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Sample records for basal lamina strengthens

  1. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  2. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  3. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Jeremy G. Thompson; Mason, Helen D; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. MET...

  4. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined

  5. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.J.; Zijderveld, R van; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Lyons, K.M.; Goldschmeding, R.; Klaassen, I.; Noorden, C.J.F. van; Schlingemann, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize tha

  6. Basal lamina directs acetylcholinesterase accumulation at synaptic sites in regenerating muscle

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    In skeletal muscles that have been damaged in ways which spare the basal lamina sheaths of the muscle fibers, new myofibers develop within the sheaths and neuromuscular junctions form at the original synaptic sites on them. At the regenerated neuromuscular junctions, as at the original ones, the muscle fibers are characterized by junctional folds and accumulations of acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The formation of junctional folds and the accumulation of acetylcholin...

  7. Effects of fractionated irradiation on the cytoskeleton and basal lamina in parotid glands. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytoskeletal, cytocontractile and basement membrane proteins were studied using the immunofluorescence technique in the parotid gland in female rats after half-side fractionated megavoltage irradiation. The non-irradiated parallel-handled parotid glands served as controls. The qualitative expression of cytoskeletal proteins remained unchanged 10 days following irradiation compared to controls, i.e. cytokeratin was observed but not vimentin, desmin or GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic proteins). Six months after irradiation the cytokeratin expression adjacent to duct lumina was clearly stronger. Actin staining was more pronounced in the periphery of the acini. Ten days after irradiation no alterations of the basal lamina proteins, laminin and fibronectin, were detected. Six months post-irradiation laminin deposits were detected in areas where the entire acini had degenerated and had been replaced by fibrosis. An increased expression of fibronectin was also observed in the stroma at that time, reflecting an increased fibrosis. In areas where the acini remained, laminin immunofluorescence was mainly found in basal laminae of normal thickness, but the mean diameter of the acini seemed to have increased. This indicates a regeneration of acini and a restructuring of the basal lamina of the parenchyma. (orig.)

  8. Oocyte glycoproteins regulate the form and function of the follicle basal lamina and theca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Alice P; Patel, Saloni H; Grasa, Patricia; Christian, Helen C; Williams, Suzannah A

    2015-05-15

    Maintaining follicle integrity during development, whereby each follicle is a functional unit containing a single oocyte, is essential for the generation of healthy oocytes. However, the mechanisms that regulate this critical function have not been determined. In this paper we investigate the role of the oocyte in maintaining follicle development. To investigate this role, we use a mouse model with oocyte-specific deletion of C1galt1 which is required for the generation of core 1-derived O-glycans. The loss of oocyte-generated O-glycans results in the joining of follicles and the generation of Multiple-Oocyte Follicles (MOFs). The aim was to determine how Mutant follicle development is modified thus enabling follicles to join. Extracellular matrix and follicle permeability were studied using histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). In ovaries containing Mutant Oocytes, the Follicle basal lamina (FBL) is altered both functionally and structurally from the primary stage onwards with Mutant follicles possessing unexpectedly thicker FBL. In Mutant ovaries, the theca cell layer is also modified with intermingling of theca between adjacent follicles. MOF function was analysed but despite increased numbers of preantral MOFs in Mutants, these do not reach the preovulatory stage after gonadotrophin stimulation. We propose a model describing how oocyte initiated changes in FBL and theca cells result in follicles joining. These data reveal new and important roles for the oocyte in follicle development and follicle integrity. PMID:25557622

  9. Computer simulation of wound closure in epithelial tissues: Cell-basal-lamina adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of wound closure in epithelial tissues, i.e., cell monolayer sheets, is investigated through computer simulations. A wound means an area in which some cells have been removed from the normal tissue. The vertex dynamics cell model [T. Nagai and H. Honda, Philos. Mag. B 81, 699 (2001)], which describes morphogenesis of epithelial tissues using the concepts of statistical physics, is modified and applied to the closure of small wounds without mitosis. It is shown that cell-basal-lamina adhesion governs the wound closure competing with cell-cell adhesion and cell elasticity. The simulation results reproduce the actual wound closure process qualitatively and partly quantitatively. The closing proceeds with the translation of the edges of wound polygons toward the wound center and the intermittent reduction in the number of polygon edges. Over time, the process leads to an exponential decrease in the wound area. A shape factor is introduced to describe the wound shape quantitatively and is used to examine the time variation thereof. A method for determining model parameters by comparison with the experiments is given.

  10. 肌基膜管移植修复脊髓缺损的实验研究%Transplantation of autologous muscle basal lamina to repair spinal cord transection in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培建; 李兵仓; 胥少汀

    2001-01-01

    目的应用自体肌基膜管(muscle basal lamina,MBL)移植结合神经生长因子(nervegrowth factor,NGF)修复脊髓缺损.方法18只雌性家犬脊髓横断后分为三组.A组:MBL移植结合注射NGF组,7只犬;B组:单纯MBL移植组,7只犬;C组:对照组,切除脊髓0.5 cm,4只犬.6个月后用免疫组化法对神经轴突进行特异染色,并用图像分析方法对脊髓横断处的远近端横截面进行神经纤维数比较.结果A、B两组移植物中神经纤维计数比较,差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01);各组远端神经纤维数比较,差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01);近端神经纤维数比较,A组与B组差异有显著性意义(P<0.05),A组与C组差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01),而B组与C组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).光镜下观察到MBL移植物中有神经纤维通过.电镜证实横断远端存在新生神经纤维.结论MBL作为一种生物管道,可作为神经轴突再生的通路;NGF具有促进神经轴突生长的作用.MBL移植结合NGF修复脊髓横断性损伤,神经轴突能越过移植区到达远端.

  11. The peritoneal elastic lamina.

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, P J

    1991-01-01

    The structure and extent of the submesothelial elastic tissue of the peritoneum, tentatively termed the peritoneal elastic lamina (lamina elastica peritonei, LEP), was studied in autopsy and biopsy material by light microscopy. The investigation confirms the presence of a well-defined network of elastic fibres just beneath the basement membrane of the visceral and parietal peritoneum in man. The LEP is claimed to be analogous to similar elastic tissue in other serosal cavities, the pleura and...

  12. 携带神经干细胞的肌基膜管在大鼠脊髓损伤修复中的应用%Application of muscle basal lamina containing neural stem cells in repair of spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰亮; 康学文; 汪静; 王拴科; 王翠芳; 马靖琳; 安丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of muscle basal lamina containing neural stem cells (NSCs) in repair of spinal cord injury.Methods Thirty-six SD rats from the same nest were used in the study and spinal cord hemisection models were induced.The animals were classified to blank control group (clearance of the lesion edge only with isotonic saline),NSCs group (transplantation of NSCs to the edge),NSCs + muscle basal lamina group (transplantation of complex of NSCs and muscle basal lamina to the edge) according to random number table,with 12 rats per group.At weeks 4 and 8,survival and migration of the transplanted cells and compatibility of muscle basal lamina with the host were detected.At weeks 2,4,and 8,the hindlimb function was assayed using BBB scoring system.Results NSCs in NSCs + muscle basal lamina group grew at the lesion edge,migrated to both sides of the edge,and integrated with peripheral tissues.Whereas,few NSCs survived at the lesion edge in NSCs group and inflammatory cell infiltration was notable.At week 2,there was no statistical difference of BBB score among the three groups.At weeks 4 and 8,BBB score in NSCs + muscle basal lamina group (7.92 ± 1.00,11.38 ± 1.51) was significantly higher than that in blank control group (3.82 ± 0.75,3.71 ± 0.76) and NSCs group (6.25 ±1.06,8.25 ± 1.83) (P<0.05).Conclusion Muscle basal lamina orients growth of NSCs along its lumen,facilitates migration of host cells to ground substance within its lumen,and reduces local inflammatory reaction.%目的 观察携神经干细胞(neural stem cells,NSCs)的肌基膜管对脊髓损伤的修复作用. 方法 选择同一窝别SD大鼠36只,制备脊髓半切损伤模型,按随机数字表法分为空白对照组(脊髓断端处仅做等渗盐水冲洗)、NSCs组(脊髓断端处注射NSCs)和NSCs+肌基膜管组(脊髓断端处植入NSCs+肌基膜管复合体),每组12只.4,8周后观察移植细胞的存活、迁移、肌基膜管与宿主的组织相容

  13. An experimental study on repairing sciatic nerve defects of rats by human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular nerve basal lamina tube%人脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学建; 何江涛; 孙士强

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells as seed cells to repair sciatic nerve defects of rats by tissue engineering methods. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord were cultured and induced into neuron-liked cells,which were co-cultured with acellular basal lamina tube to construct tissue engineering nerve;models of sciatic nerve defects 10 mm in length were set up with thirty healthy adult SD rats and were divided randomly into 3 groups:tissue engineering nerve group (group A, compound of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular basal lamina tube), pure acellular basal lamina tube group (group B), and autogenous nerve bridging group (group C). Evaluation of electrophysiological and histological results was carried out 10 weeks after operation. Results The engineering nerve group had good result in nerve regeneration which was close to the effect of autogenous nerve transfer group (group A), and much better than the effect of pure acellular basal lamina tube group. Conclusion Engineering nerves from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells can effectively repair 10 mm defects of sciatic nerve.%目的 探讨诱导后的脐带间充质干细胞作为组织工程种子细胞修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的可行性.方法 从正常足月新生儿脐带中分离培养间充质干细胞并诱导分化为神经样细胞,与去细胞神经基膜管共培养以构建组织工程神经;用30只健康成年雄性SD大鼠建立坐骨神经缺损(10 mm)的动物模型并随机分成3组:A组为脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组,B组为单纯去细胞神经基膜管组,C组为自体神经桥接组.术后10周通过神经电生理检测、组织学观察等评测效果.结果 在局部观察和肌肉测量、神经电生理检测、组织学观察等方面,脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组(A组)神经再生及肢体功

  14. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  15. Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Lamina, and Inherited Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Worman, Howard; Courvalin, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is composed of the nuclear membranes, nuclear lamina, and nuclear pore complexes. In recent years, mutations in nuclear-envelope proteins have been shown to cause a surprisingly wide array of inherited diseases. While the mutant proteins are generally expressed in most or all differentiated somatic cells, many mutations cause fairly tissue-specific disorders. Perhaps the most dramatic case is that of mutations in A-type lamins, intermediate filament proteins associated wi...

  16. Mesenchymal Cells of the Intestinal Lamina Propria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D.W.; Pinchuk, I.V.; Saada, J.I.; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow–derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  18. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    . The strength-grain size relationships can be described in a number of empirical equations relating the yield stress and the flow stress in tension to various structural parameters. A number of such equations are reviewed and their predictive capability is discussed. Structural information of...... importance for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features...... of the microstructures found, and this structural information is correlated with a number of strength structural equations. Finally, the flow stress of fcc and bcc polycrystalline specimens is related to the occurrence of microstructures formed by macroscopic and microscopic strain accommodation...

  19. CT evaluation of medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency, location and gender difference of the medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea toward the ethmoid sinus were evaluated in 522 patients who underwent CT of the paranasal sinus region at our institution between January 1999 and January 2002. The area of interest was the nose and paranasal sinuses in 295 patients, auditory organ in 190 patients and maxillofacial area in 37 patients. The lamina papyracea was clearly identified in all the patients. Patients with a past history of paranasal sinus surgery and those with injuries in the lamina papyracea were excluded from the study. The patients consisted of 283 males and 239 females aged between 6 and 94 years. Twenty-nine patients were younger than 20 years old. Axial slices were taken in most cases. Medial protrusion was judged to be positive in cases where the lamina papyracea evidently deviated toward the ethmoid sinus on CT and the CT value of the protruded area was identical to that of the orbital fat. Medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea was positive in 4 males and 2 females with a frequency of 1.15%. All the 6 patients were older than 20 years old. The protrusion was located in the anterior ethmoid in 2 patients, middle ethmoid in 3 patients and entire ethmoid area in 1 patient whose ethmoid sinuses were poorly developed. The protrusion was also located on the right side in 4 patients and on the left side in 2. Bilateral protrusion was not observed. It has been reported that the frequency of medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea is about 1%. CT is an essential examination before surgery of the nose and paranasal sinuses. It is important to preoperatively evaluate the anatomical relation of critical structures including the lamina papyracea. (author)

  20. Protein kinase activity associated with the nuclear lamina.

    OpenAIRE

    Dessev, G; Iovcheva, C; Tasheva, B; R. Goldman

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear lamina-enriched fraction from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells contains a tightly bound protein kinase activity, which phosphorylates in vitro the nuclear lamins, a 52-kilodalton protein, and several unknown minor components. The enzyme(s) is thermolabile, independent of Ca2+ and cAMP, and inhibited by quercetin. After treatment with 4 M urea it remains bound to the nuclear lamina in an active state, but it is irreversibly inactivated in 6 M urea. The lamin proteins are phosphorylated on...

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  2. Two modes of mixing ratio lamina vertical distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2015. EMS2015-53. [EMS Annual Meeting /15./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /12./. 07.09.2015–11.09.2015, Sofia] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mixing ratio lamina * ozonosonde stations * stratospheric ozone Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EMS2015/EMS2015-53.pdf

  3. Transition from Flutter to Tumble: Observations of a Falling Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, A.; Eisenberg, H.; Moses, E.

    1996-11-01

    We present an experimental study of a rigid thin strip (lamina) freely falling through a fluid confined in a two-dimensional vertical cell. We observe the asymptotic motion of laminae with a range of lengths and masses, using water, glycerol, or petroleum ether. We find that a well-defined transition from side-to-side motion (fluttering) to end-over-end motion (tumbling) occurs as a function of a dimensionless control parameter, the Froude number Fr. The motion does not depend on the fluid viscosity: the mean velocity of falling is determined by the pressure drag, which depends on the fluid density. The Froude number is given by the ratio of timescales characterizing the pendular motion of the lamina and the generation of lift. The transition is at Frc = 0.64 ± 0.03, above which tumbling occurs. Comparison is made with the transition to running or galloping in animals. Visualization using suspended alumina particles shows that a vortex is shed at each side-to-side excursion of the lamina, producing a zig-zag wake.

  4. Development and fate of the dental lamina in amniotes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela

    Wien: Universität Wien, 2014. s. 169-169. [Meeting of the European Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology /5./. 22.07.2014-25.07.2014, Wien] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  5. Mechanisms and timing of replacement dental lamina regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, H.; Dumková, J.; Lesot, H.; Glocová, K.; Hampl, A.; Tucker, A.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, special feature (2013), s. 272-272. ISSN 1932-8486. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /10./. 08.07.2013-12.07.2013, Barcelona] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  6. FZD6 expression is asymmetrical in snake dental lamina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, Hana; Putnová, Iveta; Tichý, F.; Buchtová, Marcela

    Paris: Institut Pasteur, 2015. s. 167-167. [EMBO Conference: Genetic Control of Development and Evolution. 29.09.2015-02.10.2015, Paris] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : snake dental lamina Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  7. Notching of the lamina of C7: A proposed mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminar notching of C7 is a recognized normal variant which should be differentiated from fracture or other pathology. Our observations suggest this notch is the effect of apposition of the inferior articulating process of C6 and the lamina of C7. (orig.)

  8. The upper incisor dental lamina of the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, Kirsti; Matulová, Petra; Míšek, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 2 (2004), s. 205-206. [Morphology 2003. 2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/02/0448; GA ČR(CZ) GP304/01/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  9. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  10. Quantification of the spatial organization of the nuclear lamina as a tool for cell classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, C.H.; Zatreanu, D.A.; Raz, V.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope that plays multiple regulatory roles in chromatin organization and gene expression as well as a structural role in nuclear stability. The lamina proteins, also referred to as lamins, determine nuclear lamina organization and defin

  11. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Miyuki Nakata; Kiyotaka Okada

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed ...

  12. Detection of apoptosis-related factors during dental lamina regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, T.; Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan; Buchtová, Marcela

    Plzeň, 2009. s. 94-94. [Morphology 2009. 45th International Congress on Anatomy and 46th Lojda symposium on Histochemy. 07.09.2009-09.09.2009, Plzeň] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental lamina regression * apoptosis factor * teeth Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  13. Development and regression of dental lamina in minipig embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štembírek, Jan; Buchtová, Marcela; Matalová, Eva; Král, T.; Míšek, Ivan

    Elsevier. Roč. 126, Supplement (2009), S92-S92. ISSN 0925-4773. [International Society of Developmental Biologists Congress /16./. 06.09.2009-10.09.2009, Edinburgh] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289; GA AV ČR IAA600450904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  14. The upper incisor dental lamina of the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, Kirsti; Matulová, Petra; Míšek, Ivan

    Hradec Králové: LF UK Hradec Králové, 2003. s. 80. [Symposium of the Czech Anatomical Society with International Participation/41./. 15.09.2003-16.09.2003, Hradec Králové] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA ČR GP304/01/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  16. Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Anna L; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths with considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology-the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. The overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. PMID:26100612

  17. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Nakata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper and abaxial (or lower cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs, respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary.

  18. The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Miyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs), respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. PMID:27137371

  19. Dynamics of Tetrahymena macronuclear lamina during cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIN; ZHONGHEZHAI

    1994-01-01

    During mitosis,the nuclear lamina in higher eukaryotic cells undergoes a distinctly morphological change.It breaks down into lamin polymers or monomers at prophase.At telophase,the lamins reassemble around the condensed chromatin to form the layer of lamina.Using antiserum to mammalian lamins,we studied the dynamics of lamina during cell division in the macronuleus of Tetrahymena shanghaiensis,which divided in the way of amitosis.In contrast to those in higher animal cells,the typical perinuclear lamin distribution in the macronucleus persisted throughout the whole cell cycle.It was further found that in some synchronized cells,the lamin distribution bisplayed an unusual pattern consisting of a series of spots within the macronucleus.Using South-western hybridization,we found that the purified 66 KD lamin in Tetrahymena showed specific affinity with the telomere DNA sequence in the same species.Therefore,we propose that pattern of immunofluorescence may be due to the interaction of lamin protein with the nucleoli and the condensed chromatins in the macronucleus.

  20. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence.

  1. FRP : Strengthened RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J. G.; Chen, J. F.; Smith, S. T.; Lam, L.

    2002-01-01

    The strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures using advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, and in particular the behaviour of FRP-strengthened RC structures is a topic which has become very popular in recent years. This popularity has arisen due to the need to maintain and upgrade essential infrastructure in all parts of the world, combined with the well-known advantages of FRP composites, such as good corrosion resistance and ease for site handling due to their light weight. The continuous reduction in the material cost of FRP composites has also contributed to their popularity. While a great amount of research now exists in the published literature on this topic, it is scattered in various journals and conference proceedings. This book therefore provides the first ever comprehensive, state-of-the-art summary of the existing research on FRP strengthening of RC structures, with the emphasis being on structural behaviour and strength models. The main topics covered include: Bond behaviour Flexural and shear strengthening of beams Column strengthening Flexural strengthening of slabs. For each area, the methods of strengthening are discussed, followed by a description of behaviour and failure modes and then the presentation of rational design recommendations, for direct use in practical design of FRP strengthening measures. Researchers, practicing engineers, code writers and postgraduate students in structural engineering and construction materials, as well as consulting firms, government departments, professional bodies, contracting firms and FRP material suppliers will find this an invaluable resource.

  2. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, John C.; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Reiser, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type, and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output ...

  3. Strengthening Resilience in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Diane; Espiner, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Rolling with Resilience (RwR) provides a springboard for developing strategies that build strengths and supports to foster developmental assets in children and youth (Benson, Scales, & Roehlkepartain, 2011). In Circle of Courage terms, resilience is strengthened by opportunities for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity (Brendtro,…

  4. Strengthening America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  5. Laminae and grain-size measures in beach sediments, east coast beaches, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    in these parameters. Individual layers have wider ranges of mean sizes, variable sorting, skewness and kurtosis values. These variations are pronounced and are observed in fine grained dark laminae as well as interlaminae space. These results suggest variations...

  6. Pseudo-elastic Hysteresis Damping Characteristics of SMA Hybrid Composite Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shuangshuang; JIANG Xiance; SUN Guojun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite lamina subjected to longitudinally strain or stress controlled cyclic loading is investigated. The SMA is under pseudo-elastic condition and the fibers are embedded (bonded) to the host material. The influences of temperature, volume fraction of SMA and longitudinal modulus of the host material on the stress-strain relation and energy dissipation of the SMA hybrid composite lamina are discussed. The results indicate that the stress-strain curve of the lamina per cycle shows a hysteresis loop. The hysteresis damping decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing volume fractions of SMA. In addition, the hysteresis damping is nearly independent of the longitudinal modulus of the host material under strain controlled loading. However, it depends dramatically on the longitudinal modulus of the host material under stress controlled loading, which shows the SMA composite lamina has high pseudo-elastic hysteresis damping when the longitudinal modulus of the host material is low.

  7. Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of "wanted" and in the suppression of "unwanted" behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill similar functions: It may mediate reinforcement which strengthens a given behaviour when elicited subsequently, but which is not experienced as reward or hedonia. Glutamate as the transmitter of the corticofugal projections to the basal ganglia nuclei and of the subthalamic neurons is critically involved in basal ganglia functions and dysfunctions; for example Parkinson's disease can be considered to be a secondary hyperglutamatergic disease. Additionally, glutamate is an essential factor in the plasticity response of the basal-ganglia. However, opposite to previous suggestions, the NMDA-receptor blocker MK-801 does not prevent psychostimulant- nor morphine-induced day to day increase (sensitization) of locomotion. Also the day to day increase of haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not prevented by MK-801. PMID:9871434

  8. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  9. Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  10. Auxin-mediated lamina growth in tomato leaves is restricted by two parallel mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gera, Hadas; Dafna, Asaf; Alvarez, John Paul; Bar, Maya; Mauerer, Mareike; Ori, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    In the development of tomato compound leaves, local auxin maxima points, separated by the expression of the Aux/IAA protein SlIAA9/ENTIRE (E), direct the formation of discrete leaflets along the leaf margin. The local auxin maxima promote leaflet initiation, while E acts between leaflets to inhibit auxin response and lamina growth, enabling leaflet separation. Here, we show that a group of auxin response factors (ARFs), which are targeted by miR160, antagonizes auxin response and lamina growth in conjunction with E. In wild-type leaf primordia, the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A and SlARF17 are expressed in leaflets, and SlmiR160 is expressed in provascular tissues. Leaf overexpression of the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A, SlARF10B or SlARF17, led to reduced lamina and increased leaf complexity, and suppressed auxin response in young leaves. In agreement, leaf overexpression of miR160 resulted in simplified leaves due to ectopic lamina growth between leaflets, reminiscent of e leaves. Genetic interactions suggest that E and miR160-targeted ARFs act partially redundantly but are both required for local inhibition of lamina growth between initiating leaflets. These results show that different types of auxin signal antagonists act cooperatively to ensure leaflet separation in tomato leaf margins. PMID:27121172

  11. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  12. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  13. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  14. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  15. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins

    OpenAIRE

    Harr, Jennifer C; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Reddy, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to t...

  16. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales. PMID:27072662

  17. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  18. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  19. Effective Family Strengthening Interventions. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Family Strengthening Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol L.

    This bulletin summarizes the results of a training and technology transfer program focussing on strengthening families for the prevention of delinquency. A national search was conducted for representative family strengthening programs, and through a process that involved national conferences, regional training sessions, and technical assistance,…

  20. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  1. Molecular Maps of the Reorganization of Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions during Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Peric-Hupkes; W. Meuleman; L. Pagie; S.W.M. Bruggeman; I. Solovei; W. Brugman; S. Gräf; P. Flicek; R.M. Kerkhoven; M. van Lohuizen; M. Reinders; L. Wessels; B. van Steensel

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional organization of chromosomes within the nucleus and its dynamics during differentiation are largely unknown. To visualize this process in molecular detail, we generated high-resolution maps of genome-nuclear lamina interactions during subsequent differentiation of mouse embryoni

  2. Is the process of epithelio-mesenchymal transformation involved in the dental lamina regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Štembírek, Jan; Matalová, Eva; Míšek, Ivan

    Elsevier. Roč. 126, Supplement (2009), S95-S95. ISSN 0925-4773. [International Society of Developmental Biologists Congress /16./. 06.09.2009-10.09.2009, Edinburgh] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  3. Discontinuity of the early dental lamina in the human upper jaw in 3D reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hovořáková, Mária; Lesot, H.; Peterková, Renata; Peterka, Miroslav

    Heslington, 2004. s. -. [COST ACTION B23International Conference on Tooth Morphogenesis and Differentiation /8./. 17.07.2004-22.07.2004, Heslington] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA MŠk OC B23.002 Keywords : discontinuity * early dental lamina Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Climatology of the relationship between ozone lamina number and daily/nvalue of total ozone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter

    Göttingen: European Geosciences Union, 2016. EGU2016-2504. ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone lamina Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/EGU2016-2504.pdf

  5. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  6. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Popken

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA.

  7. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  8. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  9. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  10. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  11. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  13. The lateral enamel lamina--component of tooth primordia in selected mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, K; Matulová, P; Mísek, I

    2002-01-01

    The lateral enamel lamina (LEL) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. It represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. We detected the LEL in the sheep (Ovis aries), the dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and the vole (Microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The LEL could be found in cap to bell stage tooth primordia, most clearly in slowly developing tooth germs. LEL-like structures have been furthermore described or depicted in tooth germs of the mouse, the elk (Alces alces), the dugong (Dugong dugong), the elephant (Loxodonta africana), and the human. Probably it is a part of all mammalian tooth primordia that undergoes regression during morphogenesis of the enamel organ. As a reducing structure, it should be considered in studies of tooth development. PMID:12494916

  14. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  15. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  16. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  19. Domain organization of human chromosomes revealed by mapping of nuclear lamina interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelen, Lars; Pagie, Ludo; Brasset, Emilie; Meuleman, Wouter; Faza, Marius B; Talhout, Wendy; Eussen, Bert H; de Klein, Annelies; Wessels, Lodewyk; de Laat, Wouter; van Steensel, Bas

    2008-06-12

    The architecture of human chromosomes in interphase nuclei is still largely unknown. Microscopy studies have indicated that specific regions of chromosomes are located in close proximity to the nuclear lamina (NL). This has led to the idea that certain genomic elements may be attached to the NL, which may contribute to the spatial organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus. However, sequences in the human genome that interact with the NL in vivo have not been identified. Here we construct a high-resolution map of the interaction sites of the entire genome with NL components in human fibroblasts. This map shows that genome-lamina interactions occur through more than 1,300 sharply defined large domains 0.1-10 megabases in size. These lamina-associated domains (LADs) are typified by low gene-expression levels, indicating that LADs represent a repressive chromatin environment. The borders of LADs are demarcated by the insulator protein CTCF, by promoters that are oriented away from LADs, or by CpG islands, suggesting possible mechanisms of LAD confinement. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the human genome is divided into large, discrete domains that are units of chromosome organization within the nucleus. PMID:18463634

  20. Flaw tolerance of nuclear intermediate filament lamina under extreme mechanical deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-04-26

    The nuclear lamina, composed of intermediate filaments, is a structural protein meshwork at the nuclear membrane that protects genetic material and regulates gene expression. Here we uncover the physical basis of the material design of nuclear lamina that enables it to withstand extreme mechanical deformation of >100% strain despite the presence of structural defects. Through a simple in silico model we demonstrate that this is due to nanoscale mechanisms including protein unfolding, alpha-to-beta transition, and sliding, resulting in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve. At the larger microscale this leads to an extreme delocalization of mechanical energy dissipation, preventing catastrophic crack propagation. Yet, when catastrophic failure occurs under extreme loading, individual protein filaments are sacrificed rather than the entire meshwork. This mechanism is theoretically explained by a characteristic change of the tangent stress-strain hardening exponent under increasing strain. Our results elucidate the large extensibility of the nuclear lamina within muscle or skin tissue and potentially many other protein materials that are exposed to extreme mechanical conditions, and provide a new paradigm toward the de novo design of protein materials by engineering the nonlinear stress-strain response to facilitate flaw-tolerant behavior. PMID:21384869

  1. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  2. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.; Hoggenmueller, U.; Becker, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hofmann, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Fischer, R. [Medical Division Heinz Kalk-Klinik, Bad Kissingen (Germany); Kraus, M.; Scheurlen, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  3. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  4. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  5. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  6. Increased in vitro release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells in inflammatory bowel disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, S; Raedler, A; Conn, A.R.; Rombeau, J. L.; MacDermott, R P

    1992-01-01

    Increased concentrations of the soluble form of the interleukin 2 receptor have been observed in the sera of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In this study we have observed the spontaneous release of soluble interleukin 2 receptor by unstimulated, isolated normal and inflammatory bowel disease colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. Lamina propria mononuclear cells from Crohn's disease patients (median = 204 U/ml (interquartile range 126-396, n 17) secreted significantly (p ...

  7. Tonotopic Morphometry of the Lamina Reticularis of the Guinea Pig Cochlea with Associated Microstructures and Related Mechanical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yarin, Yury M.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.; Poznyakovskiy, Anton A.; Meißner, Heike; Fleischer, Mario; Baumgart, Johannes; Richter, Claudia; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Zahnert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Morphometry of the lamina reticularis of the guinea pig cochlea was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-four geometrical parameters of the lamina reticularis, the bundles of stereocilia, and individual stereocilia, in all rows of hair cells and within the individual hair cells, were measured at ten equally spaced locations along the longitudinal direction of the cochlea. Variations of the parameters versus the longitudinal coordinate were statistically analyzed and fitted wi...

  8. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  9. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  10. Airway basal stem cells: a perspective on their roles in epithelial homeostasis and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jason R; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2010-01-01

    The small airways of the human lung undergo pathological changes in pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans and cystic fibrosis. These clinical problems impose huge personal and societal healthcare burdens. The changes, termed 'pathological airway remodeling', affect the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and the reciprocal trophic interactions that occur between these tissues. Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium of ciliated cells, secretory cells and 6-30% basal cells, the proportion of which varies along the proximal-distal axis. Epithelial abnormalities range from hypoplasia (failure to differentiate) to basal- and goblet-cell hyperplasia, squamous- and goblet-cell metaplasia, dysplasia and malignant transformation. Mesenchymal alterations include thickening of the basal lamina, smooth muscle hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Paradoxically, given the prevalence and importance of airway remodeling in lung disease, its etiology is poorly understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of basic knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maintenance and repair of the airway epithelium. Specifically, little is known about the proliferation and differentiation of basal cells, a multipotent stem cell population of the pseudostratified airway epithelium. This Perspective summarizes what we know, and what we need to know, about airway basal cells to evaluate their contributions to normal and abnormal airway remodeling. We contend that exploiting well-described model systems using both human airway epithelial cells and the pseudostratified epithelium of the genetically tractable mouse trachea will enable crucial discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of airway disease. PMID:20699479

  11. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Purbayu Budi Santoso; Darwanto Darwanto

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained fro...

  12. 肌基膜管桥接神经缺损的研究现状%Current Studies on Muscle Basal Lamina for Bridging Nerve Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷迪; 陈东

    2008-01-01

    外伤或手术引起的神经系统损伤性疾病的临床修复一直是尚未解决的疑难问题之一.肌基膜管是通过去除肌细胞而得到的一种天然生物材料,它不仅有效的保留了完整的基膜,而且肌基膜管内部的排列结构与神经膜管类似,它们能够为再生轴突的生长提供足够空间,可根据需要做成特定的形状.肌基膜管作为一种生物支架桥接受损伤的神经纤维逐渐受到人们的重视.本文就肌基膜管的制备、本身的结构特点及在神经缺损中的应用作一综述.

  13. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  14. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  15. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  16. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells maintain T cell homeostasis but do not affect commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Welty, Nathan E.; Staley, Christopher; Ghilardi, Nico; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Igyártó, Botond Z.; Kaplan, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are composed of two CD103+ subsets that differ in CD11b expression. We report here that Langerin is expressed by human LP DCs and that transgenic human langerin drives expression in CD103+CD11b+ LP DCs in mice. This subset was ablated in huLangerin-DTA mice, resulting in reduced LP Th17 cells without affecting Th1 or T reg cells. Notably, cognate DC–T cell interactions were not required for Th17 development, as this response was inta...

  17. Reorganization of Nuclear Pore Complexes and the Lamina in Late-Stage Parvovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Elina; Niskanen, Einari A; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection induces reorganization of nuclear structures. Our studies indicated that late-stage infection induces accumulation of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and lamin B1 concomitantly with a decrease of lamin A/C levels on the apical side of the nucleus. Newly formed CPV capsids are located in close proximity to NPCs on the apical side. These results suggest that parvoviruses cause apical enrichment of NPCs and reorganization of nuclear lamina, presumably to facilitate the late-stage infection. PMID:26311881

  18. Differences and coincidences in the dental lamina segmentation in selected mammalian orders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, Kirsti; Míšek, Ivan; Matulová, Petra; Pavlíková, H.; Matalová, Eva

    České Budějovice: Jihočeská univerzita České Budějovice, 2003. s. 10. ISBN 80-7040-602-X. [Morphological Days in České Budějovice/2./. 30.01.2003-31.01.2003, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA ČR GP304/01/P021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. On neurocomputational models of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, it became evident that the basal ganglia is involved in cognitive as well as motor processes, including motor control, conditioning, working memory, and sequence learning. Systems-levels models attempt to explain what kinds of computations are employed by the basal ganglia. It is argued that the basal ganglia integrates information from different structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and decides on which motor response to execute. Learning such ...

  20. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  1. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  2. Pathological basal ganglia activity in movement disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...

  3. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  4. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  5. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  6. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  7. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the...... newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. © 2014 P.E. Petersen, Geneva....

  8. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  9. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  10. Studies on glial isomeration of lamina cribrosa in rat%大鼠视神经筛板胶质异构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴超; 李大庆; 李英; Geoffrey Raisman; 阴正勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of optic nerve damage in glaucoma by study on structure of glial lamina cribrosa(LC) in rats.Methods Experimental study.Albino Swiss(AS) rats were divided into 3 groups.Bilateral eyes of 10 normal rats were employed to be group Ⅰ (right eye) and group Ⅱ (left eye).Group Ⅲ was from the left eyes of 13 rats underwent artificially intraocular hypertension in the right eyes.All rats were perfused and fixed with electronic microscopy fixative (2% paraformaldehyde + 2% glutaraldehyde).Trimmed optic nerves were embedded with resin.Serial 1.5 μm thick 'semithin' sections were cut,either (2 eyes from group Ⅲ) longitudinally,through the optic nerve head(ONH) from the retinal end to the commencement of the optic nerve,or (31 eyes) transversely (cross-sections).Ultrathin sections were cut in the middle of glial LC.The morphological observation of glial LC was obtained by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Bonferroni correction was used to cownteract the multiple comparision of each group.Results Fortified astrocytes formed the main supportive structure of glial LC in all rats,including group Ⅰ,group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ.Astrocytes were ranked as a fan-like radial array,firmly attached ventrally to the sheath of the LC by thick basal processes,but dividing dorsally into progressively more slender processes with only delicate attachments to the sheath.These fortified astrocytes form ventral stout basal end feet,radial array,axon free-'preterminal' layer before terminating in a complex layer of fine interdigitating delicate branches at the dorsal.LC astrocytes were highly and uniformly electron dense throughout all the cell processes.An equally striking feature of the astrocytic processes was their massive cytoskeletal 'strengthening' of longitudinal massed filaments and tubules.Especially,massive filaments accumulated as cytoskeletal cores to form 'scaffold' of fortified astrocytes.There was vulnerable area in the

  11. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  12. A chloroplast-localized protein LESION AND LAMINA BENDING affects defence and growth responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yokota, Takao; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Haruko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fujisaki, Koki; Oikawa, Kaori; Uemura, Aiko; Natsume, Satoshi; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Umemura, Kenji; Terry, Matthew J; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how plants allocate their resources to growth or defence is of long-term importance to the development of new and improved varieties of different crops. Using molecular genetics, plant physiology, hormone analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based transcript profiling, we have isolated and characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) LESION AND LAMINA BENDING (LLB) gene that encodes a chloroplast-targeted putative leucine carboxyl methyltransferase. Loss of LLB function results in reduced growth and yield, hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions, accumulation of the antimicrobial compounds momilactones and phytocassanes, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Consistent with these defence-associated responses, llb shows enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The lesion and resistance phenotypes are likely to be caused by the over-accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) in the llb mutant including the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. Additionally, llb shows an increased lamina inclination and enhanced early seedling growth due to elevated brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis and/or signalling. These findings show that LLB functions in the chloroplast to either directly or indirectly repress both JA- and BR-mediated responses, revealing a possible mechanism for controlling how plants allocate resources for defence and growth. PMID:26864209

  13. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  14. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  15. Strengthening Families: Community Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    Supporting and strengthening families has always been part of the early childhood professional's unique role in the community. NAEYC's Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families initiative (www.naeyc.org/ece/supporting) is a set of activities designed to provide intentional leadership and education in the family-strengthening approach. The…

  16. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  17. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  18. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  19. Clock and clock-controlled genes are differently expressed in the retina, lamina and in selected cells of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Milena eDamulewicz; Agnieszka eLoboda; Karolina eBukowska-Strakova; Alicja eJozkowicz; Jozef eDulak; Elzbieta M Pyza

    2015-01-01

    The retina and the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila show circadian rhythms in various processes. To learn about the regulation of circadian rhythms in the retina and lamina and in two cell types, glial and the lamina L2 interneurons, we examined expression of the following clock genes; per, tim, clk, and cry and clock-controlled genes; Atp, nrv2, brp, Pdfr. We found that the expression of gene studied is specific for the retina and lamina. The rhythms of per and tim expression in...

  20. Versican in the developing brain: lamina-specific expression in interneuronal subsets and role in presynaptic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Masahito; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-09-14

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) of the extracellular matrix help stabilize synaptic connections in the postnatal brain and impede regeneration after injury. Here, we show that a CSPG of the lectican family, versican, also promotes presynaptic maturation in the developing brain. In the embryonic chick optic tectum, versican is expressed selectively by subsets of interneurons confined to the retinorecipient laminae, in which retinal axons arborize and form synapses. It is a major receptor for the Vicia villosa B4 lectin (VVA), shown previously to inhibit invasion of the retinorecipient lamina by retinal axons (Inoue and Sanes, 1997). In vitro, versican promotes enlargement of presynaptic varicosities in retinal axons. Depletion of versican in ovo, by RNA interference, results in retinal arbors with smaller than normal varicosities. We propose that versican provides a lamina-specific cue for presynaptic maturation and discuss the related but distinct effects of versican depletion and VVA blockade. PMID:16162928

  1. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  2. 额下-终板入路切除实质性颅咽管瘤10例报告%Resection of Solid Craniopharyngioma via the Subfrontal-lamina Terminalis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 冯春国; 徐培坤; 程宏伟; 王先祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the microsurgical techniques and characteristics of the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach for suprasellar solid craniopharyngiomas. Methods Since March 2007 to March 2010, 10 patients with solid craniopharyngiomas received an operation via the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach. All the tumors located in the suprasellar region, seven of them protruded into the third ventricle, two protruded into the both third ventricle and basal cistern, the other one invaded the intrasellar region. The mean longest diameter of the tumor axis was 3.3 cm ( ranged from 2.0 to 5.4 cm). To remove the tumor, we carefully exposed the basal cisterns, and then the lamina terminalis. Results Total removal was achieved in 7 cases, and subtotal removal in 3 cases via the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach. Six patients developed transient diabetes insipidus and 7 patients had hypothyroidism after the operation, all of them were cured in 6 months. Follow-up was achieved in ten patients for 2 months to 2 years with a mean of 14 months ( > 12 months in 6 cases), during which no recurrence or increase in size of the tumor occurred. Conclusions Subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach provides a wide surgical field and a better vision for the resection of suprasellar solid craniopharyngiomas, making the procedure safer. To complete the operation successfully and avoid surgical complications, it is crucial to widely open the cisterns, release the tensions on the frontal lobe, and protect brain tissues.%目的 探讨经额下-终板入路切除实质性颅咽管瘤的显微手术技巧及特点. 方法 2007年3月~2010年3月,对10例实质性颅咽管瘤(伴钙化)由额下-终板入路进行手术切除.瘤体全部位于鞍上,其中向三脑室突入7例,向三脑室及鞍后脚间池突入2例,向鞍内生长1例.最长径2.0 ~5.4 cm,平均3.3 cm.术中充分开放颅底各池,轻轻牵开额下脑组织暴露终板,切开后显露瘤体. 结果 全切除7

  3. Forecasting for strengthening technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing technological innovation is currently one of the key items in being more competitive. However, production sectors are facing great challenges, including analysing a large amount of available technological and market information regarding the en- vironment for strategic decision-making and being able to launch themselves onto the market with technological developments bringing the desired economic returns. Several tools for analysing information have emerged for reducing the uncertainty of tech- nological and market changes. This article provides conceptual and reflective elements so that forecasting strengthens technolo- gical development (TD. Forecasting is initially proposed as being one of the future methods of analysis having a significant im- pact on decision-making, mainly within the field of economics but which could be extrapolated to making a contribution to TD. The techniques which have been the recent instrument for collecting information for producing forecasting are described, as is work about the concept of surveillance/monitoring and the processes used for coordinating such approaches. It can thus be sta- ted that they provide an excellent basis for strengthening TD by providing platforms for new or improved developments in pro- cesses or products. Reflection about these aspects provides perspectives for implementing technological forecasting (TF in pro- duction systems so that they obtain efficient and concrete results via deterministic methods as input in decision-making in techno- logy regarding its middle- and long-term competitiveness.

  4. Bending in laminas of NFPR: type of reinforcement, fracture and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtânia Antunes Leão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFRP have awakened considerable interest in the area of polymer composites, because of the need to develop new, environmentally friendly materials. One of the most complex ways of manufacturing this type of material is in the form of ultrathin laminar layers; however, this process hinders mechanical testing, mainly three and four-point bending. The present investigation faces this challenge and shows the influence of parameters, such as the grammage of reinforcing fabric and lamination process, on strength, stiffness and fracture characteristics for three-point bending in this type of structural element. The industrially manufactured laminas were composed of orthophthalic polyester resin reinforced with licuri fibers. Macromechanical and micromechanical analyses were conducted in the study of fracture characteristics for all the parameters. The mechanical behavior in the three-point bending of the laminar composite showed that the use of licuri fiber to obtain natural fiber-based plastic is completely viable.

  5. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  6. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  7. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  8. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  9. Long-term depression is differentially expressed in distinct lamina of hippocampal CA1 dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu eRamachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information storage in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons is compartmentalized in proximal versus distal apical dendrites, cell bodies, and basal dendrites. This compartmentalization is thought to be essential for synaptic integration. Differences in the expression of LTP in each of these compartments have been described, but less is known regarding potential differences in LTD. Here, to directly compare LTD expression in each compartment and to bypass possible differences in input-specificity and stimulation of presynaptic inputs, we used global application of NMDA to induce LTD. We then examined LTD expression in each dendritic sub-region - proximal and distal apical, and basal dendrites - and in cell bodies. Interestingly, we found that distal apical dendrites exhibited the greatest magnitude of LTD of all areas tested and this LTD was maintained, whereas LTD in proximal apical dendrites was not maintained. In basal dendrites, LTD was also maintained, but the magnitude of LTD was less than in distal apical dendrites. Blockade of inhibition blocked LTD maintenance in both distal apical and basal dendrites. Population spikes recorded from the cell body layer correlated with apical dendrite fEPSPs, where LTD was maintained in distal dendrites and decayed in proximal dendrites. On the other hand, LTD of basal dendrite fEPSPs was maintained but population spike responses were not. Thus E-S coupling was distinct in basal and apical dendrites. Our data demonstrate cell autonomous differential information processing in somas and dendritic sub-regions of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, where LTD expression is intrinsic to distinct dendritic regions, and does not depend on the nature of stimulation and input specificity.

  10. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  11. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  12. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic ...

  14. Somatotopic Organization of the Primate Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei....

  15. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. ...

  16. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease Enable Javascript to ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder ...

  18. Efficient strengthening technique for reinforced concrete slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaldo, Everaldo; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    A promising strengthening strategy, using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials, consists in applying CFRP laminate strips into pre-cut slits opened in the concrete cover of the elements to strengthen. This strengthening technique is designated by Near Surface Mounted (NSM) and has been successfully used to increase the flexural and the shear resistance of concrete and masonry structures. The present work describes an efficient strategy, using steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC)...

  19. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor. PMID:26988117

  20. Characteristics of annual laminae gray level variations in a stalagmite from Shihua Cave, Beijing and its climatic significance (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The annual laminae gray level variations in the stalagmite TS9501 of Shihua Cave, Beijing are studied in detail. The environmental factors influencing the laminae gray level are also analyzed. The following conditions may be necessary to the study on the lamina gray level. A) The seasonal differences of climate in the studied area are strong. B) The cave has a rapid and simple hydrological connection with the surface, such that the gray level variation is great; therefore, climatic changes can be more clearly recorded in a stalagmite. C) No water from other sources due to lateral flow adds to the seepage over the cave. D) There are more organic impurities than inorganic ones, whose content changes distinctly with time in the sample. By comparison with the modern instrumental climate records, it was found that the gray level of laminae is mainly related to the air temperature, especially the summer mean temperature. Therefore, the gray level can be used as a proxy of the air temperature. The variation of the lamina gray level also represents the oscillation of Indian summer monsoon as identified in the modern climate records. The variability of the temperature in Beijing area over the last 1 ka is reconstructed. The results show that there are several cold periods corresponding to historical records. An important phenomenon is noticed that the climatic pattern before about 1400AD is different from that after about 1400AD. In Beijing area, before about 1400AD, low amplitude and high frequency temperature oscillations dominated the signal. The climate pattern is warm-dry and cold-wet. After about 1400AD, both the temperature and rainfall varied synchronously, temperature oscillated strongly and the Little Ice Age occurred. The climate pattern is cold-dry and warm-wet. This transition of the climate pattern is also observed in other worldwide paleoclimatic records, demonstrating that there was a global climate event at about 1400AD.

  1. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; M. Klingenspor; White, C.R.; Jastroch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Su...

  2. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  3. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  4. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  5. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  6. CD4+CD25bright T cells in human intestinal lamina propria as regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shin; Kanai, Takanori; Oshima, Shigeru; Uraushihara, Koji; Totsuka, Teruji; Sawada, Taisuke; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Koganei, Kazutaka; Fukushima, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only active suppression by regulatory T cells plays an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also its dysregulation leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that the CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells reside in the human intestinal lamina propria (LP) and functionally retain regulatory activities. All human LP CD4(+) T cells regardless of CD25 expression constitutively expressed CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein, and Foxp3 and proliferate poorly. Although LP CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells showed an activated and anergic/memory phenotype, they did not retain regulatory activity. In LP CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, however, cells expressing CD25 at high levels (CD4(+)CD25(bright)) suppressed the proliferation and various cytokine productions of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. LP CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells by themselves produced fewer amounts of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-10. Interestingly, LP CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells with regulatory T activity were significantly increased in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. These results suggest that CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells found in the normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa selectively inhibit the host immune response and therefore may contribute to the intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:15322172

  7. Reproducibility of In-Vivo OCT Measured Three-Dimensional Human Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available PurposeTo determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D lamina cribrosa (LC microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT.MethodsThirty-nine eyes (8 healthy, 19 glaucoma suspects and 12 glaucoma from 49 subjects were scanned twice using swept-source (SS− OCT in a 3.5×3.5×3.64 mm (400×400×896 pixels volume centered on the optic nerve head, with the focus readjusted after each scan. The LC was automatically segmented and analyzed for microarchitectural parameters, including pore diameter, pore diameter standard deviation (SD, pore aspect ratio, pore area, beam thickness, beam thickness SD, and beam thickness to pore diameter ratio. Reproducibility of the parameters was assessed by computing the imprecision of the parameters between the scans.ResultsThe automated segmentation demonstrated excellent reproducibility. All LC microarchitecture parameters had an imprecision of less or equal to 4.2%. There was little variability in imprecision with respect to diagnostic category, although the method tends to show higher imprecision amongst healthy subjects.ConclusionThe proposed automated segmentation of the LC demonstrated high reproducibility for 3D LC parameters. This segmentation analysis tool will be useful for in-vivo studies of the LC.

  8. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbretti, Fabiana; Iannetti, Ilaria; Guglielmi, Loredana; Perconti, Susanna; Evangelistella, Chiara; Proietti De Santis, Luca; Bongiorni, Silvia; Prantera, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL), underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL. PMID:26963718

  9. Possibility of identification of elastic properties in laminate beams with cross-ply laminae stacking sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to show the possibility of the identification of laminate beam specimens elastic properties with cross-ply laminae stacking sequences using prescribed eigenfrequencies. These frequencies are not determined experimentally in this paper but they are calculated numerically by means of the finite element (FE software MSC.Marc. The composite material properties of the FE model based on Euler-Bernoulli theory have been subsequently tuned to correlate the determined frequencies in cross-ply laminate beams with the eigenfrequencies obtained by the software package. A real-coded genetic algorithm (GA and a micro-genetic algorithm (mGA are applied as the inverse technique for the identification problem. Because a small efficiency of the GAs in searching for Poisson’s ratio values was found, this parameter and the in-plane shear modulus have been estimated by using the law of mixtures. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed technique.

  10. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S.

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  11. Tagged Chromosomal Insertion Site System: A Method to Study Lamina-Associated Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Jennifer C; Reddy, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is important for chromatin regulation. This organization is nonrandom and appears to be tightly correlated with or regulated by chromatin state and scaffolding proteins. To understand how specific DNA and chromatin elements contribute to the functional organization of the genome, we developed a new tool-the tagged chromosomal insertion site (TCIS) system-to identify and study minimal DNA sequences that drive nuclear compartmentalization and applied this system to specifically study the role of cis elements in targeting DNA to the nuclear lamina. The TCIS system allows Cre-recombinase-mediated site-directed integration of any DNA fragment into a locus tagged with lacO arrays, thus enabling both functional molecular studies and positional analysis of the altered locus. This system can be used to study the minimal DNA sequences that target the nuclear periphery (or other nuclear compartments), allowing researchers to understand how genome-wide results obtained, for example, by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, chromosome conformation capture (HiC), or related methods, connect to the actual organization of DNA and chromosomes at the single-cell level. Finally, TCIS allows one to test roles for specific proteins in chromatin reorganization and to determine how changes in nuclear environment affect chromatin state and gene regulation at a single locus. PMID:26778570

  12. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q; Bach-Holm, Daniella;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... (387.8 ± 53.9 µm). In HTG, the mean LC depth (493.0 ± 115.2 µm) was significantly increased compared to NTG (376.6 ± 27.1 µm, p<0.05) and control subjects (332.7 ± 53.1 µm, p<0.001). The trans-LC pressure difference (TLPD) (intraocular pressure - cerebrospinal fluid pressure) was positively...... correlated with the LC depth (r = 0.96, p<0.001) and inversely correlated with visual field perimetric mean deviation in patients with IIH (r = -0.88, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The LC is positioned anteriorly in patients with IIH and posteriorly in glaucomatous eyes compared to normal controls. The...

  13. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  14. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  15. Two-phase model of the basal ganglia: implications for discontinuous control of the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, John

    2014-11-01

    In this article, I point out that simple one-phase models of the role of the basal ganglia in action selection have a problem. Furthermore, I suggest a solution with major implications for the organization of the action-selection and motor systems. In current models, the striatum evaluates multiple potential actions by adding biases based on previous conditioning. These biases may arise in both the direct (bias for) and indirect (bias against) pathways. Together, these biases influence which action is ultimately chosen. For efficient conditioning to occur, a positive outcome must selectively strengthen the striatal bias for the chosen action (via a dopaminergic mechanism). This is problematic, however, because all potential action choices have influenced firing patterns in striatal cells during the selection process; it is therefore unclear how the synapses that represent the chosen plan could be selectively strengthened. I suggest a simple solution in which the striatum has two functional phases. In the first phase, the basal ganglia provide biases for multiple potential actions (using both the direct and indirect pathways), leading to the choice of a single action in the cortex. In the second phase, an efference copy of the chosen action is sent to the striatum, where it contributes to the establishment of the eligibility trace for that action. This trace, when acted on by subsequent dopaminergic reinforcement, leads to specific strengthening of the bias only for the chosen action. Consistent with this model, recordings show post-choice imposition onto the striatum of signals corresponding to the chosen action. The existence of dual phases of basal ganglia function implies that decisions about action choice are sent to the motor system in a discontinuous manner. This would not be problematic if the motor system also operated discontinuously. I will review evidence suggesting that this is the case, notably that action is organized by approximately 10 Hz

  16. Clock and clock-controlled genes are differently expressed in the retina, lamina and in selected cells of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eDamulewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The retina and the first optic neuropil (lamina of Drosophila show circadian rhythms in various processes. To learn about the regulation of circadian rhythms in the retina and lamina and in two cell types, glial and the lamina L2 interneurons, we examined expression of the following clock genes; per, tim, clk, and cry and clock-controlled genes; Atp, nrv2, brp, Pdfr. We found that the expression of gene studied is specific for the retina and lamina. The rhythms of per and tim expression in the retina and glial cells are similar to that observed in the whole head and in clock neurons, while they differ in the lamina and L2 cells. In both the retina and lamina, CRY seems to be a repressor of clk expression. In L2 interneurons per expression is not cyclic indicating the other function of PER in those cells than in the circadian molecular clock. In contrast to per and tim, the pattern of clk and cry expression is similar in both the retina and lamina. The retina holds the autonomous oscillators but the expression of cry and clock-controlled genes, Atp and nrv2, is also regulated by inputs from the pacemaker transmitted by PDF and ITP neuropeptides.

  17. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  18. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  20. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared...

  1. Antinociceptive action of oxytocin involves inhibition of potassium channel currents in lamina II neurons of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbon Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence in the literature shows that oxytocin (OT has a strong spinal anti-nociceptive action. Oxytocinergic axons originating from a subpopulation of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons establish synaptic contacts with lamina II interneurons but little is known about the functional role of OT with respect to neuronal firing and excitability. Results Using the patch-clamp technique, we have recorded lamina II interneurons in acute transverse lumbar spinal cord slices of rats (15 to 30 days old and analyzed the OT effects on action potential firing ability. In the current clamp mode, we found that bath application of a selective OT-receptor agonist (TGOT reduced firing in the majority of lamina II interneurons exhibiting a bursting firing profile, but never in those exhibiting a single spike discharge upon depolarization. Interestingly, OT-induced reduction in spike frequency and increase of firing threshold were often observed, leading to a conversion of the firing profile from repetitive and delayed profiles into phasic ones and sometimes further into single spike profile. The observed effects following OT-receptor activation were completely abolished when the OT-receptor agonist was co-applied with a selective OT-receptor antagonist. In current and voltage clamp modes, we show that these changes in firing are strongly controlled by voltage-gated potassium currents. More precisely, transient IA currents and delayed-rectifier currents were reduced in amplitude and transient IA current was predominantly inactivated after OT bath application. Conclusion This effect of OT on the firing profile of lamina II neurons is in good agreement with the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of OT described in vivo.

  2. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  3. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  4. Contrasting growth responses in lamina and petiole during neighbor detection depend on differential auxin responsiveness rather than different auxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Mieke; Ljung, Karin; Fankhauser, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Foliar shade triggers rapid growth of specific structures that facilitate access of the plant to direct sunlight. In leaves of many plant species, this growth response is complex because, although shade triggers the elongation of petioles, it reduces the growth of the lamina. How the same external cue leads to these contrasting growth responses in different parts of the leaf is not understood. Using mutant analysis, pharmacological treatment and gene expression analyses, we investigated the role of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR7 (PIF7) and the growth-promoting hormone auxin in these contrasting leaf growth responses. Both petiole elongation and lamina growth reduction are dependent on PIF7. The induction of auxin production is both necessary and sufficient to induce opposite growth responses in petioles vs lamina. However, these contrasting growth responses are not caused by different auxin concentrations in the two leaf parts. Our work suggests that a transient increase in auxin levels triggers tissue-specific growth responses in different leaf parts. We provide evidence suggesting that this may be caused by the different sensitivity to auxin in the petiole vs the blade and by tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:25963518

  5. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  6. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  8. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  9. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  10. Prelamin A and lamin A appear to be dispensable in the nuclear lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Loren G; Ng, Jennifer K; Lammerding, Jan; Vickers, Timothy A; Meta, Margarita; Coté, Nathan; Gavino, Bryant; Qiao, Xin; Chang, Sandy Y; Young, Stephanie R; Yang, Shao H; Stewart, Colin L; Lee, Richard T; Bennett, C Frank; Bergo, Martin O; Young, Stephen G

    2006-03-01

    Lamin A and lamin C, both products of Lmna, are key components of the nuclear lamina. In the mouse, a deficiency in both lamin A and lamin C leads to slow growth, muscle weakness, and death by 6 weeks of age. Fibroblasts deficient in lamins A and C contain misshapen and structurally weakened nuclei, and emerin is mislocalized away from the nuclear envelope. The physiologic rationale for the existence of the 2 different Lmna products lamin A and lamin C is unclear, although several reports have suggested that lamin A may have particularly important functions, for example in the targeting of emerin and lamin C to the nuclear envelope. Here we report the development of lamin C-only mice (Lmna(LCO/LCO)), which produce lamin C but no lamin A or prelamin A (the precursor to lamin A). Lmna(LCO/LCO) mice were entirely healthy, and Lmna(LCO/LCO) cells displayed normal emerin targeting and exhibited only very minimal alterations in nuclear shape and nuclear deformability. Thus, at least in the mouse, prelamin A and lamin A appear to be dispensable. Nevertheless, an accumulation of farnesyl-prelamin A (as occurs with a deficiency in the prelamin A processing enzyme Zmpste24) caused dramatically misshapen nuclei and progeria-like disease phenotypes. The apparent dispensability of prelamin A suggested that lamin A-related progeroid syndromes might be treated with impunity by reducing prelamin A synthesis. Remarkably, the presence of a single Lmna(LCO) allele eliminated the nuclear shape abnormalities and progeria-like disease phenotypes in Zmpste24-/- mice. Moreover, treating Zmpste24-/- cells with a prelamin A-specific antisense oligonucleotide reduced prelamin A levels and significantly reduced the frequency of misshapen nuclei. These studies suggest a new therapeutic strategy for treating progeria and other lamin A diseases. PMID:16511604

  11. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  12. Strengthening Concurrent Enrollment through NACEP Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Kent; McLemore, Yvette; Lowe, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how implementing the National Alliance of Concurrent Enrollment Partnerships' 17 accreditation standards strengthens a concurrent enrollment program, enhances secondary-postsecondary relations, and benefits students, their families, and secondary and postsecondary institutions.

  13. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... supply chain; risk assessment, analysis, and management; and emergency response. WHO helps to strengthen... in the world within increasingly complex supply chains. As national and global health programs work...; laboratory capacity; inspection and surveillance of products throughout the supply chain;...

  14. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losert; Geminard; Nasuno; Gollub

    2000-04-01

    Several mechanisms cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from the maximum frictional force F(max) experienced by a shearing plate in contact with wet or dry granular material after the layer has been at rest for a waiting time tau. The layer strength increases roughly logarithmically with tau only if a shear stress is applied during the waiting time. The mechanisms of strengthening are investigated by sensitive displacement measurements, and by imaging of particle motion in the shear zone. Granular matter can strengthen due to a slow shift in the particle arrangement under shear stress. Humidity also leads to strengthening, but is found not to be its sole cause. In addition to these time dependent effects, the static friction coefficient can also be increased by compaction of the granular material under some circumstances, and by a cycling of the applied shear stress. PMID:11088198

  15. Experimental behavior of FRP strengthened masonry arches

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Basílio, Ismael; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental behavior of solid clay brick masonry arches strengthened with glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Twelve half-scaled segmental masonry arches subjected to a load applied at the quarter span were tested under displacement control up to failure. The arches were built using handmade low strength bricks and a commercial lime-based mortar, trying to mimic ancient structures. Besides reference unreinforced arches, five different strengthening arrangemen...

  16. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses.Methods: A review and analysis of data on strengthening health se...

  17. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Losert, W.; Geminard, J. -C.; Nasuno, S.; Gollub, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Several mechanisms cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from the maximum frictional force F_max experienced by a shearing plate in contact with wet or dry granular material after the layer has been at rest for a waiting time \\tau. The layer strength increases roughly logarithmically with \\tau -only- if a shear stress is applied during the waiting time. The mechanisms of strengthening are investigated by sensitive displacement meas...

  18. The majority of lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells from scid mice with colitis undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Petersen, T R; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    . Immunol. 28:3655 (1998)). Here we investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism in these lamina propria infiltrating CD4(+) T-cells. We observe that freshly isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells can kill Fas transfected P815 mastocytoma cells in a TCR/CD3 redirected chromium-release assay, but do not......-FasL antiserum for 12 h blocked the apoptotic process in lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells by more than 65% compared to mice treated with control antiserum. Together, these results point towards the Fas-FasL and not the TNF-alpha-TNF-alpha receptor system as the primary apoptosis-inducing mechanism of lamina propria...

  19. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  20. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  1. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A.; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-deok

    2016-01-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice. PMID:26826218

  2. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  3. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  4. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  5. Abnormality of the spinal column in pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipoma with special reference to CT findings of the lamina defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral spinal lipomas are usually associated with occult spinal dysraphism at the lumbosacral spine. During childfood, posterior arch defects in the lumbosacral spine are considered normal computed tomography (CT) findings because of the presence of interlaminar synchondrosis. In this study, we investigated the CT findings of the lumbosacral spine in the pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipomas. We aimed to characterize the radiological features of the abnormal spinal column in case of spinal lipomas. Twenty-one patients (age, 1 month to 3 years) were enrolled in this study: 11 patients had conus lipoma; 10 patients, filum lipoma. All patients showed lamina defects of the lumbosacral spine on 3D-CT. The number of the defective laminae was significantly larger in the patients with conus lipomas than in those with filum lipomas. Although the appearance of lamina defects in the patients with filum lipoma was similar to the reported findings of defective laminae in normal children, these patients were characterized by mild scoliosis and asymmetry of the posterior arches localized in the lower sacrum and coccyx. On the other hand, the patients with conus lipoma were characterized by wider lamina defects that extended rostrally, 'open-door like' deformity of lamina, vertebral dysgenesis, thoracolumber scoliosis and heterotopic ossification. Such CT characterization of the abnormality of the lumbosacral spine in lipoma patients will be useful to differentiate the pathological spina bifida from the normal open posterior arches in childhood. (author)

  6. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  7. What do the basal ganglia do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  8. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  9. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  10. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  11. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  12. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  13. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FRP STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishen WU(吴智深); Hedong Niu

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly gives a State-of-the-Art report of recent development in FRP strengthening techniques for structural rehabilitation by starting with a brief review on some achievements in clarifying bonding/debonding mechanisms and developing evaluation/design methodology for predicting debonding failure caused by intermedioate flexural cracks of con crete.Due to some drawbacks of current FRP bonding technique,two effective FRP strengthening methods,i.e.FRP prestressing and hybrid strengthening techniques,are investigated in detail to make full advantage of FRP composite materials.Combining with the newly develiped PBO fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,where several anchorage treatments are also established to prevent anchorage bond failure due to high shear stress concentration after release of prestressed FRP ends.In addition,the fatigue performance of RC beams externally strenghened with prestressed PBO fiber sheets is experimentally studied.For the developments of hybrid composites and their strengthening methods,both experimental and analytical studies are performed to clarify the hybrid strengthening behavior in structures.

  15. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B A; Formstone, Caroline J

    2016-05-01

    Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial cell rearrangements that drive epidermal spreading also require ROCK activity but are driven by cell protrusions and not myosin II contractility. Epidermal progenitor monolayer formation and epidermal spreading are delayed in Crash mice, which possess a dominant mutation in Celsr1, an orthologue of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) Drosophila protein Flamingo (also known as Stan). We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. PMID:26989131

  16. Efficacy evaluation for the treatment of unstable lumbar disc herniation by traditional and modified lamina osteotomy replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-hai; WANG Xiao-qing; ZHANG Yue-lin; GUO Xiong; LIU Zong-zhi; LUO Zhen-qun; MA Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional lamina osteotomy replantation method is prone to nerve root injury and low back pain recurrence.Our team has proposed a modified approach that improves the osteotomy site and its fixation procedure.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of traditional and modified lamina replantation methods in treating unstable lumbar disc herniation.Methods From March 2008 to August 2011,124 patients with unstable lumbar disc herniation were enrolled and randomly divided into the following two groups according to random digital table:group A (traditional group) consisting of 61 patients who underwent traditional laminectomy replantation,and group B (modified group) consisting of 63 patients who underwent modified lamina replantation.Both surgeries were performed by the same surgeons.The two groups had no significant difference in gender,age,symptoms,time of onset and the prominent segment.Visual analogue scale (VAS),Oswertry disability index (ODI),and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores,operative time,blood loss,complication rate,radiographic healing rates,and low back pain recurrence rates were compared between the two groups.Results There were 121 patients followed up for more than one year,and the follow-up rate was 97.6%.Nerve injury occurred in two patients (3.3%) in the modified group and 12 patients (20.0%) in the traditional group.Dural injury occurred in one patient (1.6%) in the modified group and seven patients (11.7%) in the traditional group.Pseudarthrosis occurred in two patients in the modified group and in 18 patients in the traditional group with 1-year fusion rates of 96.7% and 70.0%,respectively.Recurrence of lower back pain after one year was noted in three patients (4.9%) in the modified group,and in 15 (25.0%) in the traditional group.Leg pain recurrence was noted in one patient (1.6%) in the modified group and in three cases (5.0%) in the traditional group.The one-year healing

  17. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  18. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO, there is no...... reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...

  19. Potential mechanisms for imperfect synchronization in parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongseok Park

    Full Text Available Neural activity in the brain of parkinsonian patients is characterized by the intermittently synchronized oscillatory dynamics. This imperfect synchronization, observed in the beta frequency band, is believed to be related to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of the disorder. Our study explores potential mechanisms behind this intermittent synchrony. We study the response of a bursting pallidal neuron to different patterns of synaptic input from subthalamic nucleus (STN neuron. We show how external globus pallidus (GPe neuron is sensitive to the phase of the input from the STN cell and can exhibit intermittent phase-locking with the input in the beta band. The temporal properties of this intermittent phase-locking show similarities to the intermittent synchronization observed in experiments. We also study the synchronization of GPe cells to synaptic input from the STN cell with dependence on the dopamine-modulated parameters. Earlier studies showed how the strengthening of dopamine-modulated coupling may lead to transitions from non-synchronized to partially synchronized dynamics, typical in Parkinson's disease. However, dopamine also affects the cellular properties of neurons. We show how the changes in firing patterns of STN neuron due to the lack of dopamine may lead to transition from a lower to a higher coherent state, roughly matching the synchrony levels observed in basal ganglia in normal and parkinsonian states. The intermittent nature of the neural beta band synchrony in Parkinson's disease is achieved in the model due to the interplay of the timing of STN input to pallidum and pallidal neuronal dynamics, resulting in sensitivity of pallidal output to the phase of the arriving STN input. Thus the mechanism considered here (the change in firing pattern of subthalamic neurons through the dopamine-induced change of membrane properties may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of the intermittent synchronization

  20. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  1. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  2. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior

  3. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  4. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  5. Strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Afendras, G.; Papadatos, N.

    2014-01-01

    Let $X$ be an absolutely continuous random variable from the integrated Pearson family and assume that $X$ has finite moments of any order. Using some properties of the associated orthonormal polynomial system, we provide a class of strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds.

  6. The "Drug Court Strengthening Families" Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, TK; Leukefeld, Carl; Minton, Lisa; Abrahmson, Joanie; Hughes, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Children of Drug Court clients are at high-risk for substance abuse and other risk factors. This paper summarizes the results of a program needs assessment, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation from the Kentucky Drug Court Strengthening Families Pilot Program. Results indicated overall positive changes for families in the program.…

  7. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  8. Regulation of humoral and cellular gut immunity by lamina propria dendritic cells expressing Toll-like receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Jang, Myoung Ho; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jung, Yun-Jae; Nishiyama, Mika; Sato, Shintaro; Tsujimura, Tohru; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Ishii, Ken J; Akira, Shizuo

    2008-07-01

    The intestinal cell types responsible for defense against pathogenic organisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we identify a subset of CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) that expressed Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the small intestine. When stimulated by the TLR5 ligand flagellin, TLR5(+) LPDCs induced the differentiation of naive B cells into immunoglobulin A-producing plasma cells by a mechanism independent of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In addition, by a mechanism dependent on TLR5 stimulation, these LPDCs promoted the differentiation of antigen-specific interleukin 17-producing T helper cells and type 1 T helper cells. Unlike spleen DCs, the LPDCs specifically produced retinoic acid, which, in a dose-dependent way, supported the generation and retention of immunoglobulin A-producing cells in the lamina propria and positively regulated the differentiation interleukin 17-producing T helper cells. Our findings demonstrate unique properties of LPDCs and the importance of TLR5 for adaptive immunity in the intestine. PMID:18516037

  9. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  10. Climate Versus Local Cave Environment Controls on Trace Element and Stable Isotopic Cycles in Annual Laminae in Speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.; Grassineau, N. V.; Muller, W.; Garcia-Anton, E.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of laminae are commonly observed in stalagmites: visible, resulting from alternating crystal morphology, fluid inclusion abundance or calcite-aragonite couplets; fluorescent, related to captured organic matter and cryptic, defined by cyclical abundances of trace elements or stable isotopes. Many processes generate laminae but in regions where there are strong primary cycles in climate, annual lamination may form as a direct result of seasonal change in precipitation, temperature and vegetation or the indirect effects of local cave processes such as ventilation. Visible, fluorescent and cryptic lamination types are often all present and closely correlated in the same stalagmite, but the correspondence of annual cycles in fabric, trace element and stable isotopes, can be dissimilar in different regions of the world, or even from different areas in the same cave system. This especially applies to the interrelationships among trace elements and stable isotopes where controls on their behavior seem specific to the local environment, making generalised interpretations problematic. This study presents seasonally resolved stable isotope (20-100 μm resolution) and trace element (10 μm resolution by LA-ICPMS) data for visible laminae for which there is compelling evidence for annularity. Five cave sites with diverse regional climates and local microenvironments are compared: Voli Voli, Fiji (VV) and Krem Umsynrang, India (KU) are caves from tropical or subtropical environments with strong seasonal rainfall in summer months and a relatively small annual temperature range; New St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar (NSM) is a strongly seasonal Mediterranean site with winter rainfall and a large annual temperature range; Marble Arch, N. Ireland (MA) and High Pasture, Skye (HP) are British cave sites from temperate maritime climates where seasonality in temperature and rainfall is weaker. Laminae at the tropical sites with highest rainfall, VV and KU, show weakest seasonality

  11. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  12. The Sun's immutable basal quiet atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, W.; Wallace, L.

    2003-02-01

    We employ limb darkening, spectral energy distribution (color), and center-disk spectrum line strength to investigate photospheric temporal variability. Current limb-darkening curves agree to 1% with past observations taken at different epochs extending back to 1975. Concerning color, from the data of Labs and Neckel (Cox, 1999) we deduce that the solar limb is 1000 Å more red than disk center. But when integrated over the entire disk to represent the Sun-as-a-star, the color shift is only 30 Å. Color is therefore not a very sensitive indicator of full-disk photospheric change. We examine the center-disk time series for C 5380 Å and Fe 5379 Å equivalent width and the Ca K index. The ratio C 5380/Fe 5379 in equivalent width is 0.4221+0.00011 (+/-0.00003) y-1, indicating secular change but with no cycle modulation. Converted to temperature this variance amounts to +/-0.028 K. This is in contrast to the full-disk cycle modulation of these lines reported by Gray and Livingston (1997b). Ca K index also exhibits no cycle variation at disk center. Taking into account these findings, plus the small fraction of the photosphere occupied by magnetic elements as revealed in high-resolution G-band pictures, we suggest that cycle magnetic fields thread through the basal atmosphere without physical effect; that the basal quiet atmosphere is observationally immutable to the magnetic cycle within the limits given above.

  13. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  14. Non-peptidergic small diameter primary afferents expressing VGluT2 project to lamina I of mouse spinal dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Jennifer N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmyelinated primary afferent nociceptors are commonly classified into two main functional types: those expressing neuropeptides, and non-peptidergic fibers that bind the lectin IB4. However, many small diameter primary afferent neurons neither contain any known neuropeptides nor bind IB4. Most express high levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2 and are assumed to be glutamatergic nociceptors but their terminations within the spinal cord are unknown. We used in vitro anterograde axonal tracing with Neurobiotin to identify the central projections of these putative glutamatergic nociceptors. We also quantitatively characterised the spatial arrangement of these terminals with respect to those that expressed the neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. Results Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-immunoreactive (IR terminals were restricted to lamina I, with a medial-to-lateral distribution similar to CGRP-IR terminals. Most VGluT2-IR terminals in lateral lamina I were not labeled by Neurobiotin implying that they arose mainly from central neurons. 38 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR terminals contained CGRP-IR. Conversely, only 17 ± 4% of Neurobiotin-labeled CGRP-IR terminals expressed detectable VGluT2-IR. Neurobiotin-labeled VGluT2-IR or CGRP-IR terminals often aggregated into small clusters or microdomains partially surrounding intrinsic lamina I neurons. Conclusions The central terminals of primary afferents which express high levels of VGluT2-IR but not CGRP-IR terminate mainly in lamina I. The spatial arrangement of VGluT2-IR and CGRP-IR terminals suggest that lamina I neurons receive convergent inputs from presumptive nociceptors that are primarily glutamatergic or peptidergic. This reveals a previously unrecognized level of organization in lamina I consistent with the presence of multiple nociceptive processing pathways.

  15. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  16. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  17. How to achieve a predictable basal insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzhals, P

    2005-09-01

    The development of insulin analogues over the last two decades have aimed at optimising the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneously injected insulin for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. Rapid acting analogues were successfully engineered and marketed in the late 1990's. In engineering long-acting analogues it has been a particular challenge to obtain action profiles that would be predictable from day to day in the same person. The most recent approach has been to acylate the insulin molecule with a fatty acid which provides the insulin molecule with a specific affinity for albumin. The first clinically available agent of this type is insulin detemir. Pharmacological studies have shown that reversible albumin binding will protract absorption following subcutaneous injection but still allow the insulin molecule to be recognised by the insulin receptor following dissociation from the carrier protein. Moreover, the molecular features of insulin detemir are attractive in that the molecule can be formulated as a neutral aqueous solution and does not precipitate after injection. Together with an important buffering mechanism effected by plasma albumin binding, this explains a highly significant reduction of within-subject variability of pharmacodynamic response observed in repeat isoglycaemic clamp studies where insulin detemir was compared to other basal insulin products. No safety considerations have been identified in using albumin as an insulin carrier to protract and buffer insulin action. In assessing the clinical attractiveness of insulin analogues, it is furthermore critically important to consider how the molecular modifications impact efficacy and safety. A number of pharmacological studies have shown that insulin detemir overall retains the molecular pharmacological properties of native human insulin, including a physiological balance between metabolic and mitogenic potencies. Taken together, insulin detemir provides an attractive novel approach for

  18. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  19. Grain boundary strengthening in austenitic nitrogen steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen and carbon on the strengthening of the austenitic steel Cr18Ni16Mn10 by grain boundaries is studied. It is established in accordance with previous results that contrary to carbon nitrogen increases the coefficient k in the Hall-Petch equation markedly. Because of a pronounced planar slip induced by nitrogen and the absence of any noticeable segregation of nitrogen atoms at the grain boundaries, nitrogen austenite presents an excellent object for testing different existing models of grain boundary strengthening (pile-up, grain boundary dislocation sources, work hardening theories). Based on the analysis of available data and measurements of interaction between nitrogen (carbon) atoms and dislocations it is shown that the nitrogen effect can be attributed to a strong blocking of dislocation sources in grains adjacent to those where the slip started. (orig.)

  20. Understanding backward design to strengthen curricular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nurse educators have responded to the call for transformation in education. Challenges remain in planning curricular implementation to facilitate understanding of essential content for student success on licensure examinations and in professional practice. The conceptual framework Backward Design (BD) can support and guide curriculum decisions. Using BD principles in conjunction with educational models can strengthen and improve curricula. This article defines and describes the BD process, and identifies reported benefits for nursing education. PMID:24743175

  1. Strengthening of structure using advanced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Recuero, A.; Miravete, A.

    1997-01-01

    [EN] Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Proffesionals involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, ...

  2. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    OpenAIRE

    a Fatehi; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Elwazri, A. M.; Yue, S

    2010-01-01

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly...

  3. Strengthening behavior of carbon/metal nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, S. E.; Choi, H. J.; Hwang, J. Y.; Bae, D. H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites reinforced with nano-scale reinforcements exhibit excellent mechanical properties with low volume fraction of the reinforcement. For instance, only an addition of 0.7 vol.% few-layer graphene (FLG) into the pure titanium shows strength of ~1.5 GPa, obviously much superior to that of the monolithic titanium. The strengthening efficiency of composites is determined by several factors such as reinforcement geometrical/spatial characteristics and interfacial features between the ma...

  4. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work is to study the plasticity mechanisms of two oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys, DT and DY. Microstructural characterisation has been performed on DT and DY alloys by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials, strengthened by an oxide dispersion, contain an intermetallic χ phase precipitated on grain boundaries. The χ phase, stable up to 900 deg, can be dissolved into the matrix by heat treatment beyond 1 000 deg. Between 20 and 700 deg, according to tensile tests, the DY alloy which is strengthened by a fine dispersion of yttria particles is more resistant and less ductile than DT alloy, strengthened by titanium oxides. Tensile tests performed at room temperature, in the chamber of a SEM, have shown that micro-cracking of the χ phase coincides with the first stage of the macroscopic yielding. The cavities initiated by the χ phase micro-cracking induce a ductile fracture of the matrix. A dynamic strain ageing mechanism has been observed around 400 deg, which is attributed to the Mo contribution. Between 20 and 700 deg, comparison of tensile properties of alloys with or without χ phase has shown that the intermetallic phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, but has no influence on the mechanical strength. Creep tests have been performed between 500 and 700 deg. Thermally activated plasticity mechanisms are observed in this temperature range. The χ phase, which is always micro-cracked after tensile testing, is not damaged after creep testing below a critical stress. This behaviour is explained by the influence of strain rate through the competition between strain hardening and relaxation of the matrix. (author)

  5. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  6. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  7. Information analysis in the strengthened safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The changing political framework of the early 1990s revealed the limitations of traditional Safeguards and led the Member States to strengthen Safeguards. This was done under a two- pronged approach: while Programme 93+2 developed the model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540), which would require an expanded declaration, complementary access, and broader environmental sampling, the Safeguards measures in force under the existing comprehensive Safeguards Agreements were strengthened through voluntary reporting, environmental sampling, and enhanced information analysis. The purpose of both of these initiatives was to broaden the mission of the IAEA to include the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The effect was to increase dramatically the amount of information available to the Agency and the challenge was to develop a method and infrastructure to evaluate all this information. Since 1992 the Agency has developed a state evaluation process for collecting, organizing, and analyzing new types of information (open source information, the results of environmental sampling, commercial satellite imagery) and integrating this information with the familiar state declared and verification information traditionally collected and evaluated by the Agency. This address will describe the components and challenges of information analysis under strengthened Safeguards, the heart of the state evaluation process. (author)

  8. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  10. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  11. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...

  12. Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time. The previous view that the basal ganglia are centers in which massive convergence of cortical information occurred has now been replaced by a view in which these structures process information in a highly specific manner, participating in anatomical and functional modules that also involve cortex and thalamus. In addition, much has been learned about the intrinsic connections of the basal ga...

  13. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  14. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  15. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P;

    1996-01-01

    Polyclonal, mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD4+ T cells containing a large fraction of blasts activated in situ accumulate in the gut lamina propria of severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developing colitis after CD4+ T cell transplantation. CD4+ T cells isolated from different repopulated...... lymphoid tissues of transplanted SCID mice proliferate in vitro in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 + IL-7. CD3 ligation enhances this cytokine-supported proliferation in CD4+ T cells from the spleen and the mesenteric lymph node of transplanted SCID mice; CD3 ligation suppresses the cytokine...... fraction of colitis-inducing CD4+ T cells undergo activation-induced cell death in situ and can damage other cells through Fas-dependent cytotoxicity....

  16. Information analysis in the strengthened safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information Analysis is the heart of Strengthened Safeguards. The strengthened safeguards system is to detect the diversion of declared nuclear material and the presence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in a State with Comprehensive Safeguards agreements in force. In other words, under Strengthened Safeguards the Department of Safeguards must verify both the correctness and the completeness of State declarations concerning their nuclear inventories, facilities and activities. The changing political framework of the early 1990's, including such watershed events as the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the information unearthed about the Iraqi weapon program, the declaration by South Africa of its past program, the resistance of the DPRK to verifying the completeness of its declarations, and the indefinite extension of the NPT, caused the IAEA Member States to demand stronger Safeguards and to accept the correspondingly more intrusive inspections and more complete declarations requirements. Two tracks were followed to strengthen safeguards under the 93 +2 Programme: additional measures were proposed under the existing authority of comprehensive safeguards agreements and still other measures were proposed which required the additional authority captured in a model Additional protocol (INFCIRC/540). Both types of additional measures required the Department to collect and process more information. Both types required new methods for integrating and evaluating this information. The new measures adopted under existing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements included: voluntary reporting by States of the export of specified nuclear-related equipment and non-nuclear materials; collection and processing of environmental samples collected during inspections; remote monitoring of facilities and the use of unannounced inspections; acquisition of information from other Agency Departments; collection of publicly available, nuclear-related textual information from

  17. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  19. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  20. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  1. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  2. Clamp ultrastructure of the basal monogenean Chimaericola leptogaster (Leuckart, 1830) (Polyopisthocotylea: Chimaericolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Hemmingsen, Willy; Gibson, David I

    2014-11-01

    The ultrastructure of the haptoral clamps of the chimaericolid monogenean Chimaericola leptogaster, a basal polyopisthocotylean from the gills of a holocephalan fish, is described. These clamps are characterized by the presence of two muscle blocks interrupted mid-anteriorly and mid-posteriorly and different kinds of hard structures: a single median and paired lateral sclerites embedded in the clamp wall; six spine-like structures directed towards the clamp lumen; and electron dense surface structures along the internal surface of the anterior clamp lips and along the luminal surface of the tegument of the clamp lumen. The lateral sclerites are situated deep within muscular tissue and are closely bounded by radial myofibrils, possessing a uniform electron dense matrix within which are hollow areas of different sizes. The median sclerite occupies an area between the clamp wall myofibrils and the luminal epithelium, is surrounded by a basement lamina and is composed of a heterogeneous matrix comprising two different morphological layers related to variations in the type and concentration of fibrils. Four of the spine-like structures are extensions of the margins of the two spindle-like muscle blocks in the clamps, i.e. the two anterior and two posterior structures, and the two others are situated at the lateral constrictions of the left and right muscle blocks. The electron dense surface structures are derivations of the clamp tegument or, to be more precise, its outer, densely fibrous region. These results are discussed in relation to the evidence that the haptoral clamps of C. leptogaster are apparently ancient origin. PMID:25112214

  3. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  4. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  5. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. - Bait-lamina assay for in situ evaluation of soil functions under site-specific risk assessments.

  6. Dynamische Darstellung und Quantifizierung des Bewegungsumfanges der Lamina terminalis anhand EKG- getriggerter Cine True FISP- Sequenzen bei Patienten mit Liquorzirkulationsstörungen

    OpenAIRE

    Kapeller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Der Bewegungsumfang der Lamina terminalis wurde bereits 2009 in einer Vorstudie bei gesunden Probanden untersucht und Normwerte aufgestellt. Nun sollten entsprechende Messungen bei Patienten mit unterschiedlichen Liquorzirkulationsstörungen erfolgen. Die Krankheitsbilder umfassten Patienten mit Syringomylie, Chiari-Malformation, Normaldruckhydrocephalus (NPH), Hydrocephalus occlus, Arachnoidalzysten und postoperativ nach Ventrikulostomie Hierfür wurden n= 94 Patienten mit mit einer EKG-get...

  7. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Minzer, Karen; Swedo, Susan; Grus, Franz H

    2004-04-01

    An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and compared with those in 15 controls. ELISA and Western immunoblotting (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet (P2), and synaptosomal preparations from adult postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density values did not differ between PANDAS patients and controls across all preparations. Immunoblotting identified multiple bands in all subjects with no differences in the number of bands or their total density. Discriminant analysis, used to assess mean binding patterns, showed that PANDAS patients differed from controls only for the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda = 0.0236, P tic subjects providing the greatest discrimination. Among the epitopes contributing to differences between PANDAS and control in the caudate S1 fraction, mean binding to the epitope at 183 kDa was the most different between groups. In conclusion, ELISA measurements do not differentiate between PANDAS and controls, suggesting a lack of major antibody changes in this disorder. Further immunoblot analyses using a caudate supernatant fraction are required to completely exclude the possibility of minor antibody repertoire differences in PANDAS subjects, especially in those who primarily have tics. PMID:15077238

  8. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  9. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  10. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell c...

  11. Strengthening Global Approaches to Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial progress in improving nuclear security in recent years, there is more to be done. The threats of nuclear theft and terrorism remain very real. This paper recommends learning from the much stronger national and international efforts in nuclear safety, and in particular taking steps to build international understanding of the threat; establish effective performance objectives; assure performance; train and certify needed personnel; build security culture and exchange best practices; reduce the number of sites that need to be protected; and strengthen the international framework and continue the dialogue once leaders are no longer meeting regularly at the summit level. (author)

  12. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  13. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  15. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  16. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  17. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  18. The strengthening effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.R.; Ison, K.T.; Gishen, P

    2000-06-01

    AIM: To examine whether single-needle vertebroplasty is effective in strengthening vertebrae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four adjacent intact lumbar vertebrae were removed from each of nine adult post-mortem subjects. One or two vertebra of each set was injected with low viscosity acrylic bone cement using a single-track posterolateral approach. Vertebral strength was measured during constant rate axial compression. RESULTS: Single-needle injection delivered different quantities of cement (1-8 ml) in an asymmetric distribution. Injected vertebrae were stronger than controls in 10 out of 12 cases (P < 0.01), suggesting that cement injection increases the load needed to cause initial vertebral fracture. Compression was continued past the point of initial failure, to simulate progressive vertebral collapse. Injected specimens were more resistant to deformation than control specimens (P < 0.05), most of which initially deformed with little increase in load. CONCLUSION: Single-track injection of bone cement appeared to strengthen vertebrae against both initial failure and subsequent collapse. The magnitude of strength increase from vertebroplasty was variable, and did not correlate with the volume of cement injected. Further investigation is needed to optimize the technique. Gishen, P. (2000)

  19. Health metrics and evaluation: strengthening the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Frenk, Julio

    2008-04-01

    With the growing importance of health in the global agenda comes the responsibility to develop a scientific foundation of metrics and evaluation. The scope of this emerging field can be viewed in terms of key topics, including health outcomes, other social outcomes related to health systems, health services, resource inputs, evaluations of programmes and systems, and analyses to support policy choice. It can also be defined in terms of key activities that are needed to strengthen the scientific basis of the field: development of new methods, instruments, software, and hardware; setting global norms and standards for data collection; increasing the availability of high-quality primary data; systematic analysis and synthesis of existing datasets; strengthening national capacity to obtain, analyse, and use data; and reporting and disseminating results. We explore in depth topics with major scientific challenges and institutional and cultural barriers that are slowing the development of the field. Cutting across the various topical areas and disciplinary approaches to these problems are some common scientific issues, including limited comparability of measurement, uncorrected known biases in data, no standard approach to missing data, unrealistic uncertainty estimates, and the use of disease models that have not been properly validated. Only through concerted action will it be possible to assure the production, reproduction, and use of knowledge that is crucial to the advancement of global health. PMID:18395581

  20. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  1. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper. PMID:25857990

  2. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Giannangeli, Don (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Charlton, William S. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  3. Strengthening under Load: Experimental and Numerical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vild, M.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents experimental and numerical research of strengthening of columns under load using welded plates. Three sets of three columns each were tested. All columns were 3 m long. The load from loading cylinders was transmitted through knife-edge bearings, which ensured pinned boundary condition perpendicular to the weaker axis. Set (A) comprised columns with welded T shaped cross-section. Set (B) comprised columns with welded monosymmetric I shaped cross-section. Both sets (A) and (B) had been loaded monotonically until collapse occurred. Set (C) contained columns with T shaped cross-section with the same dimensions as the columns in set (A). The columns from set (C) were first loaded to 70 kN. The force was being held constant and the second flange was being welded to the web under load. After the welding process was finished and the specimen cooled, the column was loaded to failure. The average forces at collapse of column sets (A), (B) and (C) were 143 kN, 308 kN and 323 kN, respectively. It was unexpected that the columns strengthened under load (C) had higher average resistance than the columns welded without preload (B). It could be caused by the residual stress and distortion caused by welding. The study includes the results of finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  4. Substructural strengthening in molybdenum and Mo-33Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengthening from defect substructures has been studied in Mo-33Re deformed in tension and by cold rolling, and in shock-loaded molybdenum and Mo-33Re. In cold-rolled and tensile-deformed Mo-33Re, strengthening arises from dislocation-dislocation interactions for smaller strains (less than 0.3), while at larger strains by rolling there is additional strengthening from dislocation cell formation and texture development. In shock-loaded molybdenum, dislocation-dislocation interactions are the primary source of strengthening, while in shock-loaded Mo-33Re dislocations and twin boundaries both contribute to strengthening. The coefficients for dislocation strengthening in both shock-loaded molybdenum and shock-loaded Mo-33Re are consistent with the values for the cold-rolled Mo-33Re and with published values for a wide range of other materials, indicating that the strengthening mechanism is similar for conventional and shock deformation. (Auth.)

  5. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  6. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia from the Ischigualasto Formation (Triassic, Carnian and the early evolution of Sauropodomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo N Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The earliest dinosaurs are from the early Late Triassic (Carnian of South America. By the Carnian the main clades Saurischia and Ornithischia were already established, and the presence of the most primitive known sauropodomorph Saturnalia suggests also that Saurischia had already diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha. Knowledge of Carnian sauropodomorphs has been restricted to this single species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new small sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Ischigualsto Formation (Carnian in northwest Argentina, Panphagia protos gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of a partial skeleton. The genus and species are characterized by an anteroposteriorly elongated fossa on the base of the anteroventral process of the nasal; wide lateral flange on the quadrate with a large foramen; deep groove on the lateral surface of the lower jaw surrounded by prominent dorsal and ventral ridges; bifurcated posteroventral process of the dentary; long retroarticular process transversally wider than the articular area for the quadrate; oval scars on the lateral surface of the posterior border of the centra of cervical vertebrae; distinct prominences on the neural arc of the anterior cervical vertebra; distal end of the scapular blade nearly three times wider than the neck; scapular blade with an expanded posterodistal corner; and medial lamina of brevis fossa twice as wide as the iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We regard Panphagia as the most basal sauropodomorph, which shares the following apomorphies with Saturnalia and more derived sauropodomorphs: basally constricted crowns; lanceolate crowns; teeth of the anterior quarter of the dentary higher than the others; and short posterolateral flange of distal tibia. The presence of Panphagia at the base of the early Carnian Ischigualasto Formation suggests an earlier origin of Sauropodomorpha during the Middle Triassic.

  7. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  8. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Connie Qun; Liu, Ying; Chan, Derek Ho Leung; Ye, Feifei; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. We report 2 studies that test this hypothesis in…

  9. A topographic study of minicolumnar core width by lamina comparison between autistic subjects and controls: possible minicolumnar disruption due to an anatomical element in-common to multiple laminae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Manuel F; El-Baz, Ayman; Vanbogaert, Eric; Narahari, Praveen; Switala, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Radial cell minicolumns are basic cytoarchitectonic motifs of the mammalian neocortex. Recent studies reveal that autism is associated with a "minicolumnopathy" defined by decreased columnar width and both a diminished and disrupted peripheral neuropil compartment. This study further characterizes this cortical deficit by comparing minicolumnar widths across layers. Brains from seven autistic patients and an equal number of age-matched controls were celloidin embedded, serially sectioned at 200 microm and Nissl stained with gallocyanin. Photomicrograph mosaics of the cortex were analyzed with computerized imaging methods to determine minicolumnar width at nine separate neocortical areas: Brodmann Area's (BA) 3b, 4, 9, 10, 11, 17, 24, 43 and 44. Each area was assessed at supragranular, granular and infragranular levels. Autistic subjects had smaller minicolumns whose dimensions varied according to neocortical area. The greatest difference between autistic and control groups was observed in area 44. The interaction of diagnosis x cortical area x lamina (F(16,316) = 1.33; P = 0.175) was not significant. Diminished minicolumnar width across deep and superficial neocortical layers most probably reflects involvement of shared constituents among the different layers. In this article we discuss the possible role of double bouquet and pyramidal cells in the translaminar minicolumnar width narrowing observed in autistic subjects. PMID:19725830

  10. Study on WC dispersion-strengthened copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mengjun; ZHANG Liyong; LIU Xinyu

    2004-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) with WC as dispersoid was prepared by means of mechanical alloying (MA) following the traditional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. Influence of WC content on the properties of material was discussed in detail, and result shows that when the volume fraction of WC is 1.6%, the material achieves the best overall property, and a little more particle addition led to a less superior property owing to occurrence of particle agglomeration The as-sintered composite was designed to undergo a deformation of 75%. It is proved that appropriate deformation is helpful to attain a higher density and consequently better properties. Deformed material was then exposed to elevated temperature to test its effect on material. Annealing for 1 h at 1173K caused material to recover quite completely, but no obvious recrystallization was observed. It's supposed the particles handicaps motion of dislocations and material demonstrates good retention of strength with substantial improvement in elongation.

  11. TEM study for strengthening mechanisms in elgiloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgiloy is Co based alloy (40wt%Co, 20wt%Cr, 15wt%Ni, 14wt%Fe and 7wt%Mo). It was strengthened by cold work and is capable of additional hardening by aging. The effects of solution treatment, cold working and age-hardening on the microstructure of elgiloy were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). As rolled strips were solution treated at 1065 deg. C/1hr. These solution treated strips were then reduced 50% by cold rolling. After cold-deformation both epsilon-hcp phase and fcc deformation twins are also considered to coexist at room temperature. The cold worked strips were then age hardened at (450-600) deg. C. The age hardened strips showed formation of additional epsilon-phase (via alpha/sub fcc/ EPSILON/sub hcp/ transformation). (author)

  12. 经额底纵裂-终板入路切除颅咽管瘤%The operation experience of removal of craniopharyngioma via fronto-basal interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明; 高觉民; 汤忠华; 樊炼; 傅传经; 李铭; 李建

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经额底纵裂-终板入路切除颅咽管瘤的手术方法和疗效.方法 回顾性分析2008年10月-2010年10月18例经额底纵裂-终板入路手术的颅咽管瘤患者的临床资料.评价该手术入路、显微操作技术的优缺点.结果 18例均顺利完成手术,肿瘤全切除16例(88.9%),次全切除2例;保留垂体柄17例(94.4%),未保留1例.视力改善13例.术后并发症主要为多尿及电解质紊乱.结论 经额底纵裂-终板入路是治疗颅咽管瘤安全有效的手术路径.

  13. Effects of muscle basal lamina transplantation on vascularization of hemisected spinal cord model in rats%肌基膜管植入对大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型的血管化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀英; 薛辉; 孙皎; 陈东

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察肌基膜管移植治疗大鼠脊髓损伤的血管生成情况,为在脊髓损伤中应用肌基膜管作为组织工程支架提供理论和实验依据。方法:利用冻融法将大鼠骨骼肌制备成肌基膜管,将其移植入大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型中,分别于术后3、5、7、14和28 d取材,利用碱性磷酸酶染色观察各个时间点支架中血管生成情况,比较不同时间点(3、5、7、14和28 d)血管生成数量。结果:肌基膜管在移植入大鼠脊髓损伤区后,血管由脊髓和肌基膜管交界处长入肌基膜管内部,最终在肌基膜管内部形成血管网。新生血管面积比5d组高于3d组(P<0. 05),7d组高于5d组(P<0.01),14 d组高于7d组(P<0.01),28 d组高于14d组(P<0. 05或P<0. 01)。结论:肌基膜管移植入大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型中具有良好的血管化作用,有望成为修复脊髓损伤理想的组织工程材料。

  14. 多囊卵巢综合征患者卵泡基底膜超微结构的研究%Ultrastructure of basal lamina of follicles in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯淑英; 邝健全; 曹水良; 唐福星; 郭祖文; 余妙真; 杨冬梓; 翁梅英; 李琳

    2005-01-01

    运用透射电镜观察多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)组及正常妇女组卵泡的形态,用体视学方法测量两组各级卵泡基底膜的厚度.结果显示:两组原始卵泡的基底膜厚度相似,但随着卵泡的发育卵泡基底膜逐渐增厚,PCOS组增厚更明显,对照组初级卵泡基底膜的平均厚度是0.293±0.204μm,PCOS组是0.463±0.287μm,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).对照组次级卵泡基底膜的平均厚度为0.542±0.298μm,PCOS组为1.234±0.345μm,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).两组原始卵泡的前颗粒细胞的超微结构相似,随着卵泡的发育,PCOS组的颗粒细胞内参与蛋白质合成的细胞器明显较对照组丰富;正常组窦前卵泡的颗粒细胞出现分化现象,PCOS组却未见分化现象.结果提示:PCOS患者卵泡基底膜屏障的增厚可能使卵泡刺激素FSH进入卵泡困难,颗粒细胞不能正常分化,"FSH-颗粒细胞轴"功能低下,导致不孕症.

  15. Effects of hyperthermia on microvascular basal lamina in the middle cerebral artery embolism model in rats%体温升高对大鼠大脑中动脉栓塞模型脑微血管的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟强; Chenxu Wang; Ashfaq Shuaib

    2009-01-01

    侧脑体积百分比增加至56.1%±8.4%(P<0.01).术后6h及24h,高温组中单位面积胶原蛋白Ⅳ与层粘连蛋白数量较对照组均下降(P<0.05).结论 脑梗死后体温升高可加重脑微血管破坏,增加脑梗死灶体积,从而加重神经功能损伤.

  16. 去细胞异体神经基膜管桥接神经缺损的实验研究%An experimental study of repairing nerve gap with acellular basal lamina tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴传昌; 王炜; 董佳生; 祁佐良; 钟斌; 曹谊林; 商庆新; 胡晓洁

    2001-01-01

    目的探索修复周围神经缺损的新的有效替代材料.方法将异体的预变性神经和正常神经经溶血卵磷脂裂解液处理后,得到一种没有细胞及细胞碎片的、空的神经基膜管,将其用来修复大鼠15mm坐骨神经缺损,通过一般观察、肌萎缩测量、电生理检测、连续切片组织学观察和计算机图像分析来评价神经再生.结果化学抽提的预变性神经和正常神经桥接物组均获得了密集的神经再生和良好的神经功能恢复,其中前者效果更为优越.结论这种材料极有可能成为自体神经的替代材料应用于临床较短的神经缺损的修复.

  17. Experimental study on repairing sciatic nerve defects by two kinds of acellular basal lamina grafts%大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管异体移植的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海; 周建生; 胡汝麒

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨化学萃取法(CEN)、冻融法(FTN)制备的异种鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管移植术后8、13、23天神经再生轴突距离、Schwann细胞迁入、再血管化及炎症反应异同.方法:将36只雌性Wistar鼠随机配对,分为CEN组与FTN组,每组18只,分别桥接移植两种方法制备的Sprague-Dawley鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管.观察术后8、13、23天移植物物理性状及组织形态学变化.结果:术后8、13、23天,神经轴突再生距离、近和远端Schwann细胞数、再血管化及炎症反应差异有显著性(P<0.05),CEN组优于FTN组.结论:化学萃取法制备的异种周围神经去细胞基膜管较冻融法能更快、更好地修复周围神经缺损,亦应有更大的临床实用价值.

  18. 大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学研究%The morphological study of two kinds of acellular basal Lamina tubes of sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海; 胡汝麒; 周建生

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察采用化学萃取法和反复冻融法制备大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学变化.方法:雌性Sprague-Dawley鼠坐骨神经16条随机分为化学萃取法(chemical extracted nerve,CEN)和冻融法(freeze-thawed nerve,FTN)两组,每组18条.分别予Trinton-100化学萃取、-196℃~20℃反复冻融处理后,光镜、电镜观察其组织、形态学变化.结果:(1)CEN组基膜管管壁完整、贯通,无细胞结构,可见管状神经轮廓.(2)FTN组基膜管管壁破损、管腔堵塞,轴突、髓鞘、雪旺细胞及小血管变性、坏死,可见大量细胞碎片.结论:两种方法均能保持周围神经正常的三维空间结构,CEN制备的周围神经去细胞基膜管更具有组织形态学优势.

  19. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  20. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  1. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  2. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. ∼0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  3. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatehi, A., E-mail: arya.fatehi@gmail.com [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Calvo, J.; Elwazri, A.M.; Yue, S. [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-06-25

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. {approx}0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  4. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  5. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  6. A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancio, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes). PMID:22533413

  7. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  8. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female – A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST’s showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  9. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female - A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti; Sethi, Harsimran Singh

    2015-08-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST's showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  10. Luster Polish Strengthening Treatment for Raceway Surface of Aeroengine Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Si-er; TENG Hong-fei; MA Fu-jian; HAO Jian-jun; CHEN Tao

    2007-01-01

    A new surface strengthening technology, luster polish strengthening treatnent, was proposed to treat the raceway surface of aeroengine bearings (9Cr18Mo) with the centrifugal strengthening machine exclusively designed for luster polish strengthening treatment. The experimental results showed that luster polish strengthening treatment produced a compressive residual stress layer with a depth of over 80 μm below the surface of the bearing raceway, and thus effectively removed the metamorphic layer in the raceway surface. After luster polish strengthening treatment, the average surface hardness of the aeroengine bearing raceway was increased from 61.02 HRC to 63.01 HRC, the surface roughness was reduced from 0.06 μm to 0.03 μm, and the contact fatigue life of the aeroengine bearings was improved by about 90%, with the dispersion of fatigue life being reduced remarkably.Theoretical calculation result agrees with that obtained by experiment.

  11. Behavior of preloaded RC beams strengthened with CFRP laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen reinforced concrete beams, including 16 beams strengthened with CFRP laminate at different levels of preload and 2 control beams, were tested to investigate the influence ofpreload level on flexural behavior of CFRP-strengthened RC beam. The experimental parameters include rebar ratios, number of plies of CFRP laminates and preload level at the time of strengthening. Theoretical analysis was also carried out to explain the experimental phenomena and results. The experimental and theoretical results indicated that the preload level has more influence on the stiffness and deflection of the strengthened beam, bothat post-cracking and post-yielding stage, than that on the yielding and ultimate flexural strength of the strengthened beam. The main failure mode of CFRP-strengthened beam is the intermediate crack-induced debonding of CFRP laminates, provided that the development length of CFRP laminates and shear capacity of the beam are sufficient.

  12. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  13. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  14. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  15. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  16. APPLICATION OF PRESTRESSED SHELLS TO STRENGTHEN STRIP FOUNDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-Martirosjan Zaven Grigor'evich; Pronozin Jakov Aleksandrovich; Naumkina Julija Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    Effective method of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings by pre-stressed shells is considered in the paper. Advantages of the proposed strengthening method, its production technology and pre-conditions of its analysis are also presented. Presently, strengthening of ground foundations and foundations of buildings and structures is a relevant civil engineering challenge. It is driven by high intensity of restructuring and modernization of buildings and alteration of geological eng...

  17. Behaviour of RC beams shear strengthening with NSM CFRP laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Salvador J. E.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Near Surface Mounted (NSM) technique with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates for the shear strengthening of T cross section reinforced concrete (RC) beams is assessed by experimental research. The influence of the percentage and inclination of CFRP laminates on the shear strengthening contribution was evaluated. The experimental program also includes beams strengthened according to the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) technique in ord...

  18. How to Strengthen Child Learners’Self-confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2013-01-01

    Self-confidence is closely related to L2 learning. In order to make their learners enjoy English learning, English teach-ers need to strengthen the learners’English learning confidence. This article is to find out English teachers’role to strengthening learners’self-confidence in ELL by means of class observation. The writer concludes improving speaking ability; giving praise and offering gentle error correcting can help to strengthen the learners’confidence.

  19. Study of the Tensile Properties of CFRP Strengthened Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Lu; Weijie Li; Shan Li; Xiaojin Li; Tao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of steel plates strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets under tensile load. The number of CFRP layers (ranging from one to four), strengthening schemes (single-sided and double-sided bonding), and temperatures (ranging from 25 to 120 °C) were investigated. Results showed that the number of CFRP layers and strengthening schemes had insignificant effects on failure modes of specimens. The failure modes were dominated by the de...

  20. Use of Woven Fabrics for Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Parthraj R. Puranik; Deval A. Vasavada

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a great deal of research is currently being conducted concerning the use of fiber reinforced plastic wraps, laminates and sheets in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) application is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. But the use of woven fabrics for strengthening RC members has not been much investigated. Woven fabrics though cannot provide co...

  1. Roles for herpes simplex virus type 1 UL34 and US3 proteins in disrupting the nuclear lamina during herpes simplex virus type 1 egress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells infected with wild type HSV-1 showed significant lamin A/C and lamin B rearrangement, while UL34-null virus-infected cells exhibited few changes in lamin localization, indicating that UL34 is necessary for lamin disruption. During HSV infection, US3 limited the development of disruptions in the lamina, since cells infected with a US3-null virus developed large perforations in the lamin layer. US3 regulation of lamin disruption does not correlate with the induction of apoptosis. Expression of either UL34 or US3 proteins alone disrupted lamin A/C and lamin B localization. Expression of UL34 and US3 together had little effect on lamin A/C localization, suggesting a regulatory interaction between the two proteins. The data presented in this paper argue for crucial roles for both UL34 and US3 in regulating the state of the nuclear lamina during viral infection

  2. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Subramanyam, S.; Naga Sujata, D.; Sridhar, K.; Pushpanjali, M

    2011-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are disc...

  3. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Lei YANG; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish ...

  4. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Timothy L. Megraw

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various...

  5. Prevalence and clinical relevance of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing CT examinations of the cerebrum, the discovery of basal ganglia calcification becomes more frequent. In order to correlate these calcifications to the symptoms believed to be accompanied with Fahr's disease 2318 cranial CT scans were examined. There was an overall incidence of basal ganglia calcification of 12.5%. The most frequent location was the globus pallidus (96.4%). In the examined population there was no correlation found between the calcifications and symptoms having been described with striopallidentate calcifications. (orig.)

  6. Optimization Well-Type on the Conditions of Basal Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaming Zhang; Xiaodong Wu; Guoqing Han; Shudong Li; Jia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    For optimization well-type on the conditions of basal groundwater, inasmuch as an analogy exists between electrical and fluid flow, the electrolytic analogy experiments have been conducted, which made a series of comparisons and evaluations between 9 types of complex well configurations and vertical well in terms of production. Taking into account the boundary condition of basal groundwater, we conducted 3×3×10 experiments in totally, including vertical well, horizontal well, radial well, sna...

  7. Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S.; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lowe...

  8. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, parkinsonism syndrome, with no basal ganglia calcification.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B K; Donley, D K

    1988-01-01

    A 20 year old woman with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Parkinsonism and no basal ganglia calcifications shown by computed tomography is reported. She has typical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism and biochemical evidence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. She is mentally retarded and has tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and stooped posture. The cause of Parkinsonism in pseudohypoparathyroidism is thought to be basal ganglia calcification. This patient must have another pathophysiol...

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  10. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  11. China and ROK to Strengthen Cooperation in Environmental Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The environment ministers of China and the Republic of Korea have agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in tackling regional environmental problems while promoting the development ofrelevant industries.

  12. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  13. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  14. Fatigue test of RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Xie, Jianhe

    2008-11-01

    Applying prestress to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) can be used more efficiently since a greater portion energy of its tensile capacity is engaged. Based on carbon fiber laminate (CFL), fatigue tests are made to find out the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with prestressed CFL. The interfacial debonding is a main failure mode for RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs under the cyclic loading. Furthermore, it has been found that the stress value of CFLs decide whether the additional prestressing has a negative or positive effect on the fatigue behavior of the strengthened beam, and the excessive prestressing would reduce the fatigue life of the strengthened beam.

  15. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  16. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hyung Lee; Seung Woo Kwak; Eun Min Kang; Gyu Ah Kim; Sang Yeop Lee; Hyoung Won Bae; Gong Je Seong; Chan Yun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  17. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  18. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  19. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  20. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  1. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  2. Strengthening safeguards: A developing country perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.S. Minty maintained that for developing countries the only guarantee against the use of nuclear weapons is the abolition of such weapons - nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament are two sides of the same coin. That some States have failed to recognize and act upon this has undermined the NPT. So has the growing resort to unilateralism and unilaterally imposed prescriptions. The only sustainable way of addressing international security issues is through multilateral means, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. In this regard, the IAEA is the appropriate multilateral mechanism for addressing verification issues and challenges. It should be left to do its work unfettered by pressure, hindrance or interference. All States should support the IAEA in its verification tasks, including further improvements to the effectiveness and efficiency of the strengthened safeguards system. The Board of Governors' Advisory Committee on Safeguards and Verification provides a valuable forum at which these issues can be usefully addressed. However, the Committee should not become a focus for arguments in favour of punitive actions

  3. Achievements to date in strengthened safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is substantial progress in developing and implementing measures to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the Safeguards System. The measures comprise those to be implemented pursuant to the Agency's legal authority conferred by existing safeguards agreements as well as those to be implemented under the complementary legal authority conferred by Additional Protocols concluded on the basis of Document INFCIRC/540(Corrected). Activities on implementing measures under existing legal authority, particularly with respect to the evaluation of States' nuclear programmes, environmental sampling and the use of remote monitoring for safeguards purposes had been carried continuously ion the recent post. In 1998, additional protocols entered into force with four States (the Holy See, Jordan, New Zealand and Uzbekistan). Additional protocols with a further 27 States were approved by the Board and were awaiting ratification by the respective States. The additional protocol with Australia, which entered into force in December 1997, was being implemented following receipt of its Article 2 declaration. Agency consultations on concluding additional protocols take place with a number of States on a regular basis. As of 1 October 1999, Additional Protocols had been concluded and approved by the Board of Governors with a total of 45 States. Of these, Additional Protocols with 44 States had been signed and five had entered into force. (author)

  4. Micropolar crystal plasticity simulation of particle strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeur, J. R.; McDowell, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The yield and work hardening behavior of a small-scale initial-boundary value problem involving dislocation plasticity in an idealized particle strengthened system is investigated using micropolar single crystal plasticity and is compared with results for the same problem from dislocation dynamics simulations. A micropolar single crystal is a work-conjugate higher-order continuum that treats the lattice rotations as generalized displacements, and supports couple stresses that are work-conjugate to the lattice torsion-curvature, leading to a non-symmetric Cauchy stress. The resolved skew-symmetric component of the Cauchy stress tensor results in slip system level kinematic hardening during heterogeneous deformation that depends on gradients of lattice torsion-curvature. The scale-dependent mechanical response of the micropolar single crystal is dictated both by energetic (higher-order elastic constants) and dissipative (plastic torsion-curvature) intrinsic material length scales. We show that the micropolar model captures essential details of the average stress-strain behavior predicted by discrete dislocation dynamics and of the cumulative slip and dislocation density fields predicted by statistical dislocation dynamics.

  5. Strengthening Self-efficacy through Supportive Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, gender and socio-economic backgrounds. As a community we need to strengthen our support of young scientists from all backgrounds to sustain their enthusiasm and ensure their success in our field. Investing in mentoring programs that empower students and young professionals is one of the best ways to do so. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program, now entering its 20th year, has successfully developed and tested several mentoring models. The personalized, caring and consistent support is one of the key elements of the program's success; since its inception, 90% of SOARS participants have entered graduate school, research or science related careers after graduation. Many of our alumni who are now faculty apply the same mentoring strategies to build self-esteem and perseverance in their students. This presentation will cover the design and implementation of our four mentoring strategies, and provide insights on potential challenges, training aspects and impact assessment. The mentoring strategies include: 1) Multi-faceted, long-term mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students from diverse backgrounds. 2) Empowering advanced students to serve as peer mentors and role models. 3) Training faculty and professional scientists from all backgrounds to become mentors who are aware of diversity issues. 4) Providing mentor training for partner programs and laboratories. All four strategies have contributed to the creation of a mentoring culture in the geosciences.

  6. Nanoscale Cementite Precipitates and Comprehensive Strengthening Mechanism of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Li, Guangqiang; Mao, Xinping; Fang, Keming

    2011-12-01

    This article summarizes the state of the art of the comprehensive strengthening mechanism of steel. By using chemical phase analysis, X-ray small-angle scattering (XSAS), room temperature organic (RTO) solution electrolysis and metal embedded sections micron-nano-meter characterization method, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation, the properties of nanoscale cementite precipitates in Ti microalloyed high-strength weathering steels produced by the thin slab continuous casting and rolling process were analyzed. Except nanoscale TiC, cementite precipitates with size less than 36 nm and high volume fraction were also found in Ti microalloyed high-strength weathering steels. The volume fraction of cementite with size less than 36 nm is 4.4 times as much as that of TiC of the same size. Cementite with high volume fraction has a stronger precipitation strengthening effect than that of nanoscale TiC, which cannot be ignored. The precipitation strengthening contributions of nanoscale precipitates of different types and sizes should be calculated, respectively, according to the mechanisms of shearing and dislocation bypass, and then be added with the contributions of solid solution strengthening and grain refinement strengthening. A formula for calculating the yield strength of low-carbon steel was proposed; the calculated yield strength considering the precipitation strengthening contributions of nanoscale precipitates and the comprehensive strengthening mechanism of steels matches the experimental results well. The calculated σ s = 630 to 676 MPa, while the examined σ s = 630 to 680 MPa. The reason that "ultrafine grain strengthening can not be directly added with dislocation strengthening or precipitation strengthening" and the influence of the phase transformation on steel strength were discussed. The applications for comprehensive strengthening theory were summarized, and several scientific questions for further study were pointed out.

  7. Intestinal lamina propria retaining CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is a suppressive site of intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shin; Kanai, Takanori; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Totsuka, Teruji; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2007-04-15

    It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only does active suppression by regulatory T (T(REG)) cells play an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also that its dysregulation of immune response leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that murine CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) constitutively express CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR, and Foxp3 and suppress proliferation of responder CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Furthermore, cotransfer of intestinal LP CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells prevents the development of chronic colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells into SCID mice. When lymphotoxin (LT)alpha-deficient intercrossed Rag2 double knockout mice (LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-)), which lack mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, are transferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells, they develop severe wasting disease and chronic colitis despite the delayed kinetics as compared with the control LTalpha(+/+) x Rag2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Of note, when a mixture of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells and CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells are transferred into LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-) recipients, CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells migrate into the colon and prevent the development of colitis in LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-) recipients as well as in the control LTalpha(+/+) x Rag2(-/-) recipients. These results suggest that the intestinal LP harboring CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells contributes to the intestinal immune suppression. PMID:17404275

  8. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Takahashi, Seri; Matsumoto, Akiko; Maekawa, Shigeto; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Himori, Noriko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon). Methods This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm), centered on the circular Bruch’s membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24–2), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT), the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR) was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP), MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT), and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE) optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela’s method. Results We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P Glaucoma patients with the GE disc type, who predominantly have large cupping, had lower LC thickness even with similar glaucoma severity. PMID:27100404

  9. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D; Abraira, Victoria E; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I-III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty in identifying glutamatergic synapses with light microscopy. Although there are numerous potential targets for antibodies, these are difficult to visualize with immunocytochemistry, because of protein cross-linking following tissue fixation. Although this can be overcome by antigen retrieval methods, these lead to difficulty in detecting other antigens. The aim of this study was to test whether the postsynaptic protein Homer can be used to reveal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal horn. Immunostaining for Homer gave punctate labeling when viewed by confocal microscopy, and this was restricted to synapses at the ultrastructural level. We found that Homer puncta were colocalized with the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, but not with the inhibitory synapse-associated protein gephyrin. We also examined several populations of glutamatergic axons and found that most boutons were in contact with at least one Homer punctum. These results suggest that Homer antibodies can be used to reveal the great majority of glutamatergic synapses without antigen retrieval. This will be of considerable value in tracing synaptic circuits, and also in investigating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in pain states. PMID:27185486

  10. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Hyunjoong; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface depth (LCD) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT) at the anterior LC surface. Methods Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral) according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length. Results Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023). On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002), together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001), higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010), and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003) on the larger LCD. Conclusion In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship. PMID:27355646

  11. CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enochsson, O.; Lundqvist, J.; Täljsten, Björn;

    2006-01-01

    Rehabilitation and strengthening of concrete structures with externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) has been a viable technique for at least a decade. An interesting and useful application is strengthening of slabs or walls where openings are introduced. In these situations, FRP sheet...

  12. Health Systems Analysis for Better Health System Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Peter; Bitran, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Health system strengthening and reform are often necessary actions to achieve better outcomes. The World Bank's 2007 strategy for health, nutrition, and population emphasizes the importance of health system strengthening for results. This paper proposes 'health systems analysis' as a distinct methodology that should be developed and practiced in the design of policies and programs for heal...

  13. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  14. Strengthening and Rehabilitation Conventional Methods for Masonry Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pleşu, Raluca; Ţăranu, George; Covatariu, Daniel; Grădinariu, Ionuţ-Dan

    2011-01-01

    The study and development of rehabilitation and strengthening methods for masonry structures is a permanent concern of civil engineers, because of the high proportion of existing structural masonry and their vulnerability to exceptional loads, especially from seismic action. This paper presents an overview of existing methodologies for strengthening and rehabilitation of masonry structures using traditional materials.

  15. On-line tribochemical strengthening of gear surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that under favorable friction conditions some antiwear elements inlubricating additives can permeate into subsurface of metal which can strengthens the friction sur-faces and improves anti-wear capacity of frication pairs. It is in many ways similar to chemical heattreatment. A new concept, technology of on-line strengthening, was logically put forward. Based oncurrent gear surface treatment technology, the on-line strengthen of gear surface is proposed. Itsdesign method is established. Based on it, the on-line strengthen of gear is achieved on CL-100gear test machine. A new method is put forward for strengthen treatment of gear surface. Andthree kinds of surface film were suggested.

  16. Use of Woven Fabrics for Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthraj R. Puranik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a great deal of research is currently being conducted concerning the use of fiber reinforced plastic wraps, laminates and sheets in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC members. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP application is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. But the use of woven fabrics for strengthening RC members has not been much investigated. Woven fabrics though cannot provide compressive strength, but have a great potential to provide bending or tensile strength to RC beams. In the present investigation, three different woven fabrics were used to strengthen RC beams. The aim is to study the effectiveness of woven fabric in strengthening of RC beams and the effect of number of fabric layers on load carrying capacity of RC beams.

  17. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan. (author)

  18. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN MIDDLE EAR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a very common skin cancer, it is much more common in fair – skinned individuals with a family history of Basal cell carcinoma and increases closure to the equator or at higher attitude, this tumor is a extremely rarely found in the middle ear, accounts for 45% of all au ricular carcinomas and is more common than squamous cell carcinoma, it is most frequently found in patient between 40 and 60 years of age, sunlight exposure is the most common modifiable risk factor, we are here presenting a case of Basal cell carcinoma in middle ear presented with ear discharge and polyp in external auditory canal and middle ear, treated with radiotherapy

  19. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  20. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  1. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  2. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  3. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Legorreta, Emmanuel; Horta-Júnior, José de Anchieta C; Berrebi, Albert S; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus), the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm), the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv), can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for PV, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin (CR); indeed, in many CR-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided in this article will

  4. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  5. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  6. Strengthened safeguards: Present and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The safeguards system is experiencing what has been seen as a revolution and, in doing so, it is confronting a series of challenges. These can be grouped into three areas. Drawing and maintaining safeguards conclusions - The process by which the safeguards conclusions are derived is based upon the analysis, evaluation and review of all the information available to the Agency. This process is on- going, but the State Evaluation Reports are compiled and reviewed periodically. For States with an additional protocol in force, the absence of indicators of the presence of undeclared nuclear material or activities provides the basis for the safeguards conclusion. Future challenges center on States' expectations of, and reactions to, the results of the evaluation and review process. Designing and implementing integrated safeguards - The conceptual framework of integrated safeguards is being actively pursued. Basic principles have been defined and integrated safeguards approaches have been developed for various types of facilities. Work is also progressing on the design of integrated safeguards approaches for specific States. Complementary access is being successfully implemented, and procedures for the use of unannounced inspections are being developed with the prospect of cost- effectiveness gains. Costs neutrality vs. quality and credibility - The Department faces serious staff and financial challenges. It has succeeded so far in 'doing more' and 'doing better' within a zero-real growth budget, but the scope for further significant efficiency gains is exhausted. There is no capacity to absorb new or unexpected tasks. Difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified and experienced staff exacerbate the problems and add to costs. The Director General of the IAEA has referred to the need for new initiatives to bridge the budgetary gap; a possible measure is proposed. The tasks of meeting the challenges and demands of strengthened safeguards have been added to

  7. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  8. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  9. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Afefy, Hamdy M.; Kassem, Nesreen M.; Fawzy, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  10. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for...

  11. Optimal Surgical Safety Margin for Facial Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpiu Hârceagă; Corina Baican; Rodica Cosgarea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The major objective of this study is to establish optimal surgical margin for facial primary basal cell carcinoma smaller than 2.3 cm in diameter. Recommendations for this type of skin tumors are for 4 mm surgical margin, but on the face there is a tendency to use smaller margins, for example 2-3 mm.Material and Method. 38 patients with 40 primary facial basal cell carcinoma of less than 2.3 cm in diameter, nonsclerodermiform types, were included in the study. All tumors were init...

  12. Isolation of basal and mucous cell populations from rabbit trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a unit gravity sedimentation procedure to monodispersed rabbit tracheal cells resulted in the isolation of enriched (2-fold to 2.5-fold) basal and mucous cell populations. Cellular integrity was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion index of 93%, [3H] leucine incorporation, and ultrastructural analysis. Unit gravity sedimentation is an affective and rapid procedure for obtaining viable, homogeneous preparations of basal and mucous cells that may be used for in vitro studies of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and glycoprotein biosynthesis in respiratory mucous epithelia

  13. Radiotherapy of germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with histologically confirmed germinomas of the basal ganglia and thalamus (GBT) were treated by radiotherapy. The average dose of 52.5 Gy was delivered to the tumor bed, 37 Gy to the whole brain and 24.8 Gy to the CNS axis. The local control, which was verified by CT scan, was achieved in all patients. All patients are alive 11 to 96 months after radiotherapy. As with other intracranial germinomas, germinomas of the basal ganglia and thalamus respond well to radiotherapy and the prognosis is good after treatment. (author). 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami - diagnostic possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several diseases may cause non specific MRT abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami. As such, diagnosis of the underlying etiology may be difficult to achieve at imaging. In one clinical case are presented the diagnostic possibilities based on clinical date (previous history, clinical symptoms and evolution) and imaging data (type of signal abnormalities, location of lesions and associated abnormalities). The main categories of diseases causing MRT abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami in adult are: toxic, metabolic, vascular, infectious, inflammatory diseases and tumors.

  15. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    transportation of nuclear materials is carried out by Promatomnadzor. Promatomnadzor also issues permits on movement of nuclear materials across the borders of Belarus. State Customs Committee is responsible for detection of unauthorised imports and exports of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. They report each case to other responsible authorities. Belarus is a transport corridor between the East and West, and the issues relating to regulation of export and import, exercising control over export, import of nuclear materials, prevention of smuggling of nuclear materials and maintaining of international co-operation are very important for us. Further development of the safeguards system - It should be noted that control over use of nuclear materials and facilities, which is still of crucial importance can not ensure the absence of undeclared nuclear activities as required. The IAEA has developed the strengthened safeguards system (INFIRC/590) the essence of which is to expand control over relevant technologies, dual use commodities and services. Of course, the implementation of the system provides for more effective and efficient safeguards. Co-operation with the IAEA and other international organisations is regarded as one of the conditions of further improvement of reliability and efficiency of the safeguards. In conclusion I would like to express my profound gratitude to the IAEA and donor countries, in particular Japan, USA and Sweden, for their assistance aimed at strengthening safeguards in Belarus. (author)

  16. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  17. Slender reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdošová, K.; Bilčík, J.

    2011-06-01

    The requirement for a long life with relatively low maintenance costs relates to the use of building structures. Even though the structure is correctly designed, constructed and maintained, the need for extensions of its lifetime can appear. The preservation of the original structure with a higher level of resistance or reliability is enabled by strengthening. Conventional materials are replaced by progressive composites - mainly carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). They are used for strengthening reinforced concrete columns in two ways: added reinforcement in the form of CFRP strips in grooves or CFRP sheet confinement and eventually their combination. This paper presents the effect of the mentioned strengthening methods on slender reinforced concrete columns.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  19. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  20. Global loss of a nuclear lamina component, lamin A/C, and LINC complex components SUN1, SUN2, and nesprin-2 in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer cells exhibit a variety of features indicative of atypical nuclei. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain to be elucidated. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, a nuclear envelope protein complex consisting mainly of the SUN and nesprin proteins, connects nuclear lamina and cytoskeletal filaments and helps to regulate the size and shape of the nucleus. Using immunohistology, we found that a nuclear lamina component, lamin A/C and all of the investigated LINC complex components, SUN1, SUN2, and nesprin-2, were downregulated in human breast cancer tissues. In the majority of cases, we observed lower expression levels of these analytes in samples' cancerous regions as compared to their cancer-associated noncancerous regions (in cancerous regions, percentage of tissue samples exhibiting low protein expression: lamin A/C, 85% [n = 73]; SUN1, 88% [n = 43]; SUN2, 74% [n = 43]; and nesprin-2, 79% [n = 53]). Statistical analysis showed that the frequencies of recurrence and HER2 expression were negatively correlated with lamin A/C expression (P < 0.05), and intrinsic subtype and ki-67 level were associated with nesprin-2 expression (P < 0.05). In addition, combinatorial analysis using the above four parameters showed that all patients exhibited reduced expression of at least one of four components despite the tumor's pathological classification. Furthermore, several cultured breast cancer cell lines expressed less SUN1, SUN2, nesprin-2 mRNA, and lamin A/C compared to noncancerous mammary gland cells. Together, these results suggest that the strongly reduced expression of LINC complex and nuclear lamina components may play fundamental pathological functions in breast cancer progression

  1. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  2. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  3. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stacey, S.N.; Sulem, P.; Masson, G.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Sigurdsson, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Scherer, D.; Hemminki, K.; Rudnai, P.; Gurzau, E.; Koppova, K.; Botella-Estrada, R.; Soriano, V.; Juberias, P.; Saez, B.; Gilaberte, Y.; Fuentelsaz, V.; Corredera, C.; Grasa, M.; Hoiom, V.; Lindblom, A.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Rossum, M.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Vries, E. de; Santinami, M.; Mauro, M.G. Di; Maurichi, A.; Wendt, J.; Hochleitner, P.; Pehamberger, H.; Gudmundsson, J.; Magnusdottir, D.N.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Holm, H.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Frigge, M.L.; Blondal, T.; Saemundsdottir, J.; Bjarnason, H.; Kristjansson, K.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Okamoto, I.; Rivoltini, L.; Rodolfo, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hansson, J.; Nagore, E.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Kumar, R.; Karagas, M.R.; Nelson, H.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Rafnar, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Olafsson, J.H.; Kong, A.; Stefansson, K.

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A vari

  4. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  5. Writing with Basals: A Sentence Combining Approach to Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Merrill, Jimmie D.

    Sentence combining techniques can be used with basal readers to help students develop writing skills. The first technique is addition, characterized by using the connecting word "and" to join two or more base sentences together. The second technique is called "embedding," and is characterized by putting parts of two or more base sentences together…

  6. Task-Phase-Specific Dynamics of Basal Forebrain Neuronal Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Nitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases.

  7. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...

  8. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D;

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  9. Engagement in muscular strengthening activities is associated with better sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined whether engagement in muscular strengthening activities is associated with sleep duration, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the population-based 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, which included an analytic sample of 4386 adults (20–85 yrs. Sleep duration and engagement in muscle strengthening activities was self-reported. After adjustments (including aerobic-based physical activity, those engaging in muscular strength activities, compared to those not engaging in muscular strengthening activities, had an 19% increased odds of meeting sleep guidelines (7–8 h/night (Odds Ratio = 1.19, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01–1.38, P = 0.04. Promotion of muscular strengthening activities by clinicians should occur not only for improvements in other aspects of health (e.g., cardiovascular benefits, but also to help facilitate optimal sleep duration.

  10. Shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; LIU Xue-mei; ZHAO Tong

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of tests on the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet. The shear transfer mechanism of the specimens reinforced with CFRP sheet was studied. The factors affecting the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet were analyzed. Several suggestions such as the number of layers, width and tensile strength of the CFRP sheet are proposed for this new strengthening technique. Finally, a simple and practical design method is presented in the paper. The calculated results of the suggested method are shown to be in good agreement with the test results. The suggested design method can be used in evaluating the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet.

  11. Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using GFRP Wraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Saafan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experimental work described in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of GFRP composites in strengthening simply supported reinforced concrete beams designed with insufficient shear capacity. Using the hand lay-up technique, successive layers of a woven fiberglass fabric were bonded along the shear span to increase the shear capacity and to avoid catastrophic premature failure modes. The strengthened beams were fabricated with no web reinforcement to explore the efficiency of the proposed strengthening technique using the results of control beams with closed stirrups as a  web reinforcement. The test results of 18 beams are reported, addressing the influence of different shear strengthening schemes and variable longitudinal reinforcement ratios on the structural behavior. The results indicated that significant increases in the shear strength and improvements in the overall structural behavior of beams with insufficient shear capacity could be achieved by proper application of GFRP wraps.

  12. Strengthening IAEA safeguards using high-resolution commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons poses great threat to international peace and security. How to strengthen the non-proliferation regime has become a central question. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol to improve its ability to detect the undeclared production of fissile material. This new strengthened safeguards system has opened the door for the IAEA to use of all types of information, including the potential use of commercial satellite imagery. We have therefore been investigating the feasibility of strengthening IAEA safeguards using commercial satellite imagery. This paper explores the new roles of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery to monitor the nuclear proliferation. Based on our analysis on a number of one-meter resolution IKONOS commercial satellite images of nuclear facilities, we found that the new high-resolution commercial satellite imagery would play a new and valuable role in strengthening IAEA safeguards. (author)

  13. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance linkage

  14. Strengthening the Connection between Community Service and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Educators often treat community service and diversity as distinct areas. The author argues that educators should seize upon the intersection of these two areas in order to strengthen students' capacity to engage with each.

  15. Protection of RC elements strengthened with CFRP against high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Gorski, M.; Camões, Aires; Vaz, Nelson; Majewski, S.

    2007-01-01

    The strengthening of RC elements with CFRP is a technique that has been acquiring more and more potential. The bond between the CFRP laminates and the concrete support is usually made with epoxy adhesives. However, it is in this part that the integrity of the system can be affected, namely by exposure to high temperatures. In order to evaluate the thermal behaviour, reference RC and CFRP strengthened RC specimens were tested. After cyclical thermal expositions, with temperatures rising betwee...

  16. Post-compressed plates for strengthening preloaded reinforced concretecolumns

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; 王璐

    2013-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are the primary load-bearing structural components in buildings. Over time these columns may need to be repaired or strengthened either due to defective construction, having higher loads than those foreseen in the initial design of the structure, or as a result of material deterioration or accidental damage. Three external strengthening methods, namely steel jacketing, concrete jacketing and composite jacketing, are commonly adopted for upgrading the ultimate...

  17. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  18. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    OpenAIRE

    D. De Domenico; A.A.Pisano; P. Fuschi

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars) and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may oc...

  19. Coefficient strengthening : a tool for formulating mixed integer programs

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kent; Pochet, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Providing a good formulation is an important part of solving a mixed integer program. We suggest to measure the quality of a formulation by whether it is possible to strengthen the coefficients of the formulation. Sequentially strengthening coefficients can then be used as a tool for improving formulations. We believe this method could be useful for analyzing and producing tight formulations of problems that arise in practice. We illustrate the use of the approach on a problem in production s...

  20. Strengthening health professions regulation in Cambodia: a rapid assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia’s current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions’ regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia’s plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health servi...

  1. Crossed cerebellar and cerebral cortical diaschisis in basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenomenon of diaschisis in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage using cerebral blood flow SPECT. Twelve patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage were studied with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT. Asymmetric index (AI) was calculated in the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions as | CR-CL |/ (CR-CL) x 200, where CR and CL are the mean reconstructed counts for the right and left ROIs, respectively. Hypoperfusion was considered to be present when AI was greater than mean + 2 SD of 20 control subjects. Mean AI of the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage was significantly higher than normal controls (p<0.05): Cerebellum (18.68±8.94 vs 4.35±0.94, mean ±SD), thalamus (31.91±10.61 vs 2.57±1.45), basal ganglia (35.94±16.15 vs 4.34±2.08), parietal (18.94±10.69 vs 3.24±0.87), frontal (13.60±10.8 vs 4.02±2.04) and temporal cortex (18.92±11.95 vs 5.13±1.69). Ten of the 12 patients had significant hypoperfusion in the contralateral cerebellum. Hypoperfusion was also shown in the ipsilateral thalamus (n=12), ipsilateral parietal (n=12), frontal (n=6) and temporal cortex (n=10). Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and cortical diaschisis may frequently occur in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage, suggesting that CCD can develop without the interruption of corticopontocerebellar pathway

  2. Effect of horizontal reinforcement in strengthening of masonry members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental research program was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of a new technique for strengthening masonry wall panels using steel strips on compressive and shear strength enhancement. The experimental work includes eight wall panels, four each for compressive and shear strength evaluation. This work was the phase I of extensive research project which include testing of strengthened masonry wall panels under monotonic load (Phase-I), static cyclic load (Phase-2) and dynamic load (Phase-3). The wall panels were strengthened with different steel strip arrangements, which consist of single/double face application of coarse and fine steel strip mesh with reduced spacing of horizontal strips. This paper investigates only the effectiveness of horizontal steel strips on strength enhancement. Four masonry wall panels are considered in two groups and in each group, one wall was retrofitted with coarse steel mesh on single face and on second wall fine steel mesh was applied on one side. Furthermore, test results of strengthened specimens are also compared with the un-strengthened specimen (REFE). The mechanisms by which load was carried were observed, varying from the initial, uncracked state, and the final, fully cracked state. The results demonstrate a quite significant increase in the compressive and shear capacity of strengthened panels as compared to REFE-panel. However, increase in the compressive strength of fine mesh above that of coarse mesh is negligible. The technique/approach is found quite viable for strengthening of masonry walls, for rehabilitation of old deteriorated buildings and unreinforced masonry structures in seismic zones. (author)

  3. Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability. PMID:25273695

  4. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  5. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  6. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  7. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  8. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  9. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  10. A case of basal ganglia germinoma with characteristic CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old boy with left spastic hemiplegia and learning difficulty was reported. Changes of his character appeared first, followed by atrophy of the left upper and lower extremities. Exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and positive Babinski sign were present on the left extremities, but sensory disturbances and ataxia were absent. There was no denervation pattern in EMG. Brain CT revealed a high density area in the right basal ganglia and enlarged right lateral ventricle without shift of the midline. This high density area on CT gradually became conspicuous within 6 months without a mass effect or shift of the midline. CSF cytology was negative and stereotaxic biopsy revealed two cell pattern germinoma of basal ganglia. (author)

  11. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.)

  12. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  14. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of...

  15. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, W.; Fung, B.; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-01-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the reg...

  16. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  17. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    OpenAIRE

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira; Francisco E. Cota Cardoso

    1992-01-01

    The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBG...

  18. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sialomucin Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Sung Bin; Chung, Kee Yang; Kim, You Chan

    2006-01-01

    Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a variant of BCC with a characteristic clear cell component that may occupy all or part of the tumor islands. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for glycogen is variably positive, and mild deposition of sulfated mucin has been noted. However, to our knowledge, clear cell BCC with sialomucin deposition has not been reported. Here we report a case of clear cell BCC showing sialomucin deposition. The clear tumor cells stained with PAS and showed incomple...

  19. ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heike D. Lenz; Vierstra, Richard D.; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A.

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy has an important function in cellular homeostasis. In recent years autophagy has been implicated in plant basal immunity and assigned negative (“anti-death”) and positive (“pro-death”) regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. We recently showed that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the autophagy-associated (ATG) genes ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a are compromised in their resistance towards infection with necrotrophic fun...

  20. Epidermolysis bullosa aquisita with basal epidermal cytoplasmic antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.W.; Hur, H; Kim, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman with epidermolysis bullosa aquisita is presented. The clinical, histological, and immunopathological features were in keeping with the previous reports of this disease. The patient also had anti-basal cell cytoplasmic antibodies at a significant titer, which is considered an unusual finding associated with this disorder. Treatment with a moderate dose of corticosteroid was effective in controlling the bullous lesions.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a sebaceous naevus

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kavit; Orkar, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Sebaceous naevus is a rare non-melanocytic congenital skin hamartoma. Even more rare is the transformation of these lesions into malignant skin cancers, most notably basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We discuss a case in an adult with later malignant transformation into BCC reported by clinical pathologists. There is dispute about the accurate incidence of malignant transformation. More recently, research has shown that transformation into BCC is unlikely, in that the origins of these lesions ari...

  2. Subsystems of the basal ganglia and motor infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali Sarvestani, Iman

    2013-01-01

    The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In ...

  3. Modulating basal ganglia and cerebellar activity to suppress parkinsonian tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Heida, T.; Zhao, Yan; Wezel, van, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the detailed pathophysiology of the parkinsonian tremor is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the generation of parkinsonian tremor is related to abnormal activity within the basal ganglia. The cerebello-thalamic-cortical loop has been suggested to indirectly contribute to the expression of parkinsonian tremor. However, the observed tremor-related hyperactivity in the cerebellar loop may have a compensatory rather than a causal role in Parkinson's disease...

  4. Changing Views of Basal Ganglia Circuits and Circuit Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) have long been considered to play an important role in the control of movement and the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies over the past decades have considerably broadened this view, indicating that the BG participate in multiple, parallel, largely segregated, cortico-subcortical reentrant pathways involving motor, associative and limbic functions. Research has shown that dysfunction within individual circuits is associated ...

  5. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in th...

  6. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  7. Strut Deformation in CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Panjehpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strut-and-tie model (STM method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions. It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level.

  8. Strut deformation in CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2014-01-01

    Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

  9. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  10. CFRP Mechanical Anchorage for Externally Strengthened RC Beams under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alnadher; Abdalla, Jamal; Hawileh, Rami; Galal, Khaled

    De-bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets and plates from the concrete substrate is one of the major reasons behind premature failures of beams that are externally strengthened with such CFRP materials. To delay or prevent de-bonding and therefore enhancing the load carrying capacity of strengthened beams, several anchorage systems were developed and used. This paper investigates the use of CFRP mechanical anchorage of CFRP sheets and plates used to externally strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexure. The pin-and-fan shape CFRP anchor, which is custom-made from typical rolled fiber sheets and bundles of loose fiber is used. Several reinforced concrete beams were casted and tested in standard four-point bending scheme to study the effectiveness of this anchorage system. The beams were externally strengthened in flexure with bonded CFRP sheets and plates and then fastened to the soffit of the beams' using various patterns of CFRP anchors. It is observed that the CFRP plates begins to separate from the beams as soon as de-bonding occurs in specimens without CFRP anchors, while in beams with CFRP anchors de-bonding was delayed leading to increase in the load carrying capacity over the un-anchored strengthened beams.

  11. Development of the strengthened safeguards system and the Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 30 years, the IAEA's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. The paper summarizes the evolution of the safeguards system, describes strengthened safeguards, reports on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outlines plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  12. Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R C

    2003-03-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity. PMID:12615982

  13. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14CO2. Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  14. Meige's syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige's syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige's syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige's syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige's syndrome. (author)

  15. Ancestral vascular lumen formation via basal cell surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Kucera

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals.

  16. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  17. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  19. RC Columns Strengthened with Novel CFRP Systems: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Napoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study undertaken to investigate the seismic behavior of full scale square (300 mm × 300 mm reinforced concrete (RC columns strengthened with novel systems employing carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP wraps. Experimental tests were carried out by subjecting specimens to a constant axial load and a cyclically reversed horizontal force applied in displacement control. Results have allowed for investigating the influence of the used strengthening systems on the specimens’ performance in terms of flexural strength and ductility as well as on the exhibited failure modes. The effectiveness of the studied techniques is also evaluated by comparing the performance of tested specimens with that of companion columns strengthened with alternative CFRP systems investigated in a previous experimental campaign.

  20. Strengthening of building structures using carbon composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Paranicheva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the question of ensuring the reliability of various building structures both at the stage of their construction and during operation is very urgent. There are a lot of different ways and constructive methods of structures strengthening. Аt the same time, traditional ways of concrete structures strengthening with steel reinforcement are such expensive, time consuming and in some cases require to interrupt the building operation. As an alternative, it is proposed to use composite materials based on high-strength carbon fibers.The authors consider the properties, advantages, disadvantages and the methods of application of these materials. This article presents results of a technical survey carried out in a public building in 2009. In this building the CFRP was used to strengthen concrete slabs, resting on the crossbar consoles. The calculation of the strength is adduced and the section selection is made. The authors demonstrate their conclusions about the feasibility of using carbon composite materials.

  1. Experimental Study on CFRP Strengthened Cold Formed Channel Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Kalavagunta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel members usually display local-global buckling interaction which strongly effects the structural strength of columns. Through strengthening web of the members this buckling can be controlled to some extent. In this investigation, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP is used for strengthening cold formed steel channel member. This paper presents compression tests of cold-formed plain and CFRP strengthened steel channel section columns. This paper also proposes a design method based on Direct Strength Method provisions specified in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI, for determining the axial compression strength. Results obtained from the proposed design method are compared with experimental test data and are found to be in good agreement.

  2. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented

  3. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zergua Abdesselam

    2015-02-01

    The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understanding the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for more effective strengthening technique. This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng’s equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve. The effects of the shear deformations are calculated in an RC beam, an adhesive layer, and an FRP plate. The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses.

  4. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  5. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  6. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  7. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  8. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  9. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  10. Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip from Minor Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Minicucci, Eliana Maria; de Campos, Eloisa Bueno Pires; Weber, Silke Anna Thereza; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custodio; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasm, presenting isomorphic basaloid cells with a prominent basal cell layer. Taking into account that basal cell adenomas represent 1% of all salivary gland tumors, being the majority of cases in the parotid glands, the goal of this paper is to report a case of basal cell adenoma of the upper lip arising from minor salivary gland.

  11. Uji Diagnostik Dermatoskopi Pada Pasien Karsinoma Sel Basal di RSUP. H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Rinanda, Fenni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal-cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm appeared from a non-keratinizing cell which comes from epidermic basal layer. Hispatological test to diagnose basal-cell carcinoma may give rise to uncomfortability and fear. Dermatoscopy test, on the other hand, constitutes a non-invasive, easy, and prompt test which may minimize risks that potentially occurs when conducting a biopsy. Objective: To find out dermatoscopy diagnostic test values in diagnosing basal-cell carcinoma. ...

  12. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-01-01

    Most of the variation (98.8 %) in basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food h...

  13. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naive T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of mushrooms on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of intestinal lamina propria leukocytes does not necessarily depend on β-glucan contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Sung; Oka, Kohsuke; Watanabe, Osamu; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    We evaluated the effects of seven mushroom extracts (Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Panellus serotinus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Armillaria mellea, and Flammulina velutipes) on cytotoxic activity and cytokine production of lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat small (S) and large (L) intestinal mucosa. Boiling water extracts from seven species of mushrooms showed no direct cytotoxicity against the YAC-1 target cells. However, prominent increases of cytotoxicity were observed in S- and L-LPLs co-cultured with P. serotinus extract. Cytokine production (TNFα, IFNγ, IL-12 p70, and IL-4) of S- and L-LPLs was stimulated in response to P. cornucopiae extract. Mushroom extracts contributed to target cell adhesion and/or cytokine production in the effector cells. The promotion of cytotoxic activity in S- and L-LPLs was not necessarily related to β-glucan content of the mushroom. PMID:25213921

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Hollow Steel Columns Strengthening by CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykha A.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for strengthening and retrofitting is well known and extensive research is progressing in this field. The reasons for strengthening and retrofitting are numerous: increased loads, changes in use, deterioration, and so on. In recent years, the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP for strengthening has shown to be a competitive method, both regarding structural performance, and economical aspects. Extensive research has been carried out in this field. However, most of the research has been undertaken on concrete structures and for confinement, flexural, and shear strengthening. Limited research has been carried out on steel structures strengthened with CFRP. This paper presents axially loaded steel columns strengthened for increased load. The topic is studied theoretically and through laboratory tests. The theory covers analytical methods. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers has been used to strengthen the columns. The tests have been undertaken on full scale specimens, non-strengthened for reference, partially strengthened and fully strengthened

  16. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Crack-arresting and Strengthening Mechanism of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. B. He

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure process of reinforced concrete (RC beams is exactly the emergence and propagation process of cracks. According to the principles of Fracture Mechanics, if the cracks were retarded in RC beams, the structure performance would be improved. In this paper, hybrid fiber reinforced polymer (HFRP sheets are proposed to retard crack propagation in RC beams, and the crack-arresting and strengthening mechanism of the HFRP composite in the strengthening of RC beams is revealed, which is substantiated by the finite-element-modelling (FEM analysis and bending improvement of RC beams with externally-bonded hybrid glass/carbon FRP (Hybrid G/C FRP sheets.

  18. APPLICATION OF PRESTRESSED SHELLS TO STRENGTHEN STRIP FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosjan Zaven Grigor'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective method of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings by pre-stressed shells is considered in the paper. Advantages of the proposed strengthening method, its production technology and pre-conditions of its analysis are also presented. Presently, strengthening of ground foundations and foundations of buildings and structures is a relevant civil engineering challenge. It is driven by high intensity of restructuring and modernization of buildings and alteration of geological engineering conditions of the areas that are being built up. One of effective methods of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings represents arrangement of pre-stressed concrete shells with conventional steel or metal-free reinforcement. If compared with injection-based technologies, the proposed reinforcement method reduces the cost of construction work by 1.5 times, on average. Therefore, the per-unit cost of shell-based reinforcement of foundations is under 500 Russian roubles per 1 sq. m. of the building floor area. It is noteworthy that no restrictions are imposed on the operation of the building in the course of the above reconstruction, as the secluded backyard is the sole area that accommodates supplementary construction operations.

  19. Conceptual Precalculus: Strengthening Students' Quantitative and Covariational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Bernard L.; Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Tallman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past few decades points to ways precalculus and calculus courses can be strengthened to improve student learning in these courses. This research has informed the development of the Algebra and Precalculus Concept Readiness (APCR) and the Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) assessments. In this article, the authors present three…

  20. Strategies to Strengthen Our Anti-Bias Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1998-01-01

    Shares examples of how child care center directors dealt with homosexual bias issues in their centers. Suggests the following four strategies when strengthening antibias practices: use inclusive language and images in parent and staff orientations; examine personnel policies; use staff and parent meetings to explore myths, fears, and conflicting…

  1. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  2. Communication Concepts for Strengthening Family-School-Community Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2003-01-01

    Explores topics related to how families, schools, and communities can use communication to strengthen their partnerships. Discusses how communication empowers participants in a shared-learning process, and explores how attitudes shape communication efforts. Examines the role of culture in the communication process, focusing on how cultural…

  3. Shear Strengthening Performance of Hybrid FRP-FRCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusan Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a hybrid fiber reinforced polymer- (FRP- fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM for shear strengthening was investigated though an experimental study. FRP materials of FRCM are usually fabricated in the form of a fabric to enhance the bond strength between the FRP material and the cementitious matrix. The hybrid FRP fabric used in this study consisted of carbon FRP (CFRP and glass FRP (GFRP in warp and weft directions, respectively. A total of 11 beams were fabricated and 8 beams among them were strengthened in shear with externally bonded hybrid FRP-FRCM. The number of plies, the bond types, and the spacing of the hybrid FRP fabric were considered as experimental variables. Additionally, a shear capacity model for a FRCM shear strengthened beam was proposed. The values predicted by the proposed model were compared with those by the ACI 549 code and test results. It was confirmed from the comparison that the proposed model predicted the shear strengthening performance of the hybrid FRP-FRCM more reliably than the ACI 549 code did.

  4. State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

  5. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  6. Practice and Cognition to Strengthen College Students' Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    College students' ideological morality always is the hotspot concerned by various circles of the society, and to strengthen and improve the ideological and moral education in colleges, continually enhance the pertinence and actual effect of the moral education, help college students to dissolve their worldly confusion in moral culture, further…

  7. Strengthening At-Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Debra; Vaulton, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children Initiative, funded by the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, aims to improve the housing, health, and development of homeless and at-risk young families. This article describes the services provided in four program sites (Pomona, CA; Antelope Valley, CA; Minneapolis, MN; and Chicago, IL)…

  8. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  9. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  10. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented in this...

  11. Information and Communication Technologies for Health Systems Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Kate; Shekar, Meera; Christopher H. Herbst; Mohammed, Rianna

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) for health or eHealth solutions hold great potential for generating systemic efficiencies by strengthening five critical pillars of a health system: human resources for health, supply chain management, health care financing, governance and service delivery, and infrastructure. This report describes the changing landscape of eHealth initiativ...

  12. Strengthening Humanistic Perspectives across the Curriculum: A Project [Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-Dutka, Julia; Spencer, Sharon

    Montclair (New Jersey) State College sought to develop a structure that would facilitate the strengthening of humanistic perspectives in its students and would enable students to see the connections between their academic studies and the complex aspects of the meaning of being human in a world that is increasingly fragmented. Six pairs of faculty…

  13. FRP Composites Strengthening of Concrete Columns under Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of some of the progress in the area of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-strengthening of columns for several loading scenarios including impact load. The addition of FRP materials to upgrade deficiencies or to strengthen structural components can save lives by preventing collapse, reduce the damage to infrastructure, and the need for their costly replacement. The retrofit with FRP materials with desirable properties provides an excellent replacement for traditional materials, such as steel jacket, to strengthen the reinforced concrete structural members. Existing studies have shown that the use of FRP materials restore or improve the column original design strength for possible axial, shear, or flexure and in some cases allow the structure to carry more load than it was designed for. The paper further concludes that there is a need for additional research for the columns under impact loading senarios. The compiled information prepares the ground work for further evaluation of FRP-strengthening of columns that are deficient in design or are in serious need for repair due to additional load or deterioration.

  14. Fatigue behaviour analysis for the durability prequalification of strengthening mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative laboratory procedure used as a preliminary design stage for the pre-qualification of strengthening mortars applied to historical masonry buildings is described. In the analysis of the behaviour of masonry structures and their constituent materials, increasing importance has been assumed by the study of the long-term evolution of deformation and mechanical characteristics, which may be affected by both loading and environmental conditions. Through static and fatigue tests on mixed specimens historical brick-reinforced mortar it has been possible to investigate the durability of strengthening materials, in order to select, from a range of alternatives, the most suitable for the historical masonry. Cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of the historical brick-strengthening mortar system under static long-time loading. This methodology has proved useful in avoiding the errors associated with materials that are not mechanically compatible and guarantees the durability of strengthening work. The experimental procedure has been used effectively in the biggest restoration building site in Europe, the Royal Palace of Venaria, and it is in progress of carrying out at the Special Natural Reserve of the Sacro Monte di Varallo, in Piedmont (Italy).

  15. Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening in graded nanostructured steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Gao, Yukui;

    2012-01-01

    across boundaries increases to ∼65% of high angle boundaries. The coldrolled steel shows a low hardening rate at high strain and by assuming additive strength contributions from Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening, the flow stress has been expressed by the relationship σ - σ0 = k2D-0.5av , where Dav...

  16. Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.

    2016-06-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.

  17. Specific Suggestions to Strengthen Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the two decades ahead, China's development will face a period of important strategic opportunities. While coping with big power relations, China needs to be pluralistic in external relations and economic and trade relations. Therefore, strengthening relations with the developing countries and promoting South South cooperation is in China's interest and an essential link to ensure China's rise in the new century.

  18. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews. PMID:23572369

  19. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  20. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  1. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [18F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [18F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [18F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [18F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [18F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [18F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [18F]dopa uptake overlap. D1 and D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [18F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  2. Seismic evaluation and strengthening of Bohunice nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic assessment and strengthening investigation is being performed for selected structures at the Bohunice V1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia. Structures covered in this paper include the reactor building complex and the emergency generator station. The emergency generator station is emphasized in the paper as work is nearly complete while work on the reactor building complex is ongoing at this time. Seismic evaluation and strengthening work is being performed by a cooperative effort of Siemens and EQE along with local contractors. Seismic input is the interim Review Level Earthquake (horizontal peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g). The Bohunice V1 reactor building complex is a WWER 4401230 nuclear power plant that was originally built in the mid-1970s but had extensive seismic upgrades in 1991. Siemens has performed three dimensional dynamic analyses of the reactor building complex to develop seismic demand in structural elements. EQE is assessing seismic capacities of structural elements and developing strengthening schemes, where needed. Based on recent seismic response analyses for the interim Review Level Earthquake which account for soil-structure interaction in a rigorous manner, the 1991 seismic upgrade has been found to be inadequate in both member/connection strength and in providing complete load paths to the foundation. Additional strengthening is being developed. The emergency generator station was built in the 1970s and is a two-story unreinforced brick masonry (URM) shear wall building above grade with a one story reinforced concrete shear wall basement below grade. Seismic analyses and testing of the URM walls has been performed to assess the need for building strengthening. Required structural strengthening for in-plane forces consists of revised and additional vertical steel framing and connections, stiffening of horizontal roof bracing, and steel connections between the roof and supporting walls and pointing of two interior transverse URM

  3. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  4. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  5. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  6. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...... to 40% smaller skin defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We...

  7. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  8. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  9. Novelty encoding by the output neurons of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mati Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia have focused on the resemblance of the dopamine signal to the temporal difference error. However the role of the network as a whole is still elusive, in particular whether the output of the basal ganglia encodes only the behavior (actions or it is part of the valuation process. We trained a monkey extensively on a probabilistic conditional task with seven fractal cues predicting rewarding or aversive outcomes (familiar cues. Then in each recording session we added a cue that the monkey had never seen before (new cue and recorded from single units in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr while the monkey was engaged in a task with new cues intermingled within the familiar ones. The monkey learned the association between the new cue and outcome and modified its licking and blinking behavior which became similar to responses to the familiar cues with the same outcome. However, the responses of many SNpr neurons to the new cue exceeded their response to familiar cues even after behavioral learning was completed. This dissociation between behavior and neural activity suggests that the BG output code goes beyond instruction or gating of behavior to encoding of novel cues. Thus, BG output can enable learning at the levels of its target neural networks.

  10. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  11. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReitsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primatesshow increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burstrate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brainactivity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behaviorof downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns ofbasal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics,we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC relay neurons receivingcorrelated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus(GPi, a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observethat the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increaseswith the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as thoseseen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlationsthan do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also showthat the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlationtransfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatoryfiring patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlationsare best transferred through the system. To explain this lastresult, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficientfor oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysisindicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer isrobust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arisesdue to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when thelong timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall,these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affectthe transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  12. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  13. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  14. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  15. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  16. A Basal Lithostrotian Titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a Complete Skull: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of Titanosauria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rubén D. F.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Novas, Fernando E.; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martínez, Javier E.; Vita, Javier R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian—Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla—lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) ‘tongue-like’ ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with ‘strut-like’ centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs. The cranial endocast of Sarmientosaurus preserves some of the most complete information obtained to date regarding the brain and sensory systems of sauropods. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as a basal member of Lithostrotia, as the most plesiomorphic titanosaurian to be preserved with a complete skull. Sarmientosaurus provides a wealth of new cranial evidence that reaffirms the close relationship of titanosaurs to Brachiosauridae. Moreover, the presence of the relatively derived lithostrotian Tapuiasaurus in Aptian deposits indicates that the new Patagonian genus represents a ‘ghost lineage’ with a comparatively plesiomorphic craniodental form, the evolutionary

  17. A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Valvo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.

  18. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  19. STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS IN Nb-Ti-V MICROALLOYED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Lopes Vieira Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yield strength of Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel has been investigated as a function of its microstructure obtained after industrial rolling on a hot strip mill. Optical (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to reveal the ferrite grain structure, fine carbonitride precipitation and dislocation substructures. It was found that the effects of solid solution and grain size hardening were not sufficient to justify the results of tensile testing. Additional strengthening was attributed to carbonitride precipitation in austenite, interphase precipitation during transformation, and the formation of dislocations. All contributions of these microstructural features on mechanical property were estimated from empirical models available from literature. A global effect of both austenite and interphase carbonitride precipitation hardening was proposed. It was verified that yield strength calculated from cumulative effect of different strengthening mechanisms has presented good fitting with experimental tensile test.

  20. EMOTIONAL STRENGTHENING IN THE FAMILY: INTERVENTION FROM THE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the context of psychosocial risk due to poverty and present some strategies to approach such goal from the school environment. This approach is mainly focused on the strengthening of emotional resources in parents and primary caregivers to achieve a direct impact on the children’s emo-tional development.

  1. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo OLANIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr and Nickel (Ni were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructural evolution and phase formation during oxide dispersion strengthening of duplex stainless steel composites were investigated. The influence of composition variation of the reinforcements on the microstructural and corrosion behaviour in simulated mine water of the composites were investigated. In this manuscript, it was established that composition has great influence on the structure/properties relationship of the composites developed.

  2. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  3. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  4. Generalized cosmological constraints on neutrino oscillations - Relaxed or strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss cosmological constraints, based on BBN production of He-4, on electron-sterile neutrino oscillations proceeding after electron neutrino freeze-out. The general case of sterile neutrino state partially filled at the onset of oscillations is discussed 0 s s ≠ 0 has a two- fold effect on He-4: (a) it enhances the energy density, increasing the production of He-4 and strengthening BBN constraints on oscillations and (b) it suppresses the kinetic effects of oscillations on BBN, particularly neutrino spectrum distortion, thus decreasing He-4 overproduction and relaxing BBN constraints. The cosmological constraints depend on the interplay between the two effects: when the effect (a) dominates, the constraints are strengthened, while when the effect (b) dominates, the constraints are relaxed. (author)

  5. Durability of concrete structures strengthened with FRP laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test, the alkaline immersion test, the water immersion test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on mechanical behavior of FRP was studied. CFRP specimens subjected to aggressive environments showed good durability with no significant degradation in tensile strength and modulus; however, GFRP specimens exhibited a little decrease in mechanical property after aggressive environments exposure. Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on the bond behavior between FRP and concrete, mechanical behavior of concrete beams and columns strengthened with FRP laminates was studied. The results showed that the bond strength had a significant decrease compared with those specimens kept at room temperature, and the specimens strengthened with FRP exhibited good durability.

  6. Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using CFRP Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrastructure's increasing decay is frequently combined with the need for upgrading so that structures can meet more stringent design requirements (e.g., increased traffic volumes in bridges exceeding the initial design loads), and hence the aspect of civil engineering infrastructure renewal has received considerable attention over the past few years throughout the world. At the same time, seismic retrofit has become equally important, especially in the areas of high seismic risk. The worldwide acceptance of external plate bonding using CFRP laminates for the repair of under strengthened or damaged reinforced concrete beams is the real incentive for many investigators to devote a great deal of effort to physically understand the response of such beams under externally applied loads. This paper is aimed towards providing a review of the repair and strengthening of the RC concrete structures using CFRP plates along with introducing the basics of the above mentioned technique

  7. A novel CZT detector using strengthened electric field line anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Qiang; Li, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Lan; Niu, Li-Bo; Jiang, Hao; Li, Yuan-Jing

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, simulation and testing of a novel CZT detector with an electrode named the Strengthened Electric Field Line Anode (SEFLA). The Strengthened Electric Field (SEF) technique and Single Polarity Charge Sensing (SPCS) technique are implemented. It could achieve the same performance as Coplanar Grid, Pixel Array CZT detectors but requires only a simple readout system. Geant4, Ansoft Maxwell and a self-developed Induced Current Calculator (ICC) package are used to develop an understanding of how the energy spectrum is formed, and the parameters of the detector are optimized. A prototype is fabricated. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this design. The test shows that the SEFLA detector achieves a FWHM of 6.0% @59.5 keV and 1.6% @662 keV, which matches well with the simulations.

  8. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  9. Strengthening of Structures Damaged by the Azores Earthquake of 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Costa; António Arêde

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses repair and strengthening techniques proposed for the rehabilitation of small buildings on Faial Island, Azores, hit and damaged by the Azores earthquake on 9 July 1998. A brief description is provided of the construction type and practice in the island, highlighting the main type of houses. Due to the lack of relevant information concerning construction material data, experimental tests were performed in situ, involving static and dynamic measurements. The experimental ca...

  10. Inventory of FRP strengthening methods in masonry structures

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Rashadul

    2008-01-01

    Masonry structures are prone to extensive damage followed by failure and collapse when subjected to loads resulting from wind, earthquake and other natural or man-made events. Recent earthquakes and terrorist acts have clearly demonstrated that the development of effective and affordable strategies for the strengthening of masonry is urgently needed. As a response to these challenges, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites may offer technically and economically viable soluti...

  11. Seismic analysis and strengthening of Pico Island Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa; Domingos Moreira; Nuno Neves

    2012-01-01

    The proposed study addresses the development of an integrated strategy for modelling, experimental calibration, numerical analysis and seismic strengthening carried out in two churches of the Pico Island, Azores, namely the Bandeiras and the Madalena churches. Following an initial description of the observed damages resulting from the 1998 earthquake, the modelling option for the churches structures is outlined. Reference is made to the use of ambient vibration tests that led to the definitio...

  12. Strengthening families through early intervention in high HIV prevalence countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan, U.; Richter, L.

    2009-01-01

    Families have been at the forefront of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in high-prevalence countries. They have also borne the greatest costs associated with the epidemic, including impoverishment, which has strained their capacity to care for vulnerable members. Within this context, there is consensus that strengthening the capacity of families to care for children is one of the most important strategies for mitigating the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on children's lives in high-pre...

  13. Seismic evaluation of old masonry buildings: performance and strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, H.; Vicente, R.; Rodrigues, H; Silva, J. A. R. Mendes da

    2006-01-01

    The concern and need to assess seismic vulnerability, particularly of the traditional masonry buildings under seismic actions is a key issue, that should be a priority in the mitigation of the seismic risk, definition of strengthening requirements needs and minimization of possible damages due to seismic actions, in the identification of critical buildings and safeguarding of built heritage. This paper provides information on the constructive and structural details of the tr...

  14. EMOTIONAL STRENGTHENING IN THE FAMILY: INTERVENTION FROM THE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar; Laura Beatriz Oros

    2012-01-01

    The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the c...

  15. Strengthening of poor lime mortar with consolidation agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Frankeová, Dita; Drdácký, Miloš

    Glasgow: University of the West of Scotland, 2013 - (Hughes, J.) ISBN 978-1-903978-44-3. [Historic mortars conference /3./. Glasgow (GB), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0060 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mortar * consolidation * strengthening * treatment * consolidant Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  16. Malaysia; Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Technical Assistance report reviews the reforms undertaken by the Government of Malaysia for strengthening outcome-based budgeting (OBB). OBB builds on the previous output-based modified budgeting system, which was in place for more than two decades. OBB aims to improve the efficiency, the performance, and the prioritization of expenditures by aligning national and ministerial outcomes with programs and budgetary resources and by integrating planning, budgeting, and evaluation. OBB has m...

  17. Project on strengthening of structures using advanced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Recuero, A.; Miravete, A.

    1997-01-01

    Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Engineers involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, what makes that an entity shou...

  18. Learning Sealing: Traditional Knowledge Strengthening Awareness of Being Greenlandic Today

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates in which ways learning ‘traditional’ knowledge such as seal hunting is a strengthening factor for the awareness of being Greenlandic today. It looks at knowledge transfer between one generation and the next as well as the role of knowledge transfer in the education system. Finally, the tension or interplay between possessing traditional knowledge and living as a modern people is discussed. Through primarily using qualitative research in the shape of interviews of ...

  19. Brand Heritage : Helping Strengthen the Brand Identity of Husqvarna Motorcycles

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdh, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to learn how brand heritage and retro brands can help HQM strengthen their brand identity. Background: Companies with a long history have a strategic choice to make re-garding the use of their heritage in marketing communications. Such companies also enjoy a history of interesting products, for which some may exist the possibility for a retro relaunch. Husqvarna is such a company, which made it interesting to find out how these two strategic to...

  20. Strengthen the Supervision over Pharmaceuticals via Modern Automatic Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fake pharmaceuticals inflicts severely upon people(?)~-s health through its circulation in markets.To strengthen the supervision of the pharmaceutical market,China is improving and is perfecting its national coding system in the field of pharmaceuticals. Bar-code tag and IC tag are available to the coding system.This paper summarizes the significance of IC tag to the supervision of pharmaceuticals and gives us a strategically general prospect of pharmaceutical supervision.