïve Bayes classifier for ontology-based question answering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Domain ontology is used as a reliable source of knowledge in information retrieval systems such as question answering systems. Automatic ontology construction is possible by extracting concept relations from unstructured large-scale text. In this paper, we propose a methodology to extract concept relations from unstructured text using a syntactic and semantic probability-based Naïve Bayes classifier. We propose an algorithm to iteratively extract a list of attributes and associations for the given seed concept from which the rough schema is conceptualized. A set of hand-coded dependency parsing pattern rules and a binary decision tree-based rule engine were developed for this purpose. This ontology construction process is initiated through a question answering process. For each new query submitted, the required concept is dynamically constructed, and ontology is updated. The proposed relation extraction method was evaluated using benchmark data sets. The performance of the constructed ontology was evaluated using gold standard evaluation and compared with similar well-performing methods. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach can be used to effectively construct a generic domain ontology with higher accuracy. Furthermore, the ontology construction method was integrated into the question answering framework, which was evaluated using the entailment method.

  3. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  4. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of iron (III)-based phosphates: Na{sub 4}NiFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essehli, Rachid, E-mail: rachid_essehli@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry ' LCSMA' , Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, Po. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Bali, Brahim El [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry ' LCSMA' , Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, Po. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Benmokhtar, Said [LCMS, Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' SIK, Casablanca (Morocco); Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, Postal Code 123 Al Khod, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Manoun, Bouchaib [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Chimie, FST Errachidia, University Moulay Ismail, B.P. 509 Boutalamine, Errachidia (Morocco); Abdalslam, Mouner Ahmed [Materials Science, Technical University Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Ehrenberg, Helmut [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-01-28

    Graphical abstract: A perspective view of the Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} structure along the [0 0 1] direction. Both compounds seem to exibit antiferromagnetic interactions between magnetic entities at low temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Nasicon and Alluaudite compounds, Iron(III)-based phosphates, Crystal structures of Na{sub 4}NiFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. > Magnetism behaviours of Na{sub 4}NiFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. > Antiferromagnetism interactions. > Mossbauer spectroscopy. - Abstract: Crystal structures from two new phosphates Na{sub 4}NiFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (I) and Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Fe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (II) have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound (I) crystallizes in a rhombohedral system (S. G: R-3c, Z = 6, a = 8.7350(9) A, c = 21.643(4) A, R{sub 1} = 0.041, wR{sub 2}=0.120). Compound (II) crystallizes in a monoclinic system (S. G: C2/c, Z = 4, a = 11.729(7) A, b = 12.433(5) A, c = 6.431(2) A, {beta} = 113.66(4){sup o}, R{sub 1} = 0.043, wR{sub 2}=0.111). The three-dimensional structure of (I) is closely related to the Nasicon structural type, consisting of corner sharing [(Ni/Fe)O{sub 6}] octahedra and [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra forming [NiFe(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 4+} units which align in chains along the c-axis. The Na{sup +} cations fill up trigonal antiprismatic sites within these chains. The crystal structure of (II) belongs to the alluaudite type. Its open framework results from [Ni{sub 2}O{sub 10}] units of edge-sharing [NiO{sub 6}] octahedra, which alternate with [FeO{sub 6}] octahedra that form infinite chains. Coordination of these chains yields two distinct tunnels in which site Na{sup +}. The magnetization data of compound (I) reveal antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions by the onset of deviations from a Curie-Weiss behaviour at low temperature as confirmed by Moessbauer measurements performed at 4.2 K. The

  5. Bases de dados de acesso público para pesquisa bibliográfica na área de genética

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este tutorial tem por objetivo orientar a pesquisa em bases de dados de acesso público para alunos do Curso de Especialização em Genética para Professores de Ensino Médio da UFPR, na modalidade à distância. Inclui fontes de acesso público na área de genética bem como orientações de pesquisa para o desenvolvimento de TCC. Dentre as fontes de pesquisa exploradas, destacam-se: PubMed, Scielo, Portal BVS e OMIM, Revista Genética Médica.

  6. Compositional Design of Dielectric, Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Properties of (K, NaNbO3 and (Ba, Na(Ti, NbO3 Based Ceramics Prepared by Different Sintering Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Eiras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead free piezoelectric materials are being intensively investigated in order to substitute lead based ones, commonly used in many different applications. Among the most promising lead-free materials are those with modified NaNbO3, such as (K, NaNbO3 (KNN and (Ba, Na(Ti, NbO3 (BTNN families. From a ceramic processing point of view, high density single phase KNN and BTNN ceramics are very difficult to sinter due to the volatility of the alkaline elements, the narrow sintering temperature range and the anomalous grain growth. In this work, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS and high-energy ball milling (HEBM, following heat treatments (calcining and sintering, in oxidative (O2 atmosphere have been used to prepare single phase highly densified KNN (“pure” and Cu2+ or Li1+ doped, with theoretical densities ρth > 97% and BTNN ceramics (ρth - 90%, respectively. Using BTTN ceramics with a P4mm perovskite-like structure, we showed that by increasing the NaNbO3 content, the ferroelectric properties change from having a relaxor effect to an almost “normal” ferroelectric character, while the tetragonality and grain size increase and the shear piezoelectric coefficients (k15, g15 and d15 improve. For KNN ceramics, the results reveal that the values for remanent polarization as well as for most of the coercive field are quite similar among all compositions. These facts evidenced that Cu2+ may be incorporated into the A and/or B sites of the perovskite structure, having both hardening and softening effects.

  7. Effects of nonmetal doping on electronic structures of NaNbO3 based on hybrid density functional calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifeng; Lan, Benyue; Zhang, Chengliang; Ye, Enjia; Nie, Yanguang; Bian, Baoan

    2016-10-01

    The influences of a series of anion doping on the electronic structures of sodium niobate (NaNbO3) have been systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the hybrid B3LYP functional. As for B(C,P)-doped NaNbO3, the isolated B 2p (C 2p, P 3p) states were formed above the valence band maximum (VBM) of NaNbO3, which were too weak to mix with O 2p states and thus produced band gap narrowing. While the band gap of NaNbO3 was slightly narrowed after F doping. As for S-doped NaNbO3, the S 3p states mixed with O 2p states well and thus reduced the band gap energy. According to the calculation results, we tentatively put forward that S doping would be appropriate for single anion doping NaNbO3, while the B(C,P) elements would be suitable candidates for co-doping NaNbO3.

  8. A High-Resolution TDC-Based Board for a Fully Digital Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreschi, Elena; Angelucci, Bruno; Avanzini, Carlo; Galeotti, Stefano; Lamanna, Gianluca; Magazzu, Guido; Pinzino, Jacopo; Piandani, Roberto; Sozzi, Marco; Spinella, Franco; Venditti, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    A Time to Digital Converter (TDC) based system, to be used for most sub-detectors in the high-flux rare-decay experiment NA62 at CERN SPS, was built as part of the NA62 fully digital Trigger and Data AcQuisition system (TDAQ), in which the TDC Board (TDCB) and a general-purpose motherboard (TEL62) will play a fundamental role. While TDCBs, housing four High Performance Time to Digital Converters (HPTDC), measure hit times from sub-detectors, the motherboard processes and stores them in a buffer, produces trigger primitives from different detectors and extracts only data related to the lowest trigger level decision, once this is taken on the basis of the trigger primitives themselves. The features of the TDCB board developed by the Pisa NA62 group are extensively discussed and performance data is presented in order to show its compliance with the experiment requirements.

  9. A high-resolution TDC-based board for a fully digital trigger and data acquisition system in the NA62 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pedreschi, Elena; Avanzini, Carlo; Galeotti, Stefano; Lamanna, Gianluca; Magazzu, Guido; Pinzino, Jacopo; Piandani, Roberto; Sozzi, Marco; Spinella, Franco; Venditti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    A Time to Digital Converter (TDC) based system, to be used for most sub-detectors in the high-flux rare-decay experiment NA62 at CERN SPS, was built as part of the NA62 fully digital Trigger and Data AcQuisition system (TDAQ), in which the TDC Board (TDCB) and a general-purpose motherboard (TEL62) will play a fundamental role. While TDCBs, housing four High Performance Time to Digital Converters (HPTDC), measure hit times from sub-detectors, the motherboard processes and stores them in a buffer, produces trigger primitives from different detectors and extracts only data related to the lowest trigger level decision, once this is taken on the basis of the trigger primitives themselves. The features of the TDCB board developed by the Pisa NA62 group are extensively discussed and performance data is presented in order to show its compliance with the experiment requirements.

  10. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly Dietas baseadas em proteína de soja para moscas do Mediterrâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Diets containing sugar beet bagase, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagase in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver dietas adequadas e econômicas para a criação massal de moscas de frutas do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae. Foram testados dietas com bagaço de beterraba açucareira, farelo de trigo, levedura de cerveja e outras dietas de farelo de trigo e proteína de soja prensada brasileira. Dietas compostas por proteína de soja apresentaram resultados positivos de recuperação de pupas, pesos de pupa e emergência de adultos. O bagaço de soja, na forma de pellet com 60% de proteína, pode ser um importante substituto de outras fontes de proteína.

  11. Effect of Strong Basic Oxide (Li2O, Na2O, K2O and BaO) on Property of CaO-Based Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-rong

    2003-01-01

    It is found that strong basic oxides including Li2O, Na2O, K2O and BaO, which are used to replace a part of CaO in CaO-based fluxes, can lower the melting point and the viscosity and enhance the dephosphorizing ability. The mechanism was analysed and the addition of Li2O to CaO-based fluxes was recommended.

  12. Dose evaluation based on 24Na activity in the human body at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, T; Tsujimura, N; Tasaki, T; Kanai, K; Kurihara, O; Hayashi, N; Shinohara, K

    2001-09-01

    24Na in the human body, activated by neutrons emitted at the JCO criticality accident, was observed for 62 subjects, where 148 subjects were measured by the whole body counter of JNC Tokai Works. The 148 subjects, including JCO employees and the contractors, residents neighboring the site and emergency service officers, were measured by the whole-body counter. The neutron-energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using neutron transport codes (ANISN and MCNP), and the relation between an amount of activated sodium in human body and neutron dose was evaluated from the calculated neutron energy spectrum and theoretical neutron capture probability by the human body. The maximum 24Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv.

  13. Domain configuration changes under electric field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions in NaNbO{sub 3}-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hanzheng, E-mail: hug17@psu.edu; Randall, Clive A. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youichi [Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma 370-3347 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    We recently developed a feasible crystal chemistry strategy to stabilize the antiferroelectricity in NaNbO{sub 3} through a chemical substitution to decrease the tolerance factor and increase the average electronegativity of the system [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015) and Guo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 214103 (2015)]. Two novel lead-free antiferroelectric (AFE) solid solutions, (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xCaZrO{sub 3} and (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xSrZrO{sub 3}, have been found to exhibit the double polarization hysteresis typical of a reversible AFE ↔ ferroelectric (FE) phase transition. In this study, as demonstrated by (1-x)NaNbO{sub 3}-xCaZrO{sub 3} system, the influence of chemical modification and electrical poling on the AFE/FE phase stability was investigated, primarily focusing on the microstructural and crystallographic evolutions. Together with the macroscopic polarization hysteresis measurements, a well-demonstrated structure-property relationship was presented. It was found that the CaZrO{sub 3} substitution into NaNbO{sub 3} can effectively destabilize the FE Q phase and correspondingly lead to a spontaneous reverting to AFE P phase. In contrast to the reversible AFE ↔ FE phase transition, the domain morphology evolution exhibits irreversible nature with a growing process of the orientational domains after applying electric field. Moreover, a multiple-zone axes electron diffraction map of P and Q phases has been summarized and is believed to be an efficient diagram to determine the AFE/FE nature of the NaNbO{sub 3}-based systems.

  14. Weight-based combination therapy with peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin for Naïve, relapser and non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes Gonçales Jr.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin is considered the new standard therapy for naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of treatment with weight-based peginterferon alpha-2b (1.5 mg/kg per week plus ribavirin (800-1,200 mg/day for 48 weeks in naïve, relapser and non-responder (to previous treatment with interferon plus ribavirin patients with chronic hepatitis C. Sixty-seven naïve, 26 relapser and 40 non-responder patients were enrolled. The overall sustained virological response (SVR for the intention-to-treat population was 54% for naïve, 62% for relapser and 38% for non-responder patients. In the naïve subgroup, SVR was significantly higher in patients with the non-1 genotype (67% compared to those with genotype 1 (45%. In relapsers and non-responders, SVR was, respectively, 69% and 24% in patients with genotype 1 and 43% and 73% in those with genotype non-1. There were no significant differences in SVR rates among the three body weight ranges ( 85 kg in any of the subgroups. Early virological response (EVR was reached by 78%, 81% and 58% of naïve, relapser and non-responder patients, respectively, and among those with EVR, 63%, 67% and 61%, respectively, subsequently achieved SVR. All of the non-responder patients who did not have EVR reached SVR. Treatment was discontinued in 13% of the patients, due to loss to follow-up, hematological abnormalities or depression.

  15. NIVEL DE PROTEÍNA, FIBRA Y CULTIVO DE LEVADURA Saccharomyces cerevisiae EN DIETAS A BASE DE TRIGO PARA CERDOS

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Reynoso-González; Miguel Cervantes-Ramírez; J. Luis Figueroa-Velasco; Adriana Morales-Trejo; Alfonso Araiza-Piña; Jorge Yáñez-Hernández

    2010-01-01

    La reducción en el contenido de proteína y la inclusión de salvado de trigo en la dieta mejora el perfil de aminoácidos (AA) pero incrementa el contenido de fibra. Al respecto, los cultivos de levadura pueden aumentar la digestión de la fibra. Por tanto, se realizaron tres experimentos para evaluar el efecto de cultivos de levaduras (CL) en dietas con un nivel de proteína cruda estándar (DEPC) o bajo (DBPC), sin o con AA libres, para cerdos (Landrace-Hampshire-Durc) en crecimiento-finalizació...

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance.

  17. Surface-Based Regional Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous volume-based regional homogeneity (ReHo studies neglected the intersubject variability in cortical folding patterns. Recently, surface-based ReHo was developed to reduce the intersubject variability and to increase statistical power. The present study used this novel surface-based ReHo approach to explore the brain functional activity differences between first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Thirty-three first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 32 healthy controls participated in structural and resting-state fMRI scans. MDD patients were rated with a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression prior to the scan. Results. In comparison with the healthy controls, MDD patients showed reduced surface-based ReHo in the left insula. There was no increase in surface-based ReHo in MDD patients. The surface-based ReHo value in the left insula was not significantly correlated with the clinical information or the depressive scores in the MDD group. Conclusions. The decreased surface-based ReHo in the left insula in MDD may lead to the abnormal top-down cortical-limbic regulation of emotional and cognitive information. The surface-based ReHo may be a useful index to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of MDD.

  18. GESTÃO DE RISCOS: ANÁLISE DA EVIDENCIAÇÃO DE RISCOS NAS CONCESSIONÁRIAS DE RODOVIAS LISTADAS NA BOVESPA COM BASE NA METODOLOGIA COSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Baú Dal Magro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As concessionárias de rodovias assinam contratos de concessão com o setor público e investem em infraestrutura que, ao término do contrato, retorna ao poder público. Assim, as empresas do setor ficam expostas a riscos que devem ser identificados e evidenciados. Desta forma, o objetivo do estudo é identificar os riscos divulgados e analisar o conteúdo de evidenciação da gestão de riscos nas concessionárias de rodovias listadas na Bovespa com base na metodologia COSO. A pesquisa se classifica como descritiva, análise documental e com abordagem qualitativa. A amostra da pesquisa é composta pelas16 empresas listadas no segmento de exploração de rodovias da Bovespa. Os resultados indicam que os riscos mais evidenciados pelas empresas do segmento de exploração de rodovias são os relacionados ao mercado. Conclui-se que os riscos divulgados pelas empresas seguem uma uniformidade (isomorfismo mimético no que se refere à evidenciação e ao conteúdo.

  19. Luminescence resonance energy transfer based on β-NaYF_4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and TRITC dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN LingDong; GU JianQin; ZHANG ShuZhuo; ZHANG YaWen; YAN ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    β-NaYF_4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most efficient upconversion materials, which can convert near-infrared light to higher-energy light through multiple photon absorptions or energy transfer. In addition, they may be attractive alternative donors for luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) studies, because of their sharp absorption and emission profiles, high quantum yields, large anti-stokes shifts, long lifetime, low toxicity, and superior photo-stability. In principle, many problems of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), such as excitation of acceptors, emission overlaps between donors and acceptors, high background noise, potential toxicity, and instability, can be overcome using β-NaYF_4:Yb,Er NPs as energy donors. Because the organic coating induced separation can significantly reduce the energy transfer efficiency and aqueous FRET system is difficult to be applied in devices, we demonstrate a novel NP-dye LRET system in solid state. The emission of the β-NaYF_4:Yb,Er NPs at 539 nm overlaps with the absorption of the tetrametrylrhodarnine isothiocyante (TRITC), satisfying the requirement of LRET process. Since TRITC molecules are adsorbed on the β-NaYF_4:Yb,Er NPs by an electrostatic interaction, the interaction distance is suitable for LRET without any further modulation. The resultant solid LRET system is ready for the further applications for devices.

  20. Luminescence resonance energy transfer based on β-NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and TRITC dye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    β-NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most efficient upconversion materials, which can convert near-infrared light to higher-energy light through multiple photon absorptions or energy transfer. In addition, they may be attractive alternative donors for luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) studies, because of their sharp absorption and emission profiles, high quantum yields, large anti-stokes shifts, long lifetime, low toxicity, and superior photo-stability. In principle, many problems of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), such as excitation of acceptors, emission overlaps between donors and acceptors, high background noise, potential toxicity, and instability, can be overcome using β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs as energy donors. Because the organic coating induced separation can significantly reduce the energy transfer efficiency and aqueous FRET system is difficult to be applied in devices, we demonstrate a novel NP-dye LRET system in solid state. The emission of the β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs at 539 nm overlaps with the absorption of the tetrametrylrhodarnine isothiocyante (TRITC), satisfying the requirement of LRET process. Since TRITC molecules are adsorbed on the β-NaYF4:Yb,Er NPs by an electrostatic interaction, the interaction distance is suitable for LRET without any further modulation. The resultant solid LRET system is ready for the further applications for devices.

  1. Efeitos de diferentes tratamentos a plasma e de variações na coleta, preparo e pré-condicionamento com saliva na adesão de Candida a uma resina para a base de prótese

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A adesão de Candida às superfícies protéticas é o passo inicial para ocorrência da estomatite protética. Entre os diversos fatores envolvidos na adesão de Candida spp. às superfícies poliméricas estão as interações hidrofóbicas e eletrostáticas, a rugosidade superficial e a película salivar. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram: investigar o potencial de diferentes tratamentos a plasma (Ar/50W; ArO2/70W; AAt/130W; ArSF6/70W) de modificar uma resina acrílica para base de prótese (VIPIWAVE) p...

  2. Exigência de Lisina para Machos Castrados de Dois Grupos Genéticos de Suínos na Fase de Terminação, com Base no Conceito de Proteína Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para determinar as exigências de lisina de machos castrados, em fase de terminação, de dois grupos genéticos de suínos, com base no conceito de proteína ideal. Foram utilizados 16 suínos do grupo genético comum (GGC e 16 suínos do grupo genético melhorado (GGM, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos que consistiram de uma ração basal, à base de milho e farelo de soja, contendo 0,60% de lisina e outras três rações, acrescentando-se níveis crescentes de lisina para se obter 0,75, 0,90 e 1,05% de lisina total na ração. Adicionaram-se aminoácidos sintéticos (L-Lisina HCl, DL-metionina, L-treonina e L-triptofano, para manter os níveis de aminoácidos, de acordo com o perfil de proteína ideal. Foi feita a determinação das concentrações de nitrogênio da uréia plasmática (NUP. Fez-se a medição de características de carcaça in vivo, utilizando um aparelho de ultra-som Sono Grader e, ao final do período experimental, 12 animais de cada grupo genético foram abatidos e suas carcaças avaliadas, de acordo com o Método Brasileiro de Classificação de Carcaça. Não foi observado efeito (P>0,05 dos níveis de lisina sobre o NUP para os grupos genéticos. Para suínos do GGM em fase de terminação (53 a 92 kg de PV, a exigência de lisina total é superior a l,05%, enquanto, para o GGC (50 a 90 kg de PV, é de 0,60% de lisina total.

  3. Algoritmo de classificação de especialistas em áreas na base de currículos Lattes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe de Melo Chagas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo para construir um ranking de especialistas na base de currículos Lattes. Para isto, foi elaborado um algoritmo composto por três estágios de processamento: Score Alfa, que analisa os títulos dos documentos baseado na ontologia definida para selecionar os assuntos e importâncias destes assuntos para cada publicação; Score Beta, que analisa a qualidade das publicações utilizando conceitos definidos pela CAPES para beneficiar produções publicadas em veículos mais importantes; e Score Propagated, que analisa a importância de estar bem conectado a demais pesquisadores especialistas propagando o conhecimento obtido. Para o teste de precisão do algoritmo, utilizaram-se dados reais da área de Nanotecnologia.

  4. A novel temperature-gradient Na±β-alumina solid electrolyte based SOx gas sensor without gaseous reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Bleek, C.M. Van den; Schoonman, J.

    1992-01-01

    electrodes. The EMF of this so-called TGNB (Temperature Gradient Na+-beta"-alumina) SOx sensor is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. The consistence of the experimental results with the theoretical values and the simple construction of this type of SOx sensor indicate its potential......An electrochemical SOx ps sensor with a tubular Na+-beta"-alumina solid electrolyte has been fabricated and tested under non-isothermal conditions. The temperature difference between the reference and working electrode of the sensor cell is about 100-degrees-C, which causes a serious deviation...... of the experimental EMF response from the value as calculated using the Nernst equation for an isothermal system. The experimental results are Consistent with the theoretical prediction for a non-isothermal system. The response time is usually less then 10 min. SEM and EDX have been employed to investigate the sensor...

  5. Mecanismos celulares de la adicción a la cocaína: base para un tratamiento medicamentoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Trelles

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Luego de una rápida revisión de la farmacología de la cocaína se exponen los signos y síntomas de la adicción y de la abstinencia a la droga. La explicación neurofisiológica de ambos mecanismos se revisa y a su luz se expone una terapia.

  6. Caroço de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas leiteiras: síntese de proteína microbiana Whole cottonseed in forage cactus based diets: synthesis of microbial protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon Aparecido Silva de Melo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de caroço de algodão em substituição parcial à silagem de sorgo e ao farelo de soja em dietas à base de palma forrageira sobre a produção de proteína microbiana, a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana e as concentrações de uréia na urina e de uréia e N-uréia no plasma e no leite de vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram utilizados cinco animais aos 50 dias de lactação, distribuídos em quadrado latino 5 × 5. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis (0,0; 6,25; 12,50; 18,75 e 25,00% de inclusão de caroço de algodão na MS da dieta. A inclusão de caroço de algodão na dieta não influenciou a síntese de nitrogênio ou proteína microbiana, cujos valores médios foram 295,08 e 1.844,27 g/dia, respectivamente. As eficiências de síntese de nitrogênio e proteína microbiana diminuíram linearmente, em proporções de 0,30 e 1,43 g para cada 1% de caroço de algodão na dieta, respectivamente. Os níveis de uréia na urina e de uréia e N-uréia no plasma e no leite não foram afetados pela inclusão de caroço de algodão na dieta. Portanto, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, a inclusão de caroço de algodão em níveis de até 25% da MS não interfere na síntese de proteína microbiana e nas concentrações de uréia.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of sorghum silage and soybean meal with whole cottonseed on microbial protein synthesis and efficiency and nitrogen metabolism in lactating Holstein cows receiving forage cactus based diets. Five animals were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0.0, 6.25, 12.50, 18.75, and 25.00% of whole cottonseed. Inclusion of whole cottonseed in the diet did not affect microbial nitrogen and microbial protein synthesis, which averaged 295.08 and 1844.27 g/day, respectively. Microbial protein synthesis and microbial nitrogen

  7. Theoretical characterization of quaternary iridium based hydrides NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouras, S. [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Ghebouli, B., E-mail: bghebouli@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Benkerri, M. [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Ghebouli, M.A., E-mail: med.amineghebouli@yahoo.fr [Microelectronic Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bachir Ibrahimi, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Research Unit on Emerging Materials (RUEM), University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Choutri, H. [Microelectronic Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bachir Ibrahimi, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Louail, L.; Chihi, T.; Fatmi, M. [Research Unit on Emerging Materials (RUEM), University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and Their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Khenata, R.; Khachai, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria)

    2015-01-15

    The quaternary iridium based hydrides NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) are promising candidates as hydrogen storage materials. We have studied the structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) within the generalized gradient approximation, the local density approximation (LDA) and mBj in the frame of density functional perturbation theory. These alloys have a large indirect Γ–X band gap. The thermodynamic functions were computed using the phonon density of states. The origin of the possible transitions from valence band to conduction band was illustrated. By using the complex dielectric function, the optical properties such as absorption, reflectivity, loss function, refractive index and optical conductivity have been obtained. - Graphical abstract: Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, the absorption spectrum α(ω), reflectivity R(ω) and energy-loss spectrum L(ω). - Highlights: • NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) alloys have been investigated. • The elastic moduli, energy gaps are predicted. • The optical and thermal properties were studied.

  8. A Gestão da Qualidade em Serviços de Informação com base na ISO 9000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Martin Valls

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aborda a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade em Serviços de Informação com base nas normas da série ISO 9000, a partir de ampla revisão de literatura nacional e internacional, desde o início de sua incidência na literatura especializada até os dias atuais. São apresentados e discutidos os principais benefícios, críticas e dificuldades da implantação deste tipo de modelo, traçando um panorama do tema, com o objetivo de apoiar os gestores de Serviços de Informação na sua compreensão e entendimento, contribuindo para a consolidação da Gestão da Qualidade na área de administração de Serviços de Informação.

  9. Improvement of corrosion resistance in NaOH solution and glass forming ability of as-cast Mg-based bulk metallic glasses by microalloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the addition of Ag on the glass forming ability (GFA and corrosion behavior were investigated in the Mg-Ni-based alloy system by X-ray diffraction (XRD and electrochemical polarization in 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Results shows that the GFA of the Mg-Ni-based BMGs can be improved dramatically by the addition of an appropriate amount of Ag; and the addition element Ag can improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass. The large difference in atomic size and large negative mixing enthalpy in alloy system can contribute to the high GFA. The addition element Ag improves the forming speed and the stability of the passive film, which is helpful to decrease the passivation current density and to improve the corrosion resistance of Mg-Ni-based bulk metallic glass.

  10. Magnetic/upconversion fluorescent NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticle-based dual-modal molecular probes for imaging tiny tumors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Gao, Zhenyu; Zeng, Jianfeng; Hou, Yi; Fang, Fang; Li, Yilin; Qiao, Ruirui; Shen, Lin; Lei, Hao; Yang, Wensheng; Gao, Mingyuan

    2013-08-27

    Detection of early malignant tumors remains clinically difficult; developing ultrasensitive imaging agents is therefore highly demanded. Owing to the unusual magnetic and optical properties associated with f-electrons, rare-earth elements are very suitable for creating functional materials potentially useful for tumor imaging. Nanometer-sized particles offer such a platform with which versatile unique properties of the rare-earth elements can be integrated. Yet the development of rare-earth nanoparticle-based tumor probes suitable for imaging tiny tumors in vivo remains difficult, which challenges not only the physical properties of the nanoparticles but also the rationality of the probe design. Here we report new approaches for size control synthesis of magnetic/upconversion fluorescent NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals and their applications for imaging tiny tumors in vivo. By independently varying F(-):Ln(3+) and Na(+):Ln(3+) ratios, the size and shape regulation mechanisms were investigated. By replacing the oleic acid ligand with PEG2000 bearing a maleimide group at one end and two phosphate groups at the other end, PEGylated NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with optimized size and upconversion fluorescence were obtained. Accordingly, a dual-modality molecular tumor probe was prepared, as a proof of concept, by covalently attaching antitumor antibody to PEGylated NaGdF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles through a "click" reaction. Systematic investigations on tumor detections, through magnetic resonance imaging and upconversion fluorescence imaging, were carried out to image intraperitoneal tumors and subcutaneous tumors in vivo. Owing to the excellent properties of the molecular probes, tumors smaller than 2 mm was successfully imaged in vivo. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies on differently sized particles were performed to disclose the particle size dependent biodistributions and elimination pathways.

  11. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D; Damkier, Helle H

    2013-10-22

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na(+) dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed.

  12. Influência da sacarose e do corte da base da haste na longevidade de inflorescências de Zinnia elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Tânia Forster

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Flores de zínia (Zinnia elegans Jacq. são adaptadas às condições climáticas da Região Sudeste do País, com excelente potencial para a comercialização como flor de corte. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da sacarose aplicada na forma de solução de condicionamento, e do corte periódico da base das hastes sobre a longevidade e absorção de água pelas flores. Hastes florais uniformizadas em tamanho foram submetidas ao condicionamento, por seis horas, com sacarose a 5, 10, 15 e 20% ou com soluções de 10% de sacarose por 0, 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas, com ou sem cortes periódicos na base das hastes a cada 48 horas. O tratamento das flores por seis horas com sacarose a 5, 10, 15 ou 20% não afetou a longevidade das flores, comparado àquelas mantidas somente com água destilada. O corte periódico da base das hastes promoveu melhor suprimento de água às flores, estendendo a longevidade. O condicionamento das flores com 10% de sacarose por 18 ou 24 horas acelerou a senescência das flores em vaso. A taxa de produção de etileno foi inibida pelo aumento da concentração de sacarose na solução de condicionamento.

  13. 10BaF2∶NaF, Na3AlF6/TiO2 composite as a novel visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on upconversion emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu En-Zhou; Fan Jun; Hu Xiao-Yun; Hou Wen-Qian; Dai Hong-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    A rare-earth free upconversion luminescent material,10BaF2∶NaF,Na3AlF6,is synthesized by a hydrothermal method.The study of fluorescent spectrum indicates that it can convert visible light (550 nm-610 nm) into ultraviolet light (290 nm-350 nm),and two emission peaks at 304 nm and 324 nm are observed under the excitation of 583 nm at room temperature.Subsequently,10BaF2∶NaF,Na3AlF6/TiO2 composite photocatalyst is prepared and its catalyticactivity is evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under visible light irradiation (λ > 515 nm).The resultsshow that 10BaF2∶NaF,Na3AlF6/TiO2 is a more effective photocatalyst for CO2 reduction than pure TiO2,their corresponding methanol yields are 179 and 0 μmol/g-cat under the same conditions.Additionally,the mechanism of photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on 10BaF2∶NaF,Na3A1F6/TiO2 is proposed.

  14. Hiperintensidade de sinal em T1 dos núcleos da base: relato de caso na encefalopatia portal sistêmica esquistossomótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO JÚNIOR MARCOS ALBERTO DA COSTA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma paciente portadora de esquistossomose mansônica com encefalopatia portal sistêmica, associada a elevada intensidade de sinal em T1 ao nível dos núcleos da base, devido a deposição de manganês, decorrente da presença de colaterais porto-sistêmicos. Ressaltamos os achados radiológicos por ressonância magnética e fazemos revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema. Desconhecemos relato de tal associação na bibliografia.

  15. O Estado no sistema sociometabólico do capital: uma relação de complementaridade na base material

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cristine [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa consiste em compreender o papel do Estado moderno no interior do sistema sociometabólico do capital de acordo com a análise de István Mészáros, observando a relação de complementaridade que assenta o Estado como parte constitutiva da base material. Partimos da hipótese de que a relação de complementaridade estabelecida entre Estado e sistema do capital é ancorada na existência do Estado como estrutura de comando político, que articula sua própria superestrutura legal...

  16. Todos duros: los hijos del neoliberalismo : Afectos y corporalidad en el consumo de pasta base de cocaína en jóvenes de sectores populares

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzone, Daiana

    2015-01-01

    En el marco del Doctorado en Comunicación nos proponemos investigarla experiencia del cuerpo en la cultura contemporánea en contextos de exclusión desde una dimensión simbólico afectiva, a partir del caso de los jóvenes de sectores populares consumidores de pasta base de cocaína. Esta pregunta se sitúa en un contexto donde podemos reconocer una vuelta a los grandes interrogantes que plantean una mirada totalizante sobre los entramados sociales, revisando las articulaciones –no sin conflictos-...

  17. Highly sensitive fluorescent probe for clenbuterol hydrochloride detection based on its catalytic oxidation of eosine Y by NaIO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Liu, Zhen-bo; Huang, Qitong; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    A highly sensitive fluorescent probe for clenbuterol hydrochloride (CLB) detection has been first designed based on its catalytic effect on NaIO4 oxidating eosine Y (R). And this environment-friendly, simple, rapid, selective and sensitive fluorescent probe has been utilized to detect CLB in the practical samples with the results consisting with those obtained by GC/MS. The structures of R and CLB were characterized by infrared spectra. The mechanism of the proposed assay for the detection of CLB was also discussed.

  18. A aprendizagem por projecto na formação de educadores = Project-based learning in teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Na sequência da adaptação dos cursos de formação de professores, em Portugal, ao Processo de Bolonha, foi recentemente criada a Licenciatura em Educação Básica. A novidade que este curso constitui face ao esquema de formação tradicional requer: (i a clarificação do que se entende por "educação básica" e do perfil profissional que lhe é adequado; (ii a implementação de estratégias de formação que potenciem o desenvolvimento de uma competência educativa que se crê fundamental neste perfil. Na Universidade de Aveiro, a metodologia de projecto foi assumida como uma estratégia de formação adequada a este objectivo, ainda que tenha que ser adaptada aos constrangimentos legais a que a concepção do currículo deste curso esteve sujeita

  19. Protective Properties of High Temperature Oxide Films on Ni-based Superalloys in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of high temperature oxide film formed on the sputtered microcrystalline coating of M38 alloy (mc-M38) were investigated by potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution. Mott-Schottky analysis was used to study the semi-conductive properties of the surface oxide. The results of the capacitance measurements showed that the oxide films on both the coating and the cast alloy were p-type semiconducting characteristics. Both the carrier density (Na)and the flat band potential (Efb) were obviously frequency-dependent, and the optimal frequency range was from 1000 to 1500 Hz. The oxidized coating exhibited higher protectivity than the oxidized cast alloy due to the lower carrier density compared with that of the oxidized cast alloy. The EIS data of the long-term immersing tests suggested that the oxide film served as an inner-barrier layer against chloride ions. The penetration of the aggressive ions into the surface oxide resulted in the decreased polarization resistance as a function of the immersion time.

  20. Comparison of two position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on continuous YAP and pixellated NaI(TI) for nuclear medical imaging applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) coupled to scintillation crystals, have been used for the construction of compact gamma-ray imaging systems, suitable for nuclear medical imaging applications such as small animal imaging and single organ imaging and scintimammography. In this work, the performance of two gamma-ray detectors: a continuous YAP scintillation crystal coupled to a Hamamastu R2486 PSPMT and a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal coupled to the same PSPMT, is compared. The results show that the gamma-ray detector based on a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal is a promising candidate for nuclear medical imaging applications,since their performance in terms of position linearity, spatial resolution and effective field of view (FOV) is superior than that of the gamma-ray detector based on a continuous YAP scintillation crystal. However, a better photodetector (Hamamatau H8500 Flat Panel PMT, for example) coupled to the continuous crystal is also likely a good selection for nuclear medicine imaging applications.

  1. Temperature dependent structures and properties of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead free piezoelectric composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Sun, Lei; Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-07-05

    The thermal depolarization around 100 °C of the Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based piezoelectric solid solutions leads to the disappearance of macroscopic ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and remains a long-standing obstacle for their actual applications. In this communication, we report lead-free piezoelectric composites of 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3:0.5ZnO (BNT-6BT:0.5ZnO, where 0.5 is the mole ratio of ZnO to BNT-6BT) with deferred thermal depolarization, which is experimentally confirmed by systematic temperature dependent dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric measurements. Especially, based on temperature dependent X-ray diffraction measurements on unpoled and poled samples, thermal depolarization is confirmed to have no relationship with the structural phase transition, the possible mechanism for the deferred thermal depolarization is correlated with the ZnO-induced local electric field which can suppress the depolarization field. We believe our results may be helpful for understanding the origin of thermal depolarization in BNT-based piezoelectric materials, and thus provide an effective way to overcoming this obstacle.

  2. Comparison of two position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on continuous YAP and pixellated NaI(TI) for nuclear medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Ma, Hong-Guang; Ma, Wen-Yan; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Zhao-Min; Xu, Zi-Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Dedicated position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) coupled to scintillation crystals, have been used for the construction of compact gamma-ray imaging systems, suitable for nuclear medical imaging applications such as small animal imaging and single organ imaging and scintimammography. In this work, the performance of two gamma-ray detectors: a continuous YAP scintillation crystal coupled to a Hamamastu R2486 PSPMT and a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal coupled to the same PSPMT, is compared. The results show that the gamma-ray detector based on a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal is a promising candidate for nuclear medical imaging applications, since their performance in terms of position linearity, spatial resolution and effective field of view (FOV) is superior than that of the gamma-ray detector based on a continuous YAP scintillation crystal. However, a better photodetector (Hamamatau H8500 Flat Panel PMT, for example) coupled to the continuous crystal is also likely a good selection for nuclear medicine imaging applications. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (10275063)

  3. Highly sensitive and selective cartap nanosensor based on luminescence resonance energy transfer between NaYF4:Yb,Ho nanocrystals and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Wu, Lina; Shen, Baozhong; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2013-09-30

    Fluorescent detection is an attractive method for the detection of toxic chemicals. However, most chemosensors that are currently utilized in fluorescent detection are based on organic dyes or quantum dots, which suffer from instability, high background noise and interference from organic impurities in solution, which can also be excited by UV radiation. In the present research, we developed a novel NaYF4:Yb,Ho/Au nanocomposite-based chemosensor with high sensitivity (10 ppb) and selectivity over competing analytes for the detection of the insecticide cartap. This nanosensor is excited with a 970-nm laser instead of UV radiation to give an emission peak at 541 nm. In the presence of cartap, the nanocomposites aggregate, resulting in enhanced luminescence resonance energy transfer between the NaYF4:Yb,Ho nanocrystals and the gold nanoparticles, which decreases the emission intensity at 541 nm. The relative luminescence intensity at 541 nm has a linear relationship with the concentration of cartap in the solution. Based on this behavior, the developed nanosensor successfully detected cartap in farm produce and water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Synthesis and luminescent features of NaCaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} green phosphor for near UV-based LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnam, B.V. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jayasimhadri, M., E-mail: jayaphysics@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110 042 (India); Bhaskar Kumar, G. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kiwan, E-mail: kwjang@changwon.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.I.; Lim, J.M.; Shin, D.S. [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Song, T.K. [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: ► Successfully synthesized orthorhombic phase of NaCaPO{sub 4} (NCP) phosphors ► Structural and Luminescent properties have been investigated. ► In the excitation spectrum, {sup 7}F{sub 6}→{sup 5}G{sub 6} transition at 370 nm exhibit highest intensity. ► CIE coordinates of Tb{sup 3+}: NCP phosphor indicate green light emission in CIE diagram. ► Hence, Tb{sup 3+} doped NaCaPO{sub 4} is suitable for UV based pc-LEDs. -- Abstract: An efficient green emitting Tb{sup 3+} doped NaCaPO{sub 4} (NCP) phosphor was synthesized by using conventional solid-state reaction for solid-state lighting applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), FT-IR, emission and excitation properties were extensively investigated for NCP phosphors. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of NaCaPO{sub 4} with orthorhombic structure. The excitation spectrum consists of strong 4f–4f transition at around 370 nm, which has higher intensity than the f–d transition. Emission spectra indicated that this phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV light in the range from 250 to 400 nm, and shows strong emission band centered at 547 nm. Analysis of the emission spectra with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations revealed that the optimum dopant concentration for these NCP phosphors is about 5 mol% of Tb{sup 3+}. Diminishing of {sup 5}D{sub 3} level and increasing of {sup 5}D{sub 4} level emission intensity with the Tb{sup 3+} concentration explained successfully. The emission color was analyzed and confirmed with the help of chromaticity coordinates and color temperature. The excellent luminescent properties of NaCaPO{sub 4}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphor makes it as a potential green phosphor upon near-UV LED excitation.

  5. Efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Yawen; Zhang, Guanjun; Li, Na; Zhu, Qianqian; Chang, Hongyun; Han, Qunying; Lv, Yi; Liu, Zhengwen

    2014-08-01

    Sofosbuvir, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor, is a new direct-acting antiviral for chronic HCV infection. This systematic review and proportional meta-analysis examined the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapy for chronic HCV infection in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Medline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Clinical trials examining sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (RBV) and pegylated interferon-α (peg-IFN) or sofosbuvir plus RBV among adults with chronic HCV infection were included. Data were extracted on virological responses including sustained virological response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12), relapse, treatment discontinuation due to an adverse event (AE), virological breakthrough during treatment, and AEs. One trial and 13 treatment arms/cohorts from seven studies met the criteria for analysis in treatment-naïve patients who were treated with sofosbuvir, RBV and peg-IFN; the SVR12 was 89% (95% CI 85-92%), relapse was 5% and the serious adverse event (SAE) rate was 4%. Six treatment arms/cohorts met the criteria for analysis in treatment-naïve patients who were treated with sofosbuvir and RBV; the SVR12 was 72% (95% CI 60-81%), relapse was 27% and the SAE rate was 3%. Three treatment arms/cohorts met the criteria for analysis in treatment-experienced patients who were treated with sofosbuvir and RBV; the SVR12 was 51% (95% CI 27-75%), relapse was 46% and the SAE rate was 4%. In conclusion, sofosbuvir-based treatment is effective and safe in treating chronic HCV infection, although the SVR12 of its combination with RBV, especially in treatment-experienced patients, requires improvement.

  6. Initial isotopic geochemistry ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) of fluids from wells of the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field; Geoquimica isotopica ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) inicial de fluidos de pozos del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Ramirez Montes, Miguel; Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Isotopic data ({delta} 18 O, {delta} D) from fluids from production wells at the Los Humeros, Pue., geothermal field were analyzed to investigate the possible origin of these fluids and the dominant processes of the reservoir at its initial state. According to pre-exploitation data, it is suggested the Los Humeros reservoir fluids are made of a mixture of meteoric water of very light isotopic composition (paleo-fluids) and andesitic water. The relationship {delta} D vs {delta} 18 O from pre-exploitation data indicates the produced fluids are composed of a mixture of (at least) two fluids with distinct isotopic compositions. At the more enriched end of the mixing relationship are the isotopic compositions of the wells H-23 and H-18 (located in the southern area of the field), while the lighter fluids were found in well H-16 (originally) and then in well H-16 (repaired). It was found that the liquid phases of deep wells are more enriched in {delta} 18 O while the shallow wells present lower values, suggesting a convection process at the initial state. Based on this isotopic profile, it is considered that even the production depths of the wells H-1, H-12 and H-16 (repaired) are just about the same, but their respective isotopic compositions are quite different. The {delta} 18 O value for well H-16 (repaired) seems to be that of condensate steam, while the corresponding values for wells H-1 and H-12 fall within the value interval of the deep wells (H-23). This suggests wells H-1 and H-12 are collecting very deep fluids enriched in {delta} 18 O. These results could be useful in creating a conceptual model of the reservoir. [Spanish] Se analizaron datos isotopicos ({delta}18 O, {delta}D) de los fluidos de pozos productores del campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Pue., para investigar el posible origen de los fluidos asi como los procesos dominantes del yacimiento en su estado inicial. De acuerdo con datos previos a la explotacion, se plantea que los fluidos del yacimiento

  7. Solidification of ion exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions: Comparison of matrices based on Portland and blast furnace slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, E.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Stefan, L.; Le Bescop, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the conditioning of ion exchange resins used to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Calcium silicate cements may have a good potential to encapsulate spent resins. However, certain combinations of cement and resins produce a strong expansion of the final product, possibly leading to its full disintegration. The focus is placed on the understanding of the behaviour of cationic resins in the Na+ form in Portland or blast furnace slag (CEM III/C) cement pastes. During hydration of the Portland cement paste, the pore solution exhibits a decrease in its osmotic pressure, which causes a transient expansion of small magnitude of the resins. At 20 °C, this expansion takes place just after setting in a poorly consolidated material and is sufficient to induce cracks. In the CEM III/C paste, swelling of the resins also occurs, but before the end of setting, and induces limited stress in the matrix which is still plastic.

  8. Zr and Sn substituted (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 -based solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Gusakova, L. G.; Kisel, N. G.; Kuzenko, D. V.; Spiridonov, N. A.; Sobolev, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The paper attempts to investigate the phase formation of a Zr- and Sn-substituted [(Na0.5Bi0.5)0.80Ba0.20](Ti1-yBy)O3 system during its solid state synthesis. The synthesis was found to be a multi-step process associated with the formation of a number of intermediate phases which however depended on the compositions and sintering temperatures. Single phase solid solutions were obtained when the sintering temperature was increased to 1000 °C-1100 °C. Increase in the concentration of substituting ions, on the one hand, tends to linearly increase the crystal cell size whereas the tolerance factor, on the other hand, gets reduced bolstering the stability of anti-ferroelectric phase as compared to that of ferroelectric phase’.

  9. Design of wireless location node based on NA5TR1%基于NA5TR1的无线定位节点的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷战垒; 何诚; 宁月松

    2011-01-01

    提出了基于对称双边两路测距(SDS-TWR)机制的无线定位节点设计方案.定位节点采用NA5TR1为无线定位节点的核心器件,该器件内部集成了具有双边两路测距功能的模块和2.45 GHz ISM RF收发器,利用ATmega644v单片机为控制器,完成无线定位节点的整体设计,并给出无线定位节点电路原理图.节点通过测量不同基站间数据延迟时间差,实时计算出基站间的距离,经上位机对距离数据的处理,实现对目标的定位.测试结果表明,定位节点测距精度高.通信最远距离达600m.%This paper proposed a solution for wireless location node based on Symmetrical Double-side Two-Way Ranging.NA5TRI is used as the kernel part of the location node,the device integrates the module of Double-side-Two-Way and 2.45GHz 1SM RF transceiver and ATmega644v is used as a microcontroller to control the RF chip through the SPI pert. The node is finished and the circuit diagram is presented. A system design scheme of the location is put forward in this paper.The node tests the distance data through the difference of time delay, the host computes the data and gets the location. The results of the location nodes test show that the location node has high ranging ability and the communication distance reaches six hundred meters.

  10. Investigation and optimisation of mobile NaI(Tl) and {sup 3}He-based neutron detectors for finding point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Jonas M.C., E-mail: jonas.nilsson@med.lu.se; Finck, Robert R.; Rääf, Christopher

    2015-06-21

    Neutron radiation produces high-energy gamma radiation through (n,γ) reactions in matter. This can be used to detect neutron sources indirectly using gamma spectrometers. The sensitivity of a gamma spectrometer to neutrons can be amplified by surrounding it with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The hydrogen in the PVC acts as a moderator and the chlorine emits prompt gammas when a neutron is captured. A 4.7-l {sup 3}He-based mobile neutron detector was compared to a 4-l NaI(Tl)-detector covered with PVC using this principle. Methods were also developed to optimise the measurement parameters of the systems. The detector systems were compared with regard to their ability to find {sup 241}AmBe, {sup 252}Cf and {sup 238}Pu–{sup 13}C neutron sources. Results from stationary measurements were used to calculate optimal integration times as well as minimum detectable neutron emission rates. It was found that the {sup 3}He-based detector was more sensitive to {sup 252}Cf sources whereas the NaI(Tl) detector was more sensitive to {sup 241}AmBe and {sup 238}Pu–{sup 13}C sources. The results also indicated that the sensitivity of the detectors to sources at known distances could theoretically be improved by 60% by changing from fixed integration times to list mode in mobile surveys.

  11. Glycemic Effectiveness of Metformin-Based Dual-Combination Therapies with Sulphonylurea, Pioglitazone, or DPP4-Inhibitor in Drug-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ki; Song, Sun Ok; Kim, Kwang Joon; Cho, Yongin; Choi, Younjeong; Yun, Yujung; Kang, Eun-Seok; Cha, Bong Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the glycemic effectiveness of three metformin-based dual therapies according to baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to evaluate the appropriateness of the guideline enforced by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea for initial medication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods This prospective observational study was conducted across 24 weeks for drug-naïve Korean T2D patients with HbA1c greater than 7.5%. Subjects were first divided into three groups based on the agent combined with metformin (group 1, gliclazide-modified release or glimepiride; group 2, pioglitazone; group 3, sitagliptin). Subjects were also classified into three categories according to baseline HbA1c (category I, 7.5%≤HbA1cpioglitazone, or sitagliptin showed similar glycemic effectiveness among drug-naïve Korean T2D patients. In addition, these regimens were similarly effective across a wide range of baseline HbA1c levels. PMID:24404518

  12. The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable battery of Zn/Na0.44MnO2 based on hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Yehua; Xiang, Yanhong; Liu, Zhixiong; He, Zeqiang; Wu, Xianming; Li, Youji; Xiong, Lizhi; Li, Chuanchang; Chen, Jian

    2016-12-01

    There is a broad application prospect for smart grid about aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery. In order to improve its electrochemical performance, a hybrid cationic aqueous-based rechargeable battery system based on the nanostructural Na0.44MnO2 and metallic zinc foil as the positive and negative electrodes respectively is built up. Nano rod-like Na0.44MnO2 is synthesized by sol-gel method followed by calcination at 850 °C for 9 h, and various characterization techniques including the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the as-prepared material. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge measurements are performed at the same time. The results show that the battery delivers a very high initial discharge capacity of 186.2 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C-rate in the range of 0.5-2.0 V, and it exhibits a discharge capacity of 113.3 mAh g-1 at high current density of 4 C-rate, indicative of excellent rate capability.

  13. Tribocorrosion Behavior of Fe-Based Amorphous Composite Coating Reinforced by Al2O3 in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Although corrosion and friction/wear behavior of Fe-based amorphous coatings and their composites has been extensively studied during the past decade, there is very limited work related to tribocorrosion behavior. In this paper, the tribocorrosion behavior of a Fe-based amorphous composite coating reinforced with 20 wt.% Al2O3 particles was investigated in a 3.5% NaCl solution on a ball-on-disk tester and was compared to the monolithic amorphous coating and 316L stainless steel (SS). The results showed that the amorphous composite coating exhibited the highest tribocorrosion resistance among the three materials tested, as evidenced by the lowest coefficient of friction (~0.3) and tribocorrosion wear rate (~1.2 × 10-5 mm3/N·m). In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements before and during tribocorrosion testing demonstrated that corrosion resistance of the amorphous composite coating was not influenced so much by mechanical loading compared to the amorphous coating and the 316L SS. Observations on the worn surface revealed a corrosion-wear- and oxidational-wear-dominated tribocorrosion mechanism for the composite coatings. The excellent tribocorrosion resistance of the composite coating results from the effect of chemically stable Al2O3 phase which resists oxidation and delamination during sliding, along with poor wettability with corrosive NaCl droplets.

  14. Tribocorrosion Behavior of Fe-Based Amorphous Composite Coating Reinforced by Al2O3 in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Although corrosion and friction/wear behavior of Fe-based amorphous coatings and their composites has been extensively studied during the past decade, there is very limited work related to tribocorrosion behavior. In this paper, the tribocorrosion behavior of a Fe-based amorphous composite coating reinforced with 20 wt.% Al2O3 particles was investigated in a 3.5% NaCl solution on a ball-on-disk tester and was compared to the monolithic amorphous coating and 316L stainless steel (SS). The results showed that the amorphous composite coating exhibited the highest tribocorrosion resistance among the three materials tested, as evidenced by the lowest coefficient of friction ( 0.3) and tribocorrosion wear rate ( 1.2 × 10-5 mm3/N·m). In addition, potentiodynamic polarization measurements before and during tribocorrosion testing demonstrated that corrosion resistance of the amorphous composite coating was not influenced so much by mechanical loading compared to the amorphous coating and the 316L SS. Observations on the worn surface revealed a corrosion-wear- and oxidational-wear-dominated tribocorrosion mechanism for the composite coatings. The excellent tribocorrosion resistance of the composite coating results from the effect of chemically stable Al2O3 phase which resists oxidation and delamination during sliding, along with poor wettability with corrosive NaCl droplets.

  15. Produção brasileira em bases de dados sobre o processo terapêutico na terapia familiar e de casal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Vinícius Renato Thomé

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da extensa literatura psicológica, existem poucos estudos que se referem especificamente ao processo terapêutico. Isto se deve em parte à complexidade do fenômeno clínico e a uma visão distorcida que separa pesquisa e psicoterapia. No caso da terapia familiar e de casal a situação não é diferente. Objetivou-se analisar as bases de dados LILACS, SIRPEP e INDEXPSI para levantar resumos completos de artigos brasileiros referentes ao processo terapêutico na terapia familiar e de casal. Os descritores considerados foram familia, psicoterapia, pesquisa e processo terapêutico. Quatorze artigos foram utilizados na análise, descrevendo o caráter do artigo, o delineamento da pesquisa, a metodologia utilizada, a teoria de referência e as temáticas abordadas. A maioria dos resumos refere-se às investigações realizadas, e o referencial de preferência foi a psicanálise, caracterizando uma diminuição da lacuna que separa pesquisa e a psicoterapia. Houve dificuldades da análise dos resumos, pelo fato de as bases de dados conterem muitas lacunas de informação

  16. Efficiency calibration for a NaI scintillation detector based on Monte-Carlo pro cess and preliminary measurements of bremsstrahlung%基于蒙特卡罗方法的NaI探测器效率刻度及其测量轫致辐射实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建微; 王乃彦

    2014-01-01

    In order to better apply the NaI scintillation spectrometer to bremsstrahlung measurements, the energy response function of a NaI detector spectrometer system is studied by using 137Cs and 60Co sources based on Monte Carlo N particle transport code (MCNP) process. Simulated and measured almighty peak efficiency are in good agreement. An energy response matrix (ERM) is obtained by simulating photons with a certain energy incident on the NaI crystal in MCNP process, through deconvoluting the detected spectrum of NaI using the ERM, and the results of the deconvolution accord well with those from the original spectrum. Furthermore, the NaI detector is used to preliminarily detect its response to bremsstrahlung generated by high intensity electrons bombarding a target of 1.5 mm thickness.%为了将NaI探测器更好地应用到轫致辐射谱测量工作中,对一套NaI探测器做了研究:利用137 Cs,60 Co等同位素γ源,结合蒙特卡罗方法,得到全能峰效率的模拟值与实验测量值符合得较好;利用蒙特卡罗N粒子编码模拟NaI对不同能量光子的响应,得到了该探测器对光子的能量响应,并将获得的能量响应用于轫致辐射的解谱工作,解谱结果与原始谱符合得很好;将该探测器应用到强流电子束打靶轫致辐射测量实验中,对轫致辐射在NaI探测器中的响应做了初步测量。

  17. Sentidos argumentativos e polifônicos de números, no discurso, com base na semântica argumentativa = Argumentative and polyphonic meanings of numbers, within discourse, based on argumentative semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na Semântica Argumentativa, proposta por Oswald Ducrot e colaboradores, este trabalho propõe-se a examinar e a explicitar a relação semântico-argumentativa existente entre linguagens verbal e numérica no discurso. Para tanto, realiza-se uma análise argumentativa e polifônica de um discurso, cujos números nele empregados ganham a função própria de signo linguístico, constituem enunciados e notadamente argumentam. Desse modo, este artigo vai ao encontro de trabalhos desenvolvidos na área de educação matemática, como o de Ole Skovsmose (2013, em que o autor defende que a matemática serve de suporte para argumentações e debates ligados a questões sociais e, portanto, torna-se parte de uma linguagem que influencia na tomada de importantes decisões na sociedade contemporânea. Pretende-se, pois, introduzir uma discussão teórico-aplicada e interdisciplinar, que, além de permitir o avanço das ciências linguística e matemática, poderá fornecer ferramentas de leitura a serem utilizadas no ensino de língua e no de ciências exatas

  18. Crystal structure of (Na0.70(Na0.70,Mn0.30(Fe3+,Fe2+2Fe2+(VO43, a sodium-, iron- and manganese-based vanadate with the alluaudite-type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhassan Benhsina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, sodium (sodium,manganese triiron(II,III tris[vanadate(V], (Na0.70(Na0.70,Mn0.30(Fe3+,Fe2+2Fe2+(VO43, was prepared by solid-state reactions. It crystallizes in an alluaudite-like structure, characterized by a partial cationic disorder. In the structure, four of the 12 sites in the asymmetric unit are located on special positions, three on a twofold rotation axis (Wyckoff position 4e and one on an inversion centre (4b. Two sites on the twofold rotation axis are entirely filled by Fe2+ and V5+, whereas the third site has a partial occupancy of 70% by Na+. The site on the inversion centre is occupied by Na+ and Mn2+ cations in a 0.7:0.3 ratio. The remaining Fe2+ and Fe3+ atoms are statistically distributed on a general position. The three-dimensional framework of this structure is made up of kinked chains of edge-sharing [FeO6] octahedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. These chains are held together by VO4 tetrahedral groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. Within this framework, two types of channels extending along [001] are present. One is occupied by (Na+/Mn2+ while the second is partially occupied by Na+. The mixed site containing (Na+/Mn2+ has an octahedral coordination sphere, while the Na+ cations in the second channel are coordinated by eight O atoms.

  19. Agricultura orgânica em áreas urbanas e periurbanas com base na agroecologia Challenges of organic agriculture in urban and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aquino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura orgânica com base na agroecologia é o mote tecnológico adequado à realidade dos agroecossistemas urbanos. Este artigo ressalta a necessidade de se desenvolver tecnologias e insumos específicos. A partir de experiências com agricultura urbana em diferentes países em desenvolvimento, evidencia-se a necessidade de se buscar capacidades locais e apoio do poder público, especialmente nas iniciativas da sociedade organizada e mobilizada para a produção agrícola urbana.This article presents organic agriculture, based on agroecology, as the appropriate technology for the urban agro-ecosystem. It also points out the need for appropriate technologies and amendments development. Looking at experiences with urban agriculture in development countries, it shows the need for local capacity development and a search for the public sector support, specially of organized groups mobilized for urban agriculture production.

  20. Produção Científica sobre Família e Comunidade na Base de Dados PePSIC (2002/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Vilela Santeiro

    Full Text Available Esta revisão sistemática de literatura teve por objetivo mapear as variáveis relacionadas à produção científica sobre família e comunidade, indexada na base de dados Periódicos Eletrônicos em Psicologia (PePSIC. A busca de informações foi realizada por meio dos vocábulos "família" e "comunidade" e contemplou artigos completos, publicados entre 2002 e 2012 (n = 44. Foi realizado tratamento quantitativo e qualitativo na amostra. No geral, os estudos foram produzidos no sudeste brasileiro, em instituições privadas de ensino superior, com relativo destaque para investigações empíricas e relatos de experiência desenvolvidos por mulheres, e na modalidade de autoria múltipla. A produção foi divulgada em periódicos nacionais, que seguem critérios editoriais reconhecidos pela comunidade acadêmica (Qualis/CAPES. Temáticas sobre infância e adolescência foram priorizadas nos trabalhos, com diversidade de enfoques teóricos da Psicologia. As intervenções psicológicas relatadas abarcaram propostas terapêuticas e não terapêuticas, individuais e grupais, e transcorreram em ambientes institucionais. Análises comparativas, com amostras obtidas em outras fontes de informação, são desejáveis e encontram-se em andamento.

  1. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  2. Corrosion of atomized Fe40Al based intermetallics in molten Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenaz 135, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carbajal De la Torre, G.; Martinez-Villafane, A.; Chacon-Nava, J.G. [CIMAV, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Porcayo-Calderon, J. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113, Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Casales, M. [UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Universidad s/n, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [UAEM, FCQI-CIICAP, Av. Universidad 1001, 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2003-05-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of sprayed and atomized Fe-40at.%Al, Fe40Al+0.1B and Fe40Al+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} intermetallic materials have been evaluated in molten Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 900 and 1000 C using polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The results are supported by electron microscopy and microchemical studies. The tests lasted 5 days. At 900 C the Fe40Al material had the lowest corrosion rate (0.03 mA/cm{sup 2}), and the Fe40Al+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest. At 1000 C, the Fe40Al+0.1B material, was the material that had the best corrosion resistance with less than 0.02 mA/cm{sup 2} in the first 50 hours, whereas the Fe40Al presented the worst corrosion resistance with 0.20 mA/cm{sup 2}. The results are discussed in terms of the establishment of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that gives corrosion resistance to the materials and promotes an Al depletion in the FeAl matrix which allows the sulfides formation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Hochtemperaturkorrosionsbestaendigkeit von pulververduesten intermetallischen Verbindungen der Zusammensetzung Fe-40at.%Al, Fe40Al+0.1B und Fe40Al+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} wurde in geschmolzenem Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} bei 900 und 1000 C anhand von Polarisationskurven und Messungen des Polarisationswiderstandes charakterisiert. Die Ergebnisse werden durch elektronenmikroskopische und mikrochemische Untersuchungen unterstuetzt. Die Untersuchungen dauerten fuenf Tage. Bei 900 C hatte die Fe40Al Verbindung die geringste Korrosionsrate (0,03 mA/cm{sup 2}), und die Fe40Al+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Verbindung die hoechste. Bei 1000 C war die Fe40Al+0.1B Verbindung mit weniger als 0,02 mA/cm{sup 2} waehrend der ersten 50 Stunden diejenige mit der hoechsten Korrosionsbestaendigkeit, wohingegen die Fe40Al Verbindung mit 0,20 mA/cm{sup 2} die schlechteste Korrosionsbestaendigkeit hatte. Die Ergebnisse werden anhand der Bildung einer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Schicht

  3. Hot corrosion behaviour of Fe-Al based intermetallic in molten NaVO{sub 3} salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Medina, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: maespin@imp.mx; Carbajal-De la Torre, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, UMSNH, Santiago Tapia 403 Col. Centro, C.P. 58098 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Liu, H.B. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Villafane, A. [CIMAV, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [CIMAV, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); UAEM-CIICAP, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    The hot corrosion of sprayed Fe-40 (at.%)Al intermetallic alloy with additions of boron and alumina whiskers in molten NaVO{sub 3} at 700 deg. C has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, techniques. For short exposure times, the corrosion mechanism under these conditions was observed to be controlled by an activation process, whereas for longer exposure times, the corrosion process was under diffusion control due to the growing of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide scale, which made the diffusion of both reducing and oxidizing species through the scale to the alloy or scale surfaces more difficult. Equivalent electric model used to simulate the EIS data showed that a finite length Warburg diffusion could properly characterize the diffusion process, which confirmed the formation of a compact corrosion product scales containing rich aluminium oxide. Thus, the corrosion process was under diffusion control of aggressive ions through the formed scale. The electrochemical study was complemented by scanning electronic microscopy characterization and micro chemical analysis.

  4. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Asmara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of the half-cell potential and corrosion current density indicated that the fly ash has significant effects on corrosion behaviour of concrete. Although fly ash tends to create passivity on anodic current, it increases corrosion rate. The corrosion potential of this concrete mixture decreases compared to concrete without fly ash. From the result, it can be summarized that concrete mixture with 70% of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement and 30% fly ash has shown the best corrosion resistance.

  5. De la geoquimica al paisaje: composicion elemental de los suelos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Costa-Casais, M.; Kaal, J.; Ferro-Vazquez, C.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Viveen, W.

    2013-01-01

    El objeto de este libro es el estudio del arte rupestre en la Edad de Bronce hasta la Edad del Hierro en Campo Lameiro (Pontevedra, Galicia), en el que se ha combinado la metodología arqueológica, histórica, etnográfica y paleoambitental, para completar el contexto arqueológico de los petroglifos añ

  6. Solubility and acid-base properties of concentrated phytate in self-medium and in NaCl{sub aq} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Messina, Via Ferdinando Stagno d' Alcontres, 31, I-98166 Messina (Vill. S. Agata) (Italy); Sammartano, Silvio, E-mail: ssammartano@unime.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Messina, Via Ferdinando Stagno d' Alcontres, 31, I-98166 Messina (Vill. S. Agata) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The acid-base properties of concentrated phytic acid were studied in self-medium and in NaCl{sub aq} (0.5 {<=} I/mol . L{sup -1} {<=} 4.0) by ISE-H{sup +} potentiometry and by direct calorimetry, at T = 298.15 K. At ligand concentrations c{sub (Phy)} > 0.012 mol . L{sup -1}, the formation of several binuclear H{sub i}(Phy){sub 2} (2 {<=} i {<=} 10) species was observed, in addition to the mononuclear H{sub i}Phy (1 {<=} i {<=} 7) ones. The solubility of phytate dodecasodium salt was studied in pure water and in NaCl{sub aq} at different ionic strengths; the total solubility in pure water is S{sub 0}{sup T}=(0.300{+-}0.004)mol.L{sup -1} and it decreases markedly with increasing ionic strength; for example the total solubility of Na{sub 12}Phy at I = 3.0 mol . L{sup -1} is 0.008 mol . L{sup -1}. By the dependence on ionic strength (salt concentration) of the solubility, it was possible to calculate the activity coefficients of phytate as a function of medium concentration. Direct calorimetric titrations were also carried out on Na{sub 12}Phy aqueous solutions at different phytate concentrations (0.025 {<=} c{sub (Phy)}/mol . L{sup -1} {<=} 0.100) and without addition of supporting electrolyte, in order to calculate the enthalpy changes for the protonation equilibria in self-medium of the binuclear H{sub i}(Phy){sub 2} species, at T = 298.15 K. It was observed that the {Delta}H/kJ . mol{sup -1} of the binuclear species are, within the experimental error, independent of the ionic strength; for example for the H{sub 2}(Phy){sub 2} species we obtained: {Delta}H{sub 22} = (-23.6 {+-} 0.6) kJ . mol{sup -1}, and (-23.7 {+-} 0.2) kJ . mol{sup -1} at I = 0.50 and 2.0 mol . L{sup -1}, respectively.

  7. GPU-based low-level trigger system for the standalone reconstruction of the ring-shaped hit patterns in the RICH Cherenkov detector of NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous information on the ring position from other detectors. Moreover, since the L0 trigger is provided with a more elaborated information than a simple multiplicity number, it results in a higher selection power. Two methods have been studied in order to reduce the data transfer latency from the readout boards of the detector to the GPU, i.e., the use of a dedicated NIC device driver with very low latency and a direct data transfer protocol from a custom FPGA-based NIC to the GPU. The performance of the system, developed through the FPGA approach, for multi-ring Cherenkov online reconstruction obtained during the NA62 physics runs is presented.

  8. Gain Characteristics of Polymer Waveguide Amplifiers Based on NaYF4:Ybl+, Er3+ Nanocrystals at 0.54 µm Wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Yin, Jiao; Jia, Zhixu; Song, Weiye; Wang, Xibin; Qin, Guanshi; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Weiping; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2016-04-01

    Gain characteristics of polymer waveguide amplifiers based on NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals (NCs) at 0.54 µm wavelength were investigated through numerical simulations. NaYF4:18%Yb3+, 1 0%Er3+ NCs were doped into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix as the core of a polymer waveguide. The absorption spectrum and photoluminescence spectrum of the NCs were recorded and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt parameters were achieved by means of Judd-Ofelt theory: Ω2 = 6.302 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω4 = 0.69 x 10(-20) cm2, Ω6 =7.572 x 10(-20) cm2. We simulated the gain characteristics of the waveguide amplifier at 0.54 µm wavelength by combining the atomic rate equations with power propaga- tion equations. The gain curves had the saturation effects. A maximum gain -4.3 dB for the 5 cm waveguide with the Er3+ concentration of ~7.5 x 1025 m-3 was obtained.

  9. Transtorno mental comum na população idosa: pesquisa de base populacional no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Arbex Borim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o transtorno mental comum em idosos segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, de comportamentos relacionados à saúde e morbidades. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra por conglomerados. A pesquisa utilizou dados de inquérito de saúde realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2008. Foi usado o questionário SRQ-20 para avaliar o transtorno mental comum. Foram estimadas razões de prevalências ajustadas por meio de regressão múltipla de Poisson. A prevalência de transtorno mental comum foi 29,7% e significativamente mais elevada no sexo feminino, nos idosos com 80 anos ou mais, menor renda, que não trabalhavam, sedentários, que avaliaram sua saúde como ruim/muito ruim e com maior número de doenças crônicas. Maiores razões de prevalências foram detectadas na subescala de pensamentos depressivos. Os resultados trazem subsídios para o planejamento de intervenções voltadas à saúde dos idosos, com ênfase nos idosos que trabalham e com hábitos de vida saudáveis. Apontam a necessidade de atenção dos profissionais para o quadro depressivo na terceira idade.

  10. As necessidades e os desejos na formação discursiva do marketing: base consistente ou retórica legitimadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Andrade Brei

    Full Text Available Neste artigo realizamos uma análise crítica da gênese histórica da área de marketing até sua constituição atual, com um foco principal: verificar se as necessidades e os desejos dos clientes são base consistente da formação histórica, discursiva, do marketing ou, apenas, retórica legitimadora para a atuação da área. Adotamos uma orientação filosófico-epistemológica baseada na teoria do discurso proposta por Michel Foucault, que nos permitiu constatar que a centralidade das necessidades e dos desejos dos clientes no discurso contemporâneo do marketing é resultado de uma série de transformações e disputas históricas pela hegemonia de uma determinada idéia ou ponto de vista, mas sempre ancorada em condições socioeconômicas, ambientais, favoráveis às transformações ocorridas. Em outras palavras, concluímos que as transformações discursivas, constituintes da área, foram o resultado de um processo produzido social e historicamente, tendo ocorrido muito mais como um resultado de mudanças na economia e no mundo empresarial do que como uma espécie de "vocação" natural do marketing.

  11. Período crítico de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do milho baseado na fenologia da cultura Critical period of weed interference in corn crop based on crop phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kozlowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 2000/2001 foi conduzido, na Fazenda Experimental Gralha Azul/PUCPR, um experimento de campo com o objetivo de determinar o período crítico para prevenção da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a cultura do milho, determinado com base na fenologia da cultura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2x7, com quatro repetições. Os 14 tratamentos testados foram resultados da combinação de duas séries de tratamentos: com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento em competição com as plantas daninhas, e com a cultura em períodos iniciais de crescimento sem competição; estes períodos iniciais foram caracterizados por estádios fenológicos da cultura do milho - V2, V4, V6, V8 e V10 - e duas testemunhas. O experimento foi instalado em uma área sob plantio direto, com semeadura realizada de acordo com a tecnologia recomendada para a cultura, com adubações no sulco e em cobertura e tratamentos fitossanitários, para que as plantas de milho se desenvolvessem normalmente. O período crítico de prevenção da interferência ocorreu entre os estádios fenológicos V2 e V7, e a interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu em média 87% o rendimento de grãos da testemunha em competição durante todo o ciclo da cultura em relação à testemunha sem competição com as plantas daninhas, por todo o ciclo. Com relação à comunidade infestante, as dicotiledôneas representaram 22,3% das plantas daninhas, destacando-se as espécies Taraxacum officinale, Senecio brasiliensis, Rumex obtusifolius e Bidens pilosa, e as monocotiledôneas, 77,7% da comunidade infestante, com destaque para Brachiaria plantaginea. O acúmulo de biomassa seca das plantas de milho, a população final e o número de espigas por planta não foram afetados pela interferência das plantas daninhas.A field experiment was carried out to determine the critical period of weed interference in corn, under a no

  12. Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Montalvo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20 para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR.Se normalizó la PCR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (κ = 0,731, lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas.

  13. Leakage current phenomena in Mn-doped Bi(Na,K)TiO3-based ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenza-Slabe, J.; Gibbons, B. J.

    2016-08-01

    Mn-doped 80(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-20(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 thin films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates. Steady state and time-dependent leakage current were investigated from room temperature to 180 °C. Undoped and low-doped films showed space-charge-limited current (SCLC) at high temperatures. The electric field marking the transition from Ohmic to trap-filling-limited current increased monotonically with Mn-doping. With 2 mol. % Mn, the current was Ohmic up to 430 kV/cm, even at 180 °C. Modeling of the SCLC showed that all films exhibited shallow trap levels and high trap concentrations. In the regime of steady state leakage, there were also observations of negative differential resistivity and positive temperature coefficient of resistivity near room temperature. Both of these phenomena were confined to relatively low temperatures (below ˜60 °C). Transient currents were observed in the time-dependent leakage data, which was measured out to several hundred seconds. In the undoped films, these were found to be a consequence of oxygen vacancy migration modulating the electronic conductivity. The mobility and thermal activation energy for oxygen vacancies was extracted as μion ≈ 1.7 × 10-12 cm2 V-1 s-1 and EA,ion ≈ 0.92 eV, respectively. The transient current displayed different characteristics in the 1 mol. % Mn-doped films which were not readily explained by oxygen vacancy migration.

  14. Detección de Leishmania spp. en base al gen que codifica la proteína HSP20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Montalvo

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Explorar una nueva diana para el diagnóstico molecular de Leishmania. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la utilidad del gen que codifica la proteína de choque térmico de 20kDa (hsp20 para la detección de Leishmania por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR.Se normalizó la PCR y se determinaron los parámetros analíticos, así como la validez y seguridad diagnóstica y la concordancia con la PCR-18S. Se evaluó la PCR-hsp20 con ADN obtenido de un grupo de muestras clínicas de distinta procedencia. Resultados. Los parámetros analíticos resultaron adecuados. La sensibilidad obtenida fue de 86% y la especificidad del 100%, la concordancia con el método de referencia resultó buena (κ = 0,731, lo que apoya su posible uso para el diagnóstico. La posibilidad de identificación posterior de la especie mediante secuenciación del producto amplificado le confiere una ventaja adicional. Conclusiones. Se demuestra la utilidad de este gen como una nueva diana para la detección del género Leishmania. Debido a su potencial, se recomienda mejorar la sensibilidad del procedimiento y realizar su evaluación en diversas regiones endémicas.

  15. Na2O/MCM-41固体碱催化的废油脂酯交换反应研究%Transesterification reaction of waste oil catalyzed by solid base Na2O/MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许慎敏; 陈慧; 梁宝臣

    2008-01-01

    在固体碱催化剂Na2O/MCM-41作用下,对废油脂制取生物柴油的工艺优化进行了研究.考察了Na2O添加量、甲醇油脂摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间等对酯交换反应的影响.在Na2O添加量为8.0 %,醇油物质的量比为16:1,催化剂用量为油重的3.0%,反应温度为130 ℃及反应时间为2 h 的条件下,生物柴油的收率可达到89.84%.

  16. Os fundamentos da identidade européia na antiguidade, na idade média e nos tempos modernos = The bases of European identity in antiquity, middle ages and in modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Mainka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Depois do fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial iniciou-se o processo da unificação européia, compreendendo todas as áreas do Estado e da sociedade (legislação, jurisdição, política, economia, instituições, etc. dos 27 Estados, tão diferentes quanto às tradições e à sua história, que compõem, no momento, a União Européia. Porém, quais são os fundamentos intelectuais e os valores culturais, quais são as idéias e memórias, que dão à Europa uma identidade coerente e compartilhada, em princípio, por toda a população européia de atualmente, quase 500 milhões de pessoas? Esses alicerces intelectuais da Europa remontam à Antiguidade, à Idade Média e aos Tempos Modernos. Este trabalho pretende apresentar alguns desses fundamentos comuns da Europa, postos na Idade Média e nos Tempos Modernos (por exemplo o Cristianismo, o Humanismo e o Iluminismo, e discutir a sua importância para a identidade européia.The process of European unification started immediately after the II World War. It comprised all the areas of State and society (legislation, jurisdiction, politics, economy, institutions and others in the twenty-seven countries, highly different in their traditions and history and which now make up the European Community. Which are the intellectual bases and the cultural values, which are the ideas and memories that give Europe a coherent identity shared, at least theoretically, by the European population of approximately 500 million people? Europe's intellectual bases go back to Antiquide, to the Middle Ages and to Modernity. Current essay will provide some of Europe's common principles posited in the Middle Ages and in Modernity (for instance, Christianity, Humanism and Illuminism and will discuss their importance within Euopean identity.

  17. Hydration Products of Fly Ash Based Cementing Material Activated By NaOH%NaOH激发粉煤灰基胶凝材料的水化产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 诸葛丽君; 史诗; 徐德龙

    2012-01-01

    A fly-ash based alkali-activated cementing material (FACM) was prepared by using fly ash as a raw material and NaOH as an activating agent. The effect of curing conditions on the compression strength of FACM was investigated. The mineral composition of FACM at different ages was analyzed by X-ray diffracion. The microstructure and element composition of hydration products of this material at different ages were characterized by scanning electron microscope with X-ray energy dispersive technique. The results show that the compression strength of FACM is enhanced under steam curing condition. The glass phase in fly ash participated in the hydration reaction, but the inert phases such as mullite, quartz, magnetite, etc. did not be involved in. Zeolite precursor formed in the pore of FACM in the early hydration process, and the particle size grew up to 1 pin with the cross-shape after cured for I d. With the prolonging of curing time, the particle size could be 5 ~tm. With the time prolonged, the particles overlapped with each other, filled in the entire pore and formed the compact reticulate structure, favoring the improvement of the compression strength of materials.%以粉煤灰为原料,NaOH为激发剂,制备出高抗压强度的粉煤灰基碱激发胶凝材料,研究养护条件对粉煤灰基碱激发胶凝材料抗压强度的影响。用x射线衍射分析不同龄期粉煤灰基碱激发胶凝材料的矿物组成,并用带能谱分析的扫描电镜观察不同龄期材料的微观形貌和区域元素组成。结果表明:蒸汽养护可以显著提高材料的抗压强度:粉煤灰中的玻璃相参加材料的水化反应,莫来石、石英等晶相则为惰性物质,不参加反应:在水化过程早期,粉煤灰基碱激发胶凝材料的气孔内会形成钠系菱沸石的前驱体,蒸汽养护1d后长大为表面呈十字交叉状的1pm左右颗粒,随着时间延长,这些颗粒可长至5μm左右,交错重叠充满

  18. Performance and advantages of a soft-core based parallel architecture for energy peak detection in the calorimeter Level 0 trigger for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Barbanera, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Bonaiuto, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Checcucci, B.; De Simone, N.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fucci, A.; Lupi, M.; Paoluzzi, G.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sargeni, F.; Venditti, S.

    2017-03-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS has started its data-taking. Its aim is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay K+ → π+ν ν̅ . In this context, rejecting the background is a crucial topic. One of the main background to the measurement is represented by the K+ → π+π0 decay. In the 1-8.5 mrad decay region this background is rejected by the calorimetric trigger processor (Cal-L0). In this work we present the performance of a soft-core based parallel architecture built on FPGAs for the energy peak reconstruction as an alternative to an implementation completely founded on VHDL language.

  19. As necessidades e os desejos na formação discursiva do marketing: base consistente ou retórica legitimadora?

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Andrade Brei; Carlos Alberto Vargas Rossi; Yves Evrard

    2007-01-01

    Neste artigo realizamos uma análise crítica da gênese histórica da área de marketing até sua constituição atual, com um foco principal: verificar se as necessidades e os desejos dos clientes são base consistente da formação histórica, discursiva, do marketing ou, apenas, retórica legitimadora para a atuação da área. Adotamos uma orientação filosófico-epistemológica baseada na teoria do discurso proposta por Michel Foucault, que nos permitiu constatar que a centralidade das necessidades e dos ...

  20. Exploring the Potential of Integral Field Spectroscopy for Observing Extrasolar Planet Transits: Ground-based Observations of the Atmospheric Na in HD 209458b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Santiago; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Sparks, William B.; López-Martín, Luis; Mediavilla, Evencio; Gómez-Alvarez, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    We explore the use of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for observing extrasolar planet transits. Although this technique should find its full potential in space-based observations (e.g., James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder), we have tested its basics with ground-based time-series observations of HD 209458b obtained with the William Herschel Telescope optical fiber system INTEGRAL during a transit in 2004 August 17/18. For this analysis we have used 5550 spectra (from a potential of ~30,000) obtained in 150 exposures during a period of more than 7 hr. We have found that IFS offers three fundamental advantages with respect to previously used methods (based on imaging or standard slit spectroscopy). First, it improves the effective signal-to-noise ratio in photon-limited observations by distributing the light coming from the star into the two dimensions of the detector. Second, this type of IFS data allows us to ``autocalibrate'' instrumental and background effects. Third, since the star image characteristics (i.e., seeing, spatial shifts, etc.) as well as its photometric properties are extracted from the same data cube, it is possible to decorrelate photometric instabilities induced by point-spread function (or instrument) variations. These data have also allowed us to explore the accuracy limits of ground-based relative spectrophotometry. This was done using a photometric index that probes the Na D lines, for which we obtained a nominal 1 σ error of ~1.0 × 10-4. This result, based on observations of only one transit, indicates that this type of ground observation can constrain the characterization of the transmission spectrum of extrasolar planets, especially if they cover multiple transits under good weather conditions. The present observations are compatible with no extra Na D depression during the transit. Although this result seems to be inconsistent with the recently reported Hubble Space Telescope STIS findings, we point out its limited

  1. Application of gamma irradiation on forming protein-based edible films; Aplicacao da irradiacao na formacao de filmes comestiveis proteicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, Susy Frey

    2000-07-01

    In the last decade considerable interest has been addressed to the development of protein-based edible films due to their application in the food industry, as a substitute to traditional plastic films. The use of soy and whey proteins to form those films has been investigated, using heat, chemical and enzymatic processes. Gamma irradiation was recently reported to form caseinate-based edible films, due to the increase of the cohesive strength of the proteins by the formation of cross-links. This work aimed to verify the role of the gamma irradiation in the process of forming edible films from soy protein isolate (SPI) alone and in complex mixtures, that is, mixed with whey protein isolate (WPI), with carbethoxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and with poly(vinyl)alcohol (PVA). Gamma irradiation treatment improved significantly the mechanical properties for all films. The mechanical behavior is strongly related to the formulation, showing synergy between the gamma irradiation and the CMC, mainly for SPI-based films. SPI-based films presented a trend to decrease the water vapor permeability values when irradiated. The CMC addition showed significant improvements on the permeability for films from SPI and from the mixture of SPI with WPI. (author)

  2. Inverted electro-mechanical behaviour induced by the irreversible domain configuration transformation in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui; Koruza, Jurij; Wang, Ke; Webber, Kyle G; Hao, Yanan; Li, Longtu

    2016-02-26

    Miniaturization of domains to the nanometer scale has been previously reported in many piezoelectrics with two-phase coexistence. Despite the observation of nanoscale domain configuration near the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) regionin virgin (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) based ceramics, it remains unclear how this domain state responds to external loads and influences the macroscopic electro-mechanical properties. To this end, the electric-field-induced and stress-induced strain curves of KNN-based ceramics over a wide compositional range across PPT were characterized. It was found that the coercive field of the virgin samples was highest in PPT region, which was related to the inhibited domain wall motion due to the presence of nanodomains. However, the coercive field was found to be the lowest in the PPT region after electrical poling. This was related to the irreversible transformation of the nanodomains into micron-sized domains during the poling process. With the similar micron-sized domain configuration for all poled ceramics, the domains in the PPT region move more easily due to the additional polarization vectors. The results demonstrate that the poling process can give rise to the irreversible domain configuration transformation and then account for the inverted macroscopic piezoelectricity in the PPT region of KNN-based ceramics.

  3. A influência da estrutura sociorrelacional do empreendedor na capacidade inovativa de empresas incubadas de base tecnológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Emill Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar as influências das interações sociais dos empreendedores na capacidade de inovação das empresas em uma incubadora de base tecnológica. O processo inovação organizacional pode sofrer influências positivas quando o gestor possui habilidade em unir conhecimentos complementares e entender o processo de interação com outras organizações. Assim, analisou-se a estrutura sociorrelacional dos empreendedores, de maneira a vincular o poder das conexões dos atores à sua capacidade de inovação. Para o alcance dos objetivos propostos foram aplicados dois questionários com 33 empresários de 12 empresas incubadas e 3 diretores da incubadora: um baseado na Pesquisa Nacional de Inovação do Brasil (PINTEC e outro para mensuração das relações interpessoais Foram obtidos 12 questionários válidos de cada escala. As variáveis de interação social foram correlacionadas com as do processo de inovação. Os resultados demonstram que as interações sociais apresentam relação significativa com (a número de colaboradores, (b satisfação com o processo de incubação, (c compra de serviços de P&D, (d fontes de informação e (e inovações organizacionais e de marketing. As limitações deste trabalho constituem-se na amostra reduzida a uma única instituição. Para futuras investigações, sugere-se a utilização de outras medidas de desempenho de inovação, a replicação da pesquisa a outras incubadoras e com outras startups não incubadas

  4. Influence of size, shape, type of nanoparticles, type and temperature of the base fluid on natural convection MHD of na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sudarsana Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented MHD natural convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of nanofluid through porous media over a vertical cone influenced by different aspects of nanoparticles such as size, shape, type of nanoparticles and type of the base fluid and working temperature of base fluid. To increase the physical significance of the problem, we have taken dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity as the functions of local volume fraction of nanoparticles. The drift-flux model of nanofluids, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and enhancement ratio parameters are also considered in the present analysis. The influence of non-dimensional parameters such as magnetic field (M, buoyancy ratio parameter (Nr, conductivity parameter (Nc, viscosity parameter (Nv, Brownian motion parameter (Nb, thermophoresis parameter (Nt, Lewis number (Le on velocity, temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles in the boundary layer region is examined in detail. Furthermore the impact of these parameters on local Nusselt number (Nux and enhancement ratio hnfhbf is also investigated. The results of present study reveal that significant natural convection heat transfer enhancement is noticed as the size of nanoparticles decreases. Moreover, type of the nanoparticles and type of the base fluid also influenced the natural convection heat transfer.

  5. Bases filosóficas e implicações técnicas na Gestalt-terapia

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Rosane Carneiro

    1989-01-01

    Este trabalho tem por objetivo fazer uma reflexão epistemológica das bases filosóficas da Gestalt-terapia, procurando relacioná-las com suas técnicas e procedimentos terapêuticos. A Gestalt-terapia é apresentada a partir de sua origem, incluindo-se uma biografia de Fritz Perls, onde fica evidenciada a influência de outras abordagens no seu pensamento. Os pressupostos filosóficos são enfocados procurando relacionar alguns conceitos centrais da fenomenologia e do existencialismo com a Gestalt-t...

  6. The NA57 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    NA57 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN's Heavy Ion programme, which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In this state, quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  7. Pobreza e indigência no Brasil: algumas evidências empíricas com base na PNAD 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents income-based indicators using the data from the 2004 Brazilian National Household Survey regarding poverty and indigence in 2004. It refers to spatial characteristics of poverty, as well as its relation with the functioning of the labor market and the way family income is formed. The relatively sharp reduction in poverty and indigence from 2003 to 2004, the best result obtained since the Real Plan was implemented, constitutes the background for the analysis, although the impact of this reduction is spatially differentiated, more favorable in rural areas and less so in the São Paulo metropolitan area. The increase in family income is mainly due to the vigorous expansion of occupation, as the average labor income remained unchanged. Nevertheless, poor individuals benefited from the reduction in the returns to schooling, from the real increase in the minimum wage and from the wider scope of the social security net, which resulted in a more vigorous income increase at the base of distribution, thus leading to a reduction in inequality.

  8. Pobreza e indigência no Brasil: algumas evidências empíricas com base na PNAD 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rocha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents income-based indicators using the data from the 2004 Brazilian National Household Survey regarding poverty  and indigence in 2004. It refers to spatial characteristics of poverty, as well as its relation with the functioning of the labor market and the  way family income is formed. The relativelysharp reduction in poverty and indigence from 2003 to 2004, the best result obtained since the Real Plan was implemented, constitutes the background for the analysis, although the impact of this reduction is spatially differentiated, more favorable in rural areas and less so in the São Paulo metropolitan area. The increase in family income is mainly due to the vigorous expansion of  occupation, as the average labor income remained unchanged. Nevertheless, poor  individuals benefited from the reduction in the returns to schooling, from the realincrease in the minimum wage and from the wider scope of the social security net, which resulted in a more vigorous income increase at the base of distribution, thus leading to a reduction in inequality.

  9. Fontes de amido e proteína para vacas leiteiras em dietas à base de capim elefante Starch and protein sources in elephantgrass-based diets for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laísse Garcia de Lima

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A correta associação de fontes concentradas de energia e/ou proteína ao volumoso da ração de bovinos, poderá maximizar o desempenho dos animais, como efeito da complementariedade das taxas de degradação de nutrientes. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes formas de processamento de milho, níveis de inclusão na dieta e fontes de proteína sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, bem como o desempenho de vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, distribuídas ao acaso em um delineamento experimental do tipo quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: silagem de milho, farelo de soja e milho moído (quirera fino em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível baixo; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho floculado (360 g L-1 em nível alto; capim elefante, farinha de peixe, milho floculado em nível alto. A dieta contendo capim elefante, milho floculado e farelo de soja em alto nível foi a que mais se aproximou da dieta de silagem de milho nos diversos parâmetros avaliados. A fonte de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR não apresentou vantagens em relação à fonte convencional de proteína. O fornecimento de baixo nível de concentrado não supriu as deficiências energéticas do capim elefante. A maior eficiência de produção de vacas leiteiras que receberam rações com base em capim elefante simulando pastejo foi observada quando a energia estava disponível no rúmen, seja através do processamento, ou seja da maior inclusão de concentrado na dieta.Ruminant performance may be improved due to association of specific energy and protein supplemental sources by matching nutrient degradation rates on diets. This work aimed to analyze the effects of corn grain processing, concentrate levels and protein sources on nutrient digestibilities, ruminal

  10. Characterization of Na(+) transport to gain insight into the mechanism of acid-base and ion regulation in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shartau, Ryan B; Brix, Kevin V; Brauner, Colin J

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater fish actively take up ions via specific transporters to counter diffusive losses to their hypotonic environment. While much is known about the specific mechanisms employed by teleosts, almost nothing is known about the basal fishes, such as white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) which may offer insight into the evolution of osmo- and ionoregulation in fishes. We investigated Na(+) uptake in juvenile white sturgeon in the presence and absence of transporter inhibitors. We found that sturgeon acclimated to 100μmoll(-1) Na(+) have Na(+) uptake kinetics typical of teleosts and that a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is the predominant transporter for Na(+) uptake. White sturgeon are tolerant to hypercarbia-induced respiratory acidoses and recover blood pH (pHe) at 1.5kPa PCO2 but not at higher PCO2 (6kPa PCO2) where they preferentially regulate intracellular pH (pHi). It was hypothesized that during exposure to hypercarbia Na(+) uptake would increase at CO2 tensions at which fish were capable of pHe regulation but decrease at higher tensions when they were preferentially regulating pHi. We found that Na(+) uptake did not increase at 1.5kPa PCO2, but at 6kPa PCO2 Na(+) uptake was reduced by 95% while low water pH equivalent to 6kPa PCO2 reduced Na(+) uptake by 71%. Lastly, we measured net acid flux during hypercarbia, which indicates that net acid flux is not associated with Na(+) uptake. These findings indicate Na(+) uptake in sturgeon is not different from freshwater teleosts but is sensitive to hypercarbia and is not associated with pHe compensation during hypercarbia.

  11. Monte Carlo based approach to the LS–NaI 4πβ–γ anticoincidence extrapolation and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    The 4πβ–γ anticoincidence method is used for the primary standardization of β−, β+, electron capture (EC), α, and mixed-mode radionuclides. Efficiency extrapolation using one or more γ ray coincidence gates is typically carried out by a low-order polynomial fit. The approach presented here is to use a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system to analyze the efficiency extrapolation. New code was developed to account for detector resolution, direct γ ray interaction with the PMT, and implementation of experimental β-decay shape factors. The simulation was tuned to 57Co and 60Co data, then tested with 99mTc data, and used in measurements of 18F, 129I, and 124I. The analysis method described here offers a more realistic activity value and uncertainty than those indicated from a least-squares fit alone.

  12. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  13. EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SCHIFF'S BASE WITH NaBH4 ON REGENERATION OF LOVE WAVE IMMUNOSENSOR%NaBH4还原对Love波免疫传感器再生能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 高志贤; 王源升; 刘清山; 朱惠忠; 李玉军

    2006-01-01

    目的 提高检测B型葡萄球菌肠毒素的Love波免疫传感器的再生能力,以优化Love波免疫传感器的设计.方法 传感器由压电石英基片、叉指换能器和SiO2声波导层构成.采用戊二醛共价交联法构建抗体分子探针传感界面.为提高传感器的再生能力,选用NaBH4还原连接于戊二醛和抗体分子之间的Schiff's base结构,通过实验确定NaBH4还原步骤和最佳浓度,并用原子力显微镜(AFM)对改良后的戊二醛法固定抗体以及捕获SEB后的表面进行成像表征.结果 采用优化后的固定化方案制备的免疫传感器对10-6g·mL-1 SEB有明显响应,并可以重复使用3次,NaBH4的最佳浓度为100 mmol·L-1.结论 先共价交联抗体分子,再用浓度为100 mmol·L-1的NaBH4还原共价双键为稳定的单键能明显改善Love传感器对SEB的响应能力和再生能力.

  14. Understanding the Size-Dependent Sodium Storage Properties of Na2C6O6-Based Organic Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Ye; Yue, Zhuanghao; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2016-05-11

    Organic electroactive materials represent a new generation of sustainable energy storage technology due to their unique features including environmental benignity, material sustainability, and highly tailorable properties. Here a carbonyl-based organic salt Na2C6O6, sodium rhodizonate (SR) dibasic, is systematically investigated for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. A combination of structural control, electrochemical analysis, and computational simulation show that rational morphological control can lead to significantly improved sodium storage performance. A facile antisolvent method was developed to synthesize microbulk, microrod, and nanorod structured SRs, which exhibit strong size-dependent sodium ion storage properties. The SR nanorod exhibited the best performance to deliver a reversible capacity of ∼190 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C with over 90% retention after 100 cycles. At a high rate of 10 C, 50% of the capacity can be obtained due to enhanced reaction kinetics, and such high electrochemical activity maintains even at 80 °C. These results demonstrate a generic design route toward high-performance organic-based electrode materials for beyond Li-ion batteries. Using such a biomass-derived organic electrode material enables access to sustainable energy storage devices with low cost, high electrochemical performance and thermal stability.

  15. Um pacto curricular: o pacto nacional pela alfabetização na idade certa e o desenho de uma base comum nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Prazeres Frangella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este estudo objetiva analisar o Pacto Nacional pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa (PNAIC identificando-o como movimento inicial, parte do contexto de discussão e defesa de uma Base Nacional Comum Curricular. Por meio de sua análise, torna-se possível observar o delineamento de elementos que são retomados como argumentos a favor da necessidade dessa base comum: os direitos de aprendizagem como garantia de democratização qualitativa. Busco pôr em evidência e discutir as concepções de currículo, conhecimento e aprendizagem que sustentam o PNAIC, interrogando com o que se propõe pactuar. Para tanto, defendo a compreensão do currículo como articulação/produção de significados, destacando sua dimensão discursiva, em diálogo com os estudos de Ernesto Laclau e Homi Bhabha. Analisar as forças que engendram as disputas de sentidos e as estratégias criadas para hegemonização de um dado sentido se configura como mote para esta análise.

  16. Effect of deforestation on watershed water balance: hydrological modelling-based approach / Vplyv odlesnenia na vodnú bilanciu povodia: prístup na báze hydrologického modelovania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlásny Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zmeny vo vegetačnom kryte a využívaní krajiny, vrátane odlesnení, môžu mať významný vplyv na hydrologickú bilanciu povodí. V tejto štúdii bol na analýzu vplyvu simulovaného odlesnenia na jednotlivé zložky vodnej bilancie použitý hydrologický model s distribuovanými parametrami. Výskum bol realizovaný v povodí Ulička na východnom Slovensku (97 km2, lesnatosť 84,3 %. Pri súčasnom využívaní krajiny pripadalo na intercepciu v priemere 21,1 % z celkového úhrnu zrážok počas kalibračného obdobia 2001 - 2013. Najväčší podiel zrážok (77 % bol infiltrovaný do pôdneho profilu a necelá polovica z tohoto množstva prenikla do vodonosnej vrstvy podzemnej vody. Zatiaľ čo podpovrchový odtok tvoril z celkového úhrnu zrážok približne 12 %, v prípade povrchového odtoku išlo len o 1,2 % podiel. Najvyššia časť úhrnu zrážok prispela k tvorbe základného odtoku (23 %. Simulované odlesnenie povodia vyvolalo významný pokles intercepcie (o 76 % a evapotranspirácie (o 12 %. Celkový, povrchový, podpovrchový a základný odtok zároveň vzrástli o 20,4; 38,8; 9,0 a 25,5 %. Denný prietok sa v priemere zvýšil o 20 %. Odlesnenie významne ovplyvnilo kulminačný prietok vyvolaný simulovanou extrémnou zrážkovou udalosťou s pravdepodobnosťou výskytu 100 rokov. V odlesnenom povodí bol kulminačný prietok o 58 % vyšší v porovnaní s prietokom pri súčasnom využití územia. Kulminačné prietoky sa vyskytli po 432 minútach od začatia zrážkovej udalosti pri súčasnom využití územia a po 378 minútach v prípade scenára odlesnenia. Prezentované výsledky poukázali na riziko nepriaznivého vplyvu rozsiahlych odlesnení na hydrologické procesy v povodí. Vyvinutý hydrologický model zároveň umožňuje testovanie vplyvu rôznych scenárov využívania krajiny, čím podporuje manažment lesa a krajiny v skúmanom povodí.

  17. Arterial acid-base status during digestion and following vascular infusion of NaHCO(3) and HCl in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Andersen, Johnnie B; Zaar, Morten; Andrade, Denis; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2005-12-01

    Digestion is associated with gastric secretion that leads to an alkalinisation of the blood, termed the "alkaline tide". Numerous studies on different reptiles and amphibians show that while plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)](pl)) increases substantially during digestion, arterial pH (pHa) remains virtually unchanged, due to a concurrent rise in arterial PCO(2) (PaCO(2)) caused by a relative hypoventilation. This has led to the suggestion that postprandial amphibians and reptiles regulate pHa rather than PaCO(2). Here we characterize blood gases in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) during digestion and following systemic infusions of NaHCO(3) and HCl in fasting animals to induce a metabolic alkalosis or acidosis in fasting animals. The magnitude of these acid-base disturbances were similar in magnitude to that mediated by digestion and exercise. Plasma [HCO(3)(-)] increased from 18.4+/-1.5 to 23.7+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) during digestion and was accompanied by a respiratory compensation where PaCO(2) increased from 13.0+/-0.7 to 19.1+/-1.4 mm Hg at 24 h. As a result, pHa decreased slightly, but were significantly below fasting levels 36 h into digestion. Infusion of NaHCO(3) (7 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in a 10 mmol L(-1) increase in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] within 1 h and was accompanied by a rapid elevation of pHa (from 7.58+/-0.01 to 7.78+/-0.02). PaCO(2), however, did not change following HCO(3)(-) infusion, which indicates a lack of respiratory compensation. Following infusion of HCl (4 mmol kg(-1)), plasma pHa decreased by 0.07 units and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) was reduced by 4.6 mmol L(-1) within the first 3 h. PaCO(2), however, was not affected and there was no evidence for respiratory compensation. Our data show that digesting rattlesnakes exhibit respiratory compensations to the alkaline tide, whereas artificially induced metabolic acid-base disturbances of same magnitude remain uncompensated. It seems difficult to envision that the central and

  18. APLICAÇÃO DE TÉCNICAS DE MINERAÇÃO DE DADOS NA BASE DE DADOS DO ENADE COM ENFOQUE NOS CURSOS DE MEDICINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nogueira CRETTON

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Exame Nacional de Avaliação do Estudante - ENADE tem como função avaliar o grau de conhecimento dos estudantes referente aos conteúdos programáticos previstos nas diretrizes curriculares de seus respectivos cursos a partir do desempenho destes no exame. O processo de KDD compreende um conjunto de técnicas capaz de analisar e extrair informações úteis de grandes bases de dados através da criação de padrões.  Este artigo tem como objetivo extrair conhecimento da base de dados ENADE do curso de medicina, bem como a resposta sobre o nível de dificuldade do componente específico da prova. Foram utilizadas as etapas do processo de KDD, técnicas de Mineração de Dados e o software WEKA. Após a aplicação das técnicas, foi possível observar a influência da categoria e dos tipos das instituições de ensino superior na criação dos perfis, sendo diretamente ligadas ao nível de desempenho dos estudantes e sua opinião sobre o nível do exame. Foi possível constatar que os estudantes, tanto do Rio de Janeiro, quanto de São Paulo, quando oriundos de universidades sem fins lucrativos, obtiveram em sua maioria, um resultado ruim, com nota menor que sessenta. Ainda em São Paulo, os estudantes de faculdade de instituições municipais, além de receberem um rendimento negativo, também responderam como “fácil” o grau de dificuldade do componente específico do exame. Espera-se que as informações geradas neste trabalho possam ser utilizadas para o aprimoramento dos cursos de medicina, bem como na tomada de decisões referentes aos projetos dos cursos.

  19. Personalidade e protesto político na América Latina: bases psicossociais da contestação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Aparecido Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resumo Investigações recentes têm identificado cenário ambíguo de redução no envolvimento dos cidadãos em modalidades tradicionais e elevações consideráveis em formas contestatórias de mobilização. As interpretações acerca das consequências desse fenômeno são diversas, algumas apontando para os perigos da desmobilização tradicional e da apatia; outras enxergando na contestação impulso para o aprofundamento democrático. Quanto às possíveis causas, podemos encontrar clara divisão em duas perspectivas dominantes: de um lado, há pesquisadores que enfatizam fatores de ordem estrutural ou macro, tais como o nível de desenvolvimento econômico nacional e o grau de abertura do sistema político; de outro, encontramos autores que apontam para a relevância de atributos individuais, como sentimentos, atitudes e valores. Nessa segunda perspectiva analítica, todavia, um aspecto relevante continua pouco explorado: a personalidade individual. Os recentes avanços nos estudos em psicologia social sobre esse tema têm revelado que os indivíduos se distinguem em termos de traços psicológicos marcantes que se refletem em comportamentos mais inovadores ou conservadores, extrovertidos ou tímidos, responsáveis ou inconsequentes, dentre outros. Apesar da plausível relação entre esses tipos de personalidades e padrões de comportamentos políticos, poucos são os estudos que até o presente momento focalizam esse condicionante do engajamento dos cidadãos em diferentes formas de ativismo político. O presente trabalho apresenta resultados de pesquisa que procurou testar no plano empírico algumas hipóteses acerca desse relacionamento, focalizando especificamente o protesto político entre o público latino-americano. A base empírica para os testes é composta pelos dados produzidos pelo Latin American Public Project (Lapop, em sua onda de 2010, para um conjunto de 17 países. Com base em modelos estatísticos multivariados, foi

  20. Redução da proteína da dieta com base no conceito de proteína ideal para tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede Dietary protein reduction based on ideal protein concept for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultured in net pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Botaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede e alimentadas com dietas contendo 27,0 (controle; 25,2; 24,3 e 22,7% de proteína digestível. Aminoácidos cristalinos (L-lisina, DL-metionina e L-treonina foram adicionados à dieta considerando o conceito de proteína ideal e simulando o perfil de aminoácidos da dieta controle. Os peixes (34,63±19 g foram alimentados manualmente com dietas isoenergéticas (3.075 kcal de energia digestível/kg de dieta até saciedade aparente, três vezes ao dia, durante 91 dias. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e 25 peixes/unidade experimental. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, a taxa de eficiência protéica, o peso da carcaça eviscerada, o rendimento de carcaça, o peso e o rendimento de filé, a sobrevivência e o hematócrito. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o consumo; o maior valor foi estimado para a dieta contendo 24,41% de proteína digestível e excreção de nitrogênio, na qual o melhor resultado estimado foi obtido com peixes que receberam a dieta contendo 24,92% de PD. Com a redução nos níveis de proteína digestível, observou-se aumento linear na retenção de nitrogênio. É possível reduzir o nível de proteína digestível, de 27 (29,1% de PB para 24,3% (26,6% de PB, em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo criadas em tanques-rede. Essa redução deve ser feita por meio da suplementação de aminoácidos (com base no conceito de proteína ideal, considerando o desempenho e o custo da dieta/kg ganho em filé.This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia, cultured in net pens, and fed diets containing 27.0 (control, 25.2, 24.3, and 22.7% of digestible protein. Crystalline amino acids (L-lysine, DL-methionine and L-threonine were added to keep amino acid

  1. Exigência de Lisina, com Base no Conceito de Proteína Ideal, para Suínos Machos Castrados de Dois Grupos Genéticos, na Fase de Crescimento Lysine Requirement Based on Ideal Protein Concept, for Growing Barrows from Two Genetic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Gasparotto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento para determinar as exigências de lisina para suínos machos castrados, de dois diferentes grupos genéticos na fase de crescimento, com base no conceito de proteína ideal. Foram utilizados 16 suínos do grupo genético comum (GGC e 16 suínos do grupo genético melhorado (GGM, distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, duas repetições e dois animais por baia. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração referência, à base de milho e farelo de soja, contendo 0,75% de lisina e outras três rações, acrescentando-se níveis crescentes de lisina para se obter 0,90, 1,05 e 1,20% de lisina total na ração. Adicionou-se aminoácidos sintéticos (L-lisina HCl, DL-metionina, L-treonina e L-triptofano para manter os níveis de aminoácidos, de acordo com o perfil de proteína ideal. Para o GGC (20 a 50 kg de peso vivo, as variáveis, consumo de ração diário (CRD, ganho de peso diário (GPD e conversão alimentar (CA não sofreram efeito dos níveis de lisina (NL. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos NL sobre o CRD e GPD para o GGM (24 a 45 kg de PV de 0 a 14 e de 0 a 18 dias, mas não no período total de experimento. Não houve diferença entre GGC e GGM para a variável nitrogênio da uréia plasmática. A exigência de lisina total, baseado no conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados do GGM (24 a 45 kg de peso vivo é de 1,00%, enquanto que para GGC (20 a 50 kg de peso vivo é de 0,75%.A trial was carried out to determine the lysine requirements for barrows during growing phase from two genetic pig groups according to the ideal protein concept. Sixteen animals from genetic common group (GCG were used and other sixteen ones, from the genetic improved group (GIG were allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments two replicates and two pigs per pen. The treatments constituted of the basal diet, based on corn-soybean meal containing 0.75% of lysine and other

  2. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerov Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  3. A "turn-off" luminescence resonance energy transfer aptamer sensor based on near-infrared upconverting NaYF4∶Yb3+, Tm3+ nanoparticles as donors and gold nanorods as acceptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Chen; Juan Xu; Fei Yuan; Yong Wu; Yi-Yan Zhang; Lun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared upconverting NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ nanophosphors modified with poly(acrylic acid) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and luminescence spectroscopy.Based on the observed overlap between the emission spectrum of the NaYF4∶Yb3+,Tm3+ nanophosphors and the absorption spectrum of the gold nanorods,we believe that a new "turn-off" luminescence resonance energy transfer aptamer sensor was constructed for sensing thrombin in near-infrared region.

  4. Calibration of a single hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector using a new numerical method based on the efficiency transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mahmoud I., E-mail: mabbas@physicist.net [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Badawi, M.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Ruskov, I.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); El-Khatib, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Grozdanov, D.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Thabet, A.A. [Department of Medical Equipment Technology, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Pharos University in Alexandria (Egypt); Kopatch, Yu.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gouda, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Skoy, V.R. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-21

    Gamma-ray detector systems are important instruments in a broad range of science and new setup are continually developing. The most recent step in the evolution of detectors for nuclear spectroscopy is the construction of large arrays of detectors of different forms (for example, conical, pentagonal, hexagonal, etc.) and sizes, where the performance and the efficiency can be increased. In this work, a new direct numerical method (NAM), in an integral form and based on the efficiency transfer (ET) method, is used to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency of a single hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector. The algorithms and the calculations of the effective solid angle ratios for a point (isotropic irradiating) gamma-source situated coaxially at different distances from the detector front-end surface, taking into account the attenuation of the gamma-rays in the detector's material, end-cap and the other materials in-between the gamma-source and the detector, are considered as the core of this (ET) method. The calculated full-energy peak efficiency values by the (NAM) are found to be in a good agreement with the measured experimental data.

  5. Seleção de genótipos parentais de acerola com base na divergência genética multivariada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARPENTIERI-PÍPOLO VALÉRIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar e selecionar genótipos parentais de acerola (Malpighia emarginata L. adequadas a programas de melhoramento genético. Nove caracteres quantitativos de maior importância agronômica foram usados para determinação da distância genética e formação de grupos similares de acessos. O agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, a partir das distâncias generalizadas de Mahalanobis, possibilitou a divisão de 14 genótipos em três grupos. Com base na divergência genética e no caráter agronômico-chave (teor de vitamina C, destacaram-se como mais promissores os cruzamentos dos genótipos: AM Mole pertencente ao grupo III, com os genótipos PR AM, N° 18, PR 17, PR 16, Eclipse, AM 22 e Dominga, todos pertencentes ao grupo I.

  6. Naïve Bayes QSDR classification based on spiral-graph Shannon entropies for protein biomarkers in human colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Munteanu, Cristian R; Seoane, José A; Fernández-Blanco, Enrique; Pérez-Montoto, Lázaro G; González-Díaz, Humberto; Dorado, Julián

    2012-06-01

    Fast cancer diagnosis represents a real necessity in applied medicine due to the importance of this disease. Thus, theoretical models can help as prediction tools. Graph theory representation is one option because it permits us to numerically describe any real system such as the protein macromolecules by transforming real properties into molecular graph topological indices. This study proposes a new classification model for proteins linked with human colon cancer by using spiral graph topological indices of protein amino acid sequences. The best quantitative structure-disease relationship model is based on eleven Shannon entropy indices. It was obtained with the Naïve Bayes method and shows excellent predictive ability (90.92%) for new proteins linked with this type of cancer. The statistical analysis confirms that this model allows diagnosing the absence of human colon cancer obtaining an area under receiver operating characteristic of 0.91. The methodology presented can be used for any type of sequential information such as any protein and nucleic acid sequence.

  7. Increasing the impact of medical image computing using community-based open-access hackathons: The NA-MIC and 3D Slicer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Tina; Pieper, Steve; Fedorov, Andriy; Fillion-Robin, J-C; Halle, Michael; O'Donnell, Lauren; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Pinter, Csaba; Finet, Julien; Pujol, Sonia; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Tokuda, Junichi; Norton, Isaiah; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Gering, David; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Jakab, Marianna; Hata, Nobuhiko; Ibanez, Luiz; Blezek, Daniel; Miller, Jim; Aylward, Stephen; Grimson, W Eric L; Fichtinger, Gabor; Wells, William M; Lorensen, William E; Schroeder, Will; Kikinis, Ron

    2016-10-01

    The National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC) was launched in 2004 with the goal of investigating and developing an open source software infrastructure for the extraction of information and knowledge from medical images using computational methods. Several leading research and engineering groups participated in this effort that was funded by the US National Institutes of Health through a variety of infrastructure grants. This effort transformed 3D Slicer from an internal, Boston-based, academic research software application into a professionally maintained, robust, open source platform with an international leadership and developer and user communities. Critical improvements to the widely used underlying open source libraries and tools-VTK, ITK, CMake, CDash, DCMTK-were an additional consequence of this effort. This project has contributed to close to a thousand peer-reviewed publications and a growing portfolio of US and international funded efforts expanding the use of these tools in new medical computing applications every year. In this editorial, we discuss what we believe are gaps in the way medical image computing is pursued today; how a well-executed research platform can enable discovery, innovation and reproducible science ("Open Science"); and how our quest to build such a software platform has evolved into a productive and rewarding social engineering exercise in building an open-access community with a shared vision.

  8. Prediction of Setschenow constants of N-heteroaromatics in NaCl solutions based on the partial charge on the heterocyclic nitrogen atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jingke

    2016-02-01

    The solubilities of 19 different kinds of N-heteroaromatic compounds in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of NaCl were determined at 298.15 K with a UV-vis spectrophotometry and titration method, respectively. Setschenow constants, Ks, were employed to describe the solubility behavior, and it is found that the higher ring numbers of N-heteroaromatics gave rise to the lower values of Ks. Moreover, Ks showed a good linear relationship with the partial charge on the nitrogen atom (QN) for either QN > 0 or QN coefficient (Kow). The heterocyclic N in N-heteroaromatics may interact with Na(+) ions in NaCl solution for QN 0.

  9. Avaliação e intervenção da disortografia baseada na semiologia dos erros: revisão da literatura Evaluation and intervention of dysortographia based on error semiology: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Ygual Fernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: avaliação e intervenção na disortografia. OBJETIVO: descrever e discutir os achados encontrados na literatura sobre a disortografia segundo a sua definição, etiologia, classificação da semiologia dos erros, quadro clínico, avaliação e intervenção. CONCLUSÃO: a avaliação e a intervenção fonoaudiológica com a disortografia devem estar baseadas na classificação semiológica dos erros, pois desta forma, pode-se compreender cada tipo de erro e os fatores cognitivos ou linguísticos implicados. Isso se associa às orientações aos pais e professores de como enfocar o trabalho com a ortografia, seja em casa ou na escola sem gerar angústia e ansiedade na criança.BACKGROUND: evaluation and intervention in dysortographia. PURPOSE: to describe and discuss findings from researches concerning dysortographia according to its definition, etiology, errors semiology classification, clinical findings, evaluation, and intervention. CONCLUSION: speech language evaluation and intervention should be based on error semiology classification because in this way it is possible to understand each type of error and the linguistic and cognitive factors related to them. This is associated with the orientations to parents and teachers on how to work with orthography at home or at the classroom without causing distress and anxiety to the children.

  10. NaHCO3 and NaC1 tolerance in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, F C; Nolph, K D; Maher, J F

    1975-08-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).

  11. Anodic Synthesis and Characterization of Na-Pb-O, Na-Pb-Bi-O Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei QIU; Fen LIU; Liang Zhong ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Crystals of Na-Pb-O and Na-Pb-Bi-O were electrosynthesized on the anode from molten salts. The resulting crystals have a hexagonal structure, in which the base ions (Pb and Bi) are in high oxidation states. By using KOH/NaOH (atomic ratio K:Na=1:1) mixture as a flux,incorporation of K ions into the lattice is inhibited while incorporation of Bi ions is enhanced. The magnetic measurement shows that the Na-Pb-Bi-O crystals are dominated by diamagnetism.

  12. Assessment of Impact of the Rheological Parameters Change on Sensitivity of the Asphalt Strain Based on the Test Results / Ocena Wpływu Zmiany Parametrów Reologicznych Na Wrażliwość Deformacji Mieszanek Mineralno - Asfaltowych Na Podstawie Wyników Badań

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpiel, Artur; Wysokowski, Adam

    2015-03-01

    The creep test under the static loading, that allows to determine rheological properties of asphalt based on the creep curve, is the most effective test nowadays. Applied loads are non-destructive and allow to observe the course of the strain after the test load. The test can be carried out on compressing, shearing, bending as well as on triaxial test, that depends on the applied apparatus implementing different intensity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Based on the creep test, the stress of different properties can be specified. Among them there are valuable rheological properties based on selected viscoelascity models [1]. The properties of the viscoelascity models are relevant indexes depicting resistance to deformation. They can be used to forecast the wheel-truck in the accepted rheological model [1]. In this article it is shown the impact of different rheological properties of the viscoelacity model on the wheel-truck as well as the impact of different properties on shape and the course of the creep curve. The asphalt mixtures presented in this article are characterized by variable rheological properties. It is therefore difficult to determine which property mostly affects the size of the strain. However, the authors of this article attempted to analyse the change of the asphalt strain value of the different variables in particular rheological model, called Bürgers's model. Badanie pełzania pod obciążeniem statycznym jest obecnie najbardziej efektywnym badaniem pozwalającym na określenie reologicznych parametrów mieszanek mineralno - asfaltowych na podstawie krzywej pełzania. Stosowane obciążenia mają poziom nieniszczący i pozwalają na obserwację przebiegu odkształceń w czasie również po odciążeniu. Badanie może być realizowane przy ściskaniu, ścinaniu, rozciąganiu i zginaniu, a także w zakresie trójosiowym, w zależności od stosowanego aparatu realizującego zadany schemat naprężeń [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Na podstawie badania pełzania można

  13. Performance analysis of gamma ray spectrometric parameters on digital signal and analog signal processing based MCA systems using NaI(Tl) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukreti, B.M., E-mail: bharatkuk@gmail.com [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India); Sharma, G.K. [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Physics Laboratory, Department of Atomic Energy, Nongmynsong, AMD Complex, Shillong, Meghalaya 793019 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Accurate and speedy estimations of ppm range uranium and thorium in the geological and rock samples are most useful towards ongoing uranium investigations and identification of favorable radioactive zones in the exploration field areas. In this study with the existing 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 4 in. NaI(Tl) detector setup, prevailing background and time constraints, an enhanced geometrical setup has been worked out to improve the minimum detection limits for primordial radioelements K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}. This geometrical setup has been integrated with the newly introduced, digital signal processing based MCA system for the routine spectrometric analysis of low concentration rock samples. Stability performance, during the long counting hours, for digital signal processing MCA system and its predecessor NIM bin based MCA system has been monitored, using the concept of statistical process control. Monitored results, over a time span of few months, have been quantified in terms of spectrometer's parameters such as Compton striping constants and Channel sensitivities, used for evaluating primordial radio element concentrations (K{sup 40}, U{sup 238} and Th{sup 232}) in geological samples. Results indicate stable dMCA performance, with a tendency of higher relative variance, about mean, particularly for Compton stripping constants. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrical enhancement for ppm range primordial radio elemental determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental constraints include detector setup, background and counting time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma spectrometric performance monitored on digital and analog MCA systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study indicates higher variance of Compton stripping constants on digital MCA system.

  14. Déficit de base à admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva: um indicador de mortalidade precoce Base deficit at intensive care unit admission: an early mortality indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Serra Azul Machado Bezerra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O déficit de base é considerado um indicador de lesão tissular, choque e reanimação. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer uma associação entre o déficit de base na admissão dos pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI e seu prognóstico. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo com análise de 110 pacientes admitidos consecutivamente na UTI, durante o período de 01 de junho a 31 de dezembro de 2006. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do sexo feminino, com idade média de 54,2 ± 18,7 anos. O tempo médio de permanência foi 6,5 ± 7,4 dias e o APACHE médio foi de 21 ± 8,1 pontos. A razão de mortalidade padronizada foi 0,715. A mortalidade dos pacientes com déficit de base superior a 6 mEq/L foi maior (38,9% que a daqueles com déficit menor (ou excesso (20,6%; p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Base deficit is considered an indicator of tissue injury, shock and resuscitation. The objective of this study was to establish an association between base deficit obtained on the admission of patients in intensive care unit (ICU and their prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective study with analysis of 110 patients admitted consecutively in the ICU, during the period of June to December 2006. RESULTS: There was a predominance of women, with age mean 54.2 ± 18.7 years old. Length of stay in ICU was 6.5 ± 7.4 days and the mean APACHE II score was 21 ± 8.1 points. The standardized mortality ratio was 0.715. Mortality was higher in patients with base deficit > 6 mEq/L (38.9% than in those with base deficit 6 mEq/L is a marker of significant mortality.

  15. Synthesis of anodic titania nanotubes in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaF electrolyte: A comparison between anodization time and specimens with biomaterial based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, M., E-mail: blkrish88@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Narayanan, R. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Chennai 602 105 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Surface modification of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) has been carried out by electrochemical anodic oxidation at constant voltage for different time periods (0.5, 1, 2 and 4.5 h). Currents developed during the anodization indicate that the nanotubes are formed due to the competition of titania formation and dissolution under the assistance of electric field. Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably with time of oxidation. The morphology of the as-prepared nanotubes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy while the chemistry and crystallinity were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. The as-anodized oxide was of amorphous but transformed to anatase and/or rutile crystal structure upon annealing for 3 h at 600 °C. The anatase structure showed excellent apatite-forming ability and produced a compact apatite layer covering the surface completely upon treatment in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 30 h. Corrosion of anodized titanium samples was studied in a SBF solution using open circuit potential, polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements and compared with that of non-oxidized titanium. Among these samples, titanium anodized for 4.5 h exhibited superior corrosion properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes by anodization in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/NaF electrolyte. • Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably with oxidation time. • We studied surface morphologies of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes show superior corrosion resistance.

  16. Assessing the ability of sequence-based methods to provide functional insight within membrane integral proteins: a case study analyzing the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandari Sepehr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to predict functional sites from globular proteins is increasingly common; however, the most successful of these methods generally require structural insight. Unfortunately, despite several recent technological advances, structural coverage of membrane integral proteins continues to be sparse. ConSequently, sequence-based methods represent an important alternative to illuminate functional roles. In this report, we critically examine the ability of several computational methods to provide functional insight within two specific areas. First, can phylogenomic methods accurately describe the functional diversity across a membrane integral protein family? And second, can sequence-based strategies accurately predict key functional sites? Due to the presence of a recently solved structure and a vast amount of experimental mutagenesis data, the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter (NSS family is an ideal model system to assess the quality of our predictions. Results The raw NSS sequence dataset contains 181 sequences, which have been aligned by various methods. The resultant phylogenetic trees always contain six major subfamilies are consistent with the functional diversity across the family. Moreover, in well-represented subfamilies, phylogenetic clustering recapitulates several nuanced functional distinctions. Functional sites are predicted using six different methods (phylogenetic motifs, two methods that identify subfamily-specific positions, and three different conservation scores. A canonical set of 34 functional sites identified by Yamashita et al. within the recently solved LeuTAa structure is used to assess the quality of the predictions, most of which are predicted by the bioinformatic methods. Remarkably, the importance of these sites is largely confirmed by experimental mutagenesis. Furthermore, the collective set of functional site predictions qualitatively clusters along the proposed transport pathway, further

  17. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide-Based Sulfonated Oligoanilines Coatings for Synergistically Enhanced Corrosion Protection in 3.5% NaCl Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Zhang, Shengtao; Li, Weihua; Cui, Yanan; Yang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    As a vital derivative of graphene, graphene oxide (GO) is widely applied in various fields, such as transparent electrodes, solar cells, energy storage, and corrosion protection due to the large specific surface area and abundant active sites. However, compared with graphene, the application of GO has been less reported in metal corrosion protection field. Therefore, in our study, 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid was selected to combine with oligoanilines to fabricate the GO-based sulfonated oligoanilines coatings for marine corrosion protection application. The obtained composite coatings were covered on the surface of Q235 steel, which is one of the most important structural marine materials. Fourier transform infrared spectra were utilized to prove the existence of different bonds and functional groups of aniline trimer and sulfonated aniline trimer (SAT). Scanning electron microscopy was applied to verify the combination of GO and SAT. What's more, transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the surface appearance of the obtained GO-SAT composite material. Besides, the results of electrochemical measurements performed in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution showed excellent corrosion-protective properties of GO/SAT-coated epoxy resin with a dosage of 10 mg of GO compared with the pure epoxy resin. Moreover, the enhancement of surface hydrophobic property, to some extent, is in favor of preventing the absorption of corrosive medium and water molecules revealed by contact angle test. The addition of GO can make the diffusion pathway of the corrosive medium longer and more circuitous, while SAT has displayed excellent solvent solubility while maintaining corrosion-protective properties similar to those of polyanilines so that the corrosion-protective properties of the modified coatings improve significantly due to the synergistically enhanced corrosion protection of GO and SAT.

  18. Produção científica sobre psicoterapias na base de dados PePsic (1998/2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pessini Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetiva analisar a produção científica publicada no período entre 1998 e 2007 sobre psicoterapia, considerando: distribuição das publicações ano a ano; periódicos; quantidade e sexo dos autores; tipos de pesquisa; enfoque teórico das produções; afiliação institucional dos autores e estratégias de avaliação psicológica utilizadas, material constituído de artigos publicados em periódicos científicos indexados à base de dados PePsic (N=117, obtido com o verbete "psicoterapia". A análise apresentada é quantitativa. Os autores das produções são do sexo feminino em sua maioria. Dos tipos de trabalhos analisados, houve predomínio de teóricos, seguidos por empíricos. Cinco dos periódicos possuem 50,5% da produção pesquisada. O enfoque teórico psicanalítico teve maior predominância, seguido do cognitivo e comportamental. A maior parte dos autores está afiliada a instituições brasileiras, as quais estão concentradas na região sudeste do país. Houve uma maior prevalência para o uso de entrevistas e escalas como estratégias de avaliação psicológica.

  19. O ensino da língua Brasileira de sinais na educação infantil para crianças ouvintes e surdas: considerações com base na psicologia histórico-cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hivi de Castro Ruiz Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva expor considerações teóricas a respeito do ensino da Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras na educação infantil como recurso na mediação entre crianças ouvintes e surdas, considerando a importância do mesmo para a inclusão, e discutir seu impacto sobre o desenvolvimento humano, sob a perspectiva da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural (PHC. O conteúdo resulta de investigação bibliográfico-conceitual desenvolvida no período de 2011-2012. Entendemos que o ensino de Libras pode favorecer a aprendizagem e o desenvolvimento de crianças surdas e ouvintes, permitindo, sobretudo, àquelas multiplicar o número de interlocutores. A Libras oportuniza trocas linguísticas efetivas entre os pares surdos e ouvintes, e às crianças ouvintes oferta o acesso a um universo cultural desconhecido. Estudos de fontes primárias (publicações soviéticas e secundárias (publicações mais recentes sobre a defectologia vygotskiana, o ensino da Libras e a linguagem apontam a possibilidade de desenvolvimento de crianças ouvintes e surdas no que concerne à linguagem, sendo importante o ensino da Libras como segunda língua, enquanto recurso para crianças ouvintes. Podemos concluir quanto é necessário incrementar o ensino da Libras, e para isso a legislação regulamentada deve ser de fato cumprida. A Libras, ao estar presente nos espaços da educação escolar, não é privilégio, mas constitui-se em conteúdo fundante ao surdo e elemento agregador para o ouvinte em seu processo de formação genérica, de homem cultural.

  20. Potassium estimation in the soil solution based on electrical conductivity and soil water content Estimativa de potássio na solução do solo baseada na condutividade elétrica e umidade do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torquato M. de Andrade Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate and to validate models for estimating potassium in the soil solution as a function of bulk electrical conductivity (ECw, soil water content (q and a soil solution electrical conductivity (ECss. Treatments consisted of using three concentrations of injecting solution of potassium chloride (1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 g L-1 which were applied by two trickle irrigation systems (microsprinkler and drip during the first cycle of the banana crop cv. Terra Maranhão. Results showed that it is feasible to estimate potassium concentration in the soil solution from data of ECss and q obtained by time domain reflectometry (TDR using an equation that combined a linear and a potential model. The estimated values of potassium concentration were close to the ones measured along the crop cycle under field conditions, with a mean normalized deviation of 10.0%, maximum and minimum deviation of 5.0 and 13.0%, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e validar modelo de estimativa de potássio na solução do solo, como função da condutividade elétrica aparente (CEa, da umidade do solo (q e da condutividade elétrica da solução do solo (CEss. Os tratamentos consistiram no uso de três concentrações de cloreto de potássio da solução de injeção (1,0, 2,5 e 4,0 g L-1 aplicadas por microaspersão e por gotejamento, durante o primeiro ciclo da cultura da bananeira cultivar Terra Maranhão. Os resultados mostraram que é viável estimar a concentração de K+ na solução do solo a partir de dados de q e CEa, obtidos por meio da técnica da reflectometria no domínio do tempo (TDR para condições de campo, com uso de equação resultante da combinação de um modelo linear e um potencial. Os valores de K+ estimados se aproximaram dos medidos ao longo do ciclo da cultura da bananeira "Terra" nas condições de campo, com desvio normalizado médio de 10%, desvio máximo e mínimo de 5,0 e 13,0%, respectivamente.

  1. Alkali metal non-stoichiometric effects in (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} based piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. C.; Yeo, H. G.; Cho, J. H.; Sung, Y. S.; Kim, M. H.; Song, T. K.; Kim, S. S. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. C. [Pukyung National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, K. S. [Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Alkali-metal-excess lead-free 0.93(K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sub (1+x)}NbO{sub 3}-0.07LiNbO{sub 3} (KNNL) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by using a solid state reaction. The contents of both K and Na were simultaneously controlled to 4 mol% excess. From X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent dielectric constant measurements, a polymorphic phase transition (PPT) between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases was observed by changing the stoichiometry of x. With increasing (K+Na) content, the PPT temperature increased, but the Curie temperature decreased. The highest piezoelectric constant was 189 pC/N for x = 0.01, where the PPT temperature was around room temperature.

  2. Posicionamento estratégico de MPE'S com base na inovação através do modelo Hélice Tríplice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    Full Text Available A globalização dos mercados, os avanços da ciência e da tecnologia, estimulou o surgimento de novos nichos de mercado, com consumidores mais exigentes, e, também, o aumento da competitividade entre empresas (ORTIZ, 2003. Nesse panorama, destacam-se as micro e pequenas empresas - MPE's, que se responsabilizam por parcela relevante de geração de oportunidades de emprego e de renda no país. No entanto,estudos apontam para a fragilidade técnica e produtiva das MPE'sque se reflete em índices mais elevados de encerramento de operações e de inadimplência de obrigações sociais e tributárias (SEBRAE, 2009. Esses agentes econômicos, por vezes menos preparados para competir, mas essenciais para o sistema econômico e social dos países, foram contemplados com políticas públicas, voltadas para o estímulo ao empreendedorismo, priorizando a capacitação em gestão e métodos de produção (CASSIOLATO & LASTRES, 2001. Dentre elas destacam-se a constituição de redes colaborativas de MPE's, a capacitação de seus gestores e equipes operacionais, além da disponibilização de acesso ao conhecimento técnico, com vistas a subsidiar a atividade de inovação de produtos e processos (MATTOS et al., 2009. Com o objetivo de otimizar a alocação de recursos públicos para o referido fim, os agentes governamentais optam pela adoção do modelo de Hélice Tríplice, por meio do qual o governo media a interação entre a academia e as empresas e fomenta o compartilhamento da infra-estrutura universitária, dos conhecimentos, métodos e técnicas, desde a gestão até a operação. O objetivo deste trabalho visa evidenciar as características do posicionamento estratégico de empresas de pequeno porte, que participam de duas redes de cooperação, atuantes na região sul do país, com destaque para o processo de concepção de estratégias individuais e coletivas construídas com base em programas de capacitação em inovação, de produtos e

  3. Experimental And Modelling Investigations on Na-Illite: Acid-Base Behaviour And the Sorption Of Strontium, Nickel, Europium And Uranyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B

    2005-06-01

    In an extensive study the physico-chemical, protolysis and sorption characteristics of Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III) and U(VI) have been measured on illite and modeled over a wide range of pH, sorbate and NaCI0{sub 4} concentrations. SampIes of Illite du Puy, collected in the region of Le Puy-en- Velay, France, were carefully conditioned to the Na-form and physico-chemically characterised. Potentiometric titrations on suspensions of the Na-illite were carried out using a batch back titration technique in 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 M NaCI0{sub 4} background electrolytes from pH 2 to 12 in an inert atmosphere glove box. The supernatant solutions from each titration experiment in each series were analysed for K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Si, Al, Fe and Mn. The titration data were modeled in terms of the protolysis of two amphoteric edge sites (=S{sup W1}0H and =S{sup W2}0H) without an electrostatic term. The protonation/deprotonation constants and site capacities obtained from the titration measurements were then fixed. The sorption edge and isotherm data were modeled with strong (=S{sup S}OH) and weak (=S{sup W1}0H) surface complexation sites, assumed to have the same protolysis constants, again without electrostatic terms. Uptake by cation exchange was included in all of the calculations. This sorption model, the 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange model, had been developed previously for montmorillonite and was successful in describing the sorption characteristics of Sr, Ni, Eu and U on Na-illite over a wide range of conditions. Cation exchange capacity, strong and weak site capacities and protolysis constants for Na-illite are given, together with surface complexation constants and selectivity coefficients for Sr, Ni, Eu and U. At 0.01 M NaCI0{sub 4} and pH below 8 the sorption of Sr, Ni, Eu and U was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism. The strong dependency of sorption on pH observed under these conditions arose from the competitive effects of

  4. One-Step Catalytic Synthesis of CuO/Cu2O in a Graphitized Porous C Matrix Derived from the Cu-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Li- and Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A-Young; Kim, Min Kyu; Cho, Keumnam; Woo, Jae-Young; Lee, Yongho; Han, Sung-Hwan; Byun, Dongjin; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Joong Kee

    2016-08-03

    The hybrid composite electrode comprising CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles in a highly graphitized porous C matrix (CuO/Cu2O-GPC) has a rational design and is a favorable approach to increasing the rate capability and reversible capacity of metal oxide negative materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries. CuO/Cu2O-GPC is synthesized through a Cu-based metal-organic framework via a one-step thermal transformation process. The electrochemical performances of the CuO/Cu2O-GPC negative electrode in Li- and Na-ion batteries are systematically studied and exhibit excellent capacities of 887.3 mAh g(-1) at 60 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Li-ion battery and 302.9 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles in a Na-ion battery. The high electrochemical stability was obtained via the rational strategy, mainly owing to the synergy effect of the CuO and Cu2O micronanoparticles and highly graphitized porous C formed by catalytic graphitization of Cu nanoparticles. Owing to the simple one-step thermal transformation process and resulting high electrochemical performance, CuO/Cu2O-GPC is one of the prospective negative active materials for rechargeable Li- and Na-ion batteries.

  5. Avaliação do uso de pomada à base de sementes de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam na terapêutica tópica de feridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N.L. Vitorino Filho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades cicatrizantes da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam são atribuídas a uma proteína encontrada na semente de sua fruta que, em casos de queimaduras de pele, proporciona a regeneração do tecido danificado em vez da substituição por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Objetivando avaliar macro e microscopicamente o efeito da pomada formulada com o pó obtido a partir de sementes de jaca na cicatrização, por segunda intenção, de feridas cutâneas em camundongos, limpas e infectadas experimentalmente por Staphylococcus aureus, realizou-se o estudo em 96 camundongos nos quais foram feitas feridas experimentais na região dorso-lateral. Cada grupo, com 12 animais, recebeu um tipo de tratamento. O grupo GI serviu como controle para feridas limpas, o grupo GII foi o controle para feridas infectadas e os demais foram tratados topicamente com pomada à base de semente de jaca em diferentes esquemas de administração. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente e sacrificados cinco, 10 e 13 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removido o tecido cicatricial e circunjacente para avaliação histológica. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tratamentos. Palavras-chave: camundongos; cicatrização; feridas; jaca; Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam; lectina.

  6. Preparation of core-shell NaGdF4 nanoparticles doped with luminescent lanthanide ions to be used as upconversion-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Renren; Liu, Xiaogang

    2014-07-01

    Sodium gadolinium fluoride (NaGdF4) is an ideal host material for the incorporation of luminescent lanthanide ions because of its high photochemical stability, low vibrational energy and its ability to mediate energy exchanges between the lanthanide dopants. This protocol describes the detailed experimental procedure for synthesizing core-shell NaGdF4 nanoparticles that incorporate lanthanide ions into different layers for efficiently converting a single-wavelength, near-IR excitation into a tunable visible emission. These nanoparticles can then be used as luminescent probes in biological samples, in 3D displays, in solar energy conversion and in photodynamic therapy. The NaGdF4 nanoparticles are grown through co-precipitation in a binary solvent mixture of oleic acid and 1-octadecene. Doping by lanthanides with controlled compositions and concentrations can be achieved concomitantly with particle growth. The lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 nanoparticles then serve as seed crystals for subsequent epitaxial growth of shell layers comprising different lanthanide dopants. The entire procedure for the preparation and isolation of the core-shell nanoparticles comprising two epitaxial shell layers requires ∼15 h for completion.

  7. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Vale,Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino,José; Vale,Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  8. Development of an absorbance-based response model for monitoring the growth rates of Arcobacter butzleri as a function of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth of Arcobacter butzleri in poultry was evaluated as a function of storage temperature (5, 22.5, and 40°C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and NaCl concentration (0, 4, and 8%). A predictive model was developed using the absorbance-based response surface methodology to describe the growth rate. The primary model was obtained to predict a growth rate with a good fit (R2≥0.95), and the secondary model was obtained by nonlinear regression analysis and calculated as follows: Growth rate=-2.267274-0.024181 (Temp)+0.6459384 (pH)+0.1926227 (NaCl)+0.0024661 (Temp×pH)-0.001312 (Temp×NaCl)-0.018802 (pH×NaCl)+0.000467 (Temp2)-0.041711 (pH2)- 0.007426 (NaCl2). Our data showed that the growth of A. butzleri can be completely inhibited at a pH of 5 (in the absence of NaCl, at 5°C) and at a pH of 9 (in the presence of 8% NaCl, at 5°C). The surface response model was statistically significant, with P<0.0001, as evident from the Fisher F test and from coefficient determination (R2, 0.95). This model was also verified by the bias factor (Bf, 0.839), accuracy factor (Af, 1.343), and mean square error (MSE, 0.0138). The newly developed secondary models of growth rate for A. butzleri could possibly be incorporated into a tertiary modeling program such as Pathogen Modeling Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA]) and Food Micro Model (in the United Kingdom). As a result, they could be used to predict the growth kinetics of A. butzleri as a function of a combination of environmental factors. Ultimately, the developed model can be used to reduce A. butzleri in poultry production, processing, and distribution, thereby enhancing food safety.

  9. A produção científica do Rio Grande do Sul em Ciências Agrárias representada na base Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely de Andrade Vargas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracteriza a produção científica do Rio Grande do Sul em Ciências Agrárias representada na base de dados Web of Science de 2000 a 2010. A partir da análise de 6.617 registros, feita com o auxílio do software Bibexcel, são identificados documentos, idiomas e revistas mais utilizadas pelos pesquisadores gaúchos na divulgação de suas investigações. Apresenta-se também a evolução anual da produção e as instituições de ensino e pesquisa mais produtivas. Os resultados mostram que a produção científica do Estado em Ciências Agrárias indexada na base registrou forte crescimento, ascendendo de 179 documentos em 2000 para 1.107 documentos em 2010. Os artigos científicos corresponderam a 92% do total das publicações. Inglês e português foram os idiomas mais usados. Entre os 20 periódicos com maior volume de publicações, 18 são do Brasil. A revista Ciência Rural liderou o ranking dos periódicos mais utilizados, concentrando 10% do total da produção no período.

  10. Towards an ecological index for tropical soil quality based on soil macrofauna Em busca de um índice ecológico para a qualidade de solo tropical com base na macrofauna edáfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Huerta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to construct a simple index based on the presence/absence of different groups of soil macrofauna to determine the ecological quality of soils. The index was tested with data from 20 sites in South and Central Tabasco, Mexico, and a positive relation between the model and the field observations was detected. The index showed that diverse agroforestry systems had the highest soil quality index (1.00, and monocrops without trees, such as pineapple, showed the lowest soil quality index (0.08. Further research is required to improve this model for natural systems that have very low earthworm biomass (O objetivo deste trabalho foi construir um índice simples com base na presença/ausência de diferentes grupos da macrofauna edáfica para auxiliar na determinação da qualidade ecológica dos solos. O índice foi testado com dados de 20 locais do sul e centro do Estado de Tabasco, México, e foi observada uma correlação positiva entre o dados gerados pelo modelo e pelas observações de campo. O índice de qualidade de solo mostrou que diversos sistemas agroflorestais tiveram a mais alta qualidade de solo (1,0 e que os monocultivos sem árvores, como o de abacaxi, apresentaram a qualidade de solo mais baixa (0,08. Este modelo precisa ser melhor desenvolvido para ser aplicado eficientemente em sistemas que apresentam naturalmente baixas densidades de minhocas (<10 g m-2 e número elevado de espécies de minhocas (5-7, como ocorre em solos de floresta tropical, cujo índice de qualidade de solo apresentou valores médios (0,5. A aplicação desse índice precisará de um guia ilustrado para os seus usuários. Mais estudos são necessários para testar o seu emprego por fazendeiros.

  11. Superconducting instabilities and quasipartical interference in the LiFeAs and Co-doped NaFeAs iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenfeld, Dustin; Ahn, Felix; Eremin, Ilya [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Borisenko, Sergey [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We analyze and compare the structure of the pairing interaction and superconducting gaps in LiFeAs and Co-doped NaFeAs by using the ten-orbital tight-binding model, derived from ab initio LDA calculations with hopping parameters extracted from the fit to ARPES experiments. We discuss the phase diagram and experimental probes to determine the structure of the superconducting gap in these systems with special emphasis on the quasiparticle interference, computed using the T-matrix approximation. In particular, we analyze how the superconducting state with opposite sign of the gaps on the two inner hole pockets in LiFeAs evolve upon changing the parameters towards NaFeAs compound.

  12. Hybrid aqueous battery based on Na3V2(PO4)3/C cathode and zinc anode for potential large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolong; Yang, Ze; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Wuxing; Huang, Yunhui

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid aqueous rechargeable battery with Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode and metal Zn as anode has been proposed. Na3V2(PO4)3 is co-incorporated by carbon and reduced graphene oxide. The battery delivers a capacity of 92 mAh g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 with a high and flat operating voltage of 1.42 V. It exhibits a capacity of 60 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 mA g-1, indicative of excellent rate capability. Such inexpensive and safe battery shows an energy density as high as 112 Wh kg-1, demonstrating that it is potential for future application in large-scale energy storage.

  13. Produto à base de própolis (LLOS na dieta de bovinos inteiros confinados: comportamento animal e respostas sanguíneas = Propolis-based product (LLOS in the diet of feedlot bulls: animal behavior and blood responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Avanzi Nunes Faria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento, as respostas sanguíneas de animais confinados recebendo dieta com produto à base de própolis (LLOS. Os tratamentos foram: controle (CON e dois produtos à base de própolis (LLOSC1 e (LLOSC1+. Mediram-se os comportamentos: comendo (COM, bebendo água (BEB, andando (AND, ruminando em pé (RUEMP, ruminando deitado (RUDET, em pé (EMP e deitado (DET. Maior tempo em COM, BEB, AND, RUEMP e EMP ocorreu de manhã (MA e à tarde (TA, e em RUDET e DET à noite (NO e madrugada (MD. Animais no Lado 1 do confinamento permaneceram mais tempo andando na MA e à NO, sem diferenças para MD, e mais tempo EMP para os do Lado 1 na MA, T e MD, e igual à NO. Cortisol, Glicose e Ureia não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos para hemoglobina, hematócrito, VCM, HCM e CHCM, IgG, e o teor de eritrócito foi maiorpara LLOSC1 e LLOSC1+. Animais recebendo LLOSC1+ apresentaram maiores valores de Leucócitos, Segmentados, Linfócitos e Monócitos, que os CON. Inclusão de dieta à base de própolis não influenciou os parâmetros bioquímicos, eritrocitário e imunológico, mas aumentou as células leucocitárias. A orientação do confinamento mostrou ser importante no comportamento dos animais.The behavior and blood responses of feedlot animals fed diets containing a propolis-based product (LLOS were evaluated. The treatments were control (CON and two propolis-based products (LLOSC1 and LLOSC1+. The measured behaviors were: eating (EAT, drinking water (DRI, walking (WAL, ruminating on standing (RUST, lying rumination (LYR, standing (STA and lying (LYI. More time was spent in the morning (MO and afternoon (AFT for EAT, DRI, WAL, RUST andSTA and in the evening (EV and overnight (ON for RUST and LYI. Animals on Side 1 of the feedlot spent more time walking in MO and EV, with no differences for ON, and more time STA for animals in Side 1 in MO, AFT and ON, and equal in EV. Cortisol, glucose and urea were

  14. Aptamer biosensor for Salmonella typhimurium detection based on luminescence energy transfer from Mn2 +-doped NaYF4:Yb, Tm upconverting nanoparticles to gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Keyi; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lun; Chen, Hongqi

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive luminescent bioassay for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium was fabricated using Mn2 +-doped NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as the donor and gold nanorods (Au NRs) as the acceptor and utilizing an energy transfer (LET) system. Mn2 +-doped NaYF4:Yb,Tm UCNPs with a strong emission peak at 807 nm were obtained by changing the doped ion ratio. Carboxyl-terminated Mn2 +-doped NaYF4:Yb,Tm UCNPs were coupled with S. typhimurium aptamers, which were employed to capture and concentrate S. typhimurium. The electrostatic interactions shorten the distance between the negatively charged donor and the positively charged acceptor, which results in luminescence quenching. The added S. typhimurium leads to the restoration of luminescence due to the formation of UCNPs-aptamers-S. typhimurium, which repels the UCNPs-aptamers from the Au NRs. The LET system does not occur because of the nonexistence of the luminescence emission band of Mn2 +-doped NaYF4:Yb,Tm UCNPs, which had large spectral overlap with the absorption band of Au NRs. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of detecting S. typhimurium was 12 to 5 × 105 cfu/mL (R = 0.99). The limit of detection for S. typhimurium was as low as 11 cfu/mL in an aqueous buffer. The measurement of S. typhimurium in milk samples was satisfied in accordance with the plate-counting method, suggesting that the proposed method was of practical value in the application of food security.

  15. Dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and reaction mechanisms of reversible hydrogen storage material based on nanoconfined MgH2-NaAlH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerdsranoy, Praphatsorn; Meethom, Sukanya; Utke, Rapee

    2015-12-01

    Studies of dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and reaction mechanisms during de/rehydrogenation of nanoconfined MgH2-NaAlH4 into carbon aerogel scaffold (CAS) for reversible hydrogen storage material are for the first time proposed. Two different MgH2:NaAlH4 molar ratios (1:1 and 2:1) of hydride composite are melt infiltrated into CAS under 1:1 (CAS:hydride composite) weight ratio. Successful nanoconfinement is confirmed by N2 adsorption-desorption. Multiple-step dehydrogenation of milled samples is reduced to two-step reaction due to nanoconfinement. Peak temperatures corresponding to main dehydrogenation of nanoconfined samples significantly reduce as compared with those of milled samples, i.e., ∆T=up to 50 and 34 °C for nanoconfined sample with 1:1 and 2:1 (MgH2:NaAlH4) molar ratios, respectively. Hydrogen content released (the 1st cycle) and reproduced (the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cycles) of nanoconfined samples enhance up to 80% and 68% with respect to theoretical hydrogen storage capacity, respectively, while those of milled samples are 71% and 38%, respectively. Remarkable hydrogen content reproduced after nanoconfinement is due to the fact that metallic Al obtained after dehydrogenation (T=300 °C under vacuum) of nanoconfined samples prefer to react with MgH2 and produces Al12Mg17, favorable for reversibility of MgH2-NaAlH4 system, whereas that of milled samples stays in the form of unreacted Al under the same temperature and pressure condition.

  16. A novel Ni/Na - Containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule based on polyoxometalate and EDTA with ultraviolet-visible light photochromism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han-Xi; Teng, Chun-Lin; Cai, Qing; Sun, Su-Qin; Cai, Tie-Jun; Deng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    A novel Ni/Na - containing inorganic-organic hybrid supramolecule {(PW12O40)·[Na2(NiH2EDTA·H2O)(H4EDTA)·2H2O]·2H2O·H3O}n (short for NiEDTA-PW12) has been successfully synthesized by solution method, and investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), photoluminescence (PL), ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). NiEDTA-PW12 exhibits intriguing infinite supramolecular structure with Na+ ions as linker. Furthermore, NiEDTA-PW12 displays a fast-responsive reversible photochromism under ultraviolet or visible light. The photochromic property of NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated by techniques of UV-vis DRS and PL, and the impact of the O2 on fading of the colored NiEDTA-PW12 has been investigated.

  17. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  18. 增敏催化NaIO4氧化核固红固体基质室温磷光法测定As(V)%Solid Substrate Room Temperature Phosphorimetry for Determination of Trace Selenium based on Its Catalytic Effect on the Reaction between NaIO4 and Isatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉娜; 朱泽艺

    2012-01-01

      One new solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry for the determination of As ( ) hasⅤbeen established based on the facts that Tween-80 could sensitize and catalyze the oxidation reaction between NaIO4 and nuclear fast red (R), making the Ip of the system being 6.2 times larger than that without Tween-80. The detection limit (LD) was 2.6×10-15g mL–1, wide linear range was 0.016-1.60 fg spot-1, the linear regression△equation was Ip=1.876+58.46 m As( ) ( fg spotⅤ -1, n=7) with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9990 , indicating that this method has high sensitivity and precision. At the same time, the reaction mechanism of sensitizing and catalyzing the oxidation reaction between NaIO4 and R was also discussed.△%  本章基于Tween-80增敏催化NaIO4氧化核固红(R)的反应,导致体系的△Ip比无Tween-80时大6.2倍,据此提出了增敏催化NaIO4氧化核固红(R)室温磷光法测定As()Ⅴ的新方法.本方法的检出限(LD)为2.6×10–15g mL–1,线性范围(0.016~1.60fg spot–1),进行7次测定,其线性回归方程为△Ip=1.876+58.464 mAs()Ⅴ(fg spot–1),n=7,相关系数(r)为0.9990,表明本方法有较高的灵敏度、精密度.同时探讨了增敏催化NaIO4氧化R室温磷光法测定As()Ⅴ的反应机理.

  19. Role of Hard-Acid/Hard-Base Interaction on Structural and Dielectric Behavior of Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan-XCF3SO3 (X = Li+, Na+, Ag+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid films of pure chitosan, chitosan-LiCF3SO3, chitosan-NaCF3SO3, and chitosan-AgCF3SO3 were prepared using solution cast technique. The influence of cation size on the chitosan structure has been investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction between the alkali metal ions and the donor atoms of chitosan polymer is a strong hard-acid/hard-base interaction. It was found that the intensity of crystalline peaks of chitosan decreases with increase of cation size. The impedance analysis shows that ionic transport is high for the high amorphous system. The second semicircle in Z′′-Z′ plots and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR peaks in chitosan-AgCF3SO3 sample system reveal the formations of silver metal nanoparticles. It was found that the high amorphous sample exhibits the high dielectric constant and dielectric loss values. The increase of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with temperature for chitosan-salt membranes indicated an increase of charge carrier concentration.

  20. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  1. Influence of Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios on the immobilization of Pb from electric arc furnace into the fly ash based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejak R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD is by-product of iron and steel scrap remelting in electric arc furnace. This waste is classified as a hazardous material due to the leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Geopolymeryzation of fly ash into construction materials called - geopolymer is a considering as a possible way of immobilization of heavy metals from EAFD. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of geopolymers are mostly determined by the ratio between main oxides, Na2O, Al2O3 and SiO2. In this paper we have investigated possibility of Pb immobilization from EAFD into the fly ash based geopolymer. Geopolymers are synthesized at different Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios. Compressive strength and chemical stability of geopolymers with respect to the leaching of Pb in water according to the EN 12457 regulation were tested. The results have shown that Na2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios have influence on the compressive strength of geopolymers and Pb release in the water environment.

  2. Bulk modulus of basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(OH)2·2H2O, a possible zeolitic precursor in coal-fly-ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4] 6(OH)2•2H2O, cubic, P43n, (also known as hydroxysodalite hydrate) was prepared by the alkaline activation of amorphous aluminosilicate glass, obtained from the phase separation of Class F fly ash. The sample was subjected to a process similar to geopolymerization, using high concentrations of a NaOH solution at 90 °C for 24 hours. Basic sodalite was chosen as a representative analogue of the zeolite precursor existing in Na-based Class F fly ash geopolymers. To determine its bulk modulus, high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was applied using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a pressure of 4.5 GPa. A curve-fit with a truncated third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed K\\'o = 4 to pressure-normalized volume data yielded the isothermal bulk modulus, K o = 43 ± 4 GPa, indicating that basic sodalite is more compressible than sodalite, possibly due to a difference in interactions between the framework host and the guest molecules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Actinide burner fuel: Potential compositions based on the thermodynamic evaluation of MF-PuF 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and LaF 3-PuF 3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, O.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2008-07-01

    In previous studies a thermodynamic description of the LiF-NaF-KF-RbF-CsF-LaF 3 system was presented. In order to add PuF 3 to this system the assessments of LiF-PuF 3, NaF-PuF 3, KF-PuF 3, RbF-PuF 3, CsF-PuF 3 and LaF 3-PuF 3 binary phase diagrams have been made. In case of the LiF-PuF 3 and NaF-PuF 3 the assessments have been based on known experimental data. The other binary systems have not been measured yet and the thermodynamic description has been made using the excess parameters from the previously assessed binaries containing LaF 3, which is considered as a proxy compound for PuF 3. The main aim of this study is to analyze potential compositions for a molten salt fast burner fuel.

  4. Crystal structure of a sodium, zinc and iron(III-based non-stoichiometric phosphate with an alluaudite-like structure: Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Khmiyas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new title compound, disodium dizinc iron(III tris(phosphate, Na1.67Zn1.67Fe1.33(PO43, which belongs to the alluaudite family, has been synthesized by solid-state reactions. In this structure, all atoms are in general positions except for four, which are located on special positions of the C2/c space group. This structure is characterized by cation substitutional disorder at two sites, one situated on the special position 4e (2 and the other on the general position 8f. The 4e site is partially occupied by Na+ [0.332 (3], whereas the 8f site is entirely filled by a mixture of Fe and Zn. The full-occupancy sodium and zinc atoms are located at the Wyckoff positions on the inversion center 4a (-1 and on the twofold rotation axis 4e, respectively. Refinement of the occupancy ratios, bond-valence analysis and the electrical neutrality requirement of the structure lead to the given composition for the title compound. The three-dimensional framework of this structure consists of kinked chains of edge-sharing octahedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. The chains are formed by a succession of trimers based on [ZnO6] octahedra and the mixed-cation FeIII/ZnII [(Fe/ZnO6] octahedra [FeIII:ZnIII ratio 0.668 (3/0.332 (3]. Continuous chains are held together by PO4 phosphate groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacked sheets delimit two types of tunnels parallel to the c axis in which the sodium cations are located. Each Na+ cation is coordinated by eight O atoms. The disorder of Na in the tunnel might presage ionic mobility for this material.

  5. Sexualidade do portador do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV: um estudo com base na teoria da crise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Mara Rúbia Ignácio de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A investigação teve como objetivo identificar e analisar as dificuldades sexuais e as suas inter-relações com as dificuldades sociais e emocionais vivenciadas por sujeitos em crise de HIV. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semi-estruturada, gravada, e após, foram transcritos, categorizados e analisados. Elaboramos a transcrição das falas gravadas, e através da utilização da análise temática, criamos cinco histórias com o título: ..."O viver com HIV". Na análise dos dados a interpretação do conteúdo foi associado ao referencial teórico da crise. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que os sujeitos em crise de HIV não conseguiram um nível positivo de adaptação sexual, social e emocional. Na fala desses sujeitos, ficou claro o momento de crise de HIV caracterizada por mecanismos de enfrentamento, geralmente negativos. Os resultados obtidos apontam também para a necessidade de se repensar o papel do enfermeiro frente �� intervenção de enfermagem. Acreditamos que o Modelo de Procedimentos de Enfermagem de Saúde Mental, seja adequado para ajudar o sujeito em crise de HIV, na resolução das dificuldades sexuais, emocionais e sociais vivenciadas, e buscar um nível positivo de adaptação e enfrentamento das dificuldades inerentes ou decorrentes da doença.

  6. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials (E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance (R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance (R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  7. Nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira Nation and nationalism based on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lessa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pensar nação e nacionalismo a partir da experiência brasileira exige um mergulho desde as raízes coloniais até a modernidade. Essa trajetória é marcada por descompassos, e desde o Estado Nacional até a sedimentação da nação e o sentimento de auto-estima com uma "identidade brasileira" transcorre-se mais de um século. Tanto o conceito de Brasil-nação quanto as versões nacionalistas jamais têm alta dramaticidade; as passagens históricas fundamentais - abolição, proclamação da República, Estado Novo - se sucedem com poucos traumas preliminares e, em seqüência, a trajetória opera uma rápida "conservatização". Do ponto de vista econômico, as forças produtivas se desenvolvem dinâmica e intensamente. Apesar da expansão demográfica, da ocupação territorial, da transformação e emergência de novos grupos sociais no campo e na cidade, é preservada a exclusão social de amplas frações da nacionalidade dos benefícios do dinamismo econômico. É ciclotímica a leitura dos nacionais de suas próprias características. A cultura, tanto das elites quanto a popular, fornece chaves para entender as mutações do pensar nacional em relação ao Brasil e o desdobramento de múltiplas características.This essay aims to analyze both Nation and Nationalism concepts according to the viewpoint of brazilian experience, from colonial roots to our times, from national state’s birth to the settlement of the Nation and national self-stee. The main historical landmarks happen with few preliminary traumas and are "conservative-zed". Productive forces develop dynamically; demographic expansion and territory occupation continue as society changes and new groups emerge; however, large population segments keep excluded from the welfare economic development should provide. Natives' self-perception is rather cyclothymical. Both popular and elite’s culture provide the keys to understand the mutations of national thinking about Brazil, as

  8. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T.; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007–2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5–10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV. PMID:27119150

  9. O LÉXICO AVALIATIVO-PORTUGUÊS: UMA PERSPECTIVA PARADIGMÁTICA COM BASE NA LINGUÍSTICA SISTÊMICO-FUNCIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Alex Luis dos; Carmo, Cláudio Márcio do

    2015-01-01

    A referência à realidade extralinguística nos discursoshumanos faz-se pelos signos linguísticos, ou unidades lexicais, quedesignam os elementos desse universo, inclusive as polêmicas sociais.Uma dessas polêmicas está retratada no texto Carta Circular paraajudar as conferências episcopais na preparação de linhas diretrizesno tratamento dos casos de abuso sexual contra menores por partede clérigos. Esse texto faz parte d’A resposta da Igreja que avalia oenvolvimento de clérigos católicos em cas...

  10. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  11. Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Single-Layer Cathodic Arc PVD Nitride-Base Coatings in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Akeem Yusuf; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Madhan Kumar, Arumugam

    2017-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single-layer TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings on 304 stainless steel substrate, deposited using state-of-the-art and industrial size cathodic arc PVD machine, were evaluated in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of the blank and coated substrates was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic polarization. Bond-coat layers of pure-Ti, pure-Cr, alloyed-CrAl, and alloyed-TiAl for TiN, CrN, CrAlN, and TiAlN coatings were, respectively, first deposited for improved coating adhesion before the actual coating. The average coating thickness was about 1.80 µm. Results showed that the corrosion potentials ( E corr) of the coated substrates were shifted to more noble values which indicated improvement of the coated substrate resistance to corrosion susceptibility. The corrosion current densities were lower for all coated substrates as compared to the blank substrate. Similarly, EIS parameters showed that these coatings possessed improved resistance to defects and pores in similar solution compared to the same nitride coatings developed by magnetron sputtering. The charge transfer resistance ( R ct) can be ranked in the following order: TiAlN > CrN > TiN > CrAlN in both media except in NaCl solution where R ct of TiN is lowest. While the pore resistance ( R po) followed the order: CrAlN > CrN > TiAlN > TiN in HCl solution and TiAlN > CrN > CrAlN > TiN in NaCl solution. It is found that TiAlN coating has the highest protective efficiencies of 79 and 99 pct in 1M HCl and 3.5 pct NaCl, respectively. SEM analysis of the corroded substrates in both media was also presented.

  12. Enhanced cycle performance of a Na/NiCl2 battery based on Ni particles encapsulated with Ni3S2 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xin; Wen, Zhaoyin; Hu, Yingying; Wu, Tian; Wu, Xiangwei; He, Qiming

    2017-02-01

    Nickel particles with different contents of Ni3S2 surface layer were prepared for their application as cathode materials in Na/NiCl2 batteries. The surface modification of nickel particles is found to prevent their growth and battery degradation during cycling. The optimum level of surface modification was determined by electrochemical tests and morphology characterization. Excessive Ni3S2 layer seems to cause particle aggregation resulting in low reversible capacity. The capacity of the cell with optimum level of Ni3S2 surface modification layer after 50 cycles is about 4 times greater than that without Ni3S2 surface modification layer.

  13. Diagnosing, Optimizing and Designing Ni & Mn based Layered Oxides as Cathode Materials for Next Generation Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haodong

    The progressive advancements in communication and transportation has changed human daily life to a great extent. While important advancements in battery technology has come since its first demonstration, the high energy demands needed to electrify the automotive industry have not yet been met with the current technology. One considerable bottleneck is the cathode energy density, the Li-rich layered oxide compounds xLi2MnO3.(1-x)LiMO 2 (M= Ni, Mn, Co) (0.5= Co) (0.5=discharge capacities greater than 280 mAh g-1 (almost twice the practical capacity of LiCoO 2). In this work, neutron diffraction under operando battery cycling is developed to study the lithium and oxygen dynamics of Li-rich compounds that exhibits oxygen activation at high voltage. The measured lattice parameter changes and oxygen position show movement of oxygen and lattice contractions during the high voltage plateau until the end of charge. Lithium migration kinetics for the Li-rich material is observed under operando conditions for the first time to reveal the rate of lithium extraction from the lithium layer and transition metal layer are related to the different charge and discharge characteristics. In the second part, a combination of multi-modality surface sensitive tools was applied in an attempt to obtain a complete picture to understand the role of NH4F and Al2O3 surface co-modification on Li-rich. The enhanced discharge capacity of the modified material can be primary assigned to three aspects: decreased irreversible oxygen loss, the activation of cathode material was facilitated with pre-activated Mn3+ on the surface, and stabilization of the Ni redox pair. These insights will provide guidance for the surface modification in high voltage cathode battery materials of the future. In the last part, the idea of Li-rich has transferred to the Na-ion battery cathode. A new O3 - Na0.78Li0.18Ni0.25Mn 0.583Ow is prepared as the cathode material for Na-ion batteries, delivering exceptionally high

  14. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  15. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba) Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri; Kurt Faltin Junior; Cristina Lúcia Feijó Ortolani; Rolf Marçon Faltin; Márcia Aparecida Alves de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino), com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista) e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão) e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica partic...

  16. Palmilha personalizada à base de látex (Hevea Brasiliensis) na prevenção de úlceras do pé diabético no contexto da tecnologia assistiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Leandra Batista

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica de altíssima morbimortalidade. Uma complicação severa associada é denominada pé diabético, com consequências devastadoras resultantes de ulcerações que podem implicar em amputação de membros. A Tecnologia Assistiva contribui com o tratamento da DM. Objetivo: testar uma palmilha à base de látex, produzida individualmente utilizando modelos matemáticos coletados a partir de dados observados, que ajude na prevenção de úlceras nos denominados pés diabét...

  17. Multilayer passive shielding of scintillation detectors based on BGO, NaI(Tl), and stilbene crystals operating in intense neutron fields with an energy of 14.1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Valkovic, V.; Grozdanov, D. N.; Zontikov, A. O.; Ivanov, I. Zh.; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Krylov, A. R.; Rogov, Yu. N.; Ruskov, I. N.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Skoy, V. R.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the issues related to choosing the optimum type of passive shielding of scintillation detectors based on BGO, NaI(Tl), and stilbene crystals from the direct penetration of neutron radiation with an energy of 14.1 MeV that was emitted isotropically into a solid angle of 4π. A series of experimental measurements of the count-rate suppression factor that may be obtained for the indicated detectors through the use of various shielding filters comprising iron, lead, and borated polyethylene layers with a total thickness not exceeding 50 cm are conducted.

  18. Research on Electricity Pricing Mechanism of NaS Battery Based Energy Storage System%钠硫电池储能系统的电价机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 廖强强; 陆宇东; 周国定; 陈飞杰; 葛红花

    2014-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis model of NaS battery based energy storage system was established to study the electricity pricing mechanism during load shifting of power grid. The energy storage pricing strategies under three electricity pricing mechanisms, namely the capacity pricing mechanism, the energy pricing mechanism and the two-part electricity pricing mechanism, were discussed. Research results show that the energy pricing mechanism and the two-part electricity pricing mechanism are more suitable for the NaS battery based energy storage system than the energy pricing mechanism. Along with the reduction of specific energy construction cost for NaS battery based energy storage system from 3 000 RMB/kWh to 1 000 RMB/kWh, the discharge price of NaS battery based energy storage system, which is set by the energy pricing mechanism and the two-part electricity pricing mechanism, could be controlled to about 1 RMB/kWh, thus it may possess the elementary capability to compete with the Shanghai industrial and commercial electricity price in peak periods.%采用成本收益模型研究了钠硫电池储能系统在电网削峰填谷作用中的电价机制。从单一容量电价、单一电度电价、两部制电价3种电价机制讨论了固定投资回报期下的储能电价策略。研究结果表明,对于能量型的钠硫电池储能系统,采用单一容量电价机制来制定储能电价不太合适,而采用单一电度电价和两部制电价机制则更为合适。随着钠硫电池储能系统单位能量建设成本从3000元/kW·h降至1000元/kW·h,采用单一电度电价和两部制电价机制制定的放电电价可控制在1元/kW·h左右,初步具备了与上海工商业高峰时段电度电价竞争的优势。

  19. Izbor optimalnog puta za kretanje organizovanog kolonskog saobraćajnog toka na osnovu rezultata modeliranja / Choosing an optimal route for organized vehicle movement based on modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir S. Gordić

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available U toku planiranja i praktične realizacije zadataka jedinica Vojske SCG često se javlja problem izbora optimalnog puta između dva mesta (čvora na putnoj mreži. Kriterijumi optimizacije mogu biti različiti. Ovaj projekat treba da omogući brzo i lako određivanje optimalnog puta, primenom dinamičkog programiranja (DP, uz korišćenje Belmanovog (Bellman, algoritma u zavisnosti od izabranog kriterijuma -parametra. Kriterijum optimizacije je minimalno vreme kretanja (putovanja, koje je dobijeno imitacionim modeliranjem kolonskog saobraćajnog toka. Razrađeni algoritam omogućuje izbor optimalnog puta, za bilo koja dva čvora na mreži. / During the planning and practical realization of Serbian & Montenegro units' tasks a problem -which often occurs is choosing an optimal transport route between two places (nodes. Optimization criteria can be various. This project should enable quick and easy defining of an optimal route, applying dynamic programing (DP using Bellman's algorithm depending on chosen criteria - parameter. Optimization criteria represent minimum movement time (traveling, which are taken from imitational modeling of a traffics queue flow. Operating algorithm enable choosing an optimal transport route, for any two nodes on a road map.

  20. Accelerated materials design of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 oxygen ionic conductors based on first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei

    2015-07-21

    We perform a first principles computational study of designing the Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) perovskite material to increase its oxygen ionic conductivity. In agreement with the previous experiments, our computation results confirm fast oxygen ionic diffusion and good stability of the NBT material. The oxygen diffusion mechanisms in this new material were systematically investigated, and the effects of local atomistic configurations and dopants on oxygen diffusion were revealed. Novel doping strategies focusing on the Na/Bi sublattice were predicted and demonstrated by the first principles calculations. In particular, the K doped NBT compound achieved good phase stability and an order of magnitude increase in oxygen ionic conductivity of up to 0.1 S cm(-1) at 900 K compared to the previous Mg doped compositions. This study demonstrated the advantages of first principles calculations in understanding the fundamental structure-property relationship and in accelerating the materials design of the ionic conductor materials.

  1. Redox additives of Na2MoO4 and KI: Synergistic effect and the improved capacitive performances for carbon-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Hu, Wei; Sun, Xiao Na; Cui, Peng; Chen, Xiang Ying

    2017-02-01

    A dual system of redox additive by incorporating Na2MoO4 and KI into H2SO4 solution has been developed to highly elevate the capacitance of supercapacitors primarily owing to the synergistic effect between them at the superposed redox voltage. Furthermore, the synergistic effect therein is attributed to the formation of complex substance of (MoxIyO4x)n-Cz, which can promote redox reaction of Mon+ and In- at the interface of carbon electrode and electrolyte. On the other hand, many crucial factors mainly including the molar ratio, concentration of redox additive and voltage window strongly determine the final capacitive behaviors. For example, when adding Na2MoO4 and KI into H2SO4 with the same concentration of 0.1 mol L-1, the resultant capacitance has remarkably increased by 17.4 times, compared with the one without any redox additive, at 3 A g-1 in a two-electrode system. What's more, the homologous energy density can reach up to 65.3 Wh kg-1 at the suitable voltage window (0-1 V). Hence, the present synergism of various kinds of redox additives is intriguing and easily extended to other systems, which could highly elevate the capacitive performances of supercapacitors.

  2. A PARTICIPAÃÃO NA LISTA DE EMPRESAS COM MELHORES PRÃTICAS PARA COM OS FUNCIONÃRIOS E SEU IMPACTO NA PERFORMANCE: UM ESTUDO EMPÃRICO SOB A LÃGICA DA RBV (RESOURCE-BASED VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Miguel Agurto Berdejo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho empírico, procuram-se evidências do impacto na performance das empresas decorrente da participação da organização na lista de empresas com melhores práticas para com os seus empregados (MPE. O trabalho sustenta-se no construto da resource-based view (RBV da empresa, estruturado em Barney (1991, entendendo a presença da empresa nas listagens de MPE como um recurso idiossincrático e difícil de ser imitado, o que leva a considerar este recurso como uma fonte de vantagem competitiva sustentável. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar se a presença constante na lista de MPE no período de 2004 a 2006 proporciona uma performance financeira, medida pelo ROA e ROE, e de mercado, medida pelo Q de Tobin, superior em relação a um grupo de empresas comparáveis incluídas dentro de um grupo de controle. O período completo da análise compreende de 2001 a 2006, tendo sido testados 26 pares de empresas. Usando o Teste Wilcoxon, observouse que, para o ano de 2006, as amostras apresentam uma diferença significativa ao nível de 5% para o ROA e de 3% para o ROE evidenciando um melhor desempenho das empresas pertencentes à lista de MPE. Adicionalmente, usando a técnica de dados em painel, observou-se que a variável que denota a quantidade de participações que a empresa possui na listagem das MPE para o período de 2001 a 2006 apresenta significância para um nível menor do que 10%, contribuindo para o modelo do valor da empresa medido pelo Q de Tobin. Desta forma, este trabalho traz evidências que contribuem para demonstrar que a performance foi positivamente impactada pela sustentação de capacidades intangíveis e socialmente complexas. Com a sustentação destas capacidades podendo dificultar a sua imitação por concorrentes atuais e futuros.

  3. ETAŽNA LASTNINA S POUDARKOM NA ZVEtL

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je lastnina posameznega dela zgradbe in solastnina na skupnih delih, ki služijo vsem ali nekaterim posameznim delom zgradbe. Etažna lastnino na območju Republike Slovenije je uvedel Zakon o lastnini na delih stavbe kot odgovor na potrebo po hitri nacionalizaciji stanovanj in odrazu doslednega uvajanja osnovne ideje takratnega socialističnega duha t.j. družbene lastnine. Slovenija kot mlada demokratična država je ob tranziciji iz socialističnega v demokratični sistem poskušala ...

  4. Avaliação do Índice de Remanescente Adesivo utilizando braquetes com e sem tratamento na base e a interação com três sistemas de colagem Evaluation of Adhesive Remnant Index using conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Brisque Pignatta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA em dentes bovinos após a descolagem de braquetes com e sem tratamento na base. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados três sistemas de colagem ortodôntica para os dois padrões de base. Os dentes bovinos foram divididos em seis grupos de 40, de acordo com a base do braquete e o sistema de colagem. Vinte e quatro horas após a colagem foram realizados os testes de compressão em uma máquina de ensaios. A avaliação do IRA foi realizada em um estereomicroscópio por três examinadores calibrados. Foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido do método de Dunn, para fazer as comparações múltiplas entre todos os grupos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que o tratamento das bases dos braquetes com óxido de alumínio não foi determinante para o aumento da adesividade entre o braquete e o adesivo. O grupo em que se utilizou braquetes com tratamento na base e adesivo TXT (3M-Unitek + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek apresentou a maior parte das fraturas na interface dente-adesivo (escore 4.AIM: To assess the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI in bovine teeth after debonding mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases. METHODS: Were used three bonding systems for the two standards of base. The bovine teeth were divided into 6 groups of 40, according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. Twenty four hours after bonding they had been carried through shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine. The assessment of ARI was performed in a stereomicroscopy by three calibrated examiners. It was used the non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's method, to do the multiple comparisons among all groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the aluminum oxide sandblasting bracket bases was not determinative to the increase of the adhesiveness between bracket and adhesive. The group where it was used sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and

  5. Classificação de crises epilépticas de crianças com base na descrição clínica dos pais ou responsáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Angélica Amorim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar com que frequência a descrição das manifestações epilépticas observadas pelos pais ou responsáveis por crianças com epilepsia permitem a classificação clínica das crises epilépticas(CE. Foram selecionadas 112 crianças com CE recorrentes e espontâneas. O estudo foi dividido em duas partes. Na Parte I avaliamos a idade na primeira crise, modo de início, semiologia pré-ictal, ictal e pós-ictal. Na Parte II a classificação das CE: a segundo padrão motor convulsivo, em convulsivas / não convulsivas; e b segundo o esquema da Liga Internacional Contra Epilepsia ( ILAE, 1981. Os resultados significantes foram a descrição de auras epilépticas em 42,9%, sinais localizatórios em 36,6% e a descrição semiológica motora em 95,5%, neurovegetativa em 56,3%, psíquica em 32,1% e sensitivo-sensorial em 4,5%. Foram classificadas pela semiologia motora as CE convulsiva em 83% e não convulsiva em 17% . No esquema da ILAE obteve-se na amostra geral 12,5% de CE não classificadas, pela dicotomia foram classificadas as CE parciais em 59,9% e as generalizadas em 27,2 % . Um alto índice de aproveitamento das informações foi obtido com 87,5% de CE classificadas.Este resultado nos permite concluir ser possível classificar clinicamente e com segurança as crises epilépticas com base na descrição dos pais e ou responsáveis, utilizando-se protocolo padronizado.

  6. Formulação estratégica da manutenção industrial com base na confiabilidade dos equipamentos Strategic formulation of industrial maintenance supported by equipment's reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata o uso da confiabilidade e da manutenibilidade na formulação de estratégias de manutenção industrial. O método utilizado foi o estudo de dois casos. Inicia-se revisando conceitos ligados a variáveis e processos aleatórios como base para definir conceitos e características de estudos de confiabilidade e de modelagem aplicados na gestão da manutenção industrial. A seguir se descrevem os casos estudados, em que se aplicam técnicas de modelagem de tempos até a falha e até o reparo no estabelecimento de estratégias de manutenção em fábricas do setor metal-mecânico. Com base nos resultados, discute-se o caso, estabelecendo condições para o uso da confiabilidade na formulação estratégica da manutenção, principalmente quanto ao sistema de informações necessárias.This paper reports the use of reliability and maintainability assessments in the strategic formulation of industrial maintenance. The method was a double case study. The paper begins by a theoretical review of related concepts of stochastic variables and processes as a basis to address concepts and features from reliability studies and modeling, suited to use in managing the industrial maintenance. One then describes the two studied cases, in which the reliability techniques were applied, in modeling the times to failure and times to the repair for the sake of settling the strategic formulation of industrial maintenance in metal-mechanic plants. Supported by results, this paper discusses the cases, arising requirements to the use of the reliability, mainly related to the information system.

  7. Development of gamma spectroscopy employing NaI(Tl) detector 3 inch x 3 inch and readout electronic of flash-ADC/FPGA-based technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Vo Hong [HCMC-National Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Hung, Nguyen Quoc [HCMC-National Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Khai, Bui Tuan [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2015-05-15

    n this article the development of a gamma spectroscopy system is described using a scintillation detector NaI(Tl) of 3 inch x 3 inch. The readout electronic for the spectroscopy is built from the fast analog-digital conversion of Flash Analog-Digital Converter (Flash-ADC) 250 MHz - 8 bits resolution, and the embedded Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The embedded VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code for FPGA is built in such a way that it works as a multi channel analyser (MCA) with 4096 Digital Charge Integration (DCI) channels. A pulse generator with frequency varying from Hz up to 12 kHz is used to evaluate the time response of the system. Two standard radioisotope sources of {sup 133}Ba and {sup 152}Eu with multi gamma energies ranging from several tens keV to MeV are used to evaluate the linearity and energy resolution of the system.

  8. Design and simulation of high resolution optical imaging system based on near-field using solid immersion lens with NA = 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Karim; Sadeghi, Rasool; Sadeghi, Parvin

    2014-03-01

    In this work, by changing annular aperture zones transmittance, we could get a spot size smaller than any reported one by utilizing annular aperture. Where, by dividing the annular aperture to more than three zones and utilizing of Sony corporation Produced SIL that has NA higher than 2, we could improve imaging resolution for radial polarization (RP); also we could decrease the FWHM from around ? to near ?. Here, the FWHM variation, according to the refractive index changing, has decreased to zero for RP. After that, circular polarization (CP) has been introduced to get a spot size less than ?. This image resolution improving can be applied to enhance optical data storage, microscopes and lithographic and other high accurate optical systems.

  9. Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures and Post Annealing on the Properties of Acetic Acid Based Sol-Gel (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Wiegand; Stefan Flege; Olaf Baake; Wolfgang Ensinger

    2013-01-01

    (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) lead free thin films were synthesized by means of an acetic acid based sol-gel process on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates.Na-acetate,K-acetate and Nb-pentaethoxide were used as metal precursors and acetic acid as the solvent.The effect of different calcination temperatures on the properties of the NKN films was investigated by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,leakage current and hysteresis measurements.Low calcination temperatures led to low currents at high electric fields whereas high calcination temperatures led to low currents at low electric fields.Based on these findings calcination at low temperature was combined with a post annealing treatment.Low leakage currents of 4 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm and 2Pr and 2Ec values of 28 μC/cm2 and 150 kV/cm,respectively,could be obtained.All films were single phase NKN with random crystal orientations and no crack or pore formation was visible on the surface.

  10. Revestimento ativo de amido na conservação pós-colheita de pera Williams minimamente processada Starch-based edible coating on extending shelf life of fresh-cut pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alvarenga Botrel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A pera é uma das frutas de clima temperado mais consumidas no Brasil, no entanto sua conservação é limitada devido ao seu escurecimento quando sofre danos ou tratamentos físicos. Os revestimentos comestíveis interagem favoravelmente com o alimento, aumentando sua vida de prateleira. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ação de revestimento de amido adicionado de lactato de cálcio e L-cisteína na inibição do escurecimento enzimático, na redução do crescimento de psicrotrófilos e enterobactérias e na manutenção da textura. As peras fatiadas foram cobertas com revestimentos comestíveis à base de amido incorporados com cisteína e lactato de cálcio, exceto o controle - sem revestimento (C. Os tratamentos foram: apenas revestimento (T1; 2,0% lactato de cálcio e 1,0% L-cisteína (T2 e 2,0% lactato de cálcio e 1,5% L-cisteína (T3. As amostragens foram feitas nos tempos zero, dois, quatro e seis dias. As amostras foram mantidas sob refrigeração (7°C±2°C. As peras submetidas aos tratamentos T2 e T3 apresentaram-se significativamente mais firmes (PPear is one of the most consumed temperate fruits in Brazil; however their conservation is limited due to browning when it suffers injuries or physical treatments. The edibles coating interact with the food positively extending its shelf life. This research aimed to evaluate the action of starch edible coating incorporated with calcium lactate and L-cysteine on enzymatic browning inhibition, on psychrotrophs and enterobacteriaceae growing reduction and on firmness maintenance. The sliced pears were coated with starch edible coating incorporated with L-cysteine and calcium lactate, except control, without coating (C. The treatment were: only coating (T1; 2,0% calcium lactate and 1,0% L-cysteine (T2; 2,0% calcium lactate and 1,5% L-cysteine (T3. The samples were taken at 0, 2, 4 and 6 days. Pears were keeped under refrigeration (7°C±2°C. Pears submitted to treatments T2 and T3 show

  11. Impacto da atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade: estudo de base populacional Impact of physical activity on quality of life in middle-aged women: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da prática de atividade física na qualidade de vida de mulheres de meia idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional e corte transversal, que incluiu uma amostra estratificada de 370 mulheres de meia idade entre 40 a 65 anos, recrutadas a partir de uma população de 20.801 mulheres atendidas no período de um ano nas redes básicas de saúde, inseridas nos quatro distritos (Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste que compõem o sistema de saúde da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, de junho a setembro de 2011. O cálculo da amostra teve por base um nível de confiança de 95%, com poder do teste de 80%, erro de estimativa de 5% e considerou-se a proporção de pacientes classificadas com qualidade de vida adequada (indicador >26 da amostra piloto. Os dados foram coletados enquanto as mulheres aguardavam na sala de espera para a consulta de rotina. Para avaliar a qualidade de vida geral, utilizou-se a versão abreviada do WHOQOL (WHOQOL-Bref-WHO Quality of Life - BREF, e sua relação com os sintomas do climatério foi avaliada por meio do Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado pelo questionário International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, versão curta, semana usual. Para obter-se a classificação dos níveis de atividade física, utilizaram-se três categorias: sedentária, moderadamente ativa e muito ativa. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o programa estatístico Minitab, versão 16. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres foi de 49,8 anos (±8.1, foram predominantemente caucasianas (72,7%, casadas (61,6%, não fumantes (93,5% e com o Ensino Médio completo (47,8%. Considerando os domínios presentes no WHOQOL-Bref para avaliar qualidade de vida, os escores foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos de mulheres sedentárias, moderadamente ativas e muito ativas (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of physical activity on the quality of life of middle

  12. Na via do Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Rabinovitch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O momento nazista permanece um enigma impensado de que a cultura contemporânea continua cativa. O autor levanta a hipótese de que a persistência desse enigma e seus estragos duráveis se devem à insistência dos pensamentos político, sociológico e filosófico em construírem o nazismo à luz da metáfora hobbesiana do Leviatã. Propõe retomar a questão do nazismo sob a perspectiva do Behemoth, antônimo do Leviatã. Para tanto, sugere a necessidade de retornar a Freud e à psicanálise, balizas de um possível novo pensamento do político que escrutine a destrutividade nazista. Propõe ainda sondar as homologias entre nazismo, corjas e máfias, com base na figura da " heroicização da violência" que lhes seria comum. E avança um modelo " econômico" : a quimera, suscetível de capturar o caráter heterotópico e heterocrônico de sua construção criminosa.The paths of Behemoth. The Nazi moment remains as the thoughtless enigma of which contemporary culture is still captive. The author raises the hypothesis where the persistency of this enigma and its durable damages are due to the insistence of the political, social and philosophical thoughts in building the Nazism at the view of the Hobbesian metaphor of Leviathan. It is here proposed to resume the Nazism matter under Behemoth's perspective, antonym to Leviathan. For such, it is suggested a necessity to look back at Freud and the psychoanalysis, structured by a possible new political thought which scrutinizes the destructivity of the Nazism. It is also here proposed to gaze at the homologies between Nazism, mafias and gangs, with a base in the figure of " violence as a heroically act" that are their common ground. The author also advances an economical model: the chimera susceptible to capture the heterotopic and heterochronic character of its criminal construction.

  13. Aplicação dos conceitos de proteína bruta e proteína ideal sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte machos e fêmeas criados no inverno Performance of males and females broilers fed diets based on crude or ideal protein during the winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Salete de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho e analisar a viabilidade econômica comparativa entre dois conceitos protéicos e duas linhagens de frangos de corte (Hybro G e Hybro PG, criados no período de inverno, com temperatura média de 16°C e UR média de 72%. As aves foram alimentadas com dietas formuladas pelo conceito de Proteína Bruta (PB sem suplementação de aminoácidos e Proteína Ideal (PI, de 1 a 42 dias de idade nos dois sexos. O delineamento utilizado nos dois experimentos foi inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (2 conceitos protéicos e 2 linhagens com 6 repetições de 20 aves para cada sexo. Machos não mostraram interação entre proteína x linhagens para as variáveis estudadas; entretanto, machos do conceito PB consumiram mais ração, porém ganharam menos peso e converteram pior que os PI. Para fêmeas, houve interação para a variável conversão alimentar, sendo que as aves do conceito PI da linhagem PG, foram mais eficientes que as aves do conceito PB. Para a mesma categoria, na análise dos efeitos isolados, não houve diferença significativa para consumo, entretanto, as fêmeas PI ganharam mais peso que as fêmeas PB. Na análise econômica dos resultados, foi observado que a formulação de dietas PI para ambos os sexos é mais rentável.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of broilers and analyze the comparative economical effects of two concepts of protein given to two lines of broilers (Hybro G and Hybro PG reared during cold weather, average of 16 C and RH of 72%. The broilers were fed to diets formulated based on the concept of crude protein (PB with addition of aminoacids or on the ideal protein (PI, from 1 to 42 days of age for both sexes. The experimental design in both experiments was entirely randomized in a factorial 2 x 2 (2 protein concept vs 2 lines. The males did not show evidence and the interaction between protein vs lines for

  14. Educação de Jovens e Adultos: contribuições de artigos em periódicos brasileiros indexados na base SciELO (2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marini Braga

    Full Text Available RESUMO:Este trabalho apresenta pesquisa bibliográfica sobre temas, abordagens e proposições de 79 artigos referentes à Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA disponíveis em periódicos brasileiros indexados na base SciELO (2010-2014. Chama a atenção o quantitativo de publicações do quinquênio superar o da década anterior e a concentração de textos voltados à escolarização. Dentre as proposições, está a de uma política de Estado para a EJA, da Alfabetização ao Ensino Médio, considerando os diferentes contextos marcados pela diversidade, e de oferta/aprimoramento de formação docente. Dentre os temas emergentes, destacam-se: Educação Profissional integrada à Educação Básica; Educação na Prisão; e Educação e Saúde. Identificou-se a presença pouco significativa em relação a Arte, Educação Ambiental e História, com silêncio em Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação e Geografia. A Educação Popular aparece discretamente, contudo, a problematização de questões teórico-metodológicas remete à reflexão sobre seus princípios na contemporaneidade.

  15. Homocisteína Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindalva Batista Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A homocisteína, formada a partir da metionina hepática, é metabolizada nas vias de desmetilação e de transulfuração, sendo que seus valores plasmáticos e urinários refletem a síntese celular. Sua determinação, realizada em jejum e após sobrecarga de metionina, caracteriza as diferenças dessas vias metabólicas, principalmente quando de natureza genética. A hiper-homocisteinemia tem sido associada a maior risco de eventos aterotrombóticos, e a literatura sugere associação causal, independente de outros fatores de risco para doença arterial. Diminuição da homocisteína plasmática para valores normais é seguida de redução significante na incidência de doença aterotrombótica. A relação entre homocisteína e o fígado vem adquirindo importância nos dias atuais, uma vez que alterações das lipoproteínas e da depuração de metionina são comuns em pacientes com doença hepática crônica (hepatocelular e canalicular. O tratamento da hiper-homocisteinemia fundamenta-se na suplementação alimentar e medicamentosa de ácido fólico e vitaminas B6 e B12.Homocysteine, formed from hepatic methionine, is metabolized through the pathways of demethylation and transsulfuration. Its plasmatic and urinary values reflect the cell synthesis. Its determination after fasting and increased infusion of methionine shows the differences of these two metabolic pathways, mainly when it is related to genetic diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with a higher risk of vascular thrombotic events. Several authors suggest a causal relationship between these events independently of other risk factors for vascular diseases. Decrease in plasmatic homocysteine to normal levels is followed by a significant reduction on the incidence of vascular thrombotic events. The correlation between the liver and homocysteine is becoming more important because of the recent findings that alterations of lipoproteins and methionine clearance are

  16. Suicídios: fato social e desenvolvimentismo na base dos atentados contra a vida (Suicides: social fact and developmentalism on the basis of attacks against life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Ristow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Há várias formas de abordar o tema suicídio. A academia tem tratado como respostas à desigualdade das estruturas ou como psicopatologias da pessoa. Porém, se olharmos além das letras é possível perceber uma plurisignificação das ações ao invés de comportamentos tipificados. Agricultores do Brasil tem sido alvo de tecnologias produtivas que não levam em consideração estudos de impactos para pessoas e meio ambiente. A Fiocruz, Sinitox e Anvisa, tem alertado para o alto nível de periculosidade de produtos manipulados no meio rural (mas também no urbano sem as devidas precauções, ou apesar delas. Neste texto é demonstrado um cenário nacional de ocorrências de suicídio motivados pelo uso de químicos na agricultura e um estudo de caso do Oeste do Paraná. Somente no ano de 2008, ocorreram 33 fatos consumados, todos eles na área rural. Através de metodologia específica, recorre-se a dados estatísticos, do registro civil e obituário, e resultados clínicos para mensuração dos dados. Abstract: There are several ways to address the issue of suicide. The Academy has been treating it as a response to the inequality of the social structures or as individual psychopathologies. However, if we look beyond the writings, it is possible to perceive that the suicidal actions have multiple meanings instead of revealing typified behaviors. Farmers in Brazil have been the target of productive technologies that do not consider impact studies regarding the people and the environment. Research centers and governmental agencies such as FIOCRUZ, Sinitox and Anvisa have alerted to the high hazard level of the products handled in rural areas (as well as in urban areas without the appropriate precautions or despite them. The present text demonstrates a national scenario of suicides motivated by the use of chemicals in the agriculture and a case study in the Western region of the state of Paraná. In the year 2008 alone, this area has

  17. The NA48 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    The NA48 experiment is designed to study the Charge-Parity (CP) violation. CP violation is observed in certain very rare decays. Its study is important in understanding Nature's preference of matter over antimatter, which resulted in asymmetry soon after the Big Bang, creating a matter-dominated Universe.

  18. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  19. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Carrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.

  20. Redução de proteína bruta com suplementação de aminoácidos, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Reduction of crude protein with amino acid supplementation, based on ideal protein concept, in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da redução da proteína bruta (PB da ração com suplementação de aminoácidos, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 396 alevinos, linhagem tailandesa, com 0,80 ± 0,17 g de peso vivo, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, composto de seis tratamentos (32, 31, 30, 29, 28 e 27% de PB, seis blocos por tratamento e 11 peixes por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoenergéticas e isolisínicas digestíveis, mantendo-se constantes as relações mínimas dos aminoácidos com a lisina. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individual, e alimentados à vontade seis vezes ao dia durante 40 dias. A redução do teor de proteína bruta da ração não afetou o ganho de peso, a taxa de crescimento específico, o consumo de ração, o consumo de lisina digestível, o teor de proteína corporal, as taxas de deposição de gordura e de proteína e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. Os peixes alimentados com rações com 27% de PB apresentaram pior conversão alimentar, menor eficiência de utilização da lisina para ganho, menor consumo de nitrogênio e umidade corporal, maior eficiência protéica para ganho e mais alto teor de gordura corporal. O nível de proteína bruta da ração para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo pode ser reduzido em quatro pontos percentuais (de 32 para 28%, pois essa redução não prejudica o desempenho dos animais, desde que as rações sejam suplementadas com aminoácidos essenciais limitantes.The effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP with supplementation of amino acids, based on the ideal protein concept on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance was evaluated. A total of 396 fingerlings from Thai strain, with 0.80 ± 0.17 g of BW, was

  1. Effects of Combined CCR5/Integrase Inhibitors-Based Regimen on Mucosal Immunity in HIV-Infected Patients Naïve to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Sainz, Talia; Ma, Zhong-Min; Utay, Netanya S; Chun, Tae-Wook; Wook-Chun, Tae; Mann, Surinder; Kashuba, Angela D; Siewe, Basile; Albanese, Anthony; Troia-Cancio, Paolo; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Somasunderam, Anoma; Yotter, Tammy; Deeks, Steven G; Landay, Alan; Pollard, Richard B; Miller, Christopher J; Moreno, Santiago; Asmuth, David M

    2016-01-01

    Whether initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens aimed at achieving greater concentrations within gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) impacts the level of mucosal immune reconstitution, inflammatory markers and the viral reservoir remains unknown. We included 12 HIV- controls and 32 ART-naïve HIV patients who were randomized to efavirenz, maraviroc or maraviroc+raltegravir, each with fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Rectal and duodenal biopsies were obtained at baseline and at 9 months of ART. We performed a comprehensive assay of T-cell subsets by flow cytometry, T-cell density in intestinal biopsies, plasma and tissue concentrations of antiretroviral drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and zonulin-1 each measured by ELISA. Total cell-associated HIV DNA was measured in PBMC and rectal and duodenal mononuclear cells. Twenty-six HIV-infected patients completed the follow-up. In the duodenum, the quadruple regimen resulted in greater CD8+ T-cell density decline, greater normalization of mucosal CCR5+CD4+ T-cells and increase of the naïve/memory CD8+ T-cell ratio, and a greater decline of sCD14 levels and duodenal HIV DNA levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.067, respectively), with no changes in HIV RNA in plasma or tissue. Maraviroc showed the highest drug distribution to the gut tissue, and duodenal concentrations correlated well with other T-cell markers in duodenum, i.e., the CD4/CD8 ratio, %CD4+ and %CD8+ HLA-DR+CD38+ T-cells. Maraviroc use elicited greater activation of the mucosal naïve CD8+ T-cell subset, ameliorated the distribution of the CD8+ T-cell maturational subsets and induced higher improvement of zonulin-1 levels. These data suggest that combined CCR5 and integrase inhibitor based combination therapy in ART treatment naïve patients might more effectively reconstitute duodenal immunity, decrease inflammatory

  2. Electrolyte low concentrations effects on the the rheology of water and bentonitic clays basis drilling fluids; Efeito de baixas concentracoes de eletrolitos na reologia de fluidos de perfuracao a base de agua e argilas bentoniticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Luciana Viana [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Engenharia de Processos]. E-mail: lucianaa@labdes.ufpb.br; Viana, Josiane Dantas; Farias, Kassie Vieira; Lira, Helio de Lucena; Ferreira, Heber Carlos [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais]. E-mail: josianedantas@bol.com.br; kassievieira@bol.com.br; helio@dema.ufpb.br; heber@dema.ufpb.br; Franca, Kepler Borges [Universidade Federal, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: kepler@labdes.ufpb.br

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of low electrolytes concentration on the rheology of the water based oil well drilling fluids and bentonite clays from Boa Vista, PB. It were selected seven samples of bentonite clays (four from industry and three from natural polycationic clay treated with concentrated Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution). The drilling fluids were prepared with a concentration of 4.86 % w/w, according to PETROBRAS norms and treated with different CaCl{sub 2} + MgCl{sub 2} concentration. After, the drilling fluids were submitted to a cure for 24 hours and measured apparent viscosity (AV), plastic viscosity (PV) and water loss (WL). To study the effect of the electrolyte on the rheology of the dispersions it was developed a factorial design 2{sup 2} + 3 test in the central point. The results showed that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} + MgCl{sub 2} caused a degradation of the drilling fluids prepared with industrialized clays, as showed by the decrease in AV and PV and great increase in WL. Also, it was observed an increase in AV and a decrease in PV in the drilling fluids prepared with natural clays treated with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, conducting a flocculated-gel state. (author)

  3. Field-induced phase transition in Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterstein, Manuel [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; Knapp, Michael [CELLS, Barcelona (Spain); Hoelzel, Markus; Jo, Wook; Fuess, Hartmut [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science; Cervellino, Antonio [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Swiss Light Source; Ehrenberg, Helmut [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science

    2010-12-15

    The origin of the electric field-induced strain in the polycrystalline ceramic 0.92Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}-0.06BaTiO{sub 3}-0.02K{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}NbO{sub 3} was investigated using in situ high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. The initially existing tetragonal phase with pseudocubic lattice undergoes a reversible phase transition to a significantly distorted rhombohedral phase under electric field, accompanied by a change in the oxygen octahedral tilting from a{sup 0}a{sup 0}c{sup +} to a{sup -}a{sup -}a{sup -} and in the tilting angle. The polarization values for the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases were calculated based on the structural information from Rietveld refinements. The large recoverable electric field-induced strain is a consequence of a reversible electric field-induced phase transition from an almost nonpolar tetragonal phase to a ferroelectrically active rhombohedral phase. (orig.)

  4. Saberes da docência na educação profissional e tecnológica: um estudo sobre o olhar dos professores The teacher knowledge base concerning Technological and Vocational Education (TVE: an exploration into the teacher's viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ângelo Gariglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como referência a histórica desregulamentação da docência na Educação Profissional e Tecnológica, além de uma restrita produção científica sobre a matéria, fazemos uma discussão inicial sobre os saberes mobilizados pelos docentes da EP, analisando, a partir das representações dos sujeitos docentes de diversas instituições, os saberes acionados e demandados nas suas atividades educativas e as concepções de formação profissional subjacentes a tais saberes. Autores como Gauthier, Tardif, Lessard, Oliveira e Peterossi ancoram nossas análises, que apontam para a necessidade de se avançar o debate tanto sobre o modelo quanto sobre o lócus da formação desses professores, dando atenção às suas especificidades. Aponta-se para a urgência de definição de políticas de Estado na área: regulamentação do exercício da docência na EP, estratégias de profissionalização, definição de carreiras, salários e avaliação.Having as its reference the historical teaching de-regulation in technological and vocational education, along with a restricted (rare or scarce scientific publication on the matter, we carry out an initial discussion concerning the knowledge base mobilized by the TVE teachers. We do this by means of an analysis of: 1 presentations by teachers from several TVE institutions; 2 the knowledge base activated and/or called into demand by these educational activities. Authors like Gauthier, Tardif, Lessard, Oliveira and Peterossi, strengthen (by way of a theoretical base our analysis, while at the same time making it clear that a debate needs to be launched, as much for the sake of defining the model, as for defining the locus (focal point in the training that TVE teachers receive. Attention needs to be given to the specificities encountered in providing training for teachers training in this field. The urgent need for the state to define its policies in this area, is also pointed out. For example, there is

  5. NaCl、NaCl—CaCl2、CaCl2盐水作基液对压井液性能影响的实验研究%Experiment and Study of the Influence of Base Fluid on Killing Fluid by Respectively Using Nacl,Nacl-CaCl2 or CaCl2 Bring as the Base Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景岷雪

    2000-01-01

    为了保护储层,在修井、试井等作业中,普遍采用清洁盐水作压井液。文章通过进行浓度比较、聚合物盐析、岩块浸泡、有机质析出、乳化及动态流动模拟等一系列实验,从储层保护技术的角度,研究分析了NaCl、NaCl—CaCl2、CaCl2盐水作压井液基液,对所配制的压井液性能的影响。认为选择NaCl与CaCl2的混合液作为压井液基液,比用单纯的NaCl、CaCl2盐水作压井液基液具有可减少用盐量、降低矿化度、抑制大盐晶体形成、相对减少沥青质析出、且在岩石表面形成的高分子覆盖膜较薄、与原油乳化程度较低等优点,对配制有利于保护储层的压井液更为合宜。文章同时也提供了研制和评价保护储层优质压井液的实验研究方法。

  6. Redução da proteína em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo por meio da suplementação de aminoácidos com base no conceito de proteína ideal Protein reduction in diets for Nile tilapia by amino acids supplementation based on the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sérgio Righetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da redução da proteína da dieta, por meio da suplementação com aminoácidos sintéticos, sobre o desempenho produtivo, a digestibilidade e o diâmetro da fibra muscular de tilápias-do-nilo. Os aminoácidos (lisina, metionina, treonina e arginina foram suplementados de forma a manter o perfil de aminoácidos da dieta-referência. Foram utilizados 160 peixes com peso vivo médio inicial de 105,7 ± 2,5 g, distribuídos em 16 tanques (1 m³ cada e alimentados com dietas contendo 26,74; 25,82; 23,09 ou 22,16% de proteína digestível durante 110 dias. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de proteína nas dietas sobre o ganho de peso diário, o índice hepatossomático, a gordura visceral, o rendimento de filé, os teores corporais de umidade, proteína bruta e cinzas, o teor de cinzas no filé, a taxa de sobrevivência e o diâmetro das fibras do músculo dorsal. Com a redução dos níveis de proteína na dieta, foi observada redução linear dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e fósforo das dietas. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de proteína sobre a conversão alimentar, a taxa de eficiência proteica, a retenção de nitrogênio, o nitrogênio excretado, a umidade no filé, a gordura corporal e no filé e proteína no filé, de modo que os melhores valores foram estimados com 24,53; 24,25; 24,04; 25,15; 24,67; 24,14; 24,34; 25,11% de proteína digestível, respectivamente. É possível reduzir, de 26,74 para 24,53%, a proteína digestível em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo na fase de 100 a 500 g.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of reduction of protein in diets for Nile tilapia by supplementation of synthetic amino acids on performance, digestibility and diameter of muscle fiber of Nile tilapias. The amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine and arginine were supplemented to keep the profile of amino

  7. Preparación de una disolución de una base fuerte (NaOH) y cálculo de su molaridad mediante volumetría ácido-base frente a hidrogenoftalato patrón. Práctica interactiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Se simula la preparación de una disolución de la base NaOH y su estandarización frente al patrón primario hidrogenoftalato de potasio. Después de la preparación de la disolución de la base, se pesa la sustancia patrón, se disuelve, se añade el indicador fenolftaleína y se valora hasta cambio de color del indicador. Es posible controlar el vertido de la bureta que puede cerrarse en el momento que se observa el cambio de color de la disolución de hidrogenoftalato. Hay dos formas de resolver el ...

  8. A Insustentabilidade do Turismo no Brasil e o Sucesso de Praia do Forte: uma análise exploratória com base na nova economia institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Alban

    2010-06-01

    -default-props:yes; font-size:10.0pt; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:70.85pt 3.0cm 70.85pt 3.0cm; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} -->

    Resumo

    Baseado no pressuposto de que o turismo é uma rota natural e fácil, a evolução do setor no país, desde os anos 90, tem se pautado por uma estratégia de forte expansão espacial da infra-estrutura. Partindo-se de uma análise do baixo desempenho dessa estratégia, demonstra-se o equívoco desse pressuposto. A conclusão é de que o turismo não tem nada de natural ou fácil. Ao contrário é uma rota bastante complexa, que não pode se desenvolver sem boas estruturas de governança. Face a essa constatação, o artigo apresenta as linhas mestras da Nova Economia Institucional e, com base na mesma, analisa os complexos sistemas de governança das cadeias produtivas do setor. Posteriormente, de posse desse novo referencial, estuda-se a singular estrutura de governança do

  9. Unidades fototérmicas e temperatura-base inferior de frutos de Mangueira Alfa, na Baixada Cuiabana Photothermal units and lower base temperature for alfa mango fruit on the Baixada Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paes de Barros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a temperatura-base inferior (Tb a partir da unidade fototérmica (UF para o cultivo experimental de manga Alfa sob condições de cerrado. Foram utilizados dados diários da temperatura do ar disponibilizados pela Estação Agrometeorológica Padre Ricardo Remetter, localizada em Santo Antônio do Leverger-MT (15,8° S e 56,1° W, 140 m, e avaliação sensorial do estádio de maturação dos frutos de manga. A Tb foi determinada pelo método da menor variabilidade das unidades fototérmicas (UF acumuladas do período da floração à colheita dos frutos, variabilidade avaliada pelo coeficiente de variação (cv simulado para diferentes valores da Tb. De julho a novembro de 2007, em três plantas de um pomar demonstrativo irrigado, foram identificados 82 frutos para o acompanhamento do crescimento e maturação. Entre esses frutos, em meados de dezembro de 2007, foi possível identificar 13 frutos que atingiram a maturidade fisiológica, após um período médio de observação de 112 dias. Para exigência fototérmica de 1.878.166,1 UF, encontrou-se Tb de 10 °C, valor consistente com os apresentados na literatura para a cultivar de manga, o que comprova a eficiência do método que combina a ação da temperatura e do fotoperíodo sobre a maturação dos frutos e que confere um caráter mais racional que o método tradicional da soma térmica.In this study was to determine the lower base temperature (Tb for Alfa mango fruit, using the photothermal units (PTU method in cerrado conditions. The meteorological data for the study were acquired from "Padre Ricardo Remetter" meteorological station located at Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT, Brazil (15,8° S and 56,1° W, 140 m, and the fruit data was acquired by sensorial evaluation of mango fruit maturation state. The Tb was determined by less variability of the coefficient of variation (cv method applied to the PTU sum, from flowering to harvest, simulated for

  10. Consumo alimentar de crianças e adolescentes com disfagia decorrente de estenose de esôfago: avaliação com base na pirâmide alimentar brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Marciano, Renata [UNIFESP; Speridião,Patrícia da Graça Leite; Kawakami, Elisabete [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo alimentar de pacientes com disfagia decorrente de estenose de esôfago, comparando a dieta de consistência líquida com a dieta de consistência pastosa e sólida, com base na Pirâmide Alimentar Brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, no qual foram incluídos consecutivamente 31 pacientes com estenose esofágica, sendo 18 (58,0%) cáustica, 7 (22,6%) pós-cirúrgica, 3 (9,7%) péptica e 3 (9,7%) sem causa definida. Empregou-se o recordatório de 24 horas; os aliment...

  11. Características dos Cursos Superiores de Tecnologia e Bacharelado em Secretariado: Um Estudo com Base na Interpretação das Diretrizes Curriculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Stece

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora as atividades de secretariado já existam de longa data, aregulamentação da profissão ainda é recente, pois data de 30/09/1985. Devido àevolução da profissão e o surgimento da formação tecnológica de nível superior,muitas dúvidas são originadas quanto à formação e atuação dos profissionaisformados nos cursos de tecnologia e bacharelado. Neste sentido, este estudobusca apresentar as possíveis diferenças existentes na formação e atuação dosprofissionais formados nos cursos superiores de Tecnologia e bacharelado emSecretariado. Como metodologia, a pesquisa qualitativa embasou o estudo, e oprincipal instrumento utilizado foi a análise documental dos seguintesdocumentos: lei de regulamentação da profissão (Lei 7377, de 30/09/85 e Lei9261, de 10/01/96; Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais Gerais para a organizaçãoe o funcionamento dos cursos superiores de tecnologia (Resolução CNE/CP 3, de18 de dezembro de 2002, Catalogo Nacional de Cursos Superiores de Tecnologiae  Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais parao curso de Secretariado Executivo (Resolução CNE/CES nº 3/2005, de 23 de junhode 2005. A pesquisa apontou que as principais diferenças estão relacionadasà  carga horária, à oferta de idiomas, e à nomenclatura dos cursos. Demonstra também que a Lei de Regulamentação daprofissão, não prevendo as diferenças existentes entre os dois graus de formação,contribui para o surgimento de dúvidas, principalmente sobre a atuação dessesprofissionais, uma vez que ambos são considerados Secretários Executivos.

  12. A base sócio-histórica na construção do protagonista em As Aventuras de Tom Sawyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Tavares Nates Moreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A obra The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, escrita pelo autor norte americano Samuel Langhorne Clemens, mais conhecido pelo pseudônimo Mark Twain, é considerada, hoje, a narrativa que inaugurou a literatura infanto-juvenil, no século XIX. Essa narrativa ganha maior expressividade devido a sua escrita de caráter regionalista utilizado pelo autor. Com a publicação de As Aventuras de Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain percorre o ambiente literário, com traços marcados pelo humor, pelo Realismo e pelo Regionalismo. Este trabalho objetiva analisar os fragmentos da fala de Tom e aspectos sócio-históricos de uma época de mudanças.  A finalidade é considerar o processo de transição do protagonista, dentro do romance. Desse modo, foram selecionados alguns fragmentos que revelam pontos Realistas. Após a leitura da obra, foram verificados e extraídos fragmentos representativos do jovem protagonista, tais como crenças religiosas, compreensão de mundo e valores morais. O filtro analítico se pauta no trabalho de teóricos como Bakhtin (2010, Watt (2010 e Blair (1967, entre outros, que contribuíram com informações sobre o desenvolvimento político, cultural e religioso das famílias americanas do Centro-Oeste dos Estados Unidos do século XIX. Serão abordadas as teorias sobre o personagem, a partir das reflexões de Gancho (2006 e Candido (2007. Os vários fragmentos analisados permitiram-nos chegar à conclusão sobre o modo como a transição do jovem protagonista foi influenciada, quais as características que revelam suas preferências e opiniões, e, por acréscimo, verificar que muitas dessas respostas poderão ser constatadas em conformidade com o período da época que, “irrevogavelmente”, são considerados intrínsecos na vida de Tom Sawyer.Palavras-chave: protagonista; regionalismo; realismo; Tom Sawyer.

  13. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  14. Identidades Homossexuais na Territorialidade Tradicionalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edipo Djavan dos Reis Göergen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o debate teórico que sustenta a pesquisa de mestrado desenvolvida pelo autor. Tendo por base suas vivências em contextos de tradicionalismo gaúcho, o autor deste trabalho tem percebido a grande quantidade de homossexuais, ou indivíduos que se auto-denominam não-heterossexuais, integrando as atividades artísticas do Movimento Tradicionalista Gaúcho, ou a territorialidade tradicionalista. Interessado em investigar tal fenômeno, o autor tem desenvolvido o projeto de pesquisa “Os Espaços Paradoxais de Relações Homoeróticas na Territorialidade Tradicionalista”, sob orientação do prof. Dr. Benhur Pinós da Costa, no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia (UFSM. Para que essa pesquisa seja realizada, levam-se em conta as relações de gênero e de sexualidade que estão envolvidas no tema. Dessa forma, por ainda se tratarem de temáticas tidas como insignificantes na sociedade em geral e marginalizadas no campo científico, para que o presente trabalho fosse empreendido, buscou-se amparo teórico nas geografias feministas e queer, segmentos contemporâneos da ciência geográfica.

  15. O problema do conhecimento verdadeiro na epidemiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayres José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available São examinadas as bases filosóficas da validação do conhecimento científico, com o intuito de estabelecer uma visão crítica a respeito da adoção das proposições de Popper na epidemiologia. Ressalta-se o caráter conservador que resulta das limitações técnicas implicadas na sua adoção, não obstante o evidente aumento da racionalidade e da criatividade heurística que propicia.

  16. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  17. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-30

    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  18. Naïve Bayes classification in R

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes’ theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DAS DIETAS SIMPLIFICADAS E SEMI-SIMPLIFICADAS, COM BASE NA MISTURA DE FORRAGEIRAS, COM E SEM ENZIMAS, PARA COELHOS EM CRESCIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Machado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The simplified and half-simplified diets are a new technology that combines economy and welfare intestinal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of simplified and half-simplified diets, with and without exogenous enzymes, on the productive performance of growing rabbits. A Reference diet, two simplified diets and eight half-simplified diets had been utilized. The main fibrous sources used were the alfalfa hay (ALH, hay from the upper third of the cassava foliage (HUTCF and cassava leaf meal (CLM, using a completely randomized design with 11 treatments and eight repetitions. The enzymes used were the carbohydrases (alpha-galactosidase, galactomanase, xylanase and beta-glucanase and phytase. The consumption of animals fed with diets with high inclusion of CLM was lower than the other. The daily weight gain was higher in animals fed with the reference diet, half-simplified diet based on HUTCF and half-simplified diets based on the mix of ALH and CLM. A positive effect of exogenous enzymes inclusion, on the performance parameters, was not observed. Based on these results we conclude that the simplified and half-simplified diets provide decrease in productive performance. Considering the proportionate economy in the cost of feed, the half simplified based on HUTCF may be an interesting alternative.

  20. Research of Brazilian crude in pilot plant for base oil production; Pesquisa em planta piloto visando valorizar o cru nacional na producao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Anita E.F.; Nogueira, Wlamir S.; Ximenes, Lelia M. de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Claudio A.P. dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges for PETROBRAS is to find alternative crude oils to produce base oil and wax in its refinery. Duque de Caxias refinery has been using imported crude oil for 31 years living with constants threats to continuity because of the Persian Gulf conflicts. If we analyze the profitability of this business, we can verify that the lubes complex had contributed for the profitability by about 41,9% in 2002, even using imported crude oil. So, if we can incorporate a national crude oil in the actual refinery scheme, we would produce besides strategic gains better profitability for the base oil and wax unit. This paper describes a series of tests performed in the pilot plant, in which we produced base oils and wax using a mixture of imported crude with Brazilian crude oil. The base oils produced were classified as Group I with lower aromatic, Sulphur and basic Nitrogen content. Another great advantage of this alternative is that the light fractions obtained from distillation step can be used as feed to make fuels of better quality, due to the lower sulphur content, thus also reducing the environmental impact. (author)

  1. Eletrencefalograma na síndrome parkinsoniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Camargo Lima

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os eletrencefalogramas de 50 pacientes parkinsonianos livres de qualquer antecedente convulsivo, sendo registrados traçados anormais em 40% dos casos. A incidência de traçados anormais foi maior na síndrome parkinsoniana bilateral do que na unilateral (52% e 25%, respectivamente. Entre as anormalidades assinaladas foram as paroxísticas as mais freqüentes (65% dos casos, caracterizando-se predominantemente por surtos de ondas teta. O registro de anormalidades paroxísticas do tipo irritativo encontrado em três casos é salientado. Alterações da atividade de base foram assinaladas em 35% dos pacientes. A idade dos pacientes não parece ter tido importante papel na gênese das anormalidades eletrencefalográficas.

  2. Incremento na dissolução da caffeine em base de ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/vp copolymer: desenvolvimento farmacotécnico de géis anti-celulite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Menezes Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A hidrolipodistrofia ginóide (HLDG, popularmente conhecida como “celulite”, consiste em uma alteração patológica do tecido adiposo e da função veno-linfática. Géis contendo caffeine tem sido empregados no tratamento não-invasivo da HLDG, oferecendo resultados satisfatórios a baixos custos. Devido a baixa hidrossolubilidade da caffeine, este gel apresenta como principal inconveniente a formação de precipitados/grumos, oriundos da precipitação da caffeine na base hidrofílica (gel. Este trabalho tem como objetivo o incremento na dissolução da caffeine em gel de Ammonium Acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP Copolymer, através da adição de adjuvantes como o citric acid e o sodium benzoate, além de solução hidroalcoólica, empregada como co-solvente da caffeine. O incremento na dissolução da caffeine foi verificado através da determinação do seu teor nos géis. Além disso, todas as amostras foram submetidas a análises macroscópicas e determinações de pH e viscosidade. A análise macroscópica permitiu a nítida visualização dos precipitados/grumos nos géis preparados sem os adjuvantes, enquanto que o emprego dos mesmos originou géis sem a presença de precipitados. A determinação do teor de caffeine demonstrou que os adjuvantes e co-solvente quase dobraram a concentração deste ativo nos géis. O pH do gel e a concentração de citric acid não influenciaram na dissolução da caffeine. Por outro lado, esses parâmetros influenciaram negativamente na viscosidade dos géis, o que parece ter sido ocasionado pela instabilidade do ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer em valores baixos de pH. Com isso, o aumento na dissolução da caffeine no gel anti-celulite parece ter sido ocasionada pela formação de sais hidrossolúveis com os adjuvantes empregados.Palavras-chave: Hidrolipodistrofia ginóide. Gel redutor. Cafeína. Dissolução. ABSTRACTDissolution enhancement of caffeine in the ammonium

  3. Análisis del proceso de minería de datos sobre la base de datos Bioinformática de segmentos de la proteína p53, asociada a la actividad cancerígena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hadad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la utilización de estrategias para afrontar el problema del desbalanceo y la alta dimensionalidad de los registros que habitualmente forman parte de las bases de datos en el área bioinformática. Se tomó como caso de estudio la base de datos de segmentos de la proteína p53; sobre dicha base se construyen modelos con el fin de identificar si corresponden a patrones activos o inactivos. El problema del desbalanceo se abordó a través de una red neuronal no supervisada, y el de la selección de variables para reducir la alta dimensionalidad, a partir de una combinación de métodos con diferentes enfoques. Experimentos preliminares del modelo propuesto en datos estándar muestran resultados promisorios.

  4. Study on phase equilibria in Na2 B4 O7 -NaBr-Na2 SO4 -H2O quaternary system at 348 K%Na2B4O7-NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O四元体系348K相平衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁慧逸; 桑世华; 王丹; 曾晓晓

    2012-01-01

    采用等温溶解平衡法研究Na2B4O7 -NaBr-Na2SO4-H2O四元体系在348 K的相平衡关系,测定了平衡液相的溶解度和密度.根据实验数据绘制相应相图.该四元体系相图中有1个共饱点E,3条单变量曲线E1E,E2E,E3E,3个结晶区的平衡固相分别为:NaBr,Na2SO4和Na2B4O7 · 5H2O.研究结果表明:该四元体系无复盐和固溶体生成,属于简单四元体系,NaBr对Na2B4O7·5H2O和Na2SO4有较强的盐析作用.并对NaBr和Na2B4O7在不同温度下含有的结晶水数进行了对比分析,简要讨论了密度变化规律.%The solubilities and densities of solution in Na2B4O7-NaBr- Na2SO4-H2O quaternary system at 348 K were determined by isothermal equilibrium method. Based on the experimental data, the equilibrium phase diagram was plotted, which consists of one invariant E, three univariant curves (E1E, E2E and E3E) , and three crystallization fields corresponding to NaBr, Na2SO4 and Na2B4O7 ? 5H2O. The experimental results indicate that the quaternary system is of simple eutectic type and no double salt and solid solution, and sodium bromide has the salting-out effect on Na2B4O7 ? 5H2O and Na2SO4. The densities transformation rules were discussed.

  5. Visible-light-driven Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O3 photocatalysts based on conduction band control and surface ion modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoqing; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Yu, Huogen; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2010-11-03

    Band-gap narrowing is generally considered to be a primary method in the design of visible-light-active photocatalysts because it can decrease the photo threshold to lower energies. However, controlling the valence band by up-shifting the top of the band or inducing localized levels above the band results in quantum efficiencies under visible light much lower than those under UV irradiation (such as those reported for N-doped TiO(2): Science 2001, 293, 269. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 5483). Herein, we report a systematic study on a novel, visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on conduction band control and surface ion modification. Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O(3) photocatalysts were prepared by a soft chemical method in combination with an impregnation technique. It is found that Mo(6+) as well as Na(+) doping in the SrTiO(3) can lower the bottom of the conduction band and effectively extend the absorption edge to the visible light region. The Cu(II) clusters grafted on the surface act as a co-catalyst to efficiently reduce the oxygen molecules, thus consuming the excited electrons. Consequently, photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous 2-propanol into CO(2) is achieved, that is, CH(3)CHOHCH(3) + (9)/(2)O(2) → 3CO(2) + H(2)O. For Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O(3) at x = 2.0% under visible light irradiation, the maximum CO(2) generation rate can reach 0.148 μmol/h; the quantum efficiency under visible light is calculated to be 14.5%, while it is 10% under UV light irradiation. Our results suggest that high visible light photocatalytic efficiency can be achieved by combining conduction band control and surface ion modification, which provides a new approach for rational design and development of high-performance photocatalysts.

  6. Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Goris, Margriet; Lie, R.; Ingram, V.J.

    2016-01-01

    This document reports on the development of a prototype Digital Farmer Field School (DFFS) called Kusheh, na minem Fatu, en mi na koko farmer (“Hello, I am Fatu and I am a cocoa farmer”). The DFFS provides an ICT-based alternative to traditional agricultural extension. More specifically, it offers a

  7. Report from NA49

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, M; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Filip, P; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege9, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2004-01-01

    The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.

  8. A escola na internet

    OpenAIRE

    Albino, Ayrán Lavra

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. O presente trabalho pretendeu analisar o uso do suporte tecnológico do ensino a distância (computador e internet) como elemento complementar do ensino presencial. Procurou-se demonstrar, na fundamentação teórica, que as tendências pedagógicas contemporâneas e as características da tecnologia digital viabilizam esta possibilidade. Operacionalizou-se essa ...

  9. Fractais na arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  10. na Perua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de se caracterizar como tentativa de ensaio ou de análise a qualquer coisa, o presente artigo tem, antes de mais nada, a pretensão de se constituir uma provocação ao debate acerca da questão do esporte na escola. A provocação parte basicamente do relato da minha experiência pessoal como Secretário da Educação do Município de Aracaju, cargo que exerci no período de 1º de janeiro de 1986 a 27 de janeiro de 1987.

  11. ANÁLISE DE PATENTES DO MERCADO DE ALIMENTOS INDUSTRIALIZADOS NO MUNDO COM BASE NA CLASSIFICAÇÃO “A” DA WIPO

    OpenAIRE

    Cajavilca, Erick Samuel Rojas; UFOB; Marques, Natan de Souza; UFOB; Melo, Elaine Machado; UFOB; Santana, Vinício Gonçalves; UFOB; Sales, Gessica Feitoza; UFOB; Lobo, Rayldson de Souza; UFOB

    2014-01-01

    Esse artigo tem como objetivo analisar as patentes depositadas no banco de dados do Espacenet referentes a tecnologias de alimentos industrializados que correspondem à classificação “A” do Código Internacional de Patentes da WIPO. Os segmentos selecionados englobam subclasses de alimentos, a saber: confeitos; produtos diets; produtos lights; alimentos semi-prontos; e alimentos funcionais. Para tanto, utilizou-se a metodologia de prospecção tecnológica em base de patentes a fim de identificar ...

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE JUVENILES DE PEZ BLANCO (Menidia estor) ALIMENTADOS CON DIETAS A BASE DE PROTEÍNA HIDROLIZADA DE BAGRE ARMADO (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus).

    OpenAIRE

    AVALOS SÁNCHEZ, ANA MAURICIA

    2012-01-01

    El pez blanco Menidia estor (Jordan 1879) del Lago de Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, es una especie nativa y endémica del altiplano mexicano, perteneciente a la familia Atherinopsidae. Por su valor económico, cultural y nutricional es la especie de mayor importancia en la región, que por muchos años ha sido la base de la subsistencia del pueblo Purépecha. Debido a la intensa explotación y deterioro de su hábitat se le considera como una especie amenazada (Marez y Morales 2003), razón po...

  13. Efeito de agentes anti-hiperestésicos à base de oxalato de potássio na permeabilidade da dentina humana. Estudo In vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Destefani Segala

    2000-01-01

    O oxalato de potássio tem sido utilizado no tratamento da hiperestesia dentinária através da precipitação de cristais de oxalato de cálcio intra e extracanaliculares, obstruindo os túbulos dentinários e reduzindo o deslocamento de fluido. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar in vitro quantitativa e qualitativamente a permeabilidade da dentina tratada com três diferentes formulações à base de oxalato de potássio e um gel fluoretado, sob cinco diferentes pré-ratamentos superficiais. O grau de o...

  14. Uma abordagem via análise envoltória de dados para o estabelecimento de melhorias em segurança baseadas na FMEA A data envelopment analysis approach to safety improvements based on FMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Adriano de Almada Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta uma abordagem baseada em análise envoltória de dados (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA para estabelecer direcionamentos de melhoria para os modos de falhas identificados na análise dos modos e efeitos de falha (FMEA. A abordagem tradicional da FMEA baseia-se num número de priorização de riscos que vem sendo alvo de inúmeras críticas embasadas em diversos artigos científicos. No presente trabalho, o número de priorização de risco é baseado em DEA. Por meio desse número de priorização de risco DEA, considerando-se o conceito de fronteira de eficiência, serão identificadas diretrizes de melhoria para os modos de falha com base nos índices de risco estabelecidos pela equipe executora da FMEA. Por meio dos resultados alcançados nas duas aplicações práticas, pode-se demonstrar a eficácia da abordagem proposta para tratar essa classe de problemas.The present study presents a data envelopment analysis (DEA based approach to establish guidelines for the improvement of the failure modes identified by a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA. The traditional FMEA approach is based on risk priority number (RPN, which has been target of scientific criticism. In the present study, the RPN is based on DEA and considers the concept of efficiency frontier. Based on this concept and on the risk indexes, some improvement directives for the failure modes can be established. The obtained results concerning the two practical applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in dealing with this kind of problem.

  15. DIGESTIBLE LYSINE LEVELS BASED IN THE IDEAL PROTEIN CONCEPT FOR BROILER CHICKENS IN THE STARTER PERIOD NÍVEIS DE LISINA DIGESTÍVEL EM DIETAS BASEADAS NO CONCEITO DE PROTEÍNA IDEAL PARA FRANGOS DE CORTE NA FASE INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2009-04-01

    cido úrico no sangue e umidade e taxa de nitrogênio na cama. Com base nos resultados de desempenho, conclui-se que a exigência de lisina digestível, para pintos de corte, machos, no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade foi de 1,190%.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES:  Lisina digestível, pintos de corte, proteína ideal.

  16. Fault Analysis in a Grid Integrated DFIG Based Wind Energy System with NA CB_P Circuit for Ridethrough Capability and Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Snehaprava; Ray, Pravat Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a three phase fault analysis is done on a DFIG based grid integrated wind energy system. A Novel Active Crowbar Protection (NACB_P) system is proposed to enhance the Fault-ride through (FRT) capability of DFIG both for symmetrical as well as unsymmetrical grid faults. Hence improves the power quality of the system. The protection scheme proposed here is designed with a capacitor in series with the resistor unlike the conventional Crowbar (CB) having only resistors. The major function of the capacitor in the protection circuit is to eliminate the ripples generated in the rotor current and to protect the converter as well as the DC-link capacitor. It also compensates reactive power required by the DFIG during fault. Due to these advantages the proposed scheme enhances the FRT capability of the DFIG and also improves the power quality of the whole system. Experimentally the fault analysis is done on a 3hp slip ring induction generator and simulation results are carried out on a 1.7 MVA DFIG based WECS under different types of grid faults in MATLAB/Simulation and functionality of the proposed scheme is verified.

  17. Word Semantic Similarity Measurement Based on Naïve Bayes Model%基于朴素贝叶斯模型的单词语义相似度度量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊华; 左万利; 闫昭

    2015-01-01

    单词语义相似度度量是自然语言处理领域的经典和热点问题.通过结合朴素贝叶斯模型和知识库,提出一个新颖的度量单词语义相似度度量途径.首先借助通用本体 WordNet 获取属性变量,然后使用统计和分段线性插值生成条件概率分布列,继而通过贝叶斯推理实现信息融合获得后验概率,并在此基础上量化单词语义相似度.主要贡献是定义了单词对距离和深度,并将朴素贝叶斯模型用于单词语义相似度度量.在基准数据集 R&G(65)上,对比算法评判结果与人类评判结果的相关度,采用5折交叉验证对算法进行分析,样本 Pearson 相关度达到0.912,比当前最优方法高出0.4%,比经典算法高出7%~13%;Spearman 相关度达到0.873,比经典算法高出10%~20%;且算法的运行效率和经典算法相当.实验结果显示将朴素贝叶斯模型和知识库相结合解决单词语义相似度问题是合理有效的.%Measuring semantic similarity between words is a classical and hot problem in nature language processing ,the achievement of which has great impact on many applications such as word sense disambiguation , machine translation , ontology mapping , computational linguistics , etc . A novel approach is proposed to measure words semantic similarity by combining Naïve Bayes model with knowledge base . To start , extract attribute variables based on WordNet ; then , generate conditional probability distribution by statistics and piecewise linear interpolation technique ; after that ,obtain posteriori through Bayesian inference ;at last ,quantify word semantic similarity .The main contributions are definition of distance and depth between word pairs with small amount of computation and high degree of distinguishing the characteristics from words’ sense , and word semantic similarity measurement based on naïve Bayesian model .On benchmark data set R

  18. Interactions between Na+ channels and Na+-HCO3- cotransporters in the freshwater fish gill MR cell: a model for transepithelial Na+ uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G

    2007-02-01

    Isolated mitochondria-rich (MR) cells from the rainbow trout gill epithelium were subjected to intracellular pH (pH(i)) imaging with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF-AM. MR cells were categorized into two distinct functional subtypes based on their ability to recover pH(i) from an NH(4)Cl-induced acidification in the absence of Na(+). An apparent link between resting pH(i) and Na(+)-independent pH(i) recovery was made. We observed a unique pH(i) acidification event that was induced by extracellular Na(+) addition. This further classified the mixed MR cell population into two functional subtypes: the majority of cells (77%) demonstrated the Na(+)-induced pH(i) acidification, whereas the minority (23%) demonstrated an alkalinization of pH(i) under the same circumstances. The focus of this study was placed on the Na(+)-induced acidification and pharmacological analysis via the use of amiloride and phenamil, which revealed that Na(+) uptake was responsible for the intracellular acidification. Further experiments revealed that pH(i) acidification could be abolished when Na(+) was allowed entry into the cell, but the activity of an electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (NBC) was inhibited by DIDS. The electrogenic NBC activity was supported by a DIDS-sensitive, Na(+)-induced membrane potential depolarization as observed via imaging of the voltage-sensitive dye bis-oxonol. We also demonstrated NBC immunoreactivity via Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in gill tissue. We propose a model for transepithelial Na(+) uptake occurring via an apical Na(+) channel linked to a basolateral, electrogenic NBC in one subpopulation of MR cells.

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DOS FATORES GEOLÓGICOS, GEOMORFOLÓGICOS E ANTRÓPICOS DA PRODUÇÃO DE FLUXO DE BASE EM PEQUENAS BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS NA APA CACHOEIRA DAS ANDORINHAS, OURO PRETO (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Clara Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estabelecer a influência da geologia, geomorfologia e uso e ocupação do solo no potencial hídrico de pequenas bacias hidrográficas situadas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Estadual da Cachoeira das Andorinhas (APA/CA. Foram selecionados três pares de bacias, cada par com condições geológicas e geomorfológicas semelhantes, mas com graus distintos de interferência antrópica. Utilizando-se dados de chuva e vazão, obtidos durante um ano hidrológico, estabeleceram-se os regimes pluviométricos e fluviométricos e determinaram-se alguns parâmetros hidrológicos, como o fluxo de base pela técnica smoothed mínima e o coeficiente de recessão (α pela técnica matching strip. A análise conjugada destes parâmetros, de índices morfométricos e de dados físico-químicos das águas indicam que as bacias em áreas de relevo mais suave tendem a apresentar menores coeficientes de recessão e maiores volumes de fluxo de base. Portanto, nestas áreas o potencial hídrico é maior, já que a vazão das drenagens se mantém por mais tempo na estação seca. O relevo mais suave, com solo mais espesso e maior tempo de trânsito das águas subterrâneas, também justificam as águas mais redutoras e com maiores condutividades elétricas. Os dados também sugerem que as bacias da área com maiores proporções de florestas tendem a apresentar menores fluxos de base por conta das maiores taxas de evapotranspiração. Os métodos aplicados se mostraram adequados para caracterizar o regime hídrico de pequenas bacias hidrográficas e podem ser importantes para a gestão de recursos hídricos.

  20. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  1. Laser na medicina: avanços na Oftalmologia

    OpenAIRE

    João Alberto Holanda de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Entre os grandes avanços tecnológicos dos últimos anos, o laser sem dúvida ocupa lugar de destaque. Desde a construção do primeiro aparelho a laser em 1959, novas aplicações surgem continuadamente. O laser está presente de maneira marcante na pesquisa básica, na indústria e na medicina.

  2. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  3. Evolution of Microstructure in Rolled Mg-Based Alloy. Textural Aspect / Ewolucja Mikrostruktury W Walcowanym Stopie Na Bazie Mg. Aspekt Teksturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural materials, which makes them particularly suitable for use in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, due to hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, resulting in insufficient number of independent slip systems, magnesium alloys exhibit poor formability at room temperature. Conventional methods of work hardening of magnesium alloys requires the temperature about 300°C, which favours simultaneously processes of thermal recovery and grain growth, but decreases beneficial microstructure strengthening effect. Thus, it is a crucial to undertake development of a technology for semi-finished magnesium alloys elements, which will ensure better mechanical properties of the final products by forming desirable microstructure. In the paper we present the development of crystallographic texture of the Mg-based alloy (Mg-AZ31 in the form of pipe extruded at 430°C and subjected to pilger rolling at relatively low temperature.

  4. Exigência de treonina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Digestible threonine requirement of Nile tilapia fingerlings using ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações com 1,35% de lisina digestível sobre o desempenho de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos de tilápia, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,64 ± 0,03 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições, e doze peixes por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco rações com diversas relações treonina:lisina digestível (69,0; 74,0; 79,0; 84,0 e 89,0% e relação metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 70,0% e uma ração com relação treonina:lisina digestível de 84,0% e de metionina + cistina:lisina digestível de 75,0%, todas isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os peixes foram mantidos em 36 aquários de 130 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais, e alimentados à vontade, seis vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, a composição corporal, as deposições de proteína e gordura e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. O consumo de ração, o teor de proteína corporal e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com a relação treonina:lisina na ração, contudo, não foram influenciados pelo aumento da relação metionina + cistina:lisina da ração. Os níveis de treonina total ou digestível que proporcionaram os melhores resultados de desempenho em alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo foram de 1,11 e 0,99%, enquanto os níveis que promoveram melhor deposição de proteína corporal foram de 1,43 e 1,28%, que correspondem às relações treonina:lisina total de 71,0 e 69,0% e treonina:lisina digestível de 90,0 e 89,0%.The effects of digestible threonine levels, based on ideal protein concept in diets with 1.35% of digestible lysine on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings performance. Four hundred

  5. Comportamento espectral dos solos na paisagem a partir de dados coletados por sensores terrestre e orbital Spectral response of soils in the landscape based on terrestrial and orbital data acquisition levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo de Abreu Sousa Junior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Parte da variabilidade dos índices de produção agrícola está associada com as características do solo e da paisagem. Dessa forma, práticas de manejo, como a adubação, devem levar em consideração esta variabilidade. O sensoriamento remoto é uma ferramenta que pode fornecer, de maneira rápida, informações para o manejo do solo, pois relaciona a radiação eletromagnética com os atributos do solo. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento espectral, em dois níveis de aquisição de dados (terrestre e orbital, de diferentes classes de solos ao longo de toposseqüências na região de São Carlos e Ibaté, SP. Para isso, amostras de terra georreferenciadas foram coletadas em 319 pontos, em três profundidades. Em seguida, obtiveram-se os dados radiométricos em laboratório, na faixa espectral entre 450 e 2.500 nm. Os mesmos locais amostrados na camada superficial, no campo, foram avaliados na imagem de satélite. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: (a teores de areia grossa, argila e matéria orgânica, e cor tiveram relação com a reflectância dos solos; (b ao longo das vertentes ocorrem variações nos dados espectrais dos solos; e (c solos da mesma ordem taxonômica, porém com classes texturais diferentes, apresentam diferentes comportamentos espectrais, podendo ser discriminados por sensoriamento remoto.Part of agricultural production index variability is associated with soil and landscape characteristics. Management practices such as fertilizer application should therefore take the soil spatial variability into account. Remote sensing is a tool that can provide faster information for soil management because it relates electromagnetic radiation with soil attributes. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the spectral response, at two data acquisition levels (terrestrial and orbital, of different soil classes across toposequences in the region of São Carlos and Ibaté, SP. For this

  6. Crystal structure of (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, a sodium-, iron- and manganese-based vanadate with the alluaudite-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhsina, Elhassan; Assani, Abderrazzak; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, sodium (sodium,manganese) triiron(II,III) tris[vana­date(V)], (Na0.70)(Na0.70,Mn0.30)(Fe3+,Fe2+)2Fe2+(VO4)3, was prepared by solid-state reactions. It crystallizes in an alluaudite-like structure, characterized by a partial cationic disorder. In the structure, four of the 12 sites in the asymmetric unit are located on special positions, three on a twofold rotation axis (Wyckoff position 4e) and one on an inversion centre (4b). Two sites on the twofold rotation axis are entirely filled by Fe2+ and V5+, whereas the third site has a partial occupancy of 70% by Na+. The site on the inversion centre is occupied by Na+ and Mn2+ cations in a 0.7:0.3 ratio. The remaining Fe2+ and Fe3+ atoms are statistically distributed on a general position. The three-dimensional framework of this structure is made up of kinked chains of edge-sharing [FeO6] octa­hedra stacked parallel to [10-1]. These chains are held together by VO4 tetra­hedral groups, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. Within this framework, two types of channels extending along [001] are present. One is occupied by (Na+/Mn2+) while the second is partially occupied by Na+. The mixed site containing (Na+/Mn2+) has an octa­hedral coordination sphere, while the Na+ cations in the second channel are coordinated by eight O atoms. PMID:26958392

  7. Flexible High-Performance Lead-Free Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 Microcube-Structure-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-27

    Lead-free piezoelectric nano- and microstructure-based generators have recently attracted much attention due to the continuous demand of self-powered body implantable devices. We report the fabrication of a high-performance flexible piezoelectric microgenerator based on lead-free inorganic piezoelectric Na0.47K0.47Li0.06NbO3 (NKLN) microcubes for the first time. The composite generator is fabricated using NKLN microcubes and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer on a flexible substrate. The flexible device exhibits excellent performance with a large recordable piezoelectric output voltage of 48 V and output current density of 0.43 μA/cm(2) under vertical compressive force of 2 kgf, for which an energy conversion efficiency of about 11% has been achieved. Piezoresponse and ferroelectric studies reveal that NKLN microcubes exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) as high as 460 pC/N and a well-defined hysteresis loops with remnant polarization and coercive field of 13.66 μC/cm(2) and 19.45 kV/cm, respectively. The piezoelectric charge generation mechanism from NKLN microgenerator are discussed in the light of the high d33 and alignment of electric dipoles in polymer matrix and dielectric constant of NKLN microcubes. It has been demonstrated that the developed power generator has the potential to generate high electric output power under mechanical vibration for powering biomedical devices in the near future.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in HeLa Cells of an NIR Light Responsive Doxorubicin Delivery System Based on NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Oton-Fernandez, Olalla; Mendez-Gonzalez, Diego; Díaz, J Fernando; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Barasoain, Isabel; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we present a phototriggered drug delivery system based on light responsive nanoparticles, which is able to release doxorubicin upon NIR light illumination. The proposed system is based on upconversion fluorescence nanoparticles of β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG with a mean diameter of 52±2.5 nm that absorb the NIR light and emit UV light. The UV radiation causes the degradation of photodegradable ortho-nitrobenzyl alcohol derivates, which are attached on one side to the surface of the nanoparticles and on the other to doxorubicin. This degradation triggers the doxorubicin release. This drug delivery system has been tested "in vitro" with HeLa cells. The results of this study demonstrated that this system caused negligible cytotoxicity when they were not illuminated with NIR light. In contrast, under NIR light illumination, the HeLa cell viability was conspicuously reduced. These results demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system to control the release of doxorubicin via an external NIR light stimulus.

  9. Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism F214L on virological response to thymidine analogue based regimens in ART-naïve and experienced patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberstein, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ruiz, L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A negative association between the polymorphism F214L and type 1 thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs) has been observed. However, the virological response to TAs according to the detection of F214L has not been evaluated. METHODS: We studied 590 patients from EuroSIDA who started TA...... therapy for the first time as part of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and who were tested for genotypic resistance within the past 6 months. End points were median reduction in the week 24 viral load and time to virological failure (2 consecutive VL measurements >400 copies/mL after...... at least 6 months of the TA-containing cART). RESULTS: In ART-naive patients, the prevalence of F214L was 17%. By 48 months after starting TA-based cART, the proportion of patients who experienced virological failure was 16% in patients with 214L and 36% in those with 214F (P=.03). In a multivariable Cox...

  10. Development of Web based system for individual internal monitoring programme; Desenvolvimento de um sistema baseado na Web para suporte ao programa de monitoracao individual interna do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Vanessa Rogeria de

    2007-07-01

    The purposes of the internal monitoring, in general, are to verify and document that each worker is protected adequately against risks from radionuclide intakes and the protection complies with legal requirements. Therefore, an overall radiation protection programme, starts with an assessment to identify work situations in which there is a risk of internal contamination of workers and to quantify the likely intake of radioactive material and the resulting committed effective dose. As a part of a continuous improvement of the monitoring programme for occupationally exposed workers at IPEN, it is being developed a Web based system to access the internal dosimetry database. The system was implemented using Hypertext Preprocessor, PHP, and a PostgreSQL database. This system will introduce a new paradigm in the routine of the internal dosimetry service, providing a fast access to the information among the measurement laboratories staff, dose evaluation group and the radiation protection supervisor. The database maintains information about worker identification, physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide, type of monitoring, measurement data and the dose. Moreover, this information will be readily available to provide support for regulatory compliance and quality control requirements. (author)

  11. A bibliometria na exploração de bases de dados: a importância da Lingüística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Mugnaini

    Full Text Available A utilização das bases de dados para levantamento do estado da arte, procedimento necessário a qualquer pesquisador, exige dos mesmos a definição de estratégias para a recuperação eficaz da informação. A Bibliometria pode ser uma ferramenta útil neste processo, permitindo a filtragem de grandes quantidades de informação. Por se tratar de uma análise estatística de dados, a qualidade destes dados é de vital importância e o procedimento de indexação para representação da informação se torna essencial. Pretende-se aclarar a importância da Estatística, Lingüística e Indexação para a Ciência da Informação, focalizando alguns aspectos de suas relações e destacando a necessidade da utilização conjunta dessas disciplinas.

  12. Produção científica sobre avaliação da visão em crianças: um estudo bibliométrico na base de dados LILACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Piumbato Innocentini Hayashi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar análise bibliométrica da produção científica sobre avaliação da visão em crianças disponível na base de dados Lilacs. A metodologia da pesquisa observou os seguintes passos: revisão de literatura sobre avaliação da visão e bibliometria; coleta de dados na base de dados Lilacs; organização, tratamento bibliométrico e análise dos dados coletados utilizando o software MS Excel. Utilizando as expressões de busca “avaliação visual”, “avaliação da visão”, “avaliação funcional da visão”, “portadores de deficiência visual”, “baixa visão” e “transtornos da visão”, foram selecionados 27 artigos. Como resultados foram produzidos os seguintes indicadores: os idiomas predominantes das produções científicas foram o português e o espanhol; o artigo original escrito em coautoria é o tipo de publicação predominante, as temáticas mais abordadas foram: “baixa visão”, “acuidade visual”, “ambliopia” e “glaucoma”. Ficou constatado também que nem todos os autores trataram especificamente sobre avaliações da visão, sendo proposta também a avaliação cognitiva e da qualidade de vida de deficientes visuais. Torna-se recomendável a realização de novas pesquisas que demonstrem a importância da avaliação precoce da visão em crianças, visando que a intervenção, quando necessária, ocorra o mais cedo possível e previna os possíveis atrasos ocasionados pela deficiência visual. Deve-se também garantir que estes achados oftalmológicos se complementem com avaliações que caracterizem em quais situações os indivíduos que já possuem algum tipo de deficiência possam utilizar com maior eficácia sua visão. Palavras-chave: Baixa visão. Transtornos da visão. Bibliometria.

  13. UM ESTUDO DAS EMPRESAS LISTADAS NA BM&FBOVESPA DO SETOR DE CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL ACERCA DO RECONHECIMENTO DAS RECEITAS E DOS CUSTOS COM BASE NO CPC 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenner Glaucio Lopes Lucena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é verificar se as empresas do setor de construção civil reconhecem não só suas receitas como também seus custos com base no Pronunciamento Técnico CPC 17: contratos de construção. Para isso, foi realizada uma análise de conteúdo nas notas explicativas, do período de 2009 e 2010, de 22 empresas do setor de construção civil listadas na BM&FBovespa a fim de investigar se estas estão atendendo os requisitos do CPC 17 em relação ao reconhecimento das receitas e custos. Esta pesquisa é classificada como qualitativa, quantitativa, descritiva e documental. Nos achados foram encontrados que 100% das empresas não apresentaram a modalidade de costplus, porém 68% utilizam o método da percentagem completada (POC. Segundo esse método, a receita contratual deve ser proporcional aos custos contratuais incorridos em cada etapa de medição. Os resultados demonstram que 41% das empresas apresentaram os valores dos custos de mão de obra no local da execução do contrato, incluindo sua supervisão e os custos de materiais usados na construção. Dessa forma, conclui-se que 59% atenderam a dois dos subitens analisados no que tange ao reconhecimento dos custos, no entanto mais de 50% atenderam aos requisitos da OCPC 01, que trata da formação do custo do imóvel, objeto da incorporação imobiliária. Por fim, quanto à divulgação das informações, observou-se que nenhuma das empresas divulga suas receitas e custos com base nos subitens do CPC 17. Portanto, o resultado das empresas pode se mostrar diferente do que realmente deveria ser para efeito de tributação.

  14. Reflexões sobre precoces, prodígios, gênios e as altas habilidades, com base na neurociência cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Paulino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Em Educação Especial, altas habilidades designam pessoas que demonstram capacidades, potenciais ou desempenho, em atividades humanas, bem acima da média. Objetivamos, utilizando-se da neurociência, entender os precoces, prodígios, gênios e altas habilidades como resultantes de um processo único das formações da memória. Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, em que as obras foram identificadas, localizadas, compiladas, fichadas e analisadas. O material foi localizado a partir de palavras-chave em bases de dados. Para a compilação, foram utilizados, como critério de inclusão, a intersecção dos unitermos adotados, bem como os trabalhos de pesquisadores da educação, psicologia e neurociência, publicados entre 1966 e 2009. Analisamos qualitativamente 40 referências, sendo 18 artigos e 22 outros textos. A trajetória de análise foi desenvolvida tendo a questão norteadora: há necessidade de se explicar diferentemente os precoces, prodígios, gênios e as AH? Chegamos a três proposições lógicas. Procuramos demonstrar, por meio desse exercício lógico, que não haveria necessidade de se explicar diferentemente os precoces, prodígios, gênios e as AH, mas concluímos que há necessidade de tais diferenciações, mesmo dentro da área da neurociência, no entanto, a demonstração acima aponta para a teoria de Renzulli como válida para gênios e AH, com ressalvas para precoces e prodígios, que merecem um olhar mais aprofundado.Palavras-chave: Altas habilidades. Memória. Neurociência cognitiva. Neurotransmissores.

  15. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  16. Raytracing na GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Straňák, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Raytracing je základnou technikou pro vizualizaci trojrozměrných objektů. Cílem práce je demonstrovat možnost implementace sledovaní paprsků pomocí grafického akcelerátoru.  Popíšem základní algoritmus a jeho modifikovanou verzi, která byla implementována pomocí jazyka CUDA C. Výsledný raytracer je optimalizovaný pro dynamické scény. Pro tento účel byla použita akcelerační struktura KD strom, hierarchické obalové tělesa a přenos dat pomocí PBO. Pro realističtější výstupy byla také implementov...

  17. Leadeship: na effective relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Roberto Guimarães Pantoja

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a eficácia da liderança em três instituições de ensino superior em São Luís -MA, sendo a instituição A (particular), a B (pública federal) e a C (pública estadual). Adotou-se os estilos de liderança: democrático, autocrático e liberal, baseando-se na Teoria dos Estilos de Kurt Lewin e seus colaboradores e nas qualidades de liderança (objetividade, compreensão dos outros, flexibilidade, comunicação e autoridade), definidas por Uris A.(196...

  18. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  19. O real na psicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Castejón Herrmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a noção de real na psicose, a partir das formulações de Lacan sobre o tema, presentes no Seminário 3 - As Psicoses, no Seminário 20 - Mais, Ainda e no texto Televisão. Considerando-se que a concepção de real tem uma indicação clínica, a hipótese que se formula é a de que a noção de real trabalhada no Seminário 20, Mais, Ainda representa uma continuidade da concepção de real desenvolvida no Seminário 3, As Psicoses

  20. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.Tostudy thepulmonary complications in leptospirosis case records of 23 such patients admitted at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil, were reviewed. Hemoptysis were seen in 21.7% and sputal blood in 30.4% of patients. Arterial gasometry detected hypoxemia and hypocapnia in most cases. Thoracic radiology showed an alveolar pattern in 60% of the patients, alveolo-interstitial in 20%, interstitial in 6%, and in 14% the lungs were considered to be normal Necropsy of 13 cases showed edema, congestion and hemorrhage in the lungs in all cases. Hyaline membrane was found in 30% and fibrin thrombi in 46% of these cases, resulting in a diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (consumption coagulopathy in leptospirosis.

  1. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  2. Principais características da raiz de cenoura na perspectiva de agentes da cadeia produtiva Main carrot root attributes based on stake holders perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Onoyama

    2011-09-01

    with closed questions about the importance of a range of attributes on a 1 (not important to 5 (very important scale. Statistic method based on categorical analysis was used to rank the attributes and calculate the average contrasts. The survey indicated that, according to consumers, nutritional value, texture, external color and taste are the most important attributes. In contrast, the other stake holders pay more attention to characteristics related to shape uniformity, external color and green shoulder. In addition, differences of perception by specific chain agents were detected, in special to the consumers group, affected by gender, age, educational level, marital status and supermarket location. These results are very important for directing carrot research projects, which must meet the productive sector and consumers requirements.

  3. Grades computacionais na recuperação de imagens médicas baseada em conteúdo Grid computing in the optimization of content-based medical images retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Costa Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Utilizar o poder de processamento da tecnologia de grades computacionais para viabilizar a utilização do algoritmo de medida de similaridade na recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A técnica de recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo é composta de duas etapas seqüenciais: análise de textura e algoritmo de medida de similaridade. Estas são aplicadas em imagens de joelho e cabeça, nas quais se avaliaram a eficiência em recuperar imagens do mesmo plano e a seqüência de aquisição em um banco de 2.400 imagens médicas para testar a capacidade de recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo. A análise de textura foi utilizada inicialmente para pré-selecionar as 1.000 imagens mais semelhantes a uma imagem de referência escolhida por um clínico. Essas 1.000 imagens foram processadas utilizando-se o algoritmo de medida de similaridade na grade computacional. RESULTADOS: A precisão encontrada na classificação por análise de textura foi de 0,54 para imagens sagitais de joelho e de 0,40 para imagens axiais de cabeça. A análise de textura foi útil como filtragem, pré-selecionando imagens a serem avaliadas pelo algoritmo de medida de similaridade. A recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo utilizando o algoritmo de medida de similaridade aplicado nas imagens pré-selecionadas por análise de textura resultou em precisão de 0,95 para as imagens sagitais de joelho e de 0,92 para as imagens axiais de cabeça. O alto custo computacional do algoritmo de medida de similaridade foi amortizado pela grade computacional. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da abordagem mista das técnicas de análise de textura e algoritmo de medida de similaridade no processo de recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo resultou em eficiência acima de 90%. A grade computacional é indispensável para utilização do algoritmo de medida de similaridade na recuperação de imagens baseada em conteúdo, que de

  4. Mineralogical, Geochemical and Isotopic Characterisation of the Travertine Formation Associated with the Alicun de las Torres Thermal System (Province of Granada): Palaeoclimatic and Palaeoenvironmental Implications.; Caracterizacion Mineralogica, Geoquimica e Isotopica de los Travertinos Asociados al Sistema Termal de Alicun de las Torres (Provincia de Granada): Implicaciones Paleoclimaticas y Paleoambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, A. J.; Delgado, A.; Crespo, M. T.; Martin, A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2010-12-24

    In the framework of a Singular Strategic Project entitled: Advanced Technologies of Carbon, Capture and Storage (CCS), supported by the MICINN (Spain) and the FEDER founds (EU), specifically in the Carbon Storage Task, a comprehensive study on the CO{sub 2} leakage as DIC (Dissolved Inorganic Carbon) in the Alicun de Las Torres (Prov. of Granada) natural analogue Thermal System was envisaged. This analogous system is characterised by the presence of a very important travertine formation. In order to explain the formation of these travertine mass a detailed mineralogical, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic, including stable and radioactive isotopes, characterisation has been carried out. Based on these data, paleoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions under which this travertine formation was formed, during a period of approximately 230Ky, have also been deduced. (Author) 234 refs.

  5. Charge carriers and dc polarization phenomena in solid Na2WO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelberghs, P.H.; Everts, E.

    1975-01-01

    Ionic transport measurements based on the Tubandt method have been performed in all three solid phases of Na2WO4 at temperatures between 550 and 600°C in air. It is shown that tNa+ = 1.00 in all cases. Ag is oxidized anodically to Ag+ at Ag/Na2WO4 interfaces. Cathodically only (air) oxygen reduction

  6. Gender differences in self-reported morbidity: evidence from a population-based study in southern Brazil Diferenças na morbidade referida entre sexos: evidências de um estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Mendoza-Sassi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess variations in self-reported morbidity between men and women using six different measures of reported illness. The cross-sectional study was conducted in the municipality of Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Demographic, socioeconomic, and morbidity data were collected from a probabilistic sample of 1,260 persons aged 15 years or over, using a specific questionnaire. Statistical analysis included a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Prevalence Ratios (PR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. After adjusting for some confounding variables (age, race, unemployment, marital status, income, social class, and education, women showed greater risk of any symptom (PR = 3.21; 95%CI: 2.71-3.83, three or more symptoms (PR = 4.22; 95%CI: 2.97-5.98, potentially serious symptoms (PR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.31-2.34, poor/fair health (PR = 1.78; 95%CI: 1.37-2.32, and minor psychiatric disorders (PR = 1.76; 95%CI: 1.31-2.37. The study revealed dissimilarity in self-reported morbidity between men and women in southern Brazil, but with different degrees depending on type of morbidity. This excess can be explained by gender difference in health-seeking behavior for perceiving or reporting health problems.O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar que diferenças ocorrem na morbidade referida entre homens e mulheres, utilizando seis medidas diferentes de morbidade. O estudo de tipo transversal foi realizado no Município de Rio Grande, Sul do Brasil. Foram coletados dados demográficos, sócio-econômicos de uma amostra probabilística de 1.260 pessoas com 15 anos ou mais. Para fins estatísticos foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson. Após ajustar para variáveis de confusão, observou-se que as mulheres apresentavam maior risco de referir um sintoma (RP = 3,21; IC95%: 2,71-3,83, de ter três ou mais sintomas (RP = 4,22; IC95%: 2,97-5,98, de ter um sintoma potencialmente sério (RP = 1,75; IC95%: 1,31-2,34, de apresentar uma percep

  7. Abordagens da produção científica em administração publicada na base Scopus à luz da teoria institucional, de 2000 a 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina do Nascimento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo teve como objetivo analisar a produção científica sobre Teoria Institucional indexada na base de dados Scopus voltada para a área de Administração, no período de 2000 a 2013. Evidenciou-se que: o autor mais prolífico sobre a temática da Teoria Institucional é Currie, G.; as universidades com maior publicação foram a University of Alberta e University of Nottingham. No cenário nacional, duas revistas aparecem, a RAE – Revista de Administração de Empresas e a Revista de Administração pública; já no cenário internacional, as revistas que possuem maior destaque são a Human Relations, o Journal of Business Ethics, o Business Strategy and the Environment e Critical Perspectives on Accounting. A área do conhecimento que aborda a Teoria Institucional é predominante nas ciências sociais e corresponde a 40,4% do total.

  8. Categoria de gênero na enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Leite da Silva

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as categorias de gênero, a partir de periódicos sobre estudo de gênero na enfermagem brasileira. Usando uma abordagem exploratória, analisamos os artigos na área, publicados em dez periódicos nacionais de enfermagem, no período de 1955 a 1997/1. Com base na análise dos discursos, as categorias centrais para as quais convergiram as atenções das/os autoras/es foram: gênero e determinantes históricos e sociais no desenvolvimento da profissão de enfermagem, gênero e trabalho, gênero e saúde, gênero e educação e gênero e feminismo. Outras perspectivas importantes, menos enfatizadas, mas emergentes na literatura de enfermagem foram: gênero e cuidado, gênero e família, gênero e violência.

  9. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  10. Thermodynamic Optimization of DyCl3 -NaCl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶信宇; 孙益民; 张静; 谈君君

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagram of the DyCl3 -NaCl system is optimized and calculated with CALPHAD ( calculation of phase diagram ) technology. A set of thermodynamic functions of compounds Na3 DyCl6, NaDyCl4, and NaDY2 Cl7 have been optimized and calculated based on an interactive computer-assisted analysis. The optimized thermodynamic parameters, calculated phase diagram and experimental phase diagram are thermodynamically serf-consistent.

  11. Assessment of Impact of the Rheological Parameters Change on Sensitivity of the Asphalt Strain Based on the Test Results / Ocena Wpływu Zmiany Parametrów Reologicznych Na Wrażliwość Deformacji Mieszanek Mineralno - Asfaltowych Na Podstawie Wyników Badań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpiel Artur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Badanie pełzania pod obciążeniem statycznym jest obecnie najbardziej efektywnym badaniem pozwalającym na określenie reologicznych parametrów mieszanek mineralno - asfaltowych na podstawie krzywej pełzania. Stosowane obciążenia mają poziom nieniszczący i pozwalają na obserwację przebiegu odkształceń w czasie również po odciążeniu. Badanie może być realizowane przy ściskaniu, ścinaniu, rozciąganiu i zginaniu, a także w zakresie trójosiowym, w zależności od stosowanego aparatu realizującego zadany schemat naprężeń [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].

  12. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  13. NaBH_4前处理桦木化学镀镍制备木质电磁屏蔽复合材料%Preparation of Wood-based Electromagnetic Shielding Composite by Electroless Nickel Plating on Birch Veneer Pretreated with NaBH_4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立娟; 李坚

    2010-01-01

    以桦木单板为基材,利用NaBH_4处理后直接进行化学镀镍制备电磁屏蔽复合材料.研究NaBH4浓度和浸渍时间、施镀时间和NaOH浓度对表面电阻率的影响.分别采用扫描电镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)分析对比NaBH_4前处理和胶体钯活化所得复合材料的表面形貌和组织结构,利用频谱仪和直拉法分别测定电磁屏蔽效能和镀层附着强度.结果表明:利用4g/L的NaOH配制3g/L的NaBH_4溶液,前处理5~10min,化学镀镍20min,此条件下制备的复合材料的表面电阻率低于150mΩ/cm~2,在9kHz~1.5GHz频段,电磁屏蔽效能高于60dB.NaBH_4前处理所得复合材料的电磁屏蔽效能高于胶体钯活化;从表面形貌上观察,两种方法均可得到均匀、连续和致密的镀层,镀层完全覆盖了木材表面,具有金属光泽; XRD分析表明,NaBH_4前处理所得镀层厚些,且结晶状态更佳,木材和镀层之间为物理结合;强度测试显示两种方法所得镀层均与木材表面结合牢固.

  14. The pea gene NA encodes ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra E; Elliott, Robert C; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2003-01-01

    The gibberellin (GA)-deficient dwarf na mutant in pea (Pisum sativum) has severely reduced internode elongation, reduced root growth, and decreased leaflet size. However, the seeds develop normally. Two genes, PsKAO1 and PsKAO2, encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases of the subfamily CYP88A were isolated. Both PsKAO1 and PsKAO2 had ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) activity, catalyzing the three steps of the GA biosynthetic pathway from ent-kaurenoic acid to GA(12) when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In addition to the intermediates ent-7alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA(12)-aldehyde, some additional products of the pea KAO activity were detected, including ent-6alpha,7alpha-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and 7beta-hydroxykaurenolide. The NA gene encodes PsKAO1, because in two independent mutant alleles, na-1 and na-2, PsKAO1 had altered sequences and the five-base deletion in PsKAO1 associated with the na-1 allele cosegregated with the dwarf na phenotype. PsKAO1 was expressed in the stem, apical bud, leaf, pod, and root, organs in which GA levels have previously been shown to be reduced in na plants. PsKAO2 was expressed only in seeds and this may explain the normal seed development and normal GA biosynthesis in seeds of na plants.

  15. Transepithelial Na+ transport and the intracellular fluids: a computer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civan, M M; Bookman, R J

    1982-01-01

    Computer simulations of tight epithelia under three experimental conditions have been carried out, using the rheogenic nonlinear model of Lew, Ferreira and Moura (Proc. Roy. Soc. London. B 206:53-83, 1979) based largely on the formulation of Koefoed-Johnsen and Ussing (Acta Physiol. Scand. 42: 298-308. 1958). First, analysis of the transition between the short-circuited and open-circuited states has indicated that (i) apical Cl- permeability is a critical parameter requiring experimental definition in order to analyze cell volume regulation, and (ii) contrary to certain experimental reports, intracellular Na+ concentration (ccNa) is expected to be a strong function of transepithelial clamping voltage. Second, analysis of the effects of lowering serosal K+ concentration (csK) indicates that the basic model cannot simulate several well-documented observations; these defects can be overcome, at least qualitatively, by modifying the model to take account of the negative feedback interaction likely to exist between the apical Na+ permeability and ccNa. Third, analysis of the strongly supports the concept that osmotically induced permeability changes in the apical intercellular junctions play a physiological role in conserving the body's stores of NaCl. The analyses also demonstrate that the importance of Na+ entry across the basolateral membrane is strongly dependent upon transepithelial potential, cmNa and csK; under certain conditions, net Na+ entry could be appreciably greater across the basolateral than across the apical membrane.

  16. Análises da precipitação pluvial no Estado da Paraíba com base na teoria da entropia Use of entropy theory in analysis of rainfall and air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de P. R. da Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os dados diários de precipitação pluvial de 58 postos pluviométricos do Estado da Paraíba e de temperatura média diária de Campina Grande, PB, foram utilizados para avaliar a variabilidade espacial e temporal da precipitação pluvial, com base na teoria da entropia. Analisou-se, também, a variabilidade temporal da temperatura do ar em Campina Grande, com base nessa mesma teoria. Os resultados evidenciaram que a entropia é alta em locais com intensa precipitação, e baixa quando ocorrem, nesses locais, baixos índices pluviométricos; conseqüentemente, nos períodos chuvosos a entropia é alta e, nos períodos de estiagem, é mínima. Este trabalho evidencia, ainda, que qualquer série temporal de entropia decresce exponencialmente com o aumento do seu desvio-padrão.The objective of this study was the evaluation of the rainfall variability in Paraíba state. Daily rainfall observed from a network of 58 rain gauges in Paraíba State and mean daily temperature observed at Campina Grande weather station were analyzed using entropy theory. The results showed that rainfall entropy is high in localities and periods with high rainfall values and is low in localities and periods with low rainfall values. Maximum values of rainfall entropy occurred in the rainy period and minimum values occurred in the dry period. However, the entropy of the temperature time serie was constant, with maximum value of 8.53 bits. This study shows that for any time series the entropy decreases exponentially with increase of standard deviation.

  17. Reclassification of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 as Candida tropicalis based on molecular phylogenetic analysis Reclassificação de Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 como Candida tropicalis baseada na análise filogenética molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne Helena Augusto Lima

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida are of clinical importance and also have many industrial applications, mainly in the food industry. The yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 has been extensively studied in order to establish a biotechnological process for the production of xylitol. The goal of this study was to verify the taxonomic classification of this strain based on the analysis of rDNA sequences and the xyl1 gene. DNA fragments from these sequences were amplified by PCR and BLAST analysis revealed strong identity with the corresponding sequences from Candida tropicalis. Based on these results, we propose that C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 must be reclassified as C. tropicalis.As leveduras do gênero Candida possuem tanto importância clínica como diversas aplicações industriais, principalmente na indústria de alimentos. A levedura Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 tem sido exaustivamente estudada pois pretende-se utilizá-la no estabelecimento de um processo biotecnológico para a produção de xilitol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a classificação taxonômica desta levedura por análise de sequências do rDNA e do gene xyl1. Fragmentos correspondentes a estas regiões foram amplificados por PCR e a análise destas sequências por BLAST revelou alta identidade com sequências correspondentes de Candida tropicalis. Estes resultados nos levam a propor que C. guilliermondii FTI 20037 deva ser reclassificada como C. tropicalis.

  18. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  19. O SUBLIME NA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  20. A CORPOREIDADE NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Xavier Bonorino Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, visa-se a investigar como a escola tem construído um corporeidade para a submissão dos estudantes ao sistema de dominação vigente. Propõe-se, também, a descobrir a corporeidade expressa nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças. Realizaram-se observações do espaço escolar de uma sala de aula durante um ano letivo, bem como duas entrevistas com cada uma das crianças de uma turma de 1ª série do 1º grau, em uma escola pública de periferia. Constatou-se que a escola, através de uma série de normas, explícitas ou implícitas, vai construindo uma corporeidade baseada no individualismo, na massificação e nos privilégios de uma minoria. A análise das brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos infantis revelou que estes veiculam valores contrários àqueles impostos pela escola. Em vista disso, elaborou-se uma proposta incipiente de trabalho corporal que tenha nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças o seu ponto de partida para uma práxis transformadora.

  1. First principles study of the crystal, electronic structure, and diffusion mechanism of polaron-Na vacancy of Na3MnPO4CO3 for Na-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbichi, M.; Debbichi, L.; Dinh, Van An; Lebègue, S.

    2017-02-01

    Based on first principles calculations, we investigate the geometry, electronic structure, and diffusion mechanism of Na ions in Na3MnPO4CO3 using density functional theory with a Hubbard potential correction. Our results suggest that the structure of Na3MnPO4CO3 can be deintercalated with more than one Na ion, and that the removal of a Na ion can form a bound polaron. We find that our calculations of the intercalation voltages for the redox couples Mn2+ /Mn3+ and Mn3+ /Mn4+ agree very well with the experimental data. In addition, we demonstrate that Na in Na3MnPO4CO3 can diffuse in three directions with low activation energy barriers, allowing a fast charging rate.

  2. Modelo multidimensional para o controle da dengue: uma proposta com base na reprodução social e situações de riscos Multidimensional model for dengue control: a proposal based on social reproduction and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Laurentino dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo consiste em apresentar e discutir um modelo compreensivo/explicativo, de caráter ecossistêmico, sobre o processo de transmissão da dengue nos níveis de micro e macrocontexto, a partir da identificação das situações de riscos envolvidas. Considerou-se a dengue como doença infecciosa viral de transmissão vetorial que traz, na sua dinâmica de transmissão, elementos das dimensões biológicas, de conduta, ecológicas, políticas e econômicas, o que a caracteriza como um problema complexo e exige um enfoque sistêmico para seu controle. Assim, para a construção da modelagem, utilizaram-se o enfoque teórico da reprodução social de Juan Samaja e seus condicionantes de macro e microcontexto, e o enfoque operativo ecossistêmico, que buscou responder à pergunta condutora desta construção: quais são as situações de risco para transmissão da dengue, considerando as diversas dimensões da "reprodução social da saúde" no nível local? A visão ampliada das inter-relações entre as diversas situações de risco envolvidas na determinação multidimensional da dengue poderá servir como eixo direcionador para uma gestão integrada das ações do programa de controle da doença, articuladas entre os diversos setores envolvidos.This paper aims to present and discuss a comprehensive / explanatory model, of ecosystem approach, on the process of transmission of dengue in the levels of micro and macro context, from the identification of the risks involved. Dengue was considered a viral infectious disease of vectorial transmission that carries on its transmission dynamics, elements of the biological, behavioral, ecological, political and economic dimensions, that make it a complex problem and require a systemic approach to its control. Thus, for the construction of modeling, we used the theoretical framework of social reproduction of Juan Samaja and its conditions of macro and micro-context, and the operating

  3. Ulogata na endoetelin-1 vo razvojot na dijabeticna nefropatija inducirana so streptozocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dijabeticnata nefropatija pretstavuva edna od hronicnite mikrovaskularni komplikacii na dijabetot, so multifaktorijalna i ne do kraj rasvetlena etiopatogeneza. So ogled na toa sto kaj pacientite so dijabet, osobeno kaj onie so dijabeticna nefropatija, se najdeni zgolemeni vrednosti na endotelin-1, se pretpostavuva deka istiot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na nasata studija bese da se detektiraat promenite vo plazmatskoto nivo na endotelin-1 po eksperimentalno induciran dijabet, i dijabeticna nefropatija kaj staorci so streptozocin. So ogled na dobro poznatite efekti na AKE-inhibitorite, vo ovaa studija go ispituvavme i vlijanieto na enalapril (AKE inhibitor na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, kako i negovite efekti vo tretmanot na dijabeti~na nefropatija. Ednokratnata i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ predizvika signifikantno zgolemuvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, proprateni so jasno izrazeni simptomi i znaci na dijabeticna nefropatija (mikroalbuminurija, zgolemeni urinarni vrednosti na N-acetyl-fl-D-glucosamidase, zgolemeni serumski koncentracii na urea, poliurija. Cetiri nedelniot tretman so enalapril dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1 i do podobruvanje na simtomite i znacite na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Dobienite rezultati potvrduvaat deka endotelin-1 moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot i progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija, a AKE inhibitorite, odnosno enalapril, mozat da ja ublazat i usporat progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija

  4. Decomposition reactions for NaAl H4 , Na3 Al H6 , and NaH: First-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xuezhi; Tanaka, Isao

    2005-01-01

    The electronic properties and lattice dynamics of the sodium alanate phases have been studied by the density functional calculations. The phases include NaAlH4 (space group, I41/a ), Na3AlH6 (space group, P21/n ), and NaH (space group, Fm-3m ). The electronic properties are discussed on the basis of the electronic band structures, the atomic charges, the bond overlap population analysis, and the Born effective charges. The phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states (DOS) of the phases are calculated by a direct force-constant method. Within the quasiharmonic approximation, the calculated thermodynamic functions including the heat capacity, the vibrational enthalpy, and the vibrational entropy are in good agreement with experimental values. Three decomposition reactions are studied based on the thermodynamic functions. The reactions are (1) NaAlH4→(1)/(3)Na3AlH6+(2)/(3)Al+H2 , (2) (1)/(3)Na3AlH6→NaH+(1)/(3)Al+(1)/(2)H2 , and (3) NaH→Na+(1)/(2)H2 . The reactions (1), (2), and (3) are predicted to take place at 285, 390, and 726K , respectively, which are in good agreement with the experiment (353, 423, and 698K , respectively). The individual contributions to the reactions including the enthalpy and entropy are investigated. We found that the enthalpy for the reaction is almost constant, and the net entropy contribution ( TΔS ) to the reaction is approximately equal to the entropy contribution of the H2 gas molecule (produced in that reaction).

  5. SPOLNO NADLEGOVANJE NA DELOVNEM MESTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rubič, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  6. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Solange Oliveira; Trugillo, Edneuza Alves

    2011-01-01

    Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enri...

  7. Proposta de Implementação do Custeio Baseado em Atividades na Gestão de Serviços Odontológicos = Implementation proposal of activity-based costing in the management of dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn de Castro Serratine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo estruturar uma proposta de implementação do custeio baseado em atividades na gestão de serviços odontológicos. Foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva, por meio de um estudo de caso, com abordagem predominantemente qualitativa. O estudo inicia com uma incursão teórica nos fundamentos que sustentam o estudo empírico, abordando a importância da gestão estratégica de custos, o custeio baseado em atividades – ABC e a utilização do ABC em empresas de saúde. Após, são apresentados os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Na sequência, discute-se a proposta realizada. A proposta de implementação do ABC contempla quatro macroetapas: identificação das atividades; atribuição dos custos às atividades; identificação dos objetos de custos; e atribuição dos custos das atividades aos objetos de custos. Foram selecionados seis procedimentos odontológicos prestados: avaliação, profilaxia, restauração, endodontia, exodontia e coroa protética porcelana. A escolha justifica-se por se tratar dos procedimentos mais representativos em termos de ocorrência e de faturamento. Além da proposta de implementação do ABC, fez-se a análise dos custos diretos de cada objeto de custo. Os custos diretos identificados referem-se aos materiais utilizados e ao processo de esterilização realizado. The goal of this article is to structure an implementation proposal of activity-based costing in the management of dental services. A descriptive research was carried out through a case study with a predominantly qualitative approach. The study begins with a foray into the theoretical foundations that support the empirical study addressing the importance of strategic cost management, activity-based costing - ABC and the use of ABC in healthcare companies. Then, methodological procedures are presented and the proposal made is discussed. The implementation proposal of ABC comprises four macro-steps: identification of

  8. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  9. O Personal Trainer na Perspectiva do Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Biehl Bossle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo apresenta mapeamento das referências dedicadas à formação do personal trainer em bases de dados eletrônicas. Essa garimpagem revelou baixa produção científica sobre o assunto e mostrou que na literatura sobre personal trainer predominam livros com linguagem corrente no mundo dos negócios. Esses achados nos levaram a indagar sobre a força do discurso físico-empresarial, especialmente o marketing, na constituição desta ocupação profissional. Jeremy Rifkin, Zygmunt Bauman, Paula Sibilia e Denise Sant'Anna permitiram visualizar que o marketing dirigido ao personal trainer tem como tarefa reinventar, ressignificar e "repaginar" esta modalidade de serviço em nome da sobrevivência no disputado mercado da vida ativa.

  10. La asociacion Monzonitica del Domo Anatectico del Tormes: geoquimica y petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Plaza, M.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In certain peripheral zones of the Anatectic Tormes Dome there exists a group of rocks, which are from basic to acid as well as rich in alkali feldspar, apatite and allanite. Such an unusual mineralogy makes the rocks to be enriched in K20, P2O5, LREE and other elements of low ionic potential. Their geochemical signature is related to the volcanic shoshonites, to the vaugnerites of the French Central Massif as well as to the monzonitic series of Ballon, being, in turn, almost exceptional in the iberian variscan. The least evolved terms are rather fractionated, therefore, they are not primary melts. During the differentiation, the saturation of accessory phases such as apatite, allanite and zircon exerts an important effect in the evolution of the residual liquid giving rise to an inflection point in the Harker diagrams. From the good adjustments obtained in mass balance and Rayleigh fractionation modelling, we can infer that the process of fractional crystallization is the dominant one. In this respect, the porphyritic granitoids can be derived from a liquid of monzodioritic composition, being rocks genetically to the associated acid rocks. The corroded cores of plagioclase and the spatial relations suggest the existence of different pulses of magma from basic to acid coming from the same magmatic chamber.En dos bandas del Domo anatéctico del Tormes aparece un conjunto de rocas plutónicas desde básicas a ácidas ricas en feldespato potásico, apatito y allanita. Esta mineralogía tan particular hace que estén enriquecidas en K20, P205, LREE y otros elementos de bajo potencial iónico. Su quimismo es afín a las shoshonitas volcánicas, a las vaugneritas del Macizo Central francés y a las series monzoníticas de Ballon, siendo, a su vez, casi excepcional en el varisco ibérico. Los términos menos evolucionados están bastante fraccionados por lo que no se trata de fundidos primarios. Durante la diferenciación existen fases accesorias como apatito, allanita y circón cuya saturación ejerce un importante efecto en la evolución del líquido residual originando evoluciones quebradas en los diagramas de Harker. A partir de los buenos ajustes obtenidos con las modelizaciones por balance de masas y fraccionación Rayleigh se infiere que el proceso de cristalización fraccionada es el dominante. En este sentido, se pueden hacer derivar los granitoides porfídicos a partir de un líquido de composición monzodiorítica, por lo que no quedan desconectadas las rocas básicas de las ácidas asociadas. Los núcleos corroídos de plagioclasa y las relaciones espaciales parecen indicar que han existido distintos pulsos de magma desde básicos a ácidos procedentes de la misma cámara magmática.

  11. Performance of high-velocity oxyfuel-sprayed coatings on an Fe-based superalloy in Na2SO4-60%V2O5 environment at 900 °C part II: Hot corrosion behavior of the coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, T. S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R. D.

    2006-02-01

    NiCrBSi, Cr3C2-NiCr, Ni-20Cr, and Stellite-6 coatings were deposited on an Fe-based superalloy by the high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray process. The hot corrosion behavior of the coatings in an aggressive environment of Na2SO4-60%V2O5 at 900 °C under cyclic conditions was studied. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray and electron probe microanalysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. Hot corrosion resistances of all the coatings were found to be better than the uncoated superalloy. The Ni-20Cr coating was found to be the most protective, followed by Cr3C2-NiCr coatings. The Ni-20Cr coating had reduced the mass gain by 90% of that gained by the uncoated superalloy. The hot corrosion resistance shown by the Cr3C2-NiCr coating was slightly better compared with the NiCrBSi coating; however, both of the coatings performed better than the Stellite-6 coating. The Stellite-6 coating was the least effective among the coatings studied, but it was still successful in decreasing the mass gain to about one fourth compared with the uncoated superalloy. The formation of oxides and spinels of nickel, chromium, or cobalt may be contributing to the development of hot corrosion resistance in the coatings. This article focuses on the hot corrosion behavior of HVOF coatings. The characterization of these coatings has been presented in part I included in this issue.

  12. Imagens urbanas: diretrizes de planejamento e desenho urbano baseadas na leitura popular de espaços públicos Urban images: guidelines to urban planning and design based in the popular reading of public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mail: elsonmp@hotmail.com

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo surgiu a partir do questionamento de como seria possível compreender e aplicar o imaginário coletivo no processo de planejamento e desenho urbanos. O objetivo principal, então, é o de demonstrar como se deu a aplicação prática do cruzamento de métodos de leitura de imagens mentais, numa tentativa de instrumentalizar a leitura popular. Por meio de pesquisa com o público usuário do Largo da Ordem, em Curitiba, PR, nos anos de 2004 e 2005, e com base em pesquisa documental, entrevistas e desenhos feitos pela comunidade, os autores obtiveram material necessário para aplicar o método de mapas cognitivos e criar arborescências, das quais puderam ser extraídas diretrizes para um planejamento e desenho urbanos mais próximos à realidade dos usuários da cidade, tentando ratificar a leitura comunitária preconizada por um planejamento urbano participativo. A partir de pesquisa qualitativa, puderam ser delineadas diretrizes de re-dinamização sócio-espacial para tal recorte, com respaldo tanto na bibliografia estudada quanto no material obtido com a comunidade, ratificando que, ao instrumentalizar a comunidade, é possível abrir um caminho para o diálogo entre o técnico e o cidadão (que também inclui os técnicos, pois esses habitam a cidade.

  13. Medicina Baseada em Evidências: a arte de aplicar o conhecimento científico na prática clínica Evidence-Based Medicine: the art of applying the scientific knowledge in the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lopes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo foi escrito com o objetivo de descrever o conceito de Medicina Baseada em Evidências (MBE e as competências necessárias para a sua prática. MBE deve ser vista como a integração da experiência clínica com a capacidade de analisar e aplicar racionalmente a informação científica ao cuidar de pacientes. A aplicação de métodos e estratégias para fortalecer o alicerce científico do médico, sem desprezar os valores humanitários da profissão, deverá contribuir para a melhoria da qualidade da assistência médica que é oferecida no Brasil. As Escolas e Associações Médicas podem desempenhar importantes papéis na promoção da MBE.This article was written with the objective of describing the concept of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM and the competences required for its practice. EBM should be viewed as an integration of clinical experience with the ability to analyze and rationally apply the scientific information while taking care of patients. The application of methods and strategies to enhance the scientific background of the physician while taking into account the humanitarian values of the medical profession should contribute to improve the quality of the medical care that is offered in Brazil. The Medical Schools and Associations may play important roles in the promotion of EBM.

  14. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  15. A Theoretical Study of Photoabsorption Cross Sections of Na2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; GAO Xiang; HAN Xiao-Ying; LI Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the framework of quantum defect theory, we calculate photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+. Based on our calculations, there is an absorption window in the photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+, and more than one bump above the absorption window. The calculated photoabsorption cross sections provide an explanation for the abnormal bump in the experimental measurements of Hudson, which is a long-standing experimental puzzle.

  16. Muscle-based perception: theory, research and implications for rehabilitation Percepção baseada nos músculos: teoria, pesquisa e implicações na reabilitação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Carello

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle-based perception of the spatial properties of limbs constrains the patterning, timing and magnitude of muscle forces while performing motor activities. The centrality of muscle-based perception to both ordinary and skilled actions warrants attention from the rehabilitation community, since deficits in its functioning would be related to important functional limitations. In this overview, we summarize a body of research that may be used to guide the development of effective assessment tools and rehabilitation programs that are specifically directed towards such deficits. OBJECTIVES: There were four specific aims: first, to present an information-based approach to muscle-based perception that is grounded in physical laws; second to identify central principles underlying muscle-based perception that have been revealed and supported by empirical work; third, to summarize reports that have investigated whether the principles identified can be generalized to muscle-based perception in individuals with sensory-motor impairments; and fourth to provide a preliminary discussion of the potential implications of the research presented here for issues relating to rehabilitation.INTRODUÇÃO: A percepção muscular das propriedades espaciais dos membros restringe o padrão, período e magnitude das forças exercidas durante a execução de atividades motoras. A importância central da percepção muscular, tanto para ações rotineiras quanto para ações especializadas, merece atenção da comunidade envolvida na área de reabilitação, uma vez que alterações em suas funções podem estar relacionadas a importantes limitações funcionais. Nesta revisão, os autores apresentam um resumo da pesquisa que pode ser utilizada para guiar o desenvolvimento de ferramentas de avaliação eficazes bem como programas de reabilitação que sejam especificamente direcionados para estas disfunções. OBJETIVOS: Quatro pontos específicos foram inclu

  17. Results from NA61/SHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we summarize recent results from NA61/SHINE relevant for heavy ion physics, neutrino oscillations and the interpretation of air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  18. Critérios de projeto e benefícios esperados da implantação de técnicas compensatórias em drenagem urbana para controle de escoamentos na fonte, com base em modelagem computacional aplicada a um estudo de caso na zona oeste do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaí Floriano Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de urbanização resulta em alterações no ciclo hidrológico prejudiciais à população. Para amenizar esses efeitos, as técnicas compensatórias em drenagem urbana visam à maior sustentabilidade hidrológica na expansão urbana. Nesse sentido, este artigo teve como objetivos avaliar, por meio de modelagem computacional, o efeito da adoção dessas técnicas na escala de lote e da bacia hidrográfica e avançar com diferentes possibilidades de concepção de projeto. A modelagem foi realizada para diversos cenários, considerando a implantação das técnicas de forma isolada e combinada. Os parâmetros utilizados na modelagem visaram verificar possibilidades extremas de aplicação, de modo a disponibilizar dados para balizamento de projetos reais. As chuvas avaliadas possuem variadas durações e intensidades, facilitando a extrapolação dos resultados deste trabalho para bacias hidrográficas de diferentes escalas. Os resultados das simulações indicam potenciais benefícios na drenagem urbana oriundos do uso dessas técnicas no lote, com mais efetividade para as menores chuvas de projeto. Esse foi o caso dos cenários que avaliaram os jardins rebaixados isoladamente ou combinados em série com um reservatório de lote e os cenários de pavimentos permeáveis na calçada que receberiam o escoamento superficial do lote adjacente. Também foi verificado que a combinação paralela de um reservatório de lote com as dimensões propostas pela legislação municipal e um jardim rebaixado em 0,07 m seria capaz de neutralizar, hidrologicamente, os impactos da ocupação do lote para todas as chuvas de projeto analisadas, entretanto o reservatório proposto pela legislação municipal, quando adotado isoladamente, quase não atuou na escala da bacia..

  19. Risbjerg: Historisk stemmeskred med NA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007......ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007...

  20. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy; Efeito das terras raras Y, Gd e Sm na tendencia a formacao de amorfo e na cristalizacao termica em ligas a base de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J., E-mail: aliaga@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Danez, G.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEMUFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}RE{sub 5} alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  1. Self-biased large magnetoelectric coupling in co-sintered Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based piezoelectric and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} based magnetostrictive bilayered composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Amrita; Chatterjee, Ratnamala, E-mail: rmala@physics.iitd.ac.in, E-mail: ratnamalac@gmail.com [Magnetics and Advanced Ceramics Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Arti [Physics and Astrophysics Department, Delhi University, Delhi 110007 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Solid State Physics Laboratory Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2014-12-28

    In this work, magnetoelectric properties of a co-sintered bilayered composite of non-lead based piezoelectric 0.97(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3})–0.03(K{sub 0.47}Na{sub 0.47}Li{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.74}Sb{sub 0.06}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}) and magnetostrictive Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} are presented. Similar optimal sintering conditions of the individual components lead to a very clean interface as evidenced in the scanning electron microscopy, angle dispersive X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results. Clean interface results in strong intimate mechanical coupling between both components and causes a maximum transfer of induced strain, leading to a large magnetoelectric coupling ∼142 mV/cm·Oe measured in longitudinally magnetized-transversely polarized configuration (L-T mode). Remnant polarization ∼32 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization ∼0.50 emu/g, and sufficiently high self biased magnetoelectricity ∼135 mV/cm Oe (L-T mode) were observed for this composite.

  2. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city O manejo da hipertensão arterial sistêmica na comunidade:estudo de base populacional em uma cidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto X. Piccini

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.Há poucas informações disponíveis a respeito do manejo de pacientes hipertensos na comunidade. Esse estudo mede a freqüência de hipertensão em uma cidade de médio porte do Brasil ao estudar uma amostra aleatória de 1.657 adultos com idade entre 20 e 69 anos. Os 328 hipertensos (19,8% encontrados foram submetidos a um questionário que investigava o conhecimento a respeito de sua condição e dados do manejo deste problema. Dois terços deles sabiam ser hipertensos, mais da metade usava medicação para hipertensão, mas apenas um terço apresentava cifras tensionais controladas. Os médicos não recomendaram, para muitos dos seus pacientes, realizarem exercícios físicos, abandonar o tabagismo e reduzirem o peso corporal. Embora exames laboratoriais tenham sido realizados em muitos pacientes, exame de fundo de olho e Rx de tórax foram feitos em menos de

  3. Currículo por competências na área de biodiagnóstico: desafios de implantação Skill-based curriculum in biological diagnosis: implementation challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz S. C. de Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a adoção da noção de competências na organização curricular do Curso Técnico de Laboratório em Biodiagnóstico em Saúde, da Escola Politécnica de Saúde Joaquim Venâncio (EPSJV, unidade técnico-científica da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz. A pesquisa enfocou a viabilidade da ressignificação desse modelo a partir da adoção da matriz crítico-emancipatória proposta por Deluiz, Ramos e Kuenzer. A pesquisa, de natureza qualitativa, foi realizada por meio de entrevistas com professores da instituição. Os resultados apontaram que a adoção do modelo de competências não se deu por opção pedagógica, mas por imposição legal das instâncias normativas. A identificação, definição e construção de competências que orientaram a organização curricular foram efetuadas através da perspectiva totalizante, ao buscar contemplar as diversas dimensões do conhecimento. A operacionalização desse modelo e o desenvolvimento da dimensão subjetiva das competências mostraram-se o maior desafio enfrentado pelos docentes³.This article investigates the incorporation of the notion of 'skills' in the development of the Vocational Course on Laboratory in Biological Diagnosis in Health of the Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School (EPSJV, a technical and scientific unit of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz. The conducted research focused on determining validity and viability of understanding the skill-based curriculum in the light of the critical/emancipatory approach proposed by Deluiz, Ramos and Kuenzer. The qualitative research was comprised of interviews with teachers of the institution. Results show that the implementation of skill-based ideas was the result of legal determination, not an agreed pedagogical approach. Besides that, the identification, selection and development of skills guiding the development of the curriculum were performed with a totalizing perspective in mind

  4. Dr. Sackett & "Mr. Sacketeer"... Encanto e desencanto no reino da expertise na medicina baseada em evidências Dr. Sackett & "Mr. Sacketeer"... enchantment and disenchantment in the land expertise in evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Castiel

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Em maio de 2000, o Prof. David L. Sackett, um dos criadores do movimento da medicina baseada em evidências (MBE, publicou no British Medical Journal um texto no qual renunciava a escrever, ministrar cursos e atuar como referee em temas relacionados a MBE. Esta atitude é justificada por sua frustração com o que considerou efeitos danosos de um alegado excesso de experts no referido campo. Esta foi a matéria prima para abordar aspectos ligados à definição e escopo das propostas da MBE assim como correspondentes críticas, enfatizando as estratégias retóricas empregadas por tal movimento. A seguir, foi discutida a noção de expertise e apresentados breves enfoques sobre o papel dos sistemas expert e da competência especializada na nossa ambiência societal, elaborados respectivamente por Anthony Giddens e Zygmunt Bauman. A intenção central deste comentário é enfatizar que ao acompanhar o progressivo movimento nas tentativas de obter controle e inteligibilidade a nossos objetos de estudo, é preciso levar em conta a possibilidade de haver dimensões inalcançáveis através do modo de pensar racionalista próprio do ocidente.In May 2000, Prof. David L. Sackett, one of the founders of the evidence-based medicine movement (EBM, published an article in the British Medical Journal in which he renounced writing, teaching, or serving as a referee for topics related to EBM. He justified his stance based on his frustration over what he considered the harmful effects of an alleged excess of experts in this field. Sackett's position was the raw material whereby we approached aspects linked to the definition and scope of EBM as well as related critiques. We also stress the movement's various rhetorical strategies. In addition, we discuss both the notion of expertise and the role of "expert systems" and "specialized competence" in our societal milieu, developed respectively by Anthony Giddens and Zygmunt Bauman. The main focus of this commentary

  5. The influence of salt (NaCl) on ochratoxin A biosynthetic genes, growth and ochratoxin A production by three strains of Penicillium nordicum on a dry-cured ham-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2014-05-16

    Iberian dry-cured ham is colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The environmental conditions occurring during the process including the salt content predisposes the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum which can contaminate the curing ham with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of NaCl (10% and 22%=0.94 and 0.87 water activity (aw)) on the activation of two genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for OTA production, otapksPN and otanpsPN, relative growth and phenotypic OTA production by three strains of P. nordicum (CBS 110.769, FHSCC1 and FHSCC2) on a ham-based medium over a period of 12days at 25°C. Growth of the three strains was faster at 0.87 than 0.94 aw on the ham-based media. However, some intra- and inter-strain differences were observed. Of the three strains, only two (CBS 110.789; FHSCC2) were able to express the two genes involved in the biosynthesis of OTA in the two salt treatments. RT-qPCR showed that the temporal expression of the two genes (otapksPN and otanpsPN) was relatively similar for the wild type strain (FHSCC2) at both 0.94 and 0.87 aw over the 12day period. However, in the type strain (CBS 110.769) expression increased rapidly at 0.94 aw but was significantly lower at 0.87 aw. Expression of these two genes occurred after 3day incubation, while phenotypic OTA production was observed only after 6days in the two toxigenic strains. The other strain did not produce any OTA. The OTA concentrations confirmed the results observed with the molecular tools. This suggests that the RT-qPCR gene expression of these two genes may be a good early indicator of potential contamination of dry-cured ham with OTA during dry-cured ham ripening.

  6. Ortodontia baseada em evidência científica: incorporando ciência na prática clínica Scientific evidence-based orthodontics: incorporating science within clinic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Scardua Mariano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é despertar o ortodontista e conscientizá-lo sobre a importância da tomada de decisão baseada em evidência científica no cuidado aos pacientes. Serão descritos os passos essenciais para a prática da Odontologia baseada em evidência (OBE, assim como os princípios da ciência e da pesquisa. Existem caminhos adequados para a busca da informação de qualidade, sendo esses a única garantia de encontrar artigos válidos. Na seleção de artigos científicos, o primeiro passo é definir o seu desenho, pois para cada dúvida clínica há um delineamento adequado capaz de respondê-la. Dessa maneira, questões sobre tratamento, etiologia, diagnóstico, prognóstico ou prevenção só podem ser respondidas por um artigo que tenha sido delineado para tal. O conhecimento da alocação randomizada, do mascaramento e do grupo-controle é fundamental para que possamos realizar uma leitura crítica dos artigos científicos, reconhecendo os que merecem credibilidade. Em meio a tantas publicações, precisamos definir, com segurança, o que deve ser incorporado ao nosso conhecimento e o que deve ser incorporado à prática clínica, mudando a nossa conduta. Desse modo, poderemos oferecer aos nossos pacientes opções terapêuticas mais consistentes e previsíveis.The aim of this article is to warn the orthodontist about the importance of making decision based on scientific evidence when taking care of the patients. It describes the main steps for the Dentistry practices based in evidence (EBD as well as the science and research principles. There are adequate ways for the search of quality information. While selecting the scientific articles, the first step would be defining its design, since for each question there is an adequate delineation able to answer it. Questions about treatment, etiology, diagnostic, prognostic or prevention could be answered in the article if it has been delineated for that. Understanding the meaning

  7. Biosolids effectiveness to yield ryegrass based on their nitrogen content Eficiência de biossólidos na produção de azevém baseado no conteúdo de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids have been reported to increase yields and supply plant nutrients. However, complying with health and environmental standards is necessary before applying biosolids to land. Thus, sludge stabilization is required to make biosolids safe enough for their agricultural use. Side effects of stabilization processes on agronomic features of sewage sludge are not quite known, although their understanding is essential for biosolids management. Based on a model equivalent to the Mitscherlich equation, effects of the most common processes for sludge stabilization were evaluated (composting, liming, heat-drying and solar irradiation in relation to the agronomic effectiveness of biosolids to yield Lolium perenne L. on two tropical soils, with NH4H2PO4 as a reference. Sewage stabilization processes have affected the ability of biosolids to promote plant growth. Their effectiveness was usually higher than fertilizer in a Spodosol and lower in an Oxisol. Solar-irradiated sludge presented the highest effectiveness among the biosolids and reached peak yields at the lowest application rate independent on soil type. Biosolids could efficiently substitute fertilizers and even yield more plant dry matter than the NH4H2PO4 reference, depending on the biosolid and soil type.Biossólidos têm sido citados como capazes de aumentar a produção de culturas e suprir nutrientes para plantas. Questões sanitárias e ambientais demandam que eles sejam estabilizados para que sejam usados na agricultura. Os efeitos dos processos de estabilização sobre as propriedades agronômicas de biossólidos não são completamente conhecidos, apesar de essenciais para o seu manejo. Baseado em um modelo equivalente à equação de Mitscherlich, este trabalho avaliou os efeitos dos processos mais comuns para a estabilização de lodos de esgotos (compostagem, caleação, secagem térmica e irradiação solar sobre a eficiência agronômica de biossólidos na produção de Lolium

  8. Estimativas das componentes da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas baseadas na radiação global horizontal Estimates of solar radiation components on a tilted surface based on global horizontal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson P. Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas equações estatísticas de estimativas com agrupamentos de dados anuais e mensais e suas respectivas validações, para as componentes global, direta e difusa da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas a 12,85, 22,85 e 32,85º, com face para o Norte, nas condições climáticas e geográficas de Botucatu, SP. Empregou-se as frações das três componentes da radiação a do topo da atmosfera em correlação com o coeficiente de transmissividade atmosférica do plano horizontal, em uma base de dados de abril/1998 a dezembro/2007, cujas medidas nas três inclinações ocorreram em diferentes períodos, todavia concomitantes ao plano horizontal. O aumento do ângulo de inclinação da superfície propiciou aumento do espalhamento dos valores diários do índice de claridade para superfícies inclinada e horizontal. Nos agrupamentos anuais os piores desempenhos foram verificados na estimativa da radiação difusa diária para superfície inclinada, com valores máximos de espalhamentos iguais a 3,89 MJ m-2 d-1 (43,65% e ajustamento em torno de 62%. Na estimativa das componentes global e direta da radiação solar nos planos inclinados, podem ser aplicadas, tanto as equações anuais como as mensais, com desempenhos dependentes das condições climáticas.Statistics equations and validations with groups of annual and monthly data were evaluated for global, direct and diffuse solar radiation components incident on the tilted surface to 12.85, 22.85 and 32.85° with the face North, in climate and geographical conditions of Botucatu, SP. It was employed the fractions of three components of extraterrestrial radiation in correlation with the coefficient clearness index horizontal plane, in a database of April/1998 to December/2007, whose measures at different periods in three inclinations, however concomitant to the horizontal plane. Increasing the angle of the surface led to increased scattering of the daily values of

  9. NaOH沉淀-KF置换-酸碱滴定法快速测定高岭土中氧化铝%Study on Rapid Method of Determining Aluminum Oxide Content in Kaolin by NaOH Precipitation-KF Displacement-Acid-Base Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞斌; 王建国

    2008-01-01

    本文研究了快速测定高岭土中氧化铝含量的NaOH沉淀-KF置换的酸碱滴定法.试样与碱性混合熔剂Na2CO3+MgO半熔融,熔块以水浸取并消除干扰离子后,先在pH值7~8时,用稀NaOH溶液将Al3+沉淀为Al(OH)3,再加入KF,反应中释放出的游离KOH溶液,以酚酞为指示剂,用HCl标准溶液滴定至终点.测定结果的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.30%(n=5),其加标回收率(R)在97.8%~101.6%.结果表明,改进后的本法具有简单、快捷、准确度高、干扰小等特点,可满足生产要求.

  10. A gastronomia como fator de influência na escolha de destinações turísticas – base de estudo balneário Camboriú (SC-Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Wendhausen Krause; Álvaro Augusto Bahls

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo busca avaliar quais os fatores relacionados à gastronomia que influenciam o turista a escolher um determinado destino turístico. Busca-se, também, identificar como a gastronomia é vista em relação à cultura da localidade: o turista vê na gastronomia uma forma de conhecer a cultura local? Esse fato é significativo na escolha de uma destinação? As respostas foram obtidas através de uma metodologia hipotético-dedutiva aliada à estatística descritiva, com a aplicação de um instrum...

  11. Performance of adhesives base on PU, Epoxy and silane in the Kevlar/alumina interface; Desempenho de adesivos a base de PU, epoxi e silano na interface Kevlar/alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, K.F.; Melo, F.C.L.; Lopes, C.M.A. [Divisao de Materiais, Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica-Aeronautica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cmoniz@iae.cta.br

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid ceramic/polymer composites are used for ballistic protection due to the good high-velocity impact absorption properties. The choice of the proper adhesive used to bond ceramic and polymer layers is one of the major issues for hybrid armor development due to its influence in the ballistic resistance behaviour. This work presents an adhesion study in composites of aramid textile (Kevlar) and alumina. Adhesives of different chemical nature, based on polyurethane, epoxy and silane were evaluated. T-Peel test was performed for the interface characterization and the post- failure surfaces were examined by optical microscopy. In all samples the failure occurred at the interface. The silane-based adhesive showed no interaction with the polymer, while the PU hot melt adhesive presented the highest adhesion strengths. (author)

  12. Hadron production measurement from NA61/SHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Korzenev, A

    2013-01-01

    New results from the NA61/SHINE experiment on the determination of charged hadron yields in proton-carbon interactions are presented. They aim to improve predictions of the neutrino flux in the T2K experiment. The analysis is based on the main dataset collected by NA61/SHINE in the year 2009. The data were recorded using a secondary-proton beam of 31 GeV/$c$ momentum from CERN SPS which impinges on a graphite target. To determine the inclusive production cross section for charged pions, kaons and protons a thin target was exploited. Results of this measurement are used in the T2K beam simulation program to reweight hadron yields at the interaction vertex. At the same time, NA61/SHINE results obtained with the T2K replica target allow to constrain hadron yields at the surface of the target. This allows to constrain up to 90% of the neutrino flux, thus reducing significantly the model dependence of the neutrino beam prediction. All measured spectra are compared to predictions of hadron production models.

  13. Transplante pulmonar na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo José J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: este artigo faz uma revisão dos principais aspectos relacionados com o transplante pulmonar na população pediátrica, e traz a experiência da equipe pioneira na realização do procedimento na América Latina. Fontes de dados: foram utilizadas informações através de revisão bibliográfica, realizada por busca direta de artigos científicos e por pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline e Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: o artigo é estruturado em tópicos, nos quais procura identificar as semelhanças e as diferenças com o transplante pulmonar do adulto. Discute os problemas específicos da criança transplantada e enfatiza uma situação específica, a do transplante pulmonar com doadores vivos aparentados. Conclusões: os avanços observados no transplante pulmonar realizado em adultos, para tratamento de doenças pulmonares, parenquimatosas ou vasculares, têm sido transferidos, nos últimos anos, para a população pediátrica, com sucesso crescente.

  14. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Oliveira Nascimento

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enrique Cártula Fita, Elisabete da Assunção Jóse, Jésus Alonso Tapia, Maria Tereza Coelho e Ruth Caribe da Rocha Drouet. A metodologia usada consistiu na pesquisa qualitativa, no estudo de caso e questionário com perguntas abertas e fechadas aplicadas à professora e três alunos que estão com dificuldades na leitura. Através dos relatos dos sujeitos realizamos um estudo analítico confrontando os dados da pesquisa com os autores principais que fundamentam a mesma. O presente trabalho pretende contribuir e mostrar ao professor em sala de aula a importância de incentivar os alunos a aprenderem a ler com prazer motivando-os a despertar o interesse e gosto pela leitura. Os resultados da investigação revelam que a professora pesquisada está ciente de seu papel e procura meios para enfrentar os problemas existentes em sala de aula, em especial às dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura e os alunos percebem a importância da leitura e tem vontade em avançar nesse aprendizado.Palavras-chave: educação; dificuldades na aprendizagem. professor; aluno; sala de aula.

  15. Estudo comparativo da resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete, sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três resinas compostas e três tipos de tratamento na base do braquete Comparative study of the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, using three different resin composites and three different treatments in the base of the bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lia Mondelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: considerando que, até o momento, a união braquete/resina é conseguida mecânica e quimicamente, esse estudo propôs avaliar: 1 a eficiência da metodologia empregada para avaliação da força de união da interface resina/braquete; 2 a resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três marcas comerciais de resina composta (Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250; 3 o efeito, nesta resistência adesiva, do jateamento com óxido de alumínio, aplicado na base do braquete metálico, associado ou não ao sistema adesivo resinoso dentário. METODOLOGIA: para avaliar a união adesiva, especificamente na interface resina/braquete, empregou-se uma máquina universal de ensaios e o teste preconizado foi o de cisalhamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: após análise estatística (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey e discussão dos resultados, conclui-se que: a ocorrência de 12,5% de fraturas coesivas pode ser considerada mínima, indicando que a metodologia empregada pode ser considerada confiável para avaliar especificamente a força de união da interface resina/braquete; em relação aos tipos de materiais empregados, sem nenhum tratamento prévio, as resinas compostas Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250 apresentaram valores similares de resistência adesiva sob esforços de cisalhamento; os tratamentos que incluíam a aplicação do adesivo específico, com ou sem jateamento com óxido de alumínio na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos para a resina composta Concise ortodôntico, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; os tratamentos de jateamento com óxido de alumínio, associado ou não ao adesivo específico na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos estatisticamente para a resina composta Transbond-XT, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; para a resina composta Filtek-Z-250, quando utilizado o adesivo Single Bond na base do braquete

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration using NaHSO4 and NaOH: A dissolution and carbonation optimisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Steel, Luc; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2017-03-15

    The use of NaHSO4 to leach out Mg fromlizardite-rich serpentinite (in form of MgSO4) and the carbonation of CO2 (captured in form of Na2CO3 using NaOH) to form MgCO3 and Na2SO4 was investigated. Unlike ammonium sulphate, sodium sulphate can be separated via precipitation during the recycling step avoiding energy intensive evaporation process required in NH4-based processes. To determine the effectiveness of the NaHSO4/NaOH process when applied to lizardite, the optimisation of the dissolution and carbonation steps were performed using a UK lizardite-rich serpentine. Temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, concentration and molar ratio were evaluated. An optimal dissolution efficiency of 69.6% was achieved over 3 h at 100 °C using 1.4 M sodium bisulphate and 50 g/l serpentine with particle size 75-150 μm. An optimal carbonation efficiency of 95.4% was achieved over 30 min at 90 °C and 1:1 magnesium:sodium carbonate molar ratio using non-synthesised solution. The CO2 sequestration capacity was 223.6 g carbon dioxide/kg serpentine (66.4% in terms of Mg bonded to hydromagnesite), which is comparable with those obtained using ammonium based processes. Therefore, lizardite-rich serpentinites represent a valuable resource for the NaHSO4/NaOH based pH swing mineralisation process.

  17. Dialogia do riso: um novo conceito que introduz alegria para a promoção da saúde apoiando-se no diálogo, no riso, na alegria e na arte da palhaçaria Dialogy of Laughter: a new concept introducing joy for health promotion based on dialogue, laughter, joy and the art of the clown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Campos Matraca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos e debatemos a Dialogia do Riso, um conceito baseado na prática da educação popular em saúde desenvolvida com alegria. Saúde entendida como um recurso para a vida e não como um objetivo de viver; promoção da saúde como uma reação positiva que leva a uma percepção ampliada, integrada, complexa e intersetorial: articula ambiente, educação, pessoas, estilo e qualidade de vida. O riso pode então ser incorporado como ferramenta de promoção da saúde, tese que defendemos. Para isso apresentamos considerações sobre o diálogo, o riso, a alegria e o palhaço, conceituando a Dialogia do Riso. O diálogo, fala entre duas ou mais pessoas para entendimento de alguma ideia mediada pela comunicação, é uma metodologia de reflexão conjunta, que visa melhorar a produção de novas ideias e compartilhar significados, essência da comunicação. O riso é um fenômeno universal, condicionado a aspectos da cultura, da filosofia, da história e da saúde; é dialógico, porque, através do humor nos deparamos com a comédia e o escárnio que existe por traz de cada riso, um código de comunicação inerente à natureza humana. Arrolamos argumentos para defender a alegria como estratégia para a promoção da saúde, e adotamos o palhaço, e usamos sua arte como ferramenta educacional que pode ser integrada como tecnologia social.The Dialogy of Laughter - a concept based upon the praxis of general health education performed with joy - is presented and discussed. Health is seen as a resource for life rather than a goal in life and promotion of health is a positive reaction leading to a broader, integrated and complex perception linking the environment, education, people, quality and style of life. Laughter can then be incorporated as a tool in health promotion as defended here. Considerations on dialogue, laughter, joy and the clown giving rise to the Dialogy of Laughter concept are presented. Dialogue, namely an exchange between

  18. Rechargeable Room-Temperature Na-CO2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofei; Sun, Jianchao; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Qing; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2016-05-23

    Developing rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries is significant for energy conversion and utilization of CO2 . However, the reported batteries in pure CO2 atmosphere are non-rechargeable with limited discharge capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) . Herein, we realized the rechargeability of a Na-CO2 battery, with the proposed and demonstrated reversible reaction of 3 CO2 +4 Na↔2 Na2 CO3 +C. The battery consists of a Na anode, an ether-based electrolyte, and a designed cathode with electrolyte-treated multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and shows reversible capacity of 60000 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) (≈1000 Wh kg(-1) ) and runs for 200 cycles with controlled capacity of 2000 mAh g(-1) at charge voltage CO2 .

  19. O, Na, Ba and Eu abundance patterns in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; Lattanzio, J

    2014-01-01

    Open clusters are historically regarded as single-aged stellar populations representative of star formation within the Galactic disk. Recent literature has questioned this view, based on discrepant Na abundances relative to the field, and concerns about the longevity of bound clusters contributing to a selection bias: perhaps long-lived open clusters are chemically different to the star formation events that contributed to the Galactic disk. We explore a large sample of high resolution Na, O, Ba & Eu abundances from the literature, homogenized as much as reasonable including accounting for NLTE effects, variations in analysis and choice of spectral lines. Compared to a template globular cluster and representative field stars, we find no significant abundance trends, confirming that the process producing the Na-O anti-correlation in globular clusters is not present in open clusters. Furthermore, previously reported Na-enhancement of open clusters is found to be an artefact of NLTE effects, with the open cl...

  20. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  1. Jezična analiza lista Naš glas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    U radu se analizira jezik Našega glasa (list „Riviere“ – radne organizacije za ugostiteljstvo, turizam, trgovinu i proizvodnju) koji je izlazio u Poreču od 1969. do 1982. godine. Nakon kratkoga osvrta na strukturu, sadržaj i ulogu toga lista te njegov značaj za stanovništvo lokalne zajednice, slijedi prikaz jezičnih zbivanja u vrijeme njegova izlaženja. U žarištu su istraživanja pravopisne, morfološke, sintaktičke, tvorbene, leksičke i stilske karakteristike lista. Rezultati istraživanja poka...

  2. Corpo e sexualidade na gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalúcia Matos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo etnográfico que teve como objetivo compreender como as gestantes vivenciam os processos fisiológicos do seu corpo durante a gestação e a sua repercussão na sexualidade. A pesquisa envolveu sete mulheres residentes em bairro popular de São Paulo. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se observação participante e entrevista com questões norteadoras. Os dados foram apresentados na forma de narrativa e posteriormente organizados nas categorias: Percebendo as transformações corporais; Convivendo com as mudanças no corpo; Sentimentos e sensações na vida sexual durante a gestação e imaginando o corpo e a sexualidade após a gestação. As mulheres referiram-se às transformações do corpo como desconfortos e expressaram a preocupação de que fossem definitivas. Expressaram o desejo de que, após o parto, o corpo volte a ser como era e que volte a sentir desejo sexual. O reconhecimento destes fatos constitui-se numa ferramenta primordial na adequação das práticas profissionais.

  3. All new for NA62

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    This week sees the start of the first run of the new NA62 experiment. This will be a unique opportunity for the collaboration to test its new beam, new detectors and new data acquisition system before the physics run in 2014. Speaking to the Bulletin, the NA62 technical coordinator Ferdinand Hahn shares the many challenges that the various teams faced to be on time for beam. Ready, steady, start!   A Large Angle Veto detector (white) in place in the NA62 decay volume (blue). With components from almost all the detectors in place downstream of the decay point of the mother particles – the kaons – and of the KTAG detector that tags the kaons before they decay, NA62 is ready for its first technical run. This unique run will test all the equipment as well as the trigger and the data acquisition systems. “This year, we will have about five weeks of beam from the SPS before the long shutdown of all the CERN machines,” says Ferdinand Hahn, NA62 Technical Co-...

  4. Nursing diagnosis: educational strategy based on problem-based learning Diagnóstico de enfermería: estrategia educativa fundamentada en el aprendizaje basado en problemas Diagnóstico de enfermagem: estratégia educativa fundamentada na aprendizagem baseada em problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Brandão de Carvalho Lira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a teaching strategy on nursing diagnoses based on problem-based learning in the performance of clinical reasoning and diagnostic trial of undergraduate students. Experimental study conducted in two phases: content validation of problems and implementation of educational strategy. The results showed improvement in the data pooling ability of students in the experimental group. It is concluded that the strategy put in practice exerted a positive influence.Este estudio tuvo por objetivo evaluar la eficacia de una estrategia de enseñanza sobre diagnósticos de enfermería fundamentada en el aprendizaje basado en problemas en el desempeño del raciocinio clínico y juzgamiento diagnóstico de los estudiantes de graduación. Se trata de estudio experimental, realizado en dos fases: validación de contenido de los problemas y aplicación de la estrategia educativa. Los resultados mostraron mejoría en la capacidad de agrupamiento de los datos de los estudiantes del grupo experimental. Se concluye que hubo influencia positiva de la estrategia implementada.Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de uma estratégia de ensino sobre diagnósticos de enfermagem, fundamentada na aprendizagem, baseada em problemas no desempenho do raciocínio clínico e julgamento diagnóstico dos discentes de graduação. É estudo experimental, realizado em duas fases: validação de conteúdo dos problemas e aplicação da estratégia educativa. Os resultados mostraram melhora na capacidade de agrupamento dos dados dos discentes do grupo experimental. Conclui-se que houve influência positiva da estratégia implementada.

  5. Base genética do hábito de crescimento e florescimento em tomateiro e sua importância na agricultura Genetic basis of growth habit and flowering in tomato and its importance in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Angelo Piotto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variedades ou híbridos de tomateiro utilizados para produção de molhos e ketchups costumam ter hábito determinado, enquanto a maioria dos genótipos utilizados na produção para mesa (consumo in natura possuem hábito indeterminado. Além de influenciar no manejo da cultura, o hábito de crescimento pode alterar parâmetros de produtividade, como o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST nos frutos. O hábito de crescimento é controlado principalmente pelo gene SELF-PRUNING (SP, que é um dos componentes de uma pequena família gênica da qual faz parte também o gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT, atualmente considerado um dos componentes do tão buscado "florígeno". O entendimento da função bioquímica e o efeito fisiológico de tais genes em interação com o ambiente e outros genes (epistasia possibilita a manipulação de parâmetros como precocidade e SST. Além disso, fornece subsídios para compreender a base genética do crescimento semideterminado, que combina vantagens do hábito determinado e indeterminado, podendo ser usado pelos melhoristas de plantas para o desenvolvimento de novas cultivares.Hybrids or open pollinated tomato cultivars used for sauces and ketchups production usually has determinate growth habit, while most of the genotypes used in the production to salads (in natura consumption has indeterminate growth habit. Additionally, growth habit can have influence on culture management, productivity and total soluble solids (TSS in fruits. The growth habit is mainly controlled by the gene SELF-PRUNING (SP, which is a component of a small gene family which is also part of the gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT, currently considered one of the components so sought after 'florigin'. Understanding the biochemical function and physiological effect of such genes in interaction with the environment and other genes (epistasis, allows the manipulation of parameters such as precocity and TSS. It also provides subsidies to understand

  6. Análise Bioestratigráfica com Base em Foraminíferos de Três Testemunhos da Região do Leque Almirante Câmara na Bacia de Campos, RJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bentes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bacia de Campos é a principal áreaprodutora de hidrocarbonetos do país. A descobertade campos gigantes nessa bacia levou à intensificaçãodos estudos dos depósitos em águas profundas ehiperprofundas, tanto da dinâmica de sua gênese eevolução, quanto da tecnologia de produção. Assim,o estudo da bioestratigrafia do Quaternário dessabacia adquire importância, pois fornece uma molduraestratigráfica para a reconstituição da sedimentaçãonessa área. O objetivo do presente trabalho consisteno reconhecimento de biozonas com base emforaminíferos e na correlação estratigráfica de poçosperfurados no talude continental. O material estudadoé proveniente de três testemunhos coletados em2001, no Sistema Almirante Câmara (lâmina d’águaentre 1050 e 2400 m, pelo projeto “ImageamentoGeofísico do Sistema Turbidítico Moderno em ÁguasProfundas da Bacia de Campos”, desenvolvidopelo Depto. de Geologia/UFRJ em parceria com aPETROBRAS. Foram analisadas 77 amostras, comespaçamento de 3cm a 30cm, de acordo com critérioslitológicos e com a necessidade de um detalhamentomaior dos intervalos estudados. Em laboratório, asamostras foram pesadas (10 g e processadas segundometodologia tradicional para estudo de microfósseiscalcários. Em seguida, cada amostra foi peneiradaa seco para triagem, identificação e contagem. Aidentificação e classificação taxônomica seguiuBolli & Saunders (1985. In: Bolli et al. PlanktonStratigraphy e Kennet & Srinivasan (1983. NeogenePlanktonic Foraminifera: a Phylogenetic Atlas. Obiozoneamento utlizado como referência foi o deEricson & Wollin (1968. Sciences, v.162, refinadopor Vicalvi (1997, Bol.Geoci.Petrobras, v.11, n.1/2;1999. PPGG/UFRJ,Tese D.Sc.. Foram reconhecidasas biozonas Z (Holoceno, Y e X (Pleistoceno Finale identificado um possível hiato, englobando ointervalo Y5 – Y2; as taxas de sedimentação foramcalculadas para os intervalos Z, parte superior de Y1e Y1 total.

  7. Atividade física na perspectiva da Nova Promoção da Saúde: contradições de um programa institucional Physical activity based on the new health promotion perspective: contradictions of an institutional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Santos Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se como a ambiguidade da Promoção da Saúde se manifesta em um programa institucional de promoção da atividade física. Em um primeiro momento, são apresentadas diferentes abordagens de Promoção da Saúde como expressão dessa ambiguidade. Em seguida, após breve discussão sobre a manifestação dessa ambiguidade no cotidiano midiático, analisa-se o programa Agita São Paulo, apontado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde como exemplo de iniciativa de Promoção da Saúde. Conclui-se que, apesar de manter-se à sombra da Nova Promoção da Saúde, o Agita São Paulo funda-se na abordagem comportamentalista/conservadora de Promoção da Saúde, uma vez que demoniza o sedentarismo, culpabiliza seus adeptos e apoia suas estratégias em mudanças comportamentais individuais como meio de redução do risco epidemiológico, independentemente dos condicionantes sociais, econômicos e culturais.This article aims to discuss how the ambiguity of Health Promotion occurs in one physical activity institutional program. Firstly, different approaches to Health Promotion are presented as embodiments of such ambiguities. Then, after a brief discussion about manifestations of such ambiguity in everyday media coverage, we analyze the Agita São Paulo Program, regarded by the World Health Organization as an example of health promotion initiative. The conclusion is that, in spite of being under the umbrella of the so-called new health promotion movement, the Agita São Paulo Program is based upon behavioral/conservative approaches of health promotion because it demonizes sedentarism, blames its followers and supports its strategies in terms of behavioral changes as a way of reducing epidemiologic risks, in spite of social, economic and cultural determinants.

  8. Calibration of water quality index (WQI based on Resolution nº 357/2005 of the Environment National Council (CONAMA Calibração do índice de qualidade da água (IQA com base na Resolução nº 357/2005 do Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Lautert Moretto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring studies in the Hydrographical Basin of Pardo River, RS, Brazil, in the time series from 2007 to 2009, showed no agreement between the water quality evaluation obtained through the Water Quality Index (WQI - NSF, which ranged from "regular" to "good", and the Environment National Council (CONAMA Resolution 357/2005, which was bad ("class 4", highlighting as critical variables for this classification the thermotolerant coliforms and the phosphate concentration, indicating process of water eutrophication, related to the large amount of nutrients and organic load from domestic sewage and excess fertilizers used in agriculture. AIM: This research aimed to calibrate the WQI - NSF for the Pardo River Basin, based on the CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. METHODS: Using the database (2007 a 2009 from the Laboratory of Limnology of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC, RS, corresponding to the environmental monitoring studies realized in the Hydrographical Basin of Pardo River new weights of the relative importance of the variables used to calculate the WQI were attributed, by means of principal component analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant agreement between the results of the assessment of water quality using the CONAMA Resolution 357/2005 and the new WQI calibrated. CONCLUSION: The results certify the use of the calibrated WQI in environmental monitoring programs in lotic systems belonging to Guaíba Hydrographical Basin, RS.Estudos de monitoramento ambiental na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil, na série temporal 2007 a 2009, mostraram que não há concordância entre a avaliação da qualidade da água obtida através do Índice da Qualidade da Água (IQA - NSF, que oscilou entre boa e regular, e da Resolução 357/2005 do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA, que foi ruim (classe 4, destacando como variáveis críticas para esta classificação os coliformes termotolerantes e a concentração de

  9. Standardized precipitation index based on pearson type III distribution Índice padronizado de precipitação baseado na distribuição pearson tipo III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2011-06-01

    localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nas escalas de 1, 3 e 6 meses. Aplicando testes de aderência, tanto qualitativos, quanto quantitativos, verificou-se que as probabilidades associadas às séries utilizadas foram melhores estimadas por meio da PE3. Foi também observado, que o número de séries temporais do IPP que podem ser consideradas normalmente distribuídas, foi maior quando este índice de seca foi calculado com base na PE3. Dessa forma, recomenda-se a adoção da PE3 no cálculo do IPP no Estado de São Paulo.

  10. Types of Moulding and Methods of Eliminating Dry Rot in Historic Buildings: Example of Sobiescy Palace in Lublin (Based on Study by Mirosław Zaród)/ Zagrzybienia I Metody Odgrzybiania Obiektów Zabytkowych Na Przykładzie Pałacu Sobieskich W Lublinie (Na Podstawie Opracowania Dokonanego Przez M. Zaróda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrana, Jan; Jarocka-Mikrut, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    By presenting Sobiescy Palace in Lublin as well as results of mycological research conducted in the said premises, the authors describe hazards and dangers arising from damp present in historic buildings for a long time. Results of mycological research quoted in this article indicate that differences in levels of damp depend on the cardinal direction a specific wall faces. The authors also pay attention to reasons for which the described premises suffer from damp and provide programmes of treatment and prevention. Furthermore, the article gives the reader a detailed insight into multiple opportunities for improving technical conditions of historic buildings and, at the same time, raising their functional standards. However, one must not forget to treat such premises with proper respect. W artykule przedstawiono zagrożenia tkwiące w długotrwałym narażeniu zabudowań historycznych na wilgoć na podstawie Pałacu Sobieskich w Lublinie oraz ekspertyzy mykologicznej. Zwrócono uwagę na różnice w wilgotności ścian oraz zależności wynikające z orientacji budowli względem stron świata. Opisano przyczyny występowania wilgoci w opisywanym założeniu jak również wskazano możliwości ich przeciwdziałaniu. Poprzez przedstawienie możliwych do zastosowania metod ochrony przed wspomnianymi czynnikami dowiedziono, iż możliwości poprawy stanu technicznego, a tym samym standardów funkcjonalnych obiektów zabytkowych jest wiele przy czym należy zachować szczególny szacunek do substancji zabytkowej

  11. Alcool e drogas na esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia Montoya Boscolo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o fenômeno do uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas (maconha e cocaína) na esquizoftenia. Trata-se de estudo comparativo, casocontrole, de dois grupos de esquizoftênicos pareados para sexo e idade, que preencheram os critérios diagnósticos do DSMIV para esquizoftenia. O grupo caso é definido por esquizofrênicos que têm história de ter feito uso de álcool, pelo menos no último mês e/ ou história de ter feito uso de drogas (maconha e cocaína), pelo menos al...

  12. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar a contribuição de alguns autores que discorreram sobre o tema da criatividade em suas obras, iniciando por Kurt Goldstein e sua Teoria Organísmica, que consideramos o principal substrato teórico para se pensar a criatividade na Gestalt–terapia.

  13. gigapanorama of NA 62 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The image shows the new rare Kaon decay experiment at CERN, called NA62. The NA62 experiment is 270 metres long and includes a 120-metre-long vacuum tank, shown here, housing several of the particle detectors. (Note: the experiment axis is a straight line, the curving of the tank is an optical effect of the photo.) Kaons are particles that decay into lighter elementary particles. The kaon decay processes are mostly well known, except for some very rare decay modes. For example, NA62 is investigating a rare decay predicted by the Standard Model in which a kaon decays into one pion and two neutrinos. This process occurs only once every 10 billion decays. The understanding of such ultra-rare decays are of great importance because they test the Standard Model in energy ranges not accessible by direct measurements. They are therefore complementary to the measurements at the LHC. ultra high definition on demand (photolab@cern.ch).

  14. Measurement and Modeling of Mean Activity Coefficients of NaCl in an Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution Containing Glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Paniz; Dehghani, M. R.; Safahieh, Tina

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical cell with two ion-selective electrodes (Na+ glass) and (Cl- solid state) was used to measure the mean ionic activity coefficient of NaCl in an aqueous mixture containing NaCl, glycine, and NaNO3 at 308.15 K. The experiments were conducted at fixed molality of NaNO3 (0.1 m) and various molalities of glycine (0-1 m) and NaCl (up to 0.8 m). The experimental data were modeled using a modified version of the Pitzer equation. Finally the activity coefficient ratio of glycine was determined based on the Maxwell equation.

  15. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  16. Criatividade na Gestalt–terapia

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Albuquerque Lima

    2009-01-01

    Como se conceitua criatividade na teoria da Gestalt–terapia? Qual o papel e a função da criatividade nesta abordagem? O que se considera como um comportamento criativo no senso comum é tão diferente do que compreendemos, na abordagem gestáltica, como criatividade? Estas são algumas das perguntas sobre as quais buscaremos transcorrer ao longo deste artigo. Partimos de simples perguntas, pois talvez um bom recurso para se “tratar” da criatividade seja a curiosidade. Para isto, iremos apresentar...

  17. Sustentabilidade de empresas de base florestal: o papel dos projetos sociais na inclusão das comunidades locais Sustainability of florest based enterprises: the role of social projects in the inclusion of the local communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio do Nascimento Gomes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de estudo de casos, buscou-se interpretar as ações sociais de empresas produtoras de celulose de fibra curta de mercado, localizadas no Estado do Espírito Santo e extremo sul da Bahia, com vistas a verificar a sua consistência com a estratégia de sustentabilidade empresarial. Buscou-se, também, caracterizar seus programas de ações sociais e sua abrangência, ao analisar o conteúdo dos instrumentos de divulgação das ações sociais das empresas e identificar a concepção que tem orientado essas ações sociais e sua relação com as comunidades influenciadas pelas suas áreas de produção de eucalipto.The objective of this study was to interpret, based on case studies, the social actions of short fiber market pulp companies, located in the States of Espírito Santo and extreme South of Bahia, in order to verify their consistency with the strategy of business sustainability; to characterize their programs of social actions and their scope, by analyzing the content of the communication tools of these companies' social actions, and to identify the conception that has guided their social actions and the relationship with the communities influenced by their areas of eucalyptus production.

  18. Associação entre trauma por perda na infância e depressão na vida adulta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavaschi Maria Lucrécia Scherer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observações clínicas efetuadas por psicanalistas sugerem que psicopatologias da idade adulta podem ter sido originadas na infância. Estudos publicados na última década identificaram associação entre trauma na infância e depressão na vida adulta. Vivências traumáticas na infância, como a perda de vínculos afetivos devido à morte de pais ou de irmãos ou, ainda, a privação de um ou de ambos os pais por separação ou abandono constituem importantes fatores associados à depressão na vida adulta. O objetivo do presente artigo é revisar a literatura dos últimos dez anos, considerando os fatores associados à depressão, particularmente aqueles relacionados aos estressores presentes na infância. A metodologia utilizada foi de busca on-line nas bases de dados Medline, PsycINFO, Cochrane e Lilacs, referentes ao período de maio de 1991 a maio de 2001. A maioria dos estudos incluídos nesta revisão encontrou uma associação significativa entre trauma por perdas na infância e depressão na vida adulta, com variação na intensidade das associações observadas.

  19. Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klösters, G; Jansen, M

    2000-07-01

    The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm).

  20. Large strain response based on relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-SrTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laijun; Shi, Danping; Knapp, Michael; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Fang, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) addition on the ferroelectric and dielectric behavior of 90Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-10SrTiO3 (BNT-ST) lead-free piezoceramics was investigated. Polarization and strain hysteresis loops indicate that a relaxor-antiferroelectric coherence will be produced with the addition of KNN as a replacement for ST up to 5% and the destabilization of the phase coherence is accompanied by an enhancement of the bipolar strain with the increase of temperature, which is ˜0.37% (corresponding to a large signal d33* of ˜530 pm/V at 90 °C) at 5 mol. % KNN content. This strain was analyzed as derived from an electrostrictive effect at lower electric fields and a field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition at higher electric fields. The large polar strain response would be of great interest for environmental friendly high-temperature actuators.

  1. Níveis de lisina, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, em rações para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Lysine levels, based on the ideal protein concept, in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos níveis de lisina digestível da ração, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, no desempenho de alevinos de de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Utilizaram-se 432 alevinos revertidos, linhagem tailandesa, com peso inicial de 1,12 ± 0,02 g, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, composto de 6 dietas, 6 repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Como tratamentos, avaliaram-se uma dieta basal com 29,12% de proteína bruta e 3.000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, suplementada com aminoácidos sintéticos, resultando em dietas com 0,95; 1,10; 1,25; 1,40; 1,55 e 1,70% de lisina digestível e relações mínimas entre metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano, isoleucina e arginina com a lisina (66, 77, 23, 64 e 85%, respectivamente, com base em valores digestíveis. Os peixes foram mantidos em aquários de 130 litros, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individual, e alimentados à vontade em seis refeições diárias durante 30 dias. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros de desempenho, a composição corporal, a deposição de proteína e gordura corporais e a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio dos peixes. A elevação do teor de lisina digestível na ração não influenciou a taxa de sobrevivência e o teor de gordura corporal dos peixes, mas melhorou de forma linear todos os demais parâmetros avaliados, com exceção da eficiência de utilização de lisina e a umidade corporal, que pioraram de forma quadrática e linear, respectivamente. O nível de 1,80% de lisina total (0,600% Mcal de ED e o de 1,70% de lisina digestível (0,567% Mcal de ED proporcionam os melhores resultados de desempenho e características de carcaça de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo quando se utiliza o conceito de proteína ideal na formulação das rações experimentais.The effects of the digestible lysine level were assessed in feeds for Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus, based on

  2. Construction of scientific production indicators based on scientometrics analysis of IPEN dissertations and theses; Elaboracao de indicadores de producao cientifica com base na analise cientometrica das dissertacoes e teses do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, Mery Piedad Zamudio

    2011-07-01

    Construction of Indicators plays an important role in the contemporaneous society. It could be observed their ordinary use by all the activities segments. In scientific area it is not different; such practice has already been consolidated; this statement could be corroborated by the innumerous papers published about this matter in the main databases; however, there is a prevalence of quantitative studies, which obtain data from the international databases, analyzing journal articles. Concerning this finding, the main objective of this study was to elaborate scientific indicators from a local institutional data base, using as a corpus of the study the dissertations and theses, produced by a graduate program in the period of 1977 to 2009.Three types of two-dimensional indicators were obtained by using bibliometric techniques: numerical, thematic and productivity. For dissertations and theses thematic characterization it was used the Subject categories and scope descriptions and the International Nuclear Information System Thesaurus (INIS). Through the statistical technique of clustering analysis, it was possible to classify them in five main groups, showing former performance and growth future trends of each group; for data extraction about theses productivity, regarding articles published; the Curriculo Lattes, and the local institutional database were used. Co-word analysis technique was used to establish a more precise correlation, between articles and theses, and for this purpose it was used the keywords from a controlled vocabulary. In order to validate the results, it was performed a survey, with the theses authors. Results obtained indicated that 55.9% of the articles published, between 5 years, before and after the thesis presentation, are strongly correlated to it. It was also observed that, correlated articles have been published, in an average of, 1, 63 year before the thesis presentation. Concerning databases, it was shown that they are valuable tools and

  3. Intervenção de base comunitária para a prevenção das DST/Aids na região amazônica, Brasil Community-based intervention to control STD/AIDS in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever estudo de caso de intervenção de base comunitária, desenvolvido na perspectiva construcionista-emancipatória, para o controle das DST/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo desenvolvido no município de Manacapuru, Amazonas, de 1997-2004, sobre a utilização de procedimentos desenhados em colaboração com agentes governamentais, profissionais de saúde e comunidade. Foram levantados dados sobre a dinâmica da prostituição e a venda de preservativos na cidade, características comportamentais, avaliação do processo e da assistência às DST/Aids. Sincronicamente, estabeleceram-se ações de prevenção e assistência na rede pública de saúde às DST, centro de testagem, sistema de vigilância epidemiológica, e capacitação de trabalhadoras do sexo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se o fortalecimento das trabalhadoras do sexo como multiplicadoras e sua legitimação como cidadãs e agentes de saúde em projetos com travestis, homossexuais e escolares. Houve incremento da venda de preservativos na cidade, da utilização de preservativos entre trabalhadoras do sexo, redução das DST bacterianas e estabilização da ocorrência de infecção pelo HIV/Aids e sífilis congênita. A sustentabilidade do programa de intervenção estudado, organizado no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saude, foi estimulada pela pactuação política garantindo sede e orçamento regulamentado em lei municipal, e pelo debate permanente dos resultados do processo e programa. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo fortaleceu a noção de que o controle efetivo das DST/Aids depende de uma abordagem sinérgica que combine intervenções no plano individual (biológica-comportamental, sociocultural e programático.OBJECTIVE: To describe a case study of community-based intervention, developed in a constructionist-emancipatory framework to control STD/AIDS. METHODS: Descriptive study developed in the town of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, from 1997 to 2004, focusing on

  4. Trabalhando com estratégias de ensino-aprendizado por descoberta na área da saúde: a problematização e a aprendizagem baseada em problemas Discovery-based teaching and learning strategies in health: problematization and problem-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Goldfarb Cyrino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os processos de mudança no ensino em saúde e a demanda por novas formas de trabalhar com o conhecimento no ensino superior, discutem-se dois caminhos metodológicos inovadores no ensino na área da saúde: a aprendizagem baseada em problemas (ABP e a problematização. Descrevendo suas raízes teóricas, procura-se identificar os seus princípios orientadores. Enquanto propostas distintas, ambas contribuem para rever o processo de ensino-aprendizagem: a problematização, voltando-se para a construção do conhecimento no contexto de uma formação crítica; a ABP, voltando-se para os aspectos cognitivos do processo de construção de conceitos e apropriação dos mecanismos básicos da ciência. Tanto a problematização como a ABP levam a rupturas com a forma tradicional de ensinar e aprender, estimulando gestão participativa dos protagonistas da experiência e reorganização da relação teoria/prática. A crítica às possibilidades e limites de cada proposta, valendo-se da análise de seus fundamentos teórico-metodológicos, leva-nos a concluir que experiências pedagógicas apoiadas na ABP e/ou na problematização, podem representar um movimento inovador no contexto da educação na área da saúde favorecendo rupturas e processos mais amplos de mudança.Considering the changes in teaching in the health field and the demand for new ways of dealing with knowledge in higher learning, the article discusses two innovative methodological approaches: problem-based learning (PBL and problematization. Describing the two methods' theoretical roots, the article attempts to identify their main foundations. As distinct proposals, both contribute to a review of the teaching and learning process: problematization, focused on knowledge construction in the context of the formation of a critical awareness; PBL, focused on cognitive aspects in the construction of concepts and appropriation of basic mechanisms in science. Both

  5. Band gap modification and ferroelectric properties of Bi{sub 0.5}(Na,K){sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-based by Li substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Ngo Duc [Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Ha Noi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hung, Vu Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Quyet, Nguyen Van [Hanautech Co., Ltd., 832, Tamnip-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hoang Vu [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet street, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dung, Dang Duc, E-mail: dung.dangduc@hust.edu.vn [Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Ha Noi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2014-01-15

    We report on the reduction of band gap in Bi{sub 0.5}(Na{sub 0.82-x}Li{sub x}K{sub 0.18}){sub 0.5}(Ti{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} from 2.99 eV to 2.84 eV due to the substitutions of Li{sup +} ions to Na{sup +} sites. In addition, the lithium substitution samples exhibit an increasing of the maximal polarizations from 21.8 to 25.7 μC/cm{sup 2}. The polarization enhancement of ferroelectric and reduction of the band gaps are strongly related to the Li substitution concentration as evaluated via the electronegative between A-site and oxygen and tolerance factor. The results are promising for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  6. Theoretical considerations underlying Na(+) uptake mechanisms in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Tresguerres, Martin; Goss, Greg G

    2008-11-01

    Ion and acid-base regulating mechanisms have been studied at the fish gill for almost a century. Original models proposed for Na(+) and Cl(-) uptake, and their linkage with H(+) and HCO(3)(-) secretion have changed substantially with the development of more sophisticated physiological techniques. At the freshwater fish gill, two dominant mechanisms for Na(+) uptake from dilute environments have persisted in the literature. The use of an apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger driven by a basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase versus an apical Na(+) channel electrogenically coupled to an apical H(+)-ATPase have been the source of debate for a number of years. Advances in molecular biology have greatly enhanced our understanding of the basic ion transport mechanisms at the fish gill. However, it is imperative to ensure that thermodynamic principles are followed in the development of new models for gill ion transport. This review will focus on the recent molecular advances for Na(+) uptake in freshwater fish. Emphasis will be placed on thermodynamic constraints that prevent electroneutral apical NHE function in most freshwater environments. By combining recent advances in molecular and functional physiology of fish gills with thermodynamic considerations of ion transport, our knowledge in the field should continue to grow in a logical manner.

  7. Analysis of the role of business incubator in internationalization of basic technology companies Análise do papel da incubadora na internacionalização de empresas de base tecnológica, incubadas e graduadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gonçalves Silveira Fiates

    2013-05-01

    se constituem em ambientes potencializadores de redes de relacionamento, tanto entre as empresas incubadas e graduadas, como com agentes externos. E, finalmente, a terceira premissa é que a inovação é uma vantagem competitiva que alavanca o processo de internacionalização de empresas e mostra-se fundamental para o desempenho competitivo da empresa no mercado externo. A pesquisa a partir de casos de pequenas empresas de base tecnológica mostra-se relevante dada a necessidade do Brasil de estimular a inserção externa de empresas que comercializam produtos intensivos em tecnologia. A pesquisa é de caráter descritivo, na forma de um estudo multicaso com seis empresas, três incubadas e três graduadas. Os resultados apontam que a inovação configura-se realmente como a principal vantagem para a competição em mercados internacionais. De forma intencional e planejada, há uma aceleração do processo de internacionalização nas empresas mais jovens, já concebidas com uma visão global. Constatou-se que a incubadora favorece a formação de redes de relacionamento que estimulam a inovação e a interação com outros atores que podem fomentar o processo de internacionalização, no entanto, não há ações percebidas pelos empresários próprias para esta finalidade, o que aponta para uma oportunidade de ação sistemática das incubadoras no apoio à internacionalização de empresas.

  8. DyCl3-NaCl体系相图的热力学优化计算%Thermodynamic Optimization of DyCl3 -NaCl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶信宇; 孙益民; 张静; 谈君君

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagram of the DyCl3-NaC1 system is optimized and calculated with CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagram) technology. A set of thermodynamic functions of compounds Na3 DyCl6, NaDyCl4, and NaDy2 Cl7 have been optimized and calculated based on an interactive computer-assisted analysis. The optimized thermodynamic parameters, calculated phase diagram and experimental phase diagram are thermodynamically self-consistent.

  9. Study of the influence of zirconium and gallium on the magnetic properties and microstructures of praseodymium-based permanent magnets; Estudo da influencia do zirconio e galio nas propriedades magneticas e na microestrutura dos imas permanentes a base de praseodimio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusco, Alexandre Giardini

    2006-07-01

    In this work was studied the influence of the addition of 0.5 at. % of zirconium and gallium on praseodymium-based HD sintered magnets obtained using a mixture of alloys. The alloys used in this study were: Pr{sub 12.6}Fe{sub 68.3}Co{sub 11.6}B{sub 6}Zr{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 1}, Pr{sub 16}Fe{sub 75.5}B{sub 8}Zr{sub 0.5}, Pr{sub 13}Fe{sub 80.5}B{sub 6}Zr{sub 0.5}. The investigation started by measuring the magnetic properties and observing the microstructure of the magnets. After that, the magnets were annealed at 1000 deg C for 2 hours followed by rapid cooling, in a total of 10 hours. This heat treatment was followed by 5 hours at the same temperature up to a total of 35 hours. Changes in the microstructure were compared to the change in the magnetic properties aiming at a proper understanding of the role of each added element in relation to the magnetically hard phase (phase {phi}). It has been shown that gallium and zirconium act as grain refiners of the matrix phase {phi}. Gallium acts in the grain and favoring of the shape stability and improvement of the magnetic properties. For the Pr{sub 14.3}Fe{sub 71.9}Co{sub 5.8}B{sub 7}Zr{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5} sintered magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties after 15 hours heat treatment was: remanence from (1.25{+-}0.02) T to (1.30{+-}0.02) T, intrinsic coercivity from (1.11{+-}0.02) T to (0.87{+-}0.02) T, squareness factor from (0.68{+-}0.02) to (0.82{+-}0.02) and energy product from (285{+-}5) kJ/m{sup 3} to (317{+-}5) kJ/m{sup 3}. Zirconium has two effects on the sintered magnets. Firstly, avoiding random grain growth and enhancing anisotropy. However, by concentrating on the grain boundaries, yield reverse domains and is detrimental to the intrinsic coercivity. For the sintered Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 78}B{sub 7}Zr{sub 0.5} magnet the evolution of the magnetic properties achieved after a heat treatment of 15 hours was: remanence from (1.19{+-}0.02) T to (1.25{+-}0.02) T, coercivity from (0.74{+-}0.02) T to (0

  10. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey/Pedijatrijski Referentni Intervali U Opštoj Kliničkoj Hemiji Zasnovani Na Ispitivanju Populacije: Švedsko Ispitivanje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridefelt Peter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoji vrlo malo visokokvalitetnih studija o pedijatrijskim referentnim intervalima za opšte analite u kliničkoj hemiji i hematologiji. Nedavno su tri prospektivna projekta zasnovana na ispitivanjima u okviru zajednice uzoraka krvi zdrave dece u Švedskoj, Danskoj i Kanadi znatno popravila situaciju. Švedsko ispitivanje obuhvatilo je 701 zdravo dete. Definisani su referentni intervali za opštu kliničku hemiju i hematologiju.

  11. Li Na Aces French Open

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese tennis player becomes the first Asian to win a Grand Slam singles title Chinese tennis player Li Na beat defending champion Francesca Schiavone from Italy,6-4,7-6,on the clay court at Roland Garros,winning the 2011 French Open Tennis Tournament on June 4.She made history by becoming the first Chinese to win a grand slam singles title.

  12. NA62: Hidden Sector Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cesarotti, Carissa Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Modern experimental physics is often probing for new physics by either finding deviations from predictions on extremely precise measurements, or by looking for a new signal that cannot be explained with existing models. The NA62 experiment at CERN does the former by measuring the ultra-rare decay $K^+ \\rightarrow \\pi^+ \

  13. NA60 frees the quarks

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Fitted with new state-of-the-art silicon detectors, NA60 is prepared to study the phase transition from confined hadronic matter to a deconfined (free) quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter which probably existed an instant after the Big Bang.

  14. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  15. The crystallization behaviour and bioactivity of wollastonite glass-ceramic based on Na2O–K2O–CaO–SiO2–F glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns about the crystallization behaviour and in vitro bioactivity of a glass-ceramic prepared from a series of glasses in the Na2O–K2O–CaO–SiO2–F system. A minor amount of cerium oxide was also added instead of calcium oxide in some selective glass batches. The main crystalline phases, formed after the appropriate heat treatments, were wollastonite solid solution and pseudo-wollastonite-like phases. There is a preferential tendency for wollastonite (CaSiO3 to accommodate K, Na, F, and Ce ions in its structure forming wollastonite solid solution with variable formulas. The bioactivity of the resulting crystalline materials was examined in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. An increase of the surface bioactivity of glass-ceramic with the Na2O/K2O replacement was observed which is attributed to the augmentation solubility of the crystalline sample. On the other hand, the bioactivity of the crystalline sample with CeO2/CaO replacement was improved by the crystallization of pseudo-wollastonite phase together with wollastonite solid solution phase.

  16. ANÁLISE DE AÇÕES EXTENSIONISTAS NA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE HORTAS ESCOLARES DE BASE ECOLÓGICA, SEUS EFEITOS E DESAFIOS NO CONTEXTO EDUCACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tobias Marks Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Tratando-se de um contexto educacional com vistas ao aprimoramento dos processos de ensino que venham a contribuir na formação de indivíduos com pensamento crítico e consciência social, abordar temas relacionados à questão ambiental e educação alimentar torna-se fundamental. Nesse sentido, via extensão universitária, no decorrer do ano de 2013 desenvolveu-se em duas escolas do município de Cerro Largo - RS a implantação de hortas escolares, utilizando como método de trabalho discussões teóricas no âmbito da agroecologia e alimentação saudável, bem como ações práticas de participação cooperativa de construção das hortas, objetivando a internalização da experiência no processo educativo. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo discorrer sobre a experiência fazendo a análise pós-execução, apontando as dificuldades encontradas, resultados positivos e suas possíveis condicionantes. Como resultado positivo, nota-se a multiplicação de projetos similares. Tratando-se das dificuldades encontradas dá-se ênfase aos desafios na integração com a formação disciplinar, considerando o conservadorismo ainda existente no contexto educacional. Palavras-chave: Educação Alimentar, Segurança Alimentar, Agroecologia, Extensão Universitária.   The analysis of extension actions regarding the implementation of school gardens of ecological basis: its effects and challenges in the educational context Abstract: When taking into consideration an educational context that aims at improving the learning processes that can contribute to the education of individuals with critical thinking and social awareness, It is critical to address topics related to environmental and food education. In this sense, the implementation of school gardens by means of a university extension program during 2013 was developed in two schools in the city of Cerro Largo - RS by fostering theoretical discussions related  to agroecology and healthy

  17. Law of Iterated Logarithm for NA Sequences with Non-Identical Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guang-Hui Cai; Hang Wu

    2007-05-01

    Based on a law of the iterated logarithm for independent random variables sequences, an iterated logarithm theorem for NA sequences with non-identical distributions is obtained. The proof is based on a Kolmogrov-type exponential inequality.

  18. Kaon Physics at CERN – Recent Results from the NA48/2 and NA62 Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winhart Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents recent results from the kaon experiments NA48/2 and its successor NA62 at CERN. With samples of 2.5 × 106 Kµ3± and 4.0 × 106 Ke3± events collected by NA48/2 in 2004, precise measurements of the form factors were performed. The Chiral Perturbation Theory was tested through a new study of K± → π±γγ decays based on data taken with minimal trigger conditions. Using the beam line and detector of NA48/2 in the years 2007-2008, NA62 performed a precison measurement of the helicitysuppressed ratio of the charged kaon leptonic decay rates K± → e+ν and K± → μ+ν Using the full data set, which is about ten times larger than the previous world data sample, the total uncertainty on this ratio is only 0.4%, representing a precision test of μ – e lepton universality. Finally, the main stage of the NA62 experiment is presented. The planned measurement of the ultra rare decay K+ → π+ vv¯ $var v$ at 10% precision will provide a powerful test of the Standard Model. The experimental challenges to reach this goal require new detectors with exceptional performances.

  19. Reflexões sobre as bases conceituais que fundamentam a construção do conhecimento acerca da lombalgia na gestação Reflexiones sobre las bases conceptuales que fundamentan la construcción del conocimiento a cerca de la lumbalgia en el embarazo Low back pain in pregnancy in the perspective of the biomedical model: a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Homsi Jorge Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia na gestação acomete cerca de 50% das gestantes, causando importantes transtornos sociais. Apesar disso, ela vem sendo considerada como uma ocorrência normal e até esperada na gravidez, o que tem contribuído para a falta de adoção de medidas profiláticas e de alívio. Buscamos neste trabalho compreender as bases conceituais históricas que originaram esta naturalização, usando como recorte a obstetrícia e como referência a literatura mundial sobre o tema indexada de 1987 à 1997. Apreendemos que a visão determinista relacionada ao problema respalda-se no modelo biomédico. Assim, a adoção de soluções efetivas requer a incorporação de um novo paradigma.La Lumbalgia en la gestación afecta cerca de 50% de las gestantes, causando importantes transtornos sociales. Aun ésta morbilidad es considerada como normal y es esperada durante la gravidez, lo que hay contribuido para la falta de adopción de medidas profilácticas y de alivio. Buscamos en este trabajo comprender las bases conceptuales históricas que originaron ésta concepción, usando como recorte la obstetricia y como referencia la literatura mundial sobre el tema indexada de 1987 a 1997. Aprendimos que la visión determinista relacionada con el problema se respalda en el modelo biomédico. Asi, la adopción de soluciones efectivas requiere la incorporación de un nuevo paradigma.Low back pain is a problem that is faced by 50% of pregnant women and causes important social trouble. In spite of this, the problem is considered to be normal and is expected during pregnancy, which has contributed to the lack of prophylactic and relief measures. This work aims at understanding the historical and conceptual bases that have given rise to such naturalization as outlined by midwifery and by using world literature indexed on the topic from 1987 to 1997 as a theoretical framework. We have apprehended that a deterministic view related to this issue is supported by the

  20. Jornalismos culturais na rede: uma experiência de pesquisa compartilhada na web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Alzamora

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O projeto Jornalismos Culturais na Rede (www.fca.pucminas.br/jnc investiga, desde 2002, paradigmas de circulação de informação cultural na rede, a partir de trabalhos acadêmicos e produtos editoriais disponí­veis na Internet. Os principais objetivos da pesquisa referem-se a: i discutir modos possí­veis de se produzir conhecimento pela Internet, tendo por fundamento a idéia de pesquisa colaborativa; ii criar categorias para referenciar informações culturais hipermidiáticas; iii identificar como se conformam os paradigmas de circulação de informação cultural na Internet: iv avaliar, junto com a comunidade virtual que delineia o projeto, as bases conceituais de um possí­vel webjornalismo cultural. Palavras-chave cultura, webjornalismo, informação, comunidade virtual Abstract Cultural Webjournalism (www.fca.pucminas.br/jnc is a project that, since 2002, has been investigating models of cultural information, by departing from academics works and editorial products available in the Internet. The main objectives in this research are: i to discuss how is it possible to produce knowledge through the Internet, founded in the idea of "research in collaboration"; ii to create categories to refer to hypermediatic cultural information; iii to identify how models of cultural information are constituted in the Internet; iv to evaluate, with the virtual community that marks this project, the conceptual bases of a possible cultural webjournalism. Key words culture, webjournalism, information, virtual community

  1. Verdade na Cena, Verdade na Vida: Boal e Stanislavski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available À luz do conceito de verdade cênica, o presente artigo discute a influência do método Stanislavski nos primeiros experimentos no seio do Teatro Arena de São Paulo e também aponta rastros do mestre russo nos princípios da Poética do Oprimido de Augusto Boal. O objetivo primordial consiste em incentivar a construção de espetáculos-fórum, partindo de um trabalho com rigor físico e detalhamento psicológico stanislavskianos. Trabalho este, que pode ser desenvolvido na lógica interna do processo, na fase que precede a todo produto de criação, antes da intervenção do espectador e no âmbito de montagens profissionais de teatro-fórum, em projetos mais duradouros.

  2. Recomendações em auditoria operacional: uma prospecção de fragilidades, com base na inteligência competitiva RECOMMENDATIONS IN OPERATIONAL AUDITORSHIP: A PROSPECTION OF FRAGILITIES, ON THE BASIS OF COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan José de Moura Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade brasileira vem se apercebendo da importância de exigir a utilização responsável dos recursos públicos, postos à disposição de seus representantes eleitos, revertendo-os em benefícios que atendam às necessidades dos cidadãos. Os órgãos de controle externo começam a se preocupar com o atingimento de metas e melhoria de padrões de desempenho das políticas públicas e passam a realizar auditorias de natureza operacional, que buscam avaliar a gestão do ponto de vista da economicidade, eficiência e eficácia, bem como da efetividade das despesas governamentais. Esta pesquisa verificou se era possível identificar fragilidades que comprometessem a eficácia das recomendações emitidas pelas auditorias operacionais realizadas pelo Tribunal de Contas do Estado de PE, a partir do conceito de inteligência competitiva e com vistas a subsidiar uma atuação preventiva e/ou contingencial. Utilizou-se do método dedutivo com pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, com a análise de todas as recomendações das auditorias operacionais realizadas e julgadas pelo TCE/PE de 2003-2007. Concluiu-se, com base na inteligência competitiva, que há fragilidades que podem comprometer a eficácia da implementação das recomendações emitidas pela auditoria operacional, que uma vez identificadas permitirão o estabelecimento de uma estratégia preventiva e uma estratégia contingencial, para fazer face aos fatores de risco, caso se concretizem.The Brazilian company has been aware of the importance of requiring the responsible use of public resources, made available to their elected representatives, reverting them into benefits that meet the needs of citizens. The bodies of external control are beginning to worry about achievement of targets and improvement of the performance of public policy and start to perform audits of an operational nature, seeking to evaluatethe management in terms of economy, efficiency and effectiveness, and the

  3. Filmes e coberturas comestíveis compostas à base de amidos nativos e gelatina na conservação e aceitação sensorial de uvas Crimson Films and edible coatings based on native starches and gelatin in the conservation and sensory acceptance of Crimson gra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farayde Matta Fakhouri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Filmes compostos de gelatina com amidos nativos de trigo, sorgo, batata e arroz foram produzidos separadamente e caracterizados quanto às propriedades físico-químicas (solubilidade em água e barreira ao vapor de água, físicas (espessura e opacidade e mecânicas (resistência à tração e porcentagem de elongação na ruptura. As mesmas soluções filmogênicas foram preparadas e aplicadas em uvas Crimson para avaliação sensorial e acompanhamento da perda de massa durante 22 dias. As coberturas de sorgo e arroz foram as mais eficientes na extensão da vida útil (aumento de 10 dias. Entretanto, em relação aos atributos sensoriais, as uvas com cobertura de arroz não diferiram estatisticamente do controle, que apresentou as menores notas para os parâmetros de aparência global e intenção de compra. O filme de sorgo apresentou uma permeabilidade ao vapor de água de 5,40 g.mm.m-2.d.kPa, resistência à tração de 85,89 MPa, elongação de 6,61% e opacidade de 40%. Mesmo não apresentando os melhores valores de caracterização, como filme, tornou-se a melhor opção como cobertura. Na avaliação sensorial, as uvas cobertas obtiveram aceitação igual ou maior que o controle quanto à aparência global, brilho, cor e intenção de compra. Na degustação das uvas, nenhuma das coberturas exerceu influência significativa no aroma, sabor e textura, sendo aceitas pelo consumidor em todos os parâmetros.Films based on gelatin and native starches from wheat, sorghum, potato and rice were produced separately and characterized as to their physical-chemical (water solubility and water vapor permeability, physical (thickness and opacity and mechanical (resistance to traction and percentage elongation at rupture properties. The same solutions were prepared and applied to Crimson grapes for sensory evaluation and determination of weight loss over 22 days. The sorghum and rice coatings were the most efficient in their extending shelf life (a ten

  4. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, E. M.; Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  5. GUANTÁNAMO NA SUPREMA CORTE DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Zago de Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Após os atentados de 11 de setembro de 2001, o governo norte-americano iniciou  uma“guerra ao terrorismo”, sendo uma das medidas o aprisionamento de supostos terroristas  na Base Naval de Guantánamo, em Cuba, vedando aos detentos o acesso aos tribunais americanos e quaisquer direitos e os tratando como inimigos. Em resposta a essa situação, bem como aos atos normativos que regem o encarceramento, (não processamento e tratamento na prisão, a Suprema Corte Americana, durante o governo de George W. Bush, proferiu três decisões nos casos de terroristas presos nestas circunstâncias. Na primeira, concluiu que o Habeas Corpus é garantia que se estende a qualquer indivíduo; na segunda, invocou o direito internacional dos direitos humanos e salientou que todos os seres humanos são titulares de algum tipo de proteção com base apenas em sua própria humanidade; por fim, na última, afastou novas normas que excluíam a garantia de  Habeas Corpus e conclui que juntas militares não constituem um mecanismo justo para evitar a prisão de inocentes.

  6. Cultivo in vitro de somaclones de abacaxizeiro na presença de NaCl Pineapple somaclones response to in vitro cultivation in presence of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila K. F. L. de Brito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o cultivo in vitro de somaclones de abacaxizeiro, na presença de elevadas concentrações de NaCl. Propágulos de abacaxizeiro foram submetidos a um período de cultivo in vitro em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (0, 12,5, 25 e 50 mM. Em seguida, foram cultivados na ausência do sal e, por fim, foram submetidos a um outro período de cultivo in vitro em 0 e 100 mM de NaCl. Não se observou interação entre as concentrações empregadas nos dois períodos de exposição ao NaCl, de modo que propágulos provenientes de tratamentos com concentrações mais elevadas não apresentaram melhor desempenho durante o segundo período de exposição; no entanto, constatou-se alteração negativa para os valores referentes à maioria das variáveis avaliadas em propágulos cultivados na presença de 100 mM de NaCl, na segunda exposição. Ao final do experimento foram selecionadas famílias cultivadas na presença de 100 mM de NaCl, com base na semelhança fenotípica ao controle. As famílias selecionadas eram originárias, igualmente, das quatro concentrações do primeiro período de tratamento com NaCl. Desse modo, as concentrações empregadas no primeiro período de exposição ao NaCl não influenciaram significativamente o crescimento dos propágulos durante o segundo período de cultivo in vitro na presença de NaCl.This study evaluated the in vitro cultivation of pineapple somaclones under high concentrations of NaCl. Propagules of pineapple were cultivated in presence of different NaCl concentrations (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mM, then passed through two subcultivations in absence of NaCl, and finally submitted to a second in vitro cultivation under 0 and 100 mM concentrations of NaCl. Interactions between the concentrations of both treatment's periods were not observed. Hence, propagules proceeding from higher concentrations treatments did not show better performance during the second period. A negative response was

  7. Do Src Kinase and Caveolin Interact Directly with Na,K-ATPase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Eliyahu; Katz, Adriana; Peleg, Yoav; Mehlman, Tevie; Karlish, Steven J D

    2016-05-27

    Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human α1β1FXYD1 or porcine α1D369Nβ1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ∼1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.

  8. Benefícios e dificuldades da gestão ambiental com base na ISO 14001 em empresas industriais de São Paulo Benefits and difficulties of environmental management based on ISO 14001 in industries in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio José de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste trabalho é verificar, por meio de uma pesquisa tipo survey, os benefícios e as dificuldades da adoção de Sistemas de Gestão Ambiental ISO 14001 em empresas industriais do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, um questionário foi enviado para 194 empresas constantes da base de dados do INMETRO (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial e respondido por 69 delas, representando uma taxa de retorno de 35,36%. Duas hipóteses foram estabelecidas para realização do estudo: uma enunciando os potenciais benefícios e outra as dificuldades da gestão ambiental com base na norma NBR ISO 14001. Estas hipóteses foram parcialmente comprovadas. O artigo está estruturado da seguinte forma: introdução, sistema de gestão ambiental, norma NBR ISO 14001, método de pesquisa, apresentação e análise dos resultados, conclusão e referências bibliográficas.The main objective of this work is to assess the benefits and difficulties of Environmental Management Systems based on ISO 14001 within industries in the State of São Paulo through a research survey. A questionnaire was sent to 194 companies on the database of INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality of which 69 responded, representing a return rate of 35.36%. Two hypotheses were established for the study: one stating the potential benefits and other difficulties of environmental management based on ISO 14001. These hypotheses were partially confirmed. This paper is structured as follows: introduction, environmental management system, ISO 14001, research method, presentation and analysis of results, conclusion and references.

  9. Instrumentação Tecnológica e Realimentação no Processo de Avaliação para o Ensino de Matemática na Universidade: um método baseado na Engenharia Didática Technological Instrumentation and Feedback in the Assessment Process in University-level Mathematics Teaching: a method based on Didactics Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Maria Cordeiro Barroso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de ferramentas automatizadas no processo de avaliação impõe mudanças de paradigmas que se devem aos mecanismos usados na elaboração de exercícios e análise de resultados. Propõe-se, neste trabalho, um método de realimentação para o processo de avaliação com o apoio de ferramentas computacionais. Apresenta-se uma aplicação deste método em sala de aula, na qual as atividades propostas aos alunos são fundamentadas em teorias da Didática da Matemática e são elaboradas em um programa de computador que faz o rastreamento das atividades dos estudantes. A partir da análise do comportamento do professor nesta experimentação, onde ficam expostas as suas dificuldades naturais em modificar os seus hábitos de ensino, destaca-se a necessidade de um trabalho de educação em conjunto, envolvendo também a participação de pesquisadores da área de Educação Matemática e de profissionais da área de Informática como suporte ao trabalho do professor. Palavras-chave: Avaliação Automatizada. Avaliação Formativa. Engenharia Didática.With the use of automated tools, a change in paradigms in the student assessment process is necessary. This is due to the different mechanisms used to elaborate assessments and to analyze their results. An assessment method with continuous feedback is proposed. An application of this method is presented in which the activities proposed to the students in the classroom are based on Mathematical Didactic theories. To elaborate and apply this assessment, software was used that tracks the students’activities. Based on analysis of the teacher’s behavior during the experiment, which showed his natural difficulty in modifying his teaching habits, it is emphasized that this type of educational work needs to involve the participation of professionals from the fields of mathematical education and technology to help improve the teacher’s work. Keywords: Automated Evaluation. Formative Evaluation

  10. The ouabain-sensitive isoform of Na+-pump regulates vascular gap junctions via interaction with the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger in membrane microdomain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

    Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+-pump, has been shown to inhibit intercellular communication. We have recently shown that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through an interaction between a ouabain-sensitive isoform of the Na+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger...... electrical coupling was evaluated in functional studies. SMCs were electrically uncoupled when the ouabain-sensitive Na+-pump was inhibited by 10 mM ouabain. Inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger with 1 mM SEA0400 also uncoupled the SMCs. Depletion of [Na+]i and clamping [Ca2+]i at low levels prevented......+-exchanger-1 and connexin-43. The α3 Na+-pump subunit was not associated with these proteins but co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1. Based on these experiments we suggest that α2 Na+ -pump subunit is involved in regulation of the intercellular communication via interaction with the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger-1...

  11. Cancer incidence in the Western Amazon: population-based estimates in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2009 Incidência de câncer na Amazônia ocidental: estimativa de base populacional em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Pádua Nakashima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence rates vary widely in Brazil. The literature on the subject for the western Amazon region is scarce. This study aimed to determine cancer incidence in the population of Rio Branco, Acre State. A total of 718 new cases were recorded during the study period. Among men, the five leading cancer sites were prostate (ASR 75.1, stomach (ASR 23.0, lung (ASR 19.1, colon and rectum (ASR 9.5, and leukemia (ASR 6.9. Among women, they were breast (ASR 41.5, cervix (ASR 41.3, lung (ASR 11.8, colon and rectum (ASR 11.0, and stomach (ASR 7.7. These indicators reveal that Rio Branco has a cancer incidence pattern that overlaps with epidemiological cancer patterns observed in developed and developing regions. The results of the study point to the importance of implementing a population-based cancer registry - currently nonexistent in Rio Branco - as a factor to promote analysis of incident cases of the disease and monitoring of its evolution.No Brasil, as taxas de incidência de câncer variam amplamente. A literatura sobre o tema na região da Amazônia Ocidental é escassa. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a incidência atual de câncer na população de Rio Branco, Acre. Registrou-se um total de 718 casos novos no período de estudo. As localizações tumorais de maior incidência em homens foram: próstata (75,1/100.000, estômago (23,0/100.000, pulmão (19.1/100.000, cólon-reto (9,5/100.000 e leucemias (6,9/100.000 e no sexo feminino: mama (41,5/100.000, colo uterino (41,3/100.000, pulmão (11,8/100.000, cólon-reto (11,0/100.000 e estômago (7,7/100.000. Esses indicadores revelam que Rio Branco apresenta um padrão de incidência por câncer que superpõe os padrões encontrados nas regiões desenvolvidas e em desenvolvimento. Os resultados do trabalho apontam para a importância da implementação de um registro de câncer de base populacional - atualmente inexistente em Rio Branco - como fator promotor da análise de casos

  12. Preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis NaTaO3 didoping ion lantanum (La/NaTaO3 dengan metode sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Husin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline sodium tantalate doped with La3+ ions (La/NaTaO3 has been successfully synthesized by sol-gel technique. The photocatalysts have been prepared by mixing of TaCl5, NaOH, and La(NO33.2H2O in the aqueous solution of H2O2. The resulting materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM to provide useful information about crystallinity and morphology. All samples are exactly indexed as the pure NaTaO3 orthorhombic structure with the space group Pcmn. The XRD spectra displayed a single-phase NaTaO3 structure without any impurity phase, suggesting that lanthanum is uniformly incorporated into the NaTaO3 lattice. TEM images indicates that the particle sizes of the La-doped NaTaO3 powders are approximately 30-80 nm, while the particle sizes of the non-doped NaTaO3 are around 80-250 nm. Doping lanthanum in the NaTaO3 is able to prevent agglomeration, result in particle size, and better crystallinity. The La/NaTaO3 crystal structures reveal that a certain amount of lattice distortion due to the La3+ ions occupying the Na+ sites results in the increase of crystallite size. Powder formation mechanisms for both non-doped NaTaO3 and La-doped NaTaO3 are proposed based on the experimental results. Keywords: La-doped sodium tantalum oxide, photocatalyst, sol-gel, perovskite, orthorhombic

  13. NA

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Significant research in high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) has been directed at retaining part of the high-speed flash ADC architecture, while reducing the total number of comparators in the circuit. The symmetrical number system (SNS) can be used to preprocess the analog input signal, reducing the number of comparators and thus reducing the chip area and power consumption of the ADC. This thesis examines a Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design for a folding circuit for ...

  14. Investigation of sodalites for conditioning halide salts (NaCl and NaI): Comparison of two synthesis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardez, Isabelle; Campayo, Lionel; Rigaud, Danielle; Chartier, Myriam; Calvet, Aurelie [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Ceramiques pour le Conditionnement, Site de Marcoule, Batiment 208, B.P. 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Sodalites with the general formula Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}X{sub 2} (where X = Cl or I) were investigated for ceramic conditioning of halide salts (NaCl and NaI). Because of the tendency of halides to volatilize at high temperature, two synthesis routes were tested to optimize the halide content in the sodalite phase. The first is based on heating at high temperature of a [nepheline NaAlSiO{sub 4} + salt] mixture prepared by a dry process. The second, performed at low temperature, consists of the reaction in aqueous media between kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the salt. The present study compares these two syntheses and examines differences between chloro-sodalite and iodo-sodalite based on X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The next step will consist in sintering the resulting powder samples to obtain dense ceramics. (authors)

  15. Corrosion behavior of Mg–5Al based magnesium alloy with 1 wt.% Sn, Mn and Zn additions in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Dang Nam

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion properties of four Mg–5Al alloys with M-alloying elements (tin, manganese and zinc) in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were examined using electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The electrochemical results indicated that the addition of 1 wt.% M metal decreased the corrosion rate and hydrogen evolution rate of the Mg–5Al specimens. Moreover, the addition of 1Zn resulted in having the best corrosion resistance due to the interaction of Zn oxide with Mg and Al oxides which acted as ...

  16. Os Processos Verbais Presentes nos Artigos Científicos da Revista Gestão e Secretariado: Uma Análise com Base na Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyla Christina Almeida Portela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este trabalho está inserido no Projeto SAL (Systemics across Languages que tem por objetivo apoiar pesquisas linguísticas que investigam a relação entre gramática e discurso em termos sistêmico-funcionais. O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os processos verbais em 23 artigos científicos da revista Gestão e Secretariado, publicados online. Os processos verbais quando empregados, ratificam, esclarecem e explicam fatos ou situações, desempenhando um papel imprescindível na sustentação dos argumentos apresentados por autores frente à temática do texto. Como fundamentação teórica será utilizada a Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (LSF, que estuda a língua em uso em diferentes contextos, desenvolvida por M.A.K Halliday (1985, 1994 e revista por Halliday e Matthiessen e outros. A pesquisa basearse-á na metafunção ideacional da Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional – que compreende a língua como atividade social, avaliando seus contextos de uso (HALLIDAY,1994 e HALLIDAY & MATTHIESSEN, 2004. No que se refere aos estudos sobre gêneros científicos, a pesquisa estará fundamentada em Bhatia (1993, Swales (1989, 1990, Swales & Feak (1999, Motta-Roth (1995, 2006 e outros. O gênero artigo científico é um gênero que serve como uma via de comunicação entre pesquisador, profissionais, professores e alunos de graduação e pós-graduação. Na análise dos dados, será observada a frequência dos processos do dizer e a sua relação com os participantes da oração (dizente e verbiagem. A metodologia utilizada será subsidiada pelo programa de Linguística de Corpus Wordsmith Tools 5.0 (Scott, 2009, mais especificamente as ferramentas wordList e concordance. Esta pesquisa pretende auxiliar o melhor entendimento de como os autores que publicam na revista Gestão e Secretariado utilizam dos processos do dizer.

  17. Corrosion behavior of Mg–5Al based magnesium alloy with 1 wt.% Sn, Mn and Zn additions in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dang Nam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion properties of four Mg–5Al alloys with M-alloying elements (tin, manganese and zinc in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were examined using electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The electrochemical results indicated that the addition of 1 wt.% M metal decreased the corrosion rate and hydrogen evolution rate of the Mg–5Al specimens. Moreover, the addition of 1Zn resulted in having the best corrosion resistance due to the interaction of Zn oxide with Mg and Al oxides which acted as a corrosion barrier.

  18. Modeling solubility and acid-base properties of some amino acids in aqueous NaCl and (CH3)4NCl aqueous solutions at different ionic strengths and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretti, Clemente; Giuffrè, Ottavia; Lando, Gabriele; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    New potentiometric experiments have been performed in NaCl and in (CH3)4NCl media, to determine the protonation constants, the protonation enthalpy changes and the solubility of six natural α-amino acids, namely Glycine (Gly), Alanine (Ala), Valine (Val), Leucine (Leu), Serine (Ser) and Phenylalanine (Phe). The aim of the work is the rationalization of the protonation thermodynamics (log [Formula: see text], solubility and [Formula: see text]) in NaCl, determining recommended, tentative or provisional values in selected experimental conditions and to report, for the first time, data in a weak interacting medium, as (CH3)4NCl. Literature data analysis was performed selecting the most reliable values, analyzed together with new data here reported. Significant trends and similarities were observed in the behavior of the six amino acids, and in some cases it was possible to determine common parameters for the ionic strength and temperature dependence. In general, the first protonation step, relative to the amino group, is significantly exothermic (average value is [Formula: see text] = -44.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) at infinite dilution and T = 298.15 K), and the second, relative to the carboxylate group, is fairly close to zero ([Formula: see text] = -2.5 ± 1.6, same conditions). In both cases, the main contribution to the proton binding reaction is mainly entropic in nature. For phenylalanine and leucine, solubility measurements at different concentrations of supporting electrolyte allowed to determine total and specific solubility values, then used to obtain the Setschenow and the activity coefficients of all the species involved in the protonation equilibria. The values of the first protonation constant in (CH3)4NCl are lower than the corresponding values in NaCl, due to the weak interaction between the deprotonated amino group and (CH3)4N(+). In this light, differences between the protonation functions in NaCl and (CH3)4NCl were used for the quantification

  19. Supramolecular assembly based on a heteropolyanion: Synthesis and crystal structure of Na3(H2O)6[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Samar K Das

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a polyoxometalate compound Na3(H2O)6 [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$\\cdot$2H2O (1) have been described. Compound 1 exhibits three-dimensional network structure in the solid state, which is assembled by Anderson-type heteropolyanions, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18]$_n^{3n-}$, as building blocks sharing sodium cations. 1 possesses ``sinuous" channels occupied by supramolecular water dimers as guests. Anderson anions, sodium-coordinated water and crystal water are additionally involved in an intricate hydrogen-bonding network in the crystal of 1.

  20. Hrvatska milja na starim kartama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Viličić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karta Stjepana Glavača iz 1673. godine vrijedan je i jedinstven primjerak hrvatske kartografske baštine. Na njoj je ucrtana hrvatska milja kojoj nema traga na kartama izrađenima prije Glavačeve karte. Više autora spominje vrijednost duljine hrvatske milje, ali nisu suglasni s iznosom njezine vrijednosti. Za potrebe ovoga rada, pored kopije Glavačeve karte pribavljene su i istražene kopije karata Janeza Vajkarda Valvasora iz 1689., Giacoma Cantellija da Vignole iz 1690., Antuna Belavića iz 1739. i karta Kraljevinâ Dalmacije, Hrvatske i Slavonije… iz 1746. na kojima je, pored ostalih milja, ucrtana i hrvatska milja. S pomoću tih ucrtanih milja izračunan je odnos između hrvatske i njemačke milje, zatim talijanske i hrvatske milje te potom francuske i hrvatske milje. Pored tih odnosa, dan je i pregled odnosa hrvatske milje i nekih drugih milja. Utvrđeno je da je duljina hrvatske milje jednaka 1/10 duljine ekvatorskog stupnja. Duljina hrvatske milje za Zemljin radijus R = 6371 km iznosi 11 120 m, odnosno približno 11 km.

  1. Corpo e velhice na contemporaneidade

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    Gabriela Felten da Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A inegável atenção dada ao corpo na sociedade inspirou a construção deste trabalho, visto que os imperativos atuais são a beleza, a forma e o vigor. A velhice e a inexorabilidade da morte apresentam-se para este ideal como incômodos que devem ser afastados através de diversos hábitos "saudáveis" e “rejuvenescedores”, como a ginástica, os cosméticos, as vitaminas, procedimentos estético-cirúrgicos, entre outros. O modo de “ser velho”, então, passa a ser configurado não mais por estereótipos negativos, mas a partir de um ethos em que os idosos são apresentados como saudáveis, joviais, engajados, produtivos e autoconfiantes. São corpos que ultrapassam as marcas do tempo, atléticos, firmes e lisos. Logo, aqueles que não aderem a este ethos podem tornar-se desviantes, estranhos, velhos, ultrapassados e precisam, portanto, serem descartados ou escamoteados. Tendo em vista estas questões, o presente trabalho propõe-se a discutir sobre o tema velhice, corpo e sociedade, na tentativa de problematizar sobre os atuais modos de subjetivação e o envelhecimento na contemporaneidade.

  2. Ensino de geometria descritiva: inovando na metodologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Moraes Kopke

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Com base na observação, durante anos de magistério superior, na área de desenho, dos alunos de Engenharia, Matemática, Arquitetura e Artes, quanto às dificuldades encontradas por eles no aprendizado de desenho, em especial da Geometria Descritiva, é que nos propusemos, em 1999, lecionar essa disciplina para os cursos de Arquitetura e Artes, adotando uma metodologia diferente da convencional, para despertar, no aluno, o gosto pela disciplina e o desenvolvimento de uma habilidade pouco trabalhada na escola: a visão espacial. Mostrar para os alunos que essa disciplina não é difícil, mas apenas diferente daquilo que estudaram até então, tornou-se nossa meta. A visão espacial é uma habilidade mental localizada no lado direito do cérebro e, assim, quanto mais lúdica for esta aprendizagem, será mais bem assimilada. A proposta é iniciada no sentido de se trabalhar primeiro com sólidos: neles estarão os pontos, retas e planos normalmente abordados na metodologia convencional, nessa ordem. Como conclusão, tem-se que o importante é ressaltar o grande avanço que a Geometria Descritiva traz para quem quer representar graficamente qualquer coisa. Onde há planejamento, projeto e representação gráfica, aí estará a Geometria Descritiva.During many years observing the teaching of design at the Engineering, Mathematics, Architeture and Arts courses, we can note the difficulties of the students to learn it, specially the descriptive geometry. Because of that, we decided to teach this discipline to the Architeture and Arts courses, using a new metodology to make the students motivated to study and to learn, and trying to develop their their spatial vision. We want to show to the students that this discipline is not so difficult as they think, but show them that is only different. The spatial vision is a mental skill found at the right side of the brain and the more soft the learning is, the more it is assimilated by the brain. The

  3. Gestão do Conhecimento – GC – como recurso estratégico e fonte de Vantagem Competitiva Sustentável – VCS – na perspectiva Resource-based view – RBV – Knowledge Management – KM – used as a strategic resource and source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage – SCA – in the Resource-based view – RBV –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Aparecida Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Gestão do Conhecimento – GC – busca integrar toda a organização ao conhecimento que pode ser criado, compartilhado e armazenado. Desta forma, este trabalho tem por objetivo evidenciar de que maneira a GC é utilizada como recurso estratégico e fonte de Vantagem Competitiva Sustentável – VCS – na perspectiva Resource based view – RBV –. É feito um levantamento na forma de censo junto aos alunos das turmas de pós-graduação lato sensu (MBA da FAGEN – Faculdade de Gestão e Negócios – da UFU – Universidade Federal de Uberlândia –, os quais atuam no mercado como gestores e possuem pelo menos um subordinado sob a sua liderança. Após uma revisão da literatura sobre GC e VCS estruturou-se o instrumento de pesquisa a partir do Diagnóstico de Gestão do Conhecimento criado por Bukowitz e Williams (2002 e do Framework VRIO proposto por Barney (1991,1995. Ao considerar o critério de desempenho global de 55%, o cálculo da média aponta um percentual de 70%. Porém, a GC é utilizada em um nível preliminar, pois nota-se que os gestores necessitam, além de reconhecerem a importância da GC, trabalharem para a sua efetiva implantação. Assim, a GC, alinhada ao plano estratégico global da empresa, poderá ser utilizada como recurso estratégico e fonte de VCS na perspectiva RBV.The Knowledge Management – KM – searches to integrate organization to the knowledge that can be created, shared and stored. This study aims to show how the KM is used as a strategic resource and source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage – SCA – in the Resource based view – RBV – perspective. We made a survey in the form of census with the students of  Master Business Administration – MBA of FAGEN – Faculdade de Gestão e Negócios – da UFU – Universidade Federal de Uberlândia –. This students are managers and have employees with your leadership. After a review of the literature on KM and SCA, we have structured the

  4. Fluid dilution and efficiency of Na(+) transport in a mathematical model of a thick ascending limb cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-González, Aniel; Clausen, Chris; Marcano, Mariano; Layton, Anita T; Layton, Harold E; Moore, Leon C

    2013-03-15

    Thick ascending limb (TAL) cells are capable of reducing tubular fluid Na(+) concentration to as low as ~25 mM, and yet they are thought to transport Na(+) efficiently owing to passive paracellular Na(+) absorption. Transport efficiency in the TAL is of particular importance in the outer medulla where O(2) availability is limited by low blood flow. We used a mathematical model of a TAL cell to estimate the efficiency of Na(+) transport and to examine how tubular dilution and cell volume regulation influence transport efficiency. The TAL cell model represents 13 major solutes and the associated transporters and channels; model equations are based on mass conservation and electroneutrality constraints. We analyzed TAL transport in cells with conditions relevant to the inner stripe of the outer medulla, the cortico-medullary junction, and the distal cortical TAL. At each location Na(+) transport efficiency was computed as functions of changes in luminal NaCl concentration ([NaCl]), [K(+)], [NH(4)(+)], junctional Na(+) permeability, and apical K(+) permeability. Na(+) transport efficiency was calculated as the ratio of total net Na(+) transport to transcellular Na(+) transport. Transport efficiency is predicted to be highest at the cortico-medullary boundary where the transepithelial Na(+) gradient is the smallest. Transport efficiency is lowest in the cortex where luminal [NaCl] approaches static head.

  5. UV-Enhanced NaClO Oxidation of Nitric Oxide from Simulated Flue Gas

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    Shao-long Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wet de-NOx technique based on an UV-enhanced NaClO oxidation process was investigated for simulated flue gas of a diesel engine using a bench-scale reaction chamber. The effects of UV irradiation time, initial pH value, and available chlorine concentration of NaClO solution were studied, respectively. The results showed that when the UV irradiation time was 17.5 min and the initial pH value of NaClO solution was 6, NO removal efficiency of UV/NaClO solution was increased by 19.6% compared with that of NaClO solution. Meanwhile, when the available chlorine concentration of NaClO solution decreased from 0.1 wt% to 0.05 wt%, the enhancement in NO removal efficiency of UV/NaClO solution increased from 19.6% to 24%, compared with that of NaClO solution. The reaction pathways of NaClO solution photolysis and NO removal by UV/NaClO process were preliminarily discussed. The results suggested that HOCl might be the most active species that released many UV-induced photooxidants through photolysis reactions, which played an important role in NO removal process.

  6. A gastronomia como fator de influência na escolha de destinações turísticas – base de estudo balneário Camboriú (SC-Brasil

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    Rodolfo Wendhausen Krause

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo busca avaliar quais os fatores relacionados à gastronomia que influenciam o turista a escolher um determinado destino turístico. Busca-se, também, identificar como a gastronomia é vista em relação à cultura da localidade: o turista vê na gastronomia uma forma de conhecer a cultura local? Esse fato é significativo na escolha de uma destinação? As respostas foram obtidas através de uma metodologia hipotético-dedutiva aliada à estatística descritiva, com a aplicação de um instrumento de pesquisa resultando em 400 entrevistas estruturadas e questionários válidos para cada ano. A pesquisa cobriu os verões de 2006 e 2011 no município de Balneário Camboriú, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Como principal resultado foi criado um agrupamento de turistas por características relacionadas aos aspectos da alimentação, que permitiu a elaboração dos conceitos Cliente Gourmet , Cliente Apreciador e Cliente Alimentação, cada um desses com uma percepção específica sobre a importância da gastronomia e da cultura para o turismo.

  7. O abuso de medicamentos psicotrópicos na contemporaneidade

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    Marta Regueira Fonseca Pelegrini

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma análise crítica do fenômeno do abuso de medicamentos psicotrópicos na atualidade. A base teórica é a psicanálise. A argumentação parte da discussão da subjetividade contemporânea, resgatando o conceito de mal-estar na civilização em Freud, para elucidar algumas das causas e dos efeitos desse fato atual.

  8. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  9. Utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu

    OpenAIRE

    Kirin, Slavko

    2001-01-01

    U radu je istraživan utjecaj načina zrenja na udjel vode u bezmasnoj tvari i na udjel masti u siru Trapistu. U sadašnjoj proizvodnji (Lura, Tvornica Bjelovar), sir Trapist zrije na prirodan način s oblikovanjem kore, te vakuumski upakiran u termoskupljajuče plastične vrećice, čime se dobije sir bez kore. Utvrđeno je da spomenuti načini zrenja uvjetuju signifikantne razlike u udjelu vode u bezmasnoj tvari sira. On je 5,34 % viši kod sira Trapista u vrećici u odnosu na sir Trapist s korom. Udje...

  10. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  11. A construção de tecnologias de atenção em saúde com base na promoção da saúde La construción de tecnologías en salud basadas en la promoción de la salud Building health care technologies based on health promotion

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    Anna Maria Chiesa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de reflexão discute as bases teórico-metodológicas da Promoção da Saúde e seu potencial na construção de tecnologias de caráter emancipatório, bem como a complexidade de pesquisas de avaliação de ações nesse campo. Para tanto, descreve e analisa um projeto de promoção de desenvolvimento infantil, construído segundo as bases da Promoção da Saúde na vertente crítica e implementado por equipes de saúde da família em regiões prioritárias no município de São Paulo, e pesquisas de avaliação de suas tecnologias e estratégias de implantação. Conclui que o referencial da Promoção da Saúde contribuiu para reorientação das ações dos profissionais para a atenção integral e fortalecimento dos potenciais de saúde das crianças e famílias e que as pesquisas de avaliação de ações no campo da Promoção demandam instrumentos e abordagens múltiplos, que possibilitem abranger a complexidade de processos e resultados das ações.El artículo discute la contribución de las bases teóricas y metodológicas de la promoción de la salud y tecnologías hacia la emancipación del sujeto. También plantea la complejidad de investigaciones para evaluar las acciones en este campo. Se describió y analizó un proyecto para de promoción del desarrollo infantil elaborado con base en los principios de la promoción de la salud en su vertiente crítica. El proyecto se desarrolló en regiones prioritarias de la ciudad de São Paulo a cargo de equipos de salud de la familia. Las investigaciones relativas a este proyecto evaluaron las tecnologías y estrategias de implementación. Se concluyó que la adopción de los principios de la promoción de la salud ha contribuido en la reorientación de las prácticas de los profesionales sanitarios con vistas a la atención integral y el fortalecimiento de salud de los niños y sus familias. Las investigaciones para evaluar las acciones a nivel de la promoción de la salud

  12. Modification of thermal and electronic properties of bilayer graphene by using slow Na+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Mintae; Lee, Paengro; Kim, Jingul; Park, Heemin; Chung, Jinwook

    2016-12-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) has an extensive list of industrial applications in graphene-based nanodevices such as energy storage devices, flexible displays, and thermoelectric devices. By doping slow Na+ ions on Li-intercalated BLG, we find significantly improved thermal and electronic properties of BLG by using angle-resolved photoemission and high-resolution core level spectroscopy (HRCLS) with synchrotron photons. Our HRCLS data reveal that the adsorbed Na+ ions on a BLG produced by Li-intercalation through single layer graphene (SLG) spontaneously intercalate below the BLG, and substitute Li atoms to form Na-Si bonds at the SiC interface while preserving the same phase of BLG. This is in sharp contrast with no intercalation of Na+ ions on SLG though neutral Na atoms intercalate. The Na+-induced BLG is found to be stable upon heating up to T = 400 °C, but returns to SLG when heated at T d = 500 °C. The evolution of the π-bands upon doping the Na+ ions followed by thermal annealing shows that the carrier concentration of the π-band may be artificially controlled without damaging the Dirac nature of the π-electrons. The doubled desorption temperature from that (T d = 250 °C) of the Na-intercalated SLG together with the electronic stability of the Na+-intercalated BLG may find more practical and effective applications in advancing graphene-based thermoelectric devices and anode materials for rechargeable batteries.

  13. A Perspectiva de estudos sobre os sujeitos na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia

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    Carlos Alberto Ávila Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arquivologia, Biblioteconomia e Museologia se constituíram, como disciplinas científicas, no final do século XIX, a partir da consolidação de um modelo custodial patrimonialista e, depois, com sua superação a partir de duas perspectivas: uma funcionalista e outra crítica. Posteriormente, uma outra tradição de pesquisa se desenvolveu: estudos realizados a partir do ponto de vista dos sujeitos (usuários, públicos que se relacionam com as instituições arquivo, biblioteca, museu, e que experimentam seus espaços e se apropriam dos conteúdos de seus acervos. O objetivo deste texto é analisar o desenvolvimento desta perspectiva na Arquivologia, na Biblioteconomia e na Museologia, bem como defender a importância de um diálogo maior entre os achados de pesquisa realizados neste âmbito em cada uma das três áreas analisadas.

  14. NaCl Potentiates Human Fibrocyte Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nehemiah Cox; Darrell Pilling; Gomer, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive NaCl intake is associated with a variety of fibrosing diseases such as renal and cardiac fibrosis. This association has been attributed to increased blood pressure as the result of high NaCl intake. However, studies in patients with high NaCl intake and fibrosis reveal a connection between NaCl intake and fibrosis that is independent of blood pressure. We find that increasing the extracellular concentration of NaCl to levels that may occur in human blood after high-salt intake can p...

  15. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  16. Estudo de base populacional dos fatores associados à incapacidade funcional entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil A population-based study on factors associated with functional disability among older adults in the Great Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Karla C. Giacomin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os fatores associados à incapacidade funcional entre idosos na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O modelo teórico adotado foi baseado em características predisponentes (sócio-demográficas, fatores extra-individuais (apoio social, uso de serviços de saúde e intra-individuais (condições de saúde. Participaram do estudo 1.786 idosos (> 60 anos selecionados por meio de amostra probabilística. A variável dependente foi a incapacidade funcional, definida como incapacidade leve ou moderada (alguma dificuldade e grave (total dependência para realizar atividades da vida diária. A prevalência da incapacidade foi de 16% (8% leve e 8% grave. Idade e pior auto-avaliação da saúde apresentaram associações positivas e independentes com ambos os níveis de incapacidade. Hipertensão e artrite apresentaram associações com incapacidade leve ou moderada, enquanto diabetes e acidente vascular cerebral apresentaram associações com incapacidade grave. Associação negativa com incapacidade grave foi observada para visita de amigos nos últimos trinta dias. Esses resultados mostram que as condições crônicas associadas à incapacidade na população estudada são passíveis de prevenção e que o apoio social externo à família é menor em idosos com incapacidade grave.This study assessed factors associated with functional disability in old age in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The theoretical model was based on predisposing (socio-demographic, extra-individual (social support, use of health services, and intra-individual factors (health conditions. The study was conducted in a probabilistic sample of 1,786 subjects aged > 60 years. The dependent variable was disability defined as mild (some difficulty or severe (total dependence in performing at least one basic activity of daily living. Prevalence of disability was 16% (8% mild; 8% severe

  17. Impact of childhood stress on psychopathology Impacto de estresse na infância na psicopatologia

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    Elisa Brietzke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Advances in our knowledge of mental disorder (MD genetics have contributed to a better understanding of their pathophysiology. Nonetheless, several questions and doubts persist. Recent studies have focused on environmental influences in the development of MDs, and the advent of neuroscientific methodologies has provided new perspectives. Early life events, such as childhood stress, may affect neurodevelopment through mechanisms such as gene-environment interactions and epigenetic regulation, thus leading to diseases in adulthood. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence regarding the role of the environment, particularly childhood stress, in the pathophysiology of MD. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed articles that evaluated environmental influences, with a particular focus on childhood trauma, brain morphology, cognitive functions, and the development of psychopathology and MD. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: MRI studies have shown that exposure to trauma at an early age can result in several neurostructural changes, such as the reduction of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Cognitive performance and functioning are also altered in this population. Finally, childhood stress is related to an increased risk of developing MD such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse. We conclude that there is robust evidence of the role of the environment, specifically adverse childhood experiences, in various aspects of MD.OBJETIVO: Avanços no conhecimento da genética dos transtornos mentais (TM contribuíram para um melhor entendimento de suas bases fisiopatológicas. No entanto, dúvidas e questões ainda persistem. Estudos recentes têm se concentrado nas influências do ambiente no desenvolvimento de TM, e o advento de metodologias neurocientíficas oferece novas perspectivas. Eventos precoces de vida, como estresse na infância, podem ser capazes de alterar o neurodesenvolvimento através de mecanismos como intera

  18. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  19. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  20. (Incomunicabilidade e tolerância na educação: notas a partir de Nietzsche e Merleau-Ponty (Incommunicability and tolerance in education: notes based on Nietzsche and Merleau-Ponty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Gibbon Ratto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio recoloca a questão do silêncio diante da (disfunção social da linguagem na Educação. Assume que o prestígio das narrativas e sua ampla difusão nos espaços educativos respondem a uma nova modalidade de controle social, numa sociedade pautada pelo fascínio da linguagem e da comunicação, supostos operadores da tolerância como valor social desejável. Sustenta que a carência de um tratamento mais criterioso das diferentes posições filosóficas sobre a linguagem acaba provocando um efeito simplificador: o prestígio das perspectivas historicistas instaladoras de verdades supostamente metalinguísticas e/ou uma popularização da ingênua noção de autocriação narrativa. São percorridos sumariamente dois exemplares que permitem um contraponto à transparência comunicativa, onde o silêncio surge como forma particular de expressão: Merleau-Ponty, em "A linguagem indireta e as vozes do silêncio" e Nietzsche, em "Convalescença". Ao cabo, retomamos o tema da tolerância na Educação para recolocá-lo no trabalhoso lugar da luta política, nada transparente ou apaziguador.This study returns to the issue of silence in face of the social (dis function of language in Education. We assume that the prestige of the narratives and their wide diffusion in educational contexts respond to a new way of social control, in a society guided by the charm of language and communication, supposed operators of tolerance as a desirable social value. We sustain that the lack of a more judicious treatment of the different philosophical positions regarding language ends up provoking a simplifying effect: the prestige of the historicist perspectives which establish supposedly metalinguistic truths and/or a popularization of the naïve notion of narrative self-creation. Two models that are in counterpoint to communicative transparency and where silence appears as a particular way of expression are briefly examined.: Merleau-Ponty in "The indirect

  1. Condições microbiológicas e de ocorrência do caramujo terrestre africano na cidade de Araguaína no Estado do Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Luizaga Monteiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na grande incidência da espécie invasora de caramujo africano, Achatina fulica, na cidade de Araguaína, objetivamos investigar a relação existente entre as condições microbiológicas do caramujo e a ocorrência deste nas hortas domésticas na cidade. Foram seguidas metodologias laboratoriais na determinação de presença/ausência de microrganismos na superfície do caramujo, assim como de fungos filamentosos. Para complementar o trabalho foram entrevistados cento e um (101 moradores domiciliados em dezenove setores de Araguaína. Os resultados microbiológicos da superfície do caramujo apresentam valores acima de 1,2x105 UFC/g de bactérias heterotróficas, foram também isolados fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillum, Trichophyton e Cryptococcus. No levantamento por entrevista, 86% dos entrevistados relataram uma alta incidência do caramujo nos seus domicílios no período chuvoso e 50% deles afirmaram ter algum tipo de canteiro em casa, porém 85% desconhecem as doenças que poderiam ser transmitidas por este caramujo. Concluímos que existe uma elevada contaminação microbiológica na superfície dos caramujos analisados, o que combinado com a preferencia pelos produtos de hortas domesticas desconhecendo os riscos que a invasão por caramujos pode acarretar, indicam a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a determinação das condições de risco inerentes a A. fulica, assim como sua divulgação na sociedade araguaínense sobre seus efeitos, não somente na saúde das pessoas mas também na produtividade da agricultura artesanal.

  2. Avaliação de adesivos à base de taninos de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis e de Acacia mearnsii na fabricação de painéis aglomerados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Guimarães Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814588Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos para a extração dos taninos da casca do Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, assim como verificar a viabilidade técnica de utilização dos taninos da casca de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, de Acacia mearnsii, de misturas de taninos de acácia negra e pinus e de misturas do adesivo ureia-formaldeído (UF com taninos de acácia e pinus na produção de adesivos para aglomerados. As cascas de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis foram fragmentadas em moinho de martelo, peneiradas, extraídas sob refluxo, por 2 horas, utilizada uma relação casca:licor de 1:15 p:v, em nove tratamentos. A melhor forma de extração foi utilizada para obtenção de grandes quantidades de extratos, que foram utilizados na confecção de adesivos tânicos e nas misturas com adesivo UF e com taninos comerciais de acácia negra na fabricação de painéis aglomerados. A adição de sulfito de sódio proporcionou maior extração de taninos, sendo recomendável a extração com adição de 5% de sulfito de sódio. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os taninos de acácia, quanto os de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, apresentam boas propriedades de colagem. É possível a adição de solução tânica de pinus à solução tânica de acácia e também substituir parte do adesivo UF pelos taninos de acácia em até 25% sem comprometer a qualidade da colagem. A substituição de 10% de UF por extrato tânico, tanto de pinus quanto de acácia, não alterou os valores de inchamento em espessura (IE dos painéis. É possível obter boas propriedades mecânicas com adesivos UF modificados com extratos tânicos na proporção de 10%. Os altos valores encontrados para ligação interna (LI dos painéis fabricados com extratos tânicos evidenciaram o potencial desses taninos para colagem de painéis de madeira.

  3. Algoritmo de um teste adaptativo informatizado com base na teoria da resposta ao item para a estimação da usabilidade de sites de e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Jesus Moreira Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe um algoritmo de um teste adaptativo informatizado baseado na teoria da resposta ao item, desenvolvido para estimar o grau de usabilidade de sites de e-commerce. Cinco algoritmos baseados no critério da máxima informação foram desenvolvidos e testados via simulação. O algoritmo com o melhor desempenho foi aplicado nos dados reais de 361 sites de e-commerce. Os resultados mostraram que o algoritmo desenvolvido consegue obter uma boa estimativa para o grau de usabilidade de sites de e-commerce com a aplicação de 13 itens.

  4. ANÁLISE DE AÇÕES EXTENSIONISTAS NA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE HORTAS ESCOLARES DE BASE ECOLÓGICA, SEUS EFEITOS E DESAFIOS NO CONTEXTO EDUCACIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, José Tobias Marks; Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul Cerro Largo; Tonin, Jeferson; Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul Cerro Largo; Schneider, Evandro Pedro; Universidade Federal da Fronteira sul Cerro Largo

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Tratando-se de um contexto educacional com vistas ao aprimoramento dos processos de ensino que venham a contribuir na formação de indivíduos com pensamento crítico e consciência social, abordar temas relacionados à questão ambiental e educação alimentar torna-se fundamental. Nesse sentido, via extensão universitária, no decorrer do ano de 2013 desenvolveu-se em duas escolas do município de Cerro Largo - RS a implantação de hortas escolares, utilizando como método de trabalho discussõe...

  5. Perspectivas da geração de créditos de carbono com base na obtenção de um fertilizante - aproveitamento de resíduos de biomassa da agricultura brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Caterina Velleca Bernardi

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho, cujo enfoque é inédito na literatura, apresentam-se as principais diretrizes para a implementação de um Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo, bem como as possibilidades de geração de Redução Certificada de Emissão e sua valoração. Por meio de sistemas adequados, indicados em literatura, estimaram-se as quantidades de gás carbônico que poderiam ser obtidos, elegendo-se para este trabalho, o processo de gaseificação de resíduos de biomassa em algumas culturas agrícolas brasileiras...

  6. Dielectric, ferroelectrics properties and impedance spectroscopy analysis of the [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3-based lead-free ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, M.; Chaouchi, A.; D'Astorg, S.; Rguiti, M.; Courtois, C.

    2015-04-01

    Polycrystalline of [(Na0.535K0.480)0.966Li0.058](Nb0.90Ta0.10)O3 samples were prepared using the high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of a single-phase with orthorhombic structure. AC impedance plots were used as tool to analyze the electrical behavior of the sample as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The AC impedance studies revealed the presence of grain effect, from 425°C onwards. Complex impedance analysis indicated non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. The Nyquist plot showed the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) characteristic of NKLNT. The AC conductivity results were used to correlate with the barrier hopping (CBH) model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm), the minimum hopping distance (Rmin), the density of states at Fermi level (N(Ef)), and the activation energy of the compound.

  7. Obtenção e caracterização de revestimentos protetores a base de silanos e sua ação combinada com tintas na proteção ao aço-carbono

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de camadas duplas de diferentes monossilanos sobre um mesmo substrato de aço AISI 1010, bem como a avaliação de seu desempenho na proteção contra a corrosão do aço quando utilizado em combinação com diferentes tipos de tinta. Os resultados foram comparados àqueles obtidos com amostras de aço fosfatizadas. A obtenção das camadas de silanos se deu através do método de imersão. O estudo compreendeu a fixação de parâmetros para a obtenção das camadas e ...

  8. New results from NA49

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Behler, M; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cerny, V; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Filip, P; Fischer, H G; Foder, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Lasiuk, B; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Perl, K; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Putschke, J; Reid, J G; Renfordt, A; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Koo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2002-01-01

    Recent results of the NA49 experiment are presented. These cover first results on pion and kaon production, HBT, and charge fluctuations from Pb+Pb reactions at 40 AGeV and their comparison to 158 AGeV beam energy. Furthermore a study on baryon number transfer in p+p, centrality selected p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV and new results on the system size dependence of kaon yields, including C+C and Si+Si data, are presented. Additionally, a first result on Lambda Lambda correlations is shown. (11 refs).

  9. The NA52 strangelet search

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, M; Baglin, C; Beck, H P; Borer, K; Bussière, A; Elsener, K; Gorodetzky, P; Guillaud, J P; Kabana, S; Klingenberg, R; Lehmann, G; Lindén, T; Lohmann, K D; Mommsen, R K; Moser, U; Pretzl, Klaus P; Schacher, J; Spiwoks, R; Tuominiemi, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    The NA52 experiment searches for long-lived charged strangelets in 158 a GeV c/sup -1/ Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS. The experiment is able to identify single particles coming from the collisions at p/sub t/=0. We collected 10/sup 13/ Pb+Pb interactions looking for negatively charged strangelets and 3*10/sup 11/ Pb+Pb interactions for positively charged ones. No evidence for the production of strangelets has been observed. We present here resulting experimental differential and total upper production limits. (8 refs).

  10. Pneumonia bacteriana adquirida na comunidade

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Lais Del Prá Netto

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia, Florianópolis, 2015. A pneumonia pode ser causada por diversos microrganismos e classificada de forma abrangente, havendo poucos e frágeis estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos sobre pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade (PACs). Os patógenos mais frequentes nas PACs são Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae (em pneumonias típicas) e Mycoplasma pneumoni...

  11. On the entangled growth of NaTaO3 cubes and Na2Ti3O7 wires in sodium hydroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan O; Liu, Chang; Elser, Michael J; Sternig, Andreas; Siedl, Nicolas; Berger, Thomas; Diwald, Oliver

    2013-07-29

    The entangled growth of sodium titanate Na2Ti3O7 nanowires and sodium tantalate NaTaO3 cubes was investigated with electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Depending on the composition of the Ta2O5- and TiO2-particle-based powder mixtures, which served as educts, we observed different types of hybridization effects. These include the titanium-induced contraction of the NaTaO3 perovskite-type unit cell and the generation of electronic defect states in NaTaO3 that give rise to optical subbandgap transitions and tantalum-induced limitations of the Na2Ti3O7 nanowire growth. The transformation from Ta2O5 to NaTaO3 occurs through a dissolution-recrystallization process. A systematic analysis of the impact of different titanium sources on NaTaO3 dispersion and, thus, on the properties of the entangled nanostructures revealed that a perfect intermixture of cubes and nanowires can only be achieved when titanate nanosheets emerge during transformation as reaction intermediates and shield nucleation and growth of isolated NaTaO3 cubes. The here demonstrated approach can be highly instrumental for understanding the nucleation and growth of composite and entangled nanostructures in solution and--at the same time--provides an interesting new class of photoactive composite materials.

  12. Thermodynamic Phase And Chemical Equilibrium At 0-110 C For The H+-K+-Na+-Cl--H2O System Up To 16 Molal And The HNO3-H2O System Up To 20 Molal Using An Association-Based Pitzer Model Compatible With ASPEN Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols,T.T.; Taylor,D.D.

    2003-09-26

    A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100 C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110 C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry's law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry's law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.

  13. Thermodynamic Phase And Chemical Equilibrium At 0-110°C For The H+-K+-Na+-Cl--H2O System Up To 16 Molal And The HNO3-H2O System Up To 20 Molal Using An Association-Based Pitzer Model Compatible With ASPEN Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd T. Nichols; Dean D. Taylor

    2003-09-01

    A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100° C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110° C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry.s law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry’s law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.

  14. Effect of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents containing fluoride or calcium on tensile strength of human enamel Efeito de agentes clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida contendo fluoreto e cálcio na resistência à tração do esmalte humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Giannini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents (CPG containing fluoride (CF or calcium (CCa on the ultimate tensile strength of enamel (UTS. METHOD: A "cube-like" resin composite structure was built-up on the occlusal surface of twenty-two sound third molars to facilitate specimen preparation for the micro-tensile test. The restored teeth were serially sectioned in buccal-lingual direction in slices with approximate 0.7 mm thickness. Each slice was trimmed with a fine diamond bur to reduce the buccal, internal slope enamel of the cusps to a dumb-bell shape with a cross-sectional area at the "neck" of less than 0.5 mm². The samples were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=11. The control groups were not submitted to the bleaching regimen. Specimens were treated with 10% CPG gel or with 10% CPG formulations containing CF (0.2% and 0.5% or CCa (0.05% and 0.2%. Bleached groups received the application of the 10% CPGs for 6 hours/day at 37º C, during 14 consecutive days and were stored in artificial saliva (AS or 100% relative humidity (RH among each application. After bleaching, specimens were tested with the microtensile method at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (5%. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between groups stored in AS or RH. Specimens treated with CF or CCa presented similar UTS as unbleached control groups. CONCLUSION: Either 10% CPG formulations containing CF or CCa can preserve the UTS after bleaching regimen.OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de agents clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida (CPG contendo fluoreto (CF e cálcio (CCa na resistência à tração do esmalte (UTS. MÉTODO: Um bloco de resina composta foi confeccionada na superfície oclusal de vinte e dois terceiros molars hígidos para facilitar a preparação dos espécimes para o teste de micro-tração. Os dentes restaurados foram

  15. Discurso e prática religiosa nas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base italianas e brasileiras: um estudo comparativo com base na teoria da mudança social de Max Weber (Speech and religious practice in the Basic Ecclesial Communities in Italy and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinete Luzia Francisca de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma reflexão sobre  o discurso e a prática nas comunidades Eclesiais de Base no Brasil e na Itália. Buscamos demonstrar, a partir de uma pesquisa empírica e teórica, as relações entres duas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base, a Comunidade San Paolo (Roma-IT e a Prelazia de São Félix (Mato Gross-BR, demonstrando que estas baseiam-se em dois elementos: resultam das discussões  advindas do Concílio Vaticano II e estão fortemente ligadas a seus líderes. E, ainda, que tais comunidades ligam-se por fortes laços simbólicos. Este fato permitiu-nos concluir  que a Teologia da Libertação empenhou-se em promover mudanças sociais e em criar um corpo simbólico que a corroborasse. Tais análises foram sustentadas pela teoria da transformação social de Max Weber e, ainda, pelos estudos  de Karl Mannheim e de  Glock e Stark. Palavras-chaves:Transformação social, Teologia da Libertação, prática, discurso. Abstract This study is a reflection of the discourse and practice on the Basic Ecclesial communities in Brazil and Italy. We try to show, from an empirical and theoretical research, the relations between two Christian Base Communities: the San Paolo Community (Rome – IT and the Prelature of São Félix (BR – Mato Grosso, based on two factors: the result of discussions arising out of Vatican II, and the strong link to its leaders. Such communities bind by strong symbolic ties that really allowed us to conclude that Liberation Theology endeavored to promote social changes and to create a symbolic body that corroborates it. Such analysis was supported by the theory of social transformation of Max Weber, by the studies of Karl Mannheim and Glock and Stark. Keywords: Social Transformation; Liberation Theology, Practice, Discourse.

  16. COMPORTAMENTO DA BASE E ANÁLISE DO RISCO DE BASE NA COMERCIALIZAÇÃO DO BOI GORDO NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL BEHAVIOR OF BASIS AND ANALYSIS OF RISK BASIS IN THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Santana Figueiredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve por objetivo mensurar e analisar os valores da base e do risco de base da arroba do boi gordo, para o Estado de Goiás. Utilizou-se, no estudo, a série de preços da arroba do boi gordo para o Estado de Goiás, obtida junto à Federação da Agricultura e Pecuária do Estado de Goiás (Faeg, e a série de preços futuros na Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futuros (BM&F, obtida junto ao Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada (Cepea da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ, da Universidade de São Paulo. A mensuração da base e do risco de base permitiu analisar o comportamento dos preços da arroba do boi gordo, à vista, para o Estado de Goiás, e os preços futuros da commodity, na BM&F. Notou-se uma significativa diferença entre esses, durante o período pesquisado. Essa diferença de preços é mais evidente entre os meses de dezembro e maio, período definido como safra. Entretanto, no período de entressafra, que vai de junho a novembro, os preços apresentam uma maior proximidade. Concluiu-se que os parâmetros estatísticos utilizados são essenciais para as tomadas de decisão, por parte dos produtores, na comercialização do boi gordo, no Estado de Goiás.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Risco de base; comercialização; boi gordo; Estado de Goiás.