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Sample records for basal lamina strengthens

  1. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  2. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Jeremy G. Thompson; Mason, Helen D; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. MET...

  3. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  4. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.J.; Zijderveld, R van; Roestenberg, P.M.H.; Lyons, K.M.; Goldschmeding, R.; Klaassen, I.; Noorden, C.J.F. van; Schlingemann, R.O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize tha

  5. Distribution and role in regeneration of N-CAM in the basal laminae of muscle and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, F; Nicolet, M; Pinçon-Raymond, M; Murawsky, M; Levi, G; Edelman, G M

    1988-08-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in neuron-neuron and neuron-muscle adhesion. It can be synthesized in various forms by both nerve and muscle and it becomes concentrated at the motor endplate. Biochemical analysis of a frog muscle extract enriched in basal lamina revealed the presence of a polydisperse, polysialylated form of N-CAM with an average Mr of approximately 160,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE, which was converted to a form of 125,000 Mr by treatment with neuraminidase. To define further the role of N-CAM in neuromuscular junction organization, we studied the distribution of N-CAM in an in vivo preparation of frog basal lamina sheaths obtained by inducing the degeneration of both nerve and muscle fibers. Immunoreactive material could be readily detected by anti-N-CAM antibodies in such basal lamina sheaths. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold techniques revealed N-CAM in close association with the basal lamina sheaths, present in dense accumulation at places that presumably correspond to synaptic regions. N-CAM epitopes were also associated with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix. The ability of anti-N-CAM antibodies to perturb nerve regeneration and reinnervation of the remaining basal lamina sheaths was then examined. In control animals, myelinating Schwann cells wrapped around the regenerated axon and reinnervation occurred only at the old synaptic areas; new contacts between nerve and basal lamina had a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve terminal. In the presence of anti-N-CAM antibodies, three major abnormalities were observed in the regeneration and reinnervation processes: (a) regenerated axons in nerve trunks that had grown back into the old Schwann cell basal lamina were rarely associated with myelinating Schwann cell processes, (b) ectopic synapses were often present, and (c) many of the axon terminals lacked a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve-basal lamina contact area. These

  6. Computer simulation of wound closure in epithelial tissues: Cell-basal-lamina adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    The mechanism of wound closure in epithelial tissues, i.e., cell monolayer sheets, is investigated through computer simulations. A wound means an area in which some cells have been removed from the normal tissue. The vertex dynamics cell model [T. Nagai and H. Honda, Philos. Mag. B 81, 699 (2001)], which describes morphogenesis of epithelial tissues using the concepts of statistical physics, is modified and applied to the closure of small wounds without mitosis. It is shown that cell-basal-lamina adhesion governs the wound closure competing with cell-cell adhesion and cell elasticity. The simulation results reproduce the actual wound closure process qualitatively and partly quantitatively. The closing proceeds with the translation of the edges of wound polygons toward the wound center and the intermittent reduction in the number of polygon edges. Over time, the process leads to an exponential decrease in the wound area. A shape factor is introduced to describe the wound shape quantitatively and is used to examine the time variation thereof. A method for determining model parameters by comparison with the experiments is given.

  7. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  8. Impact of laminitis on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in basal epithelial cells of the equine digital laminae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change in laminitic horses, and lose versican gene expression. Versican gene expression is purportedly under control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a trigger for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; thus, its repression in laminar epithelial cells of laminitic horses may be associated with suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and loss of the epithelial cell phenotype. In support of the former contention, we show, using laminae from healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescent tissue staining, that positive and negative regulatory components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of healthy horses. Furthermore, expression of positive regulators is suppressed and negative regulators elevated in laminae of laminitic compared to healthy horses. We also show that versican gene expression in the epithelial cells correlates positively with that of β-catenin and T-cell Factor 4, consistent with regulation by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, gene and protein expression of β-catenin correlates positively with that of integrin β4 and both are strongly suppressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of laminitic horses, which remain E-cadherin(+/vimentin(-, excluding mesenchymal transition as contributing to loss of the adherens junction and hemidesmosome components. We propose that suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and

  9. COOH-terminal collagen Q (COLQ) mutants causing human deficiency of endplate acetylcholinesterase impair the interaction of ColQ with proteins of the basal lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Juan; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Gochez, Danielle A; Lee, Diana C; Logia, Stephanie P; Nguyen, Joanna; Maselli, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel mutations at the COOH-terminus of ColQ in seven patients from five families affected with endplate (EP) AChE deficiency. We found that the mutations do not affect the assembly of ColQ with AChE to form asymmetric forms of AChE or impair the interaction of ColQ with perlecan. By contrast, all mutations impair in varied degree the interaction of ColQ with MuSK as well as basement membrane extract (BME) that have no detectable MuSK. Our data confirm that the interaction of ColQ to perlecan and MuSK is crucial for anchoring AChE to the NMJ. In addition, the identified COOH-terminal mutants not only reduce the interaction of ColQ with MuSK, but also diminish the interaction of ColQ with BME. These findings suggest that the impaired attachment of COOH-terminal mutants causing EP AChE deficiency is in part independent of MuSK, and that the COOH-terminus of ColQ may interact with other proteins at the BL.

  10. 肌基膜管移植修复脊髓缺损的实验研究%Transplantation of autologous muscle basal lamina to repair spinal cord transection in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培建; 李兵仓; 胥少汀

    2001-01-01

    目的应用自体肌基膜管(muscle basal lamina,MBL)移植结合神经生长因子(nervegrowth factor,NGF)修复脊髓缺损.方法18只雌性家犬脊髓横断后分为三组.A组:MBL移植结合注射NGF组,7只犬;B组:单纯MBL移植组,7只犬;C组:对照组,切除脊髓0.5 cm,4只犬.6个月后用免疫组化法对神经轴突进行特异染色,并用图像分析方法对脊髓横断处的远近端横截面进行神经纤维数比较.结果A、B两组移植物中神经纤维计数比较,差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01);各组远端神经纤维数比较,差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01);近端神经纤维数比较,A组与B组差异有显著性意义(P<0.05),A组与C组差异有非常显著性意义(P<0.01),而B组与C组差异无显著性意义(P>0.05).光镜下观察到MBL移植物中有神经纤维通过.电镜证实横断远端存在新生神经纤维.结论MBL作为一种生物管道,可作为神经轴突再生的通路;NGF具有促进神经轴突生长的作用.MBL移植结合NGF修复脊髓横断性损伤,神经轴突能越过移植区到达远端.

  11. The peritoneal elastic lamina.

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, P J

    1991-01-01

    The structure and extent of the submesothelial elastic tissue of the peritoneum, tentatively termed the peritoneal elastic lamina (lamina elastica peritonei, LEP), was studied in autopsy and biopsy material by light microscopy. The investigation confirms the presence of a well-defined network of elastic fibres just beneath the basement membrane of the visceral and parietal peritoneum in man. The LEP is claimed to be analogous to similar elastic tissue in other serosal cavities, the pleura and...

  12. 携带神经干细胞的肌基膜管在大鼠脊髓损伤修复中的应用%Application of muscle basal lamina containing neural stem cells in repair of spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杰亮; 康学文; 汪静; 王拴科; 王翠芳; 马靖琳; 安丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of muscle basal lamina containing neural stem cells (NSCs) in repair of spinal cord injury.Methods Thirty-six SD rats from the same nest were used in the study and spinal cord hemisection models were induced.The animals were classified to blank control group (clearance of the lesion edge only with isotonic saline),NSCs group (transplantation of NSCs to the edge),NSCs + muscle basal lamina group (transplantation of complex of NSCs and muscle basal lamina to the edge) according to random number table,with 12 rats per group.At weeks 4 and 8,survival and migration of the transplanted cells and compatibility of muscle basal lamina with the host were detected.At weeks 2,4,and 8,the hindlimb function was assayed using BBB scoring system.Results NSCs in NSCs + muscle basal lamina group grew at the lesion edge,migrated to both sides of the edge,and integrated with peripheral tissues.Whereas,few NSCs survived at the lesion edge in NSCs group and inflammatory cell infiltration was notable.At week 2,there was no statistical difference of BBB score among the three groups.At weeks 4 and 8,BBB score in NSCs + muscle basal lamina group (7.92 ± 1.00,11.38 ± 1.51) was significantly higher than that in blank control group (3.82 ± 0.75,3.71 ± 0.76) and NSCs group (6.25 ±1.06,8.25 ± 1.83) (P<0.05).Conclusion Muscle basal lamina orients growth of NSCs along its lumen,facilitates migration of host cells to ground substance within its lumen,and reduces local inflammatory reaction.%目的 观察携神经干细胞(neural stem cells,NSCs)的肌基膜管对脊髓损伤的修复作用. 方法 选择同一窝别SD大鼠36只,制备脊髓半切损伤模型,按随机数字表法分为空白对照组(脊髓断端处仅做等渗盐水冲洗)、NSCs组(脊髓断端处注射NSCs)和NSCs+肌基膜管组(脊髓断端处植入NSCs+肌基膜管复合体),每组12只.4,8周后观察移植细胞的存活、迁移、肌基膜管与宿主的组织相容

  13. An experimental study on repairing sciatic nerve defects of rats by human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular nerve basal lamina tube%人脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学建; 何江涛; 孙士强

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of using human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells as seed cells to repair sciatic nerve defects of rats by tissue engineering methods. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord were cultured and induced into neuron-liked cells,which were co-cultured with acellular basal lamina tube to construct tissue engineering nerve;models of sciatic nerve defects 10 mm in length were set up with thirty healthy adult SD rats and were divided randomly into 3 groups:tissue engineering nerve group (group A, compound of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells and acellular basal lamina tube), pure acellular basal lamina tube group (group B), and autogenous nerve bridging group (group C). Evaluation of electrophysiological and histological results was carried out 10 weeks after operation. Results The engineering nerve group had good result in nerve regeneration which was close to the effect of autogenous nerve transfer group (group A), and much better than the effect of pure acellular basal lamina tube group. Conclusion Engineering nerves from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells can effectively repair 10 mm defects of sciatic nerve.%目的 探讨诱导后的脐带间充质干细胞作为组织工程种子细胞修复大鼠坐骨神经缺损的可行性.方法 从正常足月新生儿脐带中分离培养间充质干细胞并诱导分化为神经样细胞,与去细胞神经基膜管共培养以构建组织工程神经;用30只健康成年雄性SD大鼠建立坐骨神经缺损(10 mm)的动物模型并随机分成3组:A组为脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组,B组为单纯去细胞神经基膜管组,C组为自体神经桥接组.术后10周通过神经电生理检测、组织学观察等评测效果.结果 在局部观察和肌肉测量、神经电生理检测、组织学观察等方面,脐带间充质干细胞复合去细胞神经基膜管组(A组)神经再生及肢体功

  14. Nuclear lamina in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 杨澄; 翟中和

    1996-01-01

    By using selective extraction and diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and embedment-free electron microscopy, the nuclear lamina was demonstrated in carrot and Ginkgo male generative cells. Western blotting revealed that the nuclear lamina was composed of A-type and B-type lamins which contained at least 66-ku and 84-ku or 66-ku and 86-ku polypeptides, respectively. These lamin proteins were localized at the nudear periphery as shown by immunogold-labelling. In situ hybridization for light microscope and electron microscope showed that plant cells have the homologous sequences of animal lamin cDNA. The sorting site of lamin mRNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm near the nudear envelope. The data have verified that there indeed exists nudear lamina in plant cells.

  15. Mesenchymal Cells of the Intestinal Lamina Propria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D.W.; Pinchuk, I.V.; Saada, J.I.; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow–derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  17. CT evaluation of medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency, location and gender difference of the medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea toward the ethmoid sinus were evaluated in 522 patients who underwent CT of the paranasal sinus region at our institution between January 1999 and January 2002. The area of interest was the nose and paranasal sinuses in 295 patients, auditory organ in 190 patients and maxillofacial area in 37 patients. The lamina papyracea was clearly identified in all the patients. Patients with a past history of paranasal sinus surgery and those with injuries in the lamina papyracea were excluded from the study. The patients consisted of 283 males and 239 females aged between 6 and 94 years. Twenty-nine patients were younger than 20 years old. Axial slices were taken in most cases. Medial protrusion was judged to be positive in cases where the lamina papyracea evidently deviated toward the ethmoid sinus on CT and the CT value of the protruded area was identical to that of the orbital fat. Medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea was positive in 4 males and 2 females with a frequency of 1.15%. All the 6 patients were older than 20 years old. The protrusion was located in the anterior ethmoid in 2 patients, middle ethmoid in 3 patients and entire ethmoid area in 1 patient whose ethmoid sinuses were poorly developed. The protrusion was also located on the right side in 4 patients and on the left side in 2. Bilateral protrusion was not observed. It has been reported that the frequency of medial protrusion of the lamina papyracea is about 1%. CT is an essential examination before surgery of the nose and paranasal sinuses. It is important to preoperatively evaluate the anatomical relation of critical structures including the lamina papyracea. (author)

  18. Dental lamina cyst of newborn: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental lamina cyst, also known as gingival cyst of newborn, is a benign oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. These lesions are usually multiple but do not increase in size. Since the lesions are self-limiting and spontaneously shed a few weeks or months after birth no treatment is required. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion. In addition, it may be incorrectly diagnosed as natal teeth if present in mandibular anterior region. Here, we present a case of dental lamina cyst of newborn.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  20. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  1. Quantification of the spatial organization of the nuclear lamina as a tool for cell classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, C.H.; Zatreanu, D.A.; Raz, V.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope that plays multiple regulatory roles in chromatin organization and gene expression as well as a structural role in nuclear stability. The lamina proteins, also referred to as lamins, determine nuclear lamina organization and defin

  2. Adaptations for nocturnal and diurnal vision in the hawkmoth lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Anna L; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Animals use vision over a wide range of light intensities, from dim starlight to bright sunshine. For animals active in very dim light the visual system is challenged by several sources of visual noise. Adaptations in the eyes, as well as in the neural circuitry, have evolved to suppress the noise and enhance the visual signal, thereby improving vision in dim light. Among neural adaptations, spatial summation of visual signals from neighboring processing units is suggested to increase the reliability of signal detection and thus visual sensitivity. In insects, the likely neural candidates for carrying out spatial summation are the lamina monopolar cells (LMCs) of the first visual processing area of the insect brain (the lamina). We have classified LMCs in three species of hawkmoths with considerably different activity periods but very similar ecology-the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum, the nocturnal Deilephila elpenor and the crepuscular-nocturnal Manduca sexta. Using this classification, we investigated the anatomical adaptations of hawkmoth LMCs suited for spatial summation. We found that specific types of LMCs have dendrites extending to significantly more neighboring cartridges in the two nocturnal and crepuscular species than in the diurnal species, making these LMC types strong candidates for spatial summation. Moreover, while the absolute number of cartridges visited by the LMCs differed between the two dim-light species, their dendritic extents were very similar in terms of visual angle, possibly indicating a limiting spatial acuity. The overall size of the lamina neuropil did not correlate with the size of its LMCs. PMID:26100612

  3. Dynamics of Tetrahymena macronuclear lamina during cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIN; ZHONGHEZHAI

    1994-01-01

    During mitosis,the nuclear lamina in higher eukaryotic cells undergoes a distinctly morphological change.It breaks down into lamin polymers or monomers at prophase.At telophase,the lamins reassemble around the condensed chromatin to form the layer of lamina.Using antiserum to mammalian lamins,we studied the dynamics of lamina during cell division in the macronuleus of Tetrahymena shanghaiensis,which divided in the way of amitosis.In contrast to those in higher animal cells,the typical perinuclear lamin distribution in the macronucleus persisted throughout the whole cell cycle.It was further found that in some synchronized cells,the lamin distribution bisplayed an unusual pattern consisting of a series of spots within the macronucleus.Using South-western hybridization,we found that the purified 66 KD lamin in Tetrahymena showed specific affinity with the telomere DNA sequence in the same species.Therefore,we propose that pattern of immunofluorescence may be due to the interaction of lamin protein with the nucleoli and the condensed chromatins in the macronucleus.

  4. Relation between nuclear envelope and nuclear lamina in nuclear assembly in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡树涛; 翟中和

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis egg extracts cell-free nuclear assembly system was used as an experimental model to study the process of nuclear lamina assembly in nuclear reconstitution in vitro. The experimental results showed that lamin was involved in the nuclear assembly in vitro. The assembly of nuclear lamina was preceded by the assembly of nuclear matrix, and probably, inner nuclear matrix assembly provided the basis for nuclear lamina assembly. Inhibition of normal assembly of nuclear lamina, by preincubating egg extracts cell-free system with anti-lamin antibodies, resulted in abnormal assembly of nuclear envelope, suggesting that nuclear envelope assembly is closely associated with nuclear lamina assembly.

  5. Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

  6. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  7. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence.

  8. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member......The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...

  9. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, John C.; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Reiser, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type, and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output ...

  10. FRP : Strengthened RC Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J. G.; Chen, J. F.; Smith, S. T.; Lam, L.

    2002-01-01

    The strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures using advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, and in particular the behaviour of FRP-strengthened RC structures is a topic which has become very popular in recent years. This popularity has arisen due to the need to maintain and upgrade essential infrastructure in all parts of the world, combined with the well-known advantages of FRP composites, such as good corrosion resistance and ease for site handling due to their light weight. The continuous reduction in the material cost of FRP composites has also contributed to their popularity. While a great amount of research now exists in the published literature on this topic, it is scattered in various journals and conference proceedings. This book therefore provides the first ever comprehensive, state-of-the-art summary of the existing research on FRP strengthening of RC structures, with the emphasis being on structural behaviour and strength models. The main topics covered include: Bond behaviour Flexural and shear strengthening of beams Column strengthening Flexural strengthening of slabs. For each area, the methods of strengthening are discussed, followed by a description of behaviour and failure modes and then the presentation of rational design recommendations, for direct use in practical design of FRP strengthening measures. Researchers, practicing engineers, code writers and postgraduate students in structural engineering and construction materials, as well as consulting firms, government departments, professional bodies, contracting firms and FRP material suppliers will find this an invaluable resource.

  11. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes.

  12. Pseudoarthrosis following fracture of left lamina of C2 vertebra causing compressive myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.M. Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoarthrosis involving lamina of C2 vertebra requiring intervention is very rare. We report the unusual case of a 38-year-old man presenting with pseudoarthrosis of an old fracture involving left lamina of C2 vertebra. The patient presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis and history of sustaining injury to his neck 15 years ago. Imaging showed pseudoarthrosis involving the left lamina of C2 vertebra with significant cord compression. Posterior approach was used and decompressive laminectomy was done at C2 and C3 levels with removal of the affected segment with pseudoarthrosis. The postoperative period was uneventful and the neurological recovery was good.

  13. Pseudo-elastic Hysteresis Damping Characteristics of SMA Hybrid Composite Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shuangshuang; JIANG Xiance; SUN Guojun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite lamina subjected to longitudinally strain or stress controlled cyclic loading is investigated. The SMA is under pseudo-elastic condition and the fibers are embedded (bonded) to the host material. The influences of temperature, volume fraction of SMA and longitudinal modulus of the host material on the stress-strain relation and energy dissipation of the SMA hybrid composite lamina are discussed. The results indicate that the stress-strain curve of the lamina per cycle shows a hysteresis loop. The hysteresis damping decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing volume fractions of SMA. In addition, the hysteresis damping is nearly independent of the longitudinal modulus of the host material under strain controlled loading. However, it depends dramatically on the longitudinal modulus of the host material under stress controlled loading, which shows the SMA composite lamina has high pseudo-elastic hysteresis damping when the longitudinal modulus of the host material is low.

  14. Roller micrometer analysis of grain size and shape sorting within sand laminae from lacustrine barrier islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, J.A.; Braun, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    The dynamics of sand lamination deposition were investigated for two barrier islands in Lake Erie: Cedar Point Spit, Ohio, and Presque Isle, Pennsylvania. A new measurement technique, roller micrometer analysis, was used to describe the grain size and shape distributions of samples. This technique mechanically sizes grains by both the intermediate (I) and smallest (S) principal dimensions and thus divides a sample into fractions containing grains with common I and S dimensions and tabularity (S/I) ratio. Portions of the two barrier islands are subject to overwashing by wind-driven lake waters. During such events foreshore laminae are eroded and the sand is redeposited in washover fan topset and foreset laminae. At other times, normal wave activity reworks the washover fan deposits into foreshore laminae. In the transport of sand across the barrier islands from the lake margin (foreshore laminae) through the interior (fan topset laminae) and to the lagoon margin (fan foreset laminae), the following trends are observed: mean grain size increases, grain size sorting become poorer, grain size skewness becomes coarser, and, for grains of the same size, the proportion of more tabular grains decreases. These trends indicate, in a lagoonward direction, progressive winnowing from the bed load of the finer and more tabular grains and increased intermixing of the remaining coarser bed load grains. Roller micrometer analysis is an important new tool for sedimentologists. It provides traditional grain-size distribution data along with the distribution of grain tabularity. Together the two distributions are sensitive indicators of winnowing and selective deposition.

  15. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  16. Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate a massive lamina reticularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C

    2013-09-01

    In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10 μm) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an α6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality.

  17. Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of "wanted" and in the suppression of "unwanted" behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill similar functions: It may mediate reinforcement which strengthens a given behaviour when elicited subsequently, but which is not experienced as reward or hedonia. Glutamate as the transmitter of the corticofugal projections to the basal ganglia nuclei and of the subthalamic neurons is critically involved in basal ganglia functions and dysfunctions; for example Parkinson's disease can be considered to be a secondary hyperglutamatergic disease. Additionally, glutamate is an essential factor in the plasticity response of the basal-ganglia. However, opposite to previous suggestions, the NMDA-receptor blocker MK-801 does not prevent psychostimulant- nor morphine-induced day to day increase (sensitization) of locomotion. Also the day to day increase of haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not prevented by MK-801. PMID:9871434

  18. Effects of changes in composite lamina properties on laminate coefficient of thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of changes in composite lamina properties on the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, has been made. Low modulus graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and high modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic and near-zero CTE laminate configurations. The effects of changes in lamina properties on the laminate CTE strongly depend upon the type of composite material as well as the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.22 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminates. No significant differences were observed in the sensitivities of the laminate CTEs of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to identical changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can also result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  19. Auxin-mediated lamina growth in tomato leaves is restricted by two parallel mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gera, Hadas; Dafna, Asaf; Alvarez, John Paul; Bar, Maya; Mauerer, Mareike; Ori, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    In the development of tomato compound leaves, local auxin maxima points, separated by the expression of the Aux/IAA protein SlIAA9/ENTIRE (E), direct the formation of discrete leaflets along the leaf margin. The local auxin maxima promote leaflet initiation, while E acts between leaflets to inhibit auxin response and lamina growth, enabling leaflet separation. Here, we show that a group of auxin response factors (ARFs), which are targeted by miR160, antagonizes auxin response and lamina growth in conjunction with E. In wild-type leaf primordia, the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A and SlARF17 are expressed in leaflets, and SlmiR160 is expressed in provascular tissues. Leaf overexpression of the miR160-targeted ARFs SlARF10A, SlARF10B or SlARF17, led to reduced lamina and increased leaf complexity, and suppressed auxin response in young leaves. In agreement, leaf overexpression of miR160 resulted in simplified leaves due to ectopic lamina growth between leaflets, reminiscent of e leaves. Genetic interactions suggest that E and miR160-targeted ARFs act partially redundantly but are both required for local inhibition of lamina growth between initiating leaflets. These results show that different types of auxin signal antagonists act cooperatively to ensure leaflet separation in tomato leaf margins. PMID:27121172

  20. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  1. Directed targeting of chromatin to the nuclear lamina is mediated by chromatin state and A-type lamins

    OpenAIRE

    Harr, Jennifer C; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Wong, Xianrong; Cohen, Erez; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Reddy, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear organization has been implicated in regulating gene activity. Recently, large developmentally regulated regions of the genome dynamically associated with the nuclear lamina have been identified. However, little is known about how these lamina-associated domains (LADs) are directed to the nuclear lamina. We use our tagged chromosomal insertion site system to identify small sequences from borders of fibroblast-specific variable LADs that are sufficient to target these ectopic sites to t...

  2. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II.

  3. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  4. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  5. Observation of nuclei reassembled from demembranated Xenopus sperm nuclei and analysis of their lamina components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUJIAN; CHUANMAOZHANG; 等

    1994-01-01

    A cell-free preparation obtained from extracts of activated Xenopus laevis eggs induced chromatin decondensation and nuclear formation from demembranated Xenopus sperm nuclei.Electron microscopy revealed that the reassembled nucleus had a double-layered nuclear memblane,nuclear pore complexes,and decondensed chromatin etc.Indirect immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the presence of lamina in newly assembled nuclei.Western-blotting results showed that lamin LII was present in egg extracts and in lamina of the reassembled nuclei which were previously reported to contain only egg derived lamin LIII.

  6. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  7. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  8. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  10. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  11. Molecular Maps of the Reorganization of Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions during Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Peric-Hupkes; W. Meuleman; L. Pagie; S.W.M. Bruggeman; I. Solovei; W. Brugman; S. Gräf; P. Flicek; R.M. Kerkhoven; M. van Lohuizen; M. Reinders; L. Wessels; B. van Steensel

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional organization of chromosomes within the nucleus and its dynamics during differentiation are largely unknown. To visualize this process in molecular detail, we generated high-resolution maps of genome-nuclear lamina interactions during subsequent differentiation of mouse embryoni

  12. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Popken

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA.

  13. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2016-03-01

    The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. PMID:26811382

  14. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  15. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  16. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  17. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  18. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  19. Studies on glial isomeration of lamina cribrosa in rat%大鼠视神经筛板胶质异构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴超; 李大庆; 李英; Geoffrey Raisman; 阴正勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of optic nerve damage in glaucoma by study on structure of glial lamina cribrosa(LC) in rats.Methods Experimental study.Albino Swiss(AS) rats were divided into 3 groups.Bilateral eyes of 10 normal rats were employed to be group Ⅰ (right eye) and group Ⅱ (left eye).Group Ⅲ was from the left eyes of 13 rats underwent artificially intraocular hypertension in the right eyes.All rats were perfused and fixed with electronic microscopy fixative (2% paraformaldehyde + 2% glutaraldehyde).Trimmed optic nerves were embedded with resin.Serial 1.5 μm thick 'semithin' sections were cut,either (2 eyes from group Ⅲ) longitudinally,through the optic nerve head(ONH) from the retinal end to the commencement of the optic nerve,or (31 eyes) transversely (cross-sections).Ultrathin sections were cut in the middle of glial LC.The morphological observation of glial LC was obtained by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Bonferroni correction was used to cownteract the multiple comparision of each group.Results Fortified astrocytes formed the main supportive structure of glial LC in all rats,including group Ⅰ,group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ.Astrocytes were ranked as a fan-like radial array,firmly attached ventrally to the sheath of the LC by thick basal processes,but dividing dorsally into progressively more slender processes with only delicate attachments to the sheath.These fortified astrocytes form ventral stout basal end feet,radial array,axon free-'preterminal' layer before terminating in a complex layer of fine interdigitating delicate branches at the dorsal.LC astrocytes were highly and uniformly electron dense throughout all the cell processes.An equally striking feature of the astrocytic processes was their massive cytoskeletal 'strengthening' of longitudinal massed filaments and tubules.Especially,massive filaments accumulated as cytoskeletal cores to form 'scaffold' of fortified astrocytes.There was vulnerable area in the

  20. Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTeresa, S J

    1999-08-31

    The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.

  1. The lateral enamel lamina--component of tooth primordia in selected mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, K; Matulová, P; Mísek, I

    2002-01-01

    The lateral enamel lamina (LEL) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. It represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. We detected the LEL in the sheep (Ovis aries), the dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and the vole (Microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The LEL could be found in cap to bell stage tooth primordia, most clearly in slowly developing tooth germs. LEL-like structures have been furthermore described or depicted in tooth germs of the mouse, the elk (Alces alces), the dugong (Dugong dugong), the elephant (Loxodonta africana), and the human. Probably it is a part of all mammalian tooth primordia that undergoes regression during morphogenesis of the enamel organ. As a reducing structure, it should be considered in studies of tooth development. PMID:12494916

  2. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  3. Domain organization of human chromosomes revealed by mapping of nuclear lamina interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelen, Lars; Pagie, Ludo; Brasset, Emilie; Meuleman, Wouter; Faza, Marius B; Talhout, Wendy; Eussen, Bert H; de Klein, Annelies; Wessels, Lodewyk; de Laat, Wouter; van Steensel, Bas

    2008-06-12

    The architecture of human chromosomes in interphase nuclei is still largely unknown. Microscopy studies have indicated that specific regions of chromosomes are located in close proximity to the nuclear lamina (NL). This has led to the idea that certain genomic elements may be attached to the NL, which may contribute to the spatial organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus. However, sequences in the human genome that interact with the NL in vivo have not been identified. Here we construct a high-resolution map of the interaction sites of the entire genome with NL components in human fibroblasts. This map shows that genome-lamina interactions occur through more than 1,300 sharply defined large domains 0.1-10 megabases in size. These lamina-associated domains (LADs) are typified by low gene-expression levels, indicating that LADs represent a repressive chromatin environment. The borders of LADs are demarcated by the insulator protein CTCF, by promoters that are oriented away from LADs, or by CpG islands, suggesting possible mechanisms of LAD confinement. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the human genome is divided into large, discrete domains that are units of chromosome organization within the nucleus. PMID:18463634

  4. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  5. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  6. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  8. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P;

    1996-01-01

    SCID mice express the Fas ligand on the surface. Gut lamina propria CD4+ T cells show Fas-dependent cytotoxicity. A large fraction of gut lamina propria CD4+ T cells that infiltrate the inflamed colon in transplanted SCID mice are activated in situ and many CD4+ T cells are apoptotic. Hence, a large...... fraction of colitis-inducing CD4+ T cells undergo activation-induced cell death in situ and can damage other cells through Fas-dependent cytotoxicity....

  9. Tonotopic Morphometry of the Lamina Reticularis of the Guinea Pig Cochlea with Associated Microstructures and Related Mechanical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yarin, Yury M.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.; Poznyakovskiy, Anton A.; Meißner, Heike; Fleischer, Mario; Baumgart, Johannes; Richter, Claudia; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Zahnert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Morphometry of the lamina reticularis of the guinea pig cochlea was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-four geometrical parameters of the lamina reticularis, the bundles of stereocilia, and individual stereocilia, in all rows of hair cells and within the individual hair cells, were measured at ten equally spaced locations along the longitudinal direction of the cochlea. Variations of the parameters versus the longitudinal coordinate were statistically analyzed and fitted wi...

  10. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  11. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  12. Sensitivity of the coefficients of thermal expansion of selected graphite reinforced composite laminates to lamina thermoelastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Funk, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical study of the sensitivity of the laminate coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE, to changes in lamina elastic properties has been made. High modulus graphite/epoxy (P75/934, P100/934, P120/934), graphite/aluminum (P100/Al), and graphite/glass (HMS/Gl) composite materials were considered in quasi-isotropic, low thermal stress, and 'near-zero' thermal expansion laminate configurations. The effects of a positive or negative 10 percent change in lamina properties on laminate CTE is strongly dependent upon both the composite material and the laminate configuration. A 10 percent change in all of the lamina properties had very little effect on the laminate CTE of the HMS/Gl composite laminates investigated. The sensitivity and direction of change in the laminate CTE of Gr/934 depended very strongly on the fiber properties. A 10 percent change in the lamina transverse CTE resulted in changes as large as 0.216 ppm/C in the laminate CTE of a quasi-isotropic Gr/934 laminate. No significant difference was observed in the sensitivity of the laminate CTE of the P100/934 and P120/934 composite materials due to changes in lamina properties. Large changes in laminate CTE can result from measured temperature and radiation effects on lamina properties.

  13. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  14. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  15. Airway basal stem cells: a perspective on their roles in epithelial homeostasis and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jason R; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2010-01-01

    The small airways of the human lung undergo pathological changes in pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans and cystic fibrosis. These clinical problems impose huge personal and societal healthcare burdens. The changes, termed 'pathological airway remodeling', affect the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and the reciprocal trophic interactions that occur between these tissues. Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium of ciliated cells, secretory cells and 6-30% basal cells, the proportion of which varies along the proximal-distal axis. Epithelial abnormalities range from hypoplasia (failure to differentiate) to basal- and goblet-cell hyperplasia, squamous- and goblet-cell metaplasia, dysplasia and malignant transformation. Mesenchymal alterations include thickening of the basal lamina, smooth muscle hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Paradoxically, given the prevalence and importance of airway remodeling in lung disease, its etiology is poorly understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of basic knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maintenance and repair of the airway epithelium. Specifically, little is known about the proliferation and differentiation of basal cells, a multipotent stem cell population of the pseudostratified airway epithelium. This Perspective summarizes what we know, and what we need to know, about airway basal cells to evaluate their contributions to normal and abnormal airway remodeling. We contend that exploiting well-described model systems using both human airway epithelial cells and the pseudostratified epithelium of the genetically tractable mouse trachea will enable crucial discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of airway disease. PMID:20699479

  16. 肌基膜管桥接神经缺损的研究现状%Current Studies on Muscle Basal Lamina for Bridging Nerve Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷迪; 陈东

    2008-01-01

    外伤或手术引起的神经系统损伤性疾病的临床修复一直是尚未解决的疑难问题之一.肌基膜管是通过去除肌细胞而得到的一种天然生物材料,它不仅有效的保留了完整的基膜,而且肌基膜管内部的排列结构与神经膜管类似,它们能够为再生轴突的生长提供足够空间,可根据需要做成特定的形状.肌基膜管作为一种生物支架桥接受损伤的神经纤维逐渐受到人们的重视.本文就肌基膜管的制备、本身的结构特点及在神经缺损中的应用作一综述.

  17. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  18. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis.

  19. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells maintain T cell homeostasis but do not affect commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Welty, Nathan E.; Staley, Christopher; Ghilardi, Nico; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Igyártó, Botond Z.; Kaplan, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are composed of two CD103+ subsets that differ in CD11b expression. We report here that Langerin is expressed by human LP DCs and that transgenic human langerin drives expression in CD103+CD11b+ LP DCs in mice. This subset was ablated in huLangerin-DTA mice, resulting in reduced LP Th17 cells without affecting Th1 or T reg cells. Notably, cognate DC–T cell interactions were not required for Th17 development, as this response was inta...

  20. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  1. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  2. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  4. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  5. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  6. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  7. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  8. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  9. Genome-wide maps of nuclear lamina interactions in single human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Jop; Pagie, Ludo; de Vries, Sandra S.; Nahidiazar, Leila; Dey, Siddharth S.; Bienko, Magda; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan; de Graaf, Carolyn A.; Amendola, Mario; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A.; Jalink, Kees; Dekker, Job; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; van Steensel, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mammalian interphase chromosomes interact with the nuclear lamina (NL) through hundreds of large Lamina Associated Domains (LADs). We report a method to map NL contacts genome-wide in single human cells. Analysis of nearly 400 maps reveals a core architecture of gene-poor LADs that contact the NL with high cell-to-cell consistency, interspersed by LADs with more variable NL interactions. The variable contacts tend to be cell-type specific and are more sensitive to changes in genome ploidy than the consistent contacts. Single-cell maps indicate that NL contacts involve multivalent interactions over hundreds of kilobases. Moreover, we observe extensive intra-chromosomal coordination of NL contacts, even over tens of megabases. Such coordinated loci exhibit preferential interactions as detected by Hi-C. Finally, consistency of NL contacts is inversely linked to gene activity in single cells, and correlates positively with the heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3. These results highlight fundamental principles of single cell chromatin organization. PMID:26365489

  10. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  11. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  12. A chloroplast-localized protein LESION AND LAMINA BENDING affects defence and growth responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yokota, Takao; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Haruko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fujisaki, Koki; Oikawa, Kaori; Uemura, Aiko; Natsume, Satoshi; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Umemura, Kenji; Terry, Matthew J; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how plants allocate their resources to growth or defence is of long-term importance to the development of new and improved varieties of different crops. Using molecular genetics, plant physiology, hormone analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based transcript profiling, we have isolated and characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) LESION AND LAMINA BENDING (LLB) gene that encodes a chloroplast-targeted putative leucine carboxyl methyltransferase. Loss of LLB function results in reduced growth and yield, hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions, accumulation of the antimicrobial compounds momilactones and phytocassanes, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Consistent with these defence-associated responses, llb shows enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The lesion and resistance phenotypes are likely to be caused by the over-accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) in the llb mutant including the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. Additionally, llb shows an increased lamina inclination and enhanced early seedling growth due to elevated brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis and/or signalling. These findings show that LLB functions in the chloroplast to either directly or indirectly repress both JA- and BR-mediated responses, revealing a possible mechanism for controlling how plants allocate resources for defence and growth. PMID:26864209

  13. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Purbayu Budi Santoso; Darwanto Darwanto

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained fro...

  14. The Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Promotes the Herpesvirus-Induced Phosphorylation-Dependent Disassembly of the Nuclear Lamina Required for Nucleocytoplasmic Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Hutterer, Corina; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Sonntag, Eric; Horn, Anselm H C; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Mori, Yasuko; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear lamina lines the inner nuclear membrane providing a structural framework for the nucleus. Cellular processes, such as nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis or nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes, are functionally linked to the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. In general, lamina disassembly is mediated by phosphorylation, but the precise molecular mechanism is still not completely understood. Recently, we suggested a novel mechanism for lamina disassembly during the nuclear egress of herpesviral capsids which involves the cellular isomerase Pin1. In this study, we focused on mechanistic details of herpesviral nuclear replication to demonstrate the general importance of Pin1 for lamina disassembly. In particular, Ser22-specific lamin phosphorylation consistently generates a Pin1-binding motif in cells infected with human and animal alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we showed that binding of Pin1 to a synthetic lamin peptide induces its cis/trans isomerization in vitro. A detailed bioinformatic evaluation strongly suggests that this structural conversion induces large-scale secondary structural changes in the lamin N-terminus. Thus, we concluded that a Pin1-induced conformational change of lamins may represent the molecular trigger responsible for lamina disassembly. Consistent with this concept, pharmacological inhibition of Pin1 activity blocked lamina disassembly in herpesvirus-infected fibroblasts and consequently impaired virus replication. In addition, a phospho-mimetic Ser22Glu lamin mutant was still able to form a regular lamina structure and overexpression of a Ser22-phosphorylating kinase did not induce lamina disassembly in Pin1 knockout cells. Intriguingly, this was observed in absence of herpesvirus infection proposing a broader importance of Pin1 for lamina constitution. Thus, our results suggest a functional model of similar events leading to disassembly of the nuclear

  15. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  16. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  17. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  18. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  19. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  20. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  1. Clock and clock-controlled genes are differently expressed in the retina, lamina and in selected cells of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Milena eDamulewicz; Agnieszka eLoboda; Karolina eBukowska-Strakova; Alicja eJozkowicz; Jozef eDulak; Elzbieta M Pyza

    2015-01-01

    The retina and the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila show circadian rhythms in various processes. To learn about the regulation of circadian rhythms in the retina and lamina and in two cell types, glial and the lamina L2 interneurons, we examined expression of the following clock genes; per, tim, clk, and cry and clock-controlled genes; Atp, nrv2, brp, Pdfr. We found that the expression of gene studied is specific for the retina and lamina. The rhythms of per and tim expression in...

  2. 额下-终板入路切除实质性颅咽管瘤10例报告%Resection of Solid Craniopharyngioma via the Subfrontal-lamina Terminalis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 冯春国; 徐培坤; 程宏伟; 王先祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the microsurgical techniques and characteristics of the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach for suprasellar solid craniopharyngiomas. Methods Since March 2007 to March 2010, 10 patients with solid craniopharyngiomas received an operation via the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach. All the tumors located in the suprasellar region, seven of them protruded into the third ventricle, two protruded into the both third ventricle and basal cistern, the other one invaded the intrasellar region. The mean longest diameter of the tumor axis was 3.3 cm ( ranged from 2.0 to 5.4 cm). To remove the tumor, we carefully exposed the basal cisterns, and then the lamina terminalis. Results Total removal was achieved in 7 cases, and subtotal removal in 3 cases via the subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach. Six patients developed transient diabetes insipidus and 7 patients had hypothyroidism after the operation, all of them were cured in 6 months. Follow-up was achieved in ten patients for 2 months to 2 years with a mean of 14 months ( > 12 months in 6 cases), during which no recurrence or increase in size of the tumor occurred. Conclusions Subfrontal-lamina terminalis approach provides a wide surgical field and a better vision for the resection of suprasellar solid craniopharyngiomas, making the procedure safer. To complete the operation successfully and avoid surgical complications, it is crucial to widely open the cisterns, release the tensions on the frontal lobe, and protect brain tissues.%目的 探讨经额下-终板入路切除实质性颅咽管瘤的显微手术技巧及特点. 方法 2007年3月~2010年3月,对10例实质性颅咽管瘤(伴钙化)由额下-终板入路进行手术切除.瘤体全部位于鞍上,其中向三脑室突入7例,向三脑室及鞍后脚间池突入2例,向鞍内生长1例.最长径2.0 ~5.4 cm,平均3.3 cm.术中充分开放颅底各池,轻轻牵开额下脑组织暴露终板,切开后显露瘤体. 结果 全切除7

  3. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q; Bach-Holm, Daniella;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study of 11 eyes with IIH, 20 eyes with HTG, 20 eyes with NTG, and 37 control eyes. Serial horizontal B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained using EDI-OCT. The LC depth, defined as the distance from...... the Bruch membrane opening plane to the anterior LC surface, was manually measured on selected B-scans covering the central three-quarters of the optic nerve head in each eye. RESULTS: Mean LC depth in patients with IIH (325.2 ± 92.1 µm) was significantly (p<0.01) decreased compared to control subjects...

  4. Bending in laminas of NFPR: type of reinforcement, fracture and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtânia Antunes Leão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFRP have awakened considerable interest in the area of polymer composites, because of the need to develop new, environmentally friendly materials. One of the most complex ways of manufacturing this type of material is in the form of ultrathin laminar layers; however, this process hinders mechanical testing, mainly three and four-point bending. The present investigation faces this challenge and shows the influence of parameters, such as the grammage of reinforcing fabric and lamination process, on strength, stiffness and fracture characteristics for three-point bending in this type of structural element. The industrially manufactured laminas were composed of orthophthalic polyester resin reinforced with licuri fibers. Macromechanical and micromechanical analyses were conducted in the study of fracture characteristics for all the parameters. The mechanical behavior in the three-point bending of the laminar composite showed that the use of licuri fiber to obtain natural fiber-based plastic is completely viable.

  5. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  6. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  7. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories When you ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  8. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  9. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  10. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  11. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  12. Long-term depression is differentially expressed in distinct lamina of hippocampal CA1 dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu eRamachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information storage in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons is compartmentalized in proximal versus distal apical dendrites, cell bodies, and basal dendrites. This compartmentalization is thought to be essential for synaptic integration. Differences in the expression of LTP in each of these compartments have been described, but less is known regarding potential differences in LTD. Here, to directly compare LTD expression in each compartment and to bypass possible differences in input-specificity and stimulation of presynaptic inputs, we used global application of NMDA to induce LTD. We then examined LTD expression in each dendritic sub-region - proximal and distal apical, and basal dendrites - and in cell bodies. Interestingly, we found that distal apical dendrites exhibited the greatest magnitude of LTD of all areas tested and this LTD was maintained, whereas LTD in proximal apical dendrites was not maintained. In basal dendrites, LTD was also maintained, but the magnitude of LTD was less than in distal apical dendrites. Blockade of inhibition blocked LTD maintenance in both distal apical and basal dendrites. Population spikes recorded from the cell body layer correlated with apical dendrite fEPSPs, where LTD was maintained in distal dendrites and decayed in proximal dendrites. On the other hand, LTD of basal dendrite fEPSPs was maintained but population spike responses were not. Thus E-S coupling was distinct in basal and apical dendrites. Our data demonstrate cell autonomous differential information processing in somas and dendritic sub-regions of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus, where LTD expression is intrinsic to distinct dendritic regions, and does not depend on the nature of stimulation and input specificity.

  13. Strengthening Families: Community Strategies That Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    Supporting and strengthening families has always been part of the early childhood professional's unique role in the community. NAEYC's Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families initiative (www.naeyc.org/ece/supporting) is a set of activities designed to provide intentional leadership and education in the family-strengthening approach. The…

  14. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  15. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  16. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  17. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  18. Forecasting for strengthening technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing technological innovation is currently one of the key items in being more competitive. However, production sectors are facing great challenges, including analysing a large amount of available technological and market information regarding the en- vironment for strategic decision-making and being able to launch themselves onto the market with technological developments bringing the desired economic returns. Several tools for analysing information have emerged for reducing the uncertainty of tech- nological and market changes. This article provides conceptual and reflective elements so that forecasting strengthens technolo- gical development (TD. Forecasting is initially proposed as being one of the future methods of analysis having a significant im- pact on decision-making, mainly within the field of economics but which could be extrapolated to making a contribution to TD. The techniques which have been the recent instrument for collecting information for producing forecasting are described, as is work about the concept of surveillance/monitoring and the processes used for coordinating such approaches. It can thus be sta- ted that they provide an excellent basis for strengthening TD by providing platforms for new or improved developments in pro- cesses or products. Reflection about these aspects provides perspectives for implementing technological forecasting (TF in pro- duction systems so that they obtain efficient and concrete results via deterministic methods as input in decision-making in techno- logy regarding its middle- and long-term competitiveness.

  19. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  20. Characteristics of annual laminae gray level variations in a stalagmite from Shihua Cave, Beijing and its climatic significance (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The annual laminae gray level variations in the stalagmite TS9501 of Shihua Cave, Beijing are studied in detail. The environmental factors influencing the laminae gray level are also analyzed. The following conditions may be necessary to the study on the lamina gray level. A) The seasonal differences of climate in the studied area are strong. B) The cave has a rapid and simple hydrological connection with the surface, such that the gray level variation is great; therefore, climatic changes can be more clearly recorded in a stalagmite. C) No water from other sources due to lateral flow adds to the seepage over the cave. D) There are more organic impurities than inorganic ones, whose content changes distinctly with time in the sample. By comparison with the modern instrumental climate records, it was found that the gray level of laminae is mainly related to the air temperature, especially the summer mean temperature. Therefore, the gray level can be used as a proxy of the air temperature. The variation of the lamina gray level also represents the oscillation of Indian summer monsoon as identified in the modern climate records. The variability of the temperature in Beijing area over the last 1 ka is reconstructed. The results show that there are several cold periods corresponding to historical records. An important phenomenon is noticed that the climatic pattern before about 1400AD is different from that after about 1400AD. In Beijing area, before about 1400AD, low amplitude and high frequency temperature oscillations dominated the signal. The climate pattern is warm-dry and cold-wet. After about 1400AD, both the temperature and rainfall varied synchronously, temperature oscillated strongly and the Little Ice Age occurred. The climate pattern is cold-dry and warm-wet. This transition of the climate pattern is also observed in other worldwide paleoclimatic records, demonstrating that there was a global climate event at about 1400AD.

  1. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor. PMID:26988117

  2. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  3. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  4. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  5. Possibility of identification of elastic properties in laminate beams with cross-ply laminae stacking sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to show the possibility of the identification of laminate beam specimens elastic properties with cross-ply laminae stacking sequences using prescribed eigenfrequencies. These frequencies are not determined experimentally in this paper but they are calculated numerically by means of the finite element (FE software MSC.Marc. The composite material properties of the FE model based on Euler-Bernoulli theory have been subsequently tuned to correlate the determined frequencies in cross-ply laminate beams with the eigenfrequencies obtained by the software package. A real-coded genetic algorithm (GA and a micro-genetic algorithm (mGA are applied as the inverse technique for the identification problem. Because a small efficiency of the GAs in searching for Poisson’s ratio values was found, this parameter and the in-plane shear modulus have been estimated by using the law of mixtures. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed technique.

  6. CD4+CD25bright T cells in human intestinal lamina propria as regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shin; Kanai, Takanori; Oshima, Shigeru; Uraushihara, Koji; Totsuka, Teruji; Sawada, Taisuke; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Koganei, Kazutaka; Fukushima, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only active suppression by regulatory T cells plays an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also its dysregulation leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that the CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells reside in the human intestinal lamina propria (LP) and functionally retain regulatory activities. All human LP CD4(+) T cells regardless of CD25 expression constitutively expressed CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein, and Foxp3 and proliferate poorly. Although LP CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells showed an activated and anergic/memory phenotype, they did not retain regulatory activity. In LP CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, however, cells expressing CD25 at high levels (CD4(+)CD25(bright)) suppressed the proliferation and various cytokine productions of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. LP CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells by themselves produced fewer amounts of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-10. Interestingly, LP CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells with regulatory T activity were significantly increased in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. These results suggest that CD4(+)CD25(bright) T cells found in the normal and inflamed intestinal mucosa selectively inhibit the host immune response and therefore may contribute to the intestinal immune homeostasis. PMID:15322172

  7. Reproducibility of In-Vivo OCT Measured Three-Dimensional Human Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available PurposeTo determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D lamina cribrosa (LC microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT.MethodsThirty-nine eyes (8 healthy, 19 glaucoma suspects and 12 glaucoma from 49 subjects were scanned twice using swept-source (SS− OCT in a 3.5×3.5×3.64 mm (400×400×896 pixels volume centered on the optic nerve head, with the focus readjusted after each scan. The LC was automatically segmented and analyzed for microarchitectural parameters, including pore diameter, pore diameter standard deviation (SD, pore aspect ratio, pore area, beam thickness, beam thickness SD, and beam thickness to pore diameter ratio. Reproducibility of the parameters was assessed by computing the imprecision of the parameters between the scans.ResultsThe automated segmentation demonstrated excellent reproducibility. All LC microarchitecture parameters had an imprecision of less or equal to 4.2%. There was little variability in imprecision with respect to diagnostic category, although the method tends to show higher imprecision amongst healthy subjects.ConclusionThe proposed automated segmentation of the LC demonstrated high reproducibility for 3D LC parameters. This segmentation analysis tool will be useful for in-vivo studies of the LC.

  8. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  9. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  10. Tagged Chromosomal Insertion Site System: A Method to Study Lamina-Associated Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Jennifer C; Reddy, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is important for chromatin regulation. This organization is nonrandom and appears to be tightly correlated with or regulated by chromatin state and scaffolding proteins. To understand how specific DNA and chromatin elements contribute to the functional organization of the genome, we developed a new tool-the tagged chromosomal insertion site (TCIS) system-to identify and study minimal DNA sequences that drive nuclear compartmentalization and applied this system to specifically study the role of cis elements in targeting DNA to the nuclear lamina. The TCIS system allows Cre-recombinase-mediated site-directed integration of any DNA fragment into a locus tagged with lacO arrays, thus enabling both functional molecular studies and positional analysis of the altered locus. This system can be used to study the minimal DNA sequences that target the nuclear periphery (or other nuclear compartments), allowing researchers to understand how genome-wide results obtained, for example, by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, chromosome conformation capture (HiC), or related methods, connect to the actual organization of DNA and chromosomes at the single-cell level. Finally, TCIS allows one to test roles for specific proteins in chromatin reorganization and to determine how changes in nuclear environment affect chromatin state and gene regulation at a single locus.

  11. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S.

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  12. Efficient strengthening technique for reinforced concrete slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaldo, Everaldo; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    A promising strengthening strategy, using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials, consists in applying CFRP laminate strips into pre-cut slits opened in the concrete cover of the elements to strengthen. This strengthening technique is designated by Near Surface Mounted (NSM) and has been successfully used to increase the flexural and the shear resistance of concrete and masonry structures. The present work describes an efficient strategy, using steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC)...

  13. Clock and clock-controlled genes are differently expressed in the retina, lamina and in selected cells of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eDamulewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The retina and the first optic neuropil (lamina of Drosophila show circadian rhythms in various processes. To learn about the regulation of circadian rhythms in the retina and lamina and in two cell types, glial and the lamina L2 interneurons, we examined expression of the following clock genes; per, tim, clk, and cry and clock-controlled genes; Atp, nrv2, brp, Pdfr. We found that the expression of gene studied is specific for the retina and lamina. The rhythms of per and tim expression in the retina and glial cells are similar to that observed in the whole head and in clock neurons, while they differ in the lamina and L2 cells. In both the retina and lamina, CRY seems to be a repressor of clk expression. In L2 interneurons per expression is not cyclic indicating the other function of PER in those cells than in the circadian molecular clock. In contrast to per and tim, the pattern of clk and cry expression is similar in both the retina and lamina. The retina holds the autonomous oscillators but the expression of cry and clock-controlled genes, Atp and nrv2, is also regulated by inputs from the pacemaker transmitted by PDF and ITP neuropeptides.

  14. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  15. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  17. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  18. Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion: limitations in its use as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Cook, Megan; O'Connor, Brenda I; Hafezi, Sara; El-Zimaity, Hala; Kirsch, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) is an adverse prognostic feature, which may prompt consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease. Controversies and challenges surrounding its assessment have led to consideration of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) as an alternative marker of advanced local spread. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the prognostic significance of peritoneal ELI in stage II CRC and (2) to determine the feasibility of ELI assessment in routine practice with the use of an elastic stain. Two hundred seventeen patients with stage II CRC (186, pT3; 31, pT4) were assessed for ELI and other established adverse histologic features. Of the pT3 tumors, 31 (16.7%) were ELI positive, 121 (65%) were ELI negative, and 34 (18.3%) lacked an identifiable elastic lamina. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival between pT3 ELI-negative and ELI-positive tumors (P = .517). The disease-free survival of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT3 ELI-negative tumors (P = .024) and pT3 ELI-positive tumors (P = .026), respectively. The elastic lamina was detected less frequently in right-sided pT3 tumors compared with left-sided tumors (65/91 [71.4%] versus 87/95 [91.6%], P ELI was not an adverse prognostic factor in this study. The frequent absence of an identifiable elastic lamina, particularly in right-sided tumors, may limit the use of ELI as a prognostic marker in CRC.

  19. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  20. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  1. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared with non......-activated CD4+ T cells. In pulse-chase experiments it was shown that BrdU-labeled cells disappeared rapidly from the lamina propria of diseased mice. DNA analysis revealed that this was due to the presence of nearly four times as many apoptotic CD4+ T cells in diseased than in control mice. Further analyses...

  2. The organization of the lamina ganglionaris of the hemipteran insects, Notonecta glauca, Corixa punctata and Gerris lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolburg-Buchholz, K

    1979-03-01

    Neuronal elements, i.e. first and second order neurons, of the first optic ganglion of three waterbugs, N. glauca, C. punctata and G. lacustris, are analyzed on the basis of light- and electron microscopy. Eight retinula cell axons, leaving each ommatidium, disperse to different cartridges as they enter the laminar outer plexiform layer. Such a pattern of divergence is one of the conditions for neuronal superposition; it is observed for all three species of waterbugs. The manner in which the receptors of a single bundle of ommatidia split of within the lamina, whereby information from receptors up to three or five horizontal rows away can converge upon the same cartridge, differs among the species. Six of the eight axons of retinula cells R1--6, the short visual fibers end at different levels within the bilayered lamina, whereas the central pair of retinula cells R7/8, the long visual fibers, run directly through the lamina to a corresponding unit of the medulla. Four types of monopolar cells L1-L4 are classified; their branching patterns seem to be correlated to the splitting and termination of retinula cell axons. The topographical relationship and synaptic organization between retinula cell terminals and monopolar cells in the two laminar layers are identified by examination of serial ultrathin sections of single Golgi-stained neurons. An attempt is made to correlate some anatomical findings, especially the neuronal superposition, to results from physiological investigations on the hemipteran retina.

  3. Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Schröder-Braunstein

    Full Text Available Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Nakamura, Kae; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward. Through their abundant outputs to the brain stem motor areas and the thalamocortical circuits, the basal ganglia appear capable of producing body movements based on expected reward. A good behavioral measure to test this hypothesis is saccadic eye movement because its brain stem mechanism has been extensively studied. Studies from our laboratory suggest that the basal ganglia play a key role in guiding the gaze to the location where reward is available. Neurons in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata are extremely sensitive to the positional difference in expected reward, which leads to a bias in excitability between the superior colliculi such that the saccade to the to-be-rewarded position occurs more quickly. It is suggested that the reward modulation occurs in the caudate where cortical inputs carrying spatial signals and dopaminergic inputs carrying reward-related signals are integrated. These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory.

  5. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  6. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  8. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  9. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  10. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  11. A Study on the Structure of Human Optic Nerve Lamina Cribrosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiFu; MeiyuLi

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the mechanism of nerve fiber damage in glaucoma by studing the structure of hu-man optic nerve lamina cribrosa(LC)in different regions.Methods:15 human eyes of 10cases were stuided.The specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy,and numbers and areas of pores in LC were measured by electron image analysis system.Draw a frequency distribution map with each curve represents the tendency of pores distribution in a particular part.The proportion of the connective tissue in respective quadrant can also be calcu-lated.The specimens were also prepared for histological examination.Results:There are many pores of various magnitude and shapes on the surface of LC.There are significantly more large pores(≥3000μm2)in the superior and in-ferior than those in the nasal and temporal quadrants,especially in the peripheral regions,In terms of area,the percentages of connective tissue in the nasal and temporal quadrants are the highest.Collageous fibers,various in diameter,are arranged in bundles and tangentially around each pore.Conclusion:In normal persons,the percentage of large pores in the superior and inferior peripheral parts is the highest,the density of the connective tissue is the lowest.So,the force received by unit area of the superior and inferior parts is bigger than that of the nasal and temporal sides.therefore,it is susceptible to the impact of high intraocular pressure at the early stage and causing correspond-ing visual edfect.Our study may suggest the mechanism of optic nerve damage of glaucoma,Eye Science 1995;11:147-154.

  12. Prelamin A and lamin A appear to be dispensable in the nuclear lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Loren G; Ng, Jennifer K; Lammerding, Jan; Vickers, Timothy A; Meta, Margarita; Coté, Nathan; Gavino, Bryant; Qiao, Xin; Chang, Sandy Y; Young, Stephanie R; Yang, Shao H; Stewart, Colin L; Lee, Richard T; Bennett, C Frank; Bergo, Martin O; Young, Stephen G

    2006-03-01

    Lamin A and lamin C, both products of Lmna, are key components of the nuclear lamina. In the mouse, a deficiency in both lamin A and lamin C leads to slow growth, muscle weakness, and death by 6 weeks of age. Fibroblasts deficient in lamins A and C contain misshapen and structurally weakened nuclei, and emerin is mislocalized away from the nuclear envelope. The physiologic rationale for the existence of the 2 different Lmna products lamin A and lamin C is unclear, although several reports have suggested that lamin A may have particularly important functions, for example in the targeting of emerin and lamin C to the nuclear envelope. Here we report the development of lamin C-only mice (Lmna(LCO/LCO)), which produce lamin C but no lamin A or prelamin A (the precursor to lamin A). Lmna(LCO/LCO) mice were entirely healthy, and Lmna(LCO/LCO) cells displayed normal emerin targeting and exhibited only very minimal alterations in nuclear shape and nuclear deformability. Thus, at least in the mouse, prelamin A and lamin A appear to be dispensable. Nevertheless, an accumulation of farnesyl-prelamin A (as occurs with a deficiency in the prelamin A processing enzyme Zmpste24) caused dramatically misshapen nuclei and progeria-like disease phenotypes. The apparent dispensability of prelamin A suggested that lamin A-related progeroid syndromes might be treated with impunity by reducing prelamin A synthesis. Remarkably, the presence of a single Lmna(LCO) allele eliminated the nuclear shape abnormalities and progeria-like disease phenotypes in Zmpste24-/- mice. Moreover, treating Zmpste24-/- cells with a prelamin A-specific antisense oligonucleotide reduced prelamin A levels and significantly reduced the frequency of misshapen nuclei. These studies suggest a new therapeutic strategy for treating progeria and other lamin A diseases. PMID:16511604

  13. The majority of lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells from scid mice with colitis undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Petersen, T R; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    . Immunol. 28:3655 (1998)). Here we investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism in these lamina propria infiltrating CD4(+) T-cells. We observe that freshly isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells can kill Fas transfected P815 mastocytoma cells in a TCR/CD3 redirected chromium-release assay, but do not......-FasL antiserum for 12 h blocked the apoptotic process in lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells by more than 65% compared to mice treated with control antiserum. Together, these results point towards the Fas-FasL and not the TNF-alpha-TNF-alpha receptor system as the primary apoptosis-inducing mechanism of lamina propria...

  14. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  15. Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) determines lamina joint bending by suppressing auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo brassinosteroids in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Miao; Park, Soon Ju; Huang, Jin; Lee, Eun Jin; Xuan, Yuan Hu; Je, Byoung Il; Kumar, Vikranth; Priatama, Ryza A.; Raj K, Vimal; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Myung Ki; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Jung, Ki Hong; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Han, Chang-deok

    2016-01-01

    Lamina inclination is a key agronomical character that determines plant architecture and is sensitive to auxin and brassinosteroids (BRs). Loose Plant Architecture1 (LPA1) in rice (Oryza sativa) and its Arabidopsis homologues (SGR5/AtIDD15) have been reported to control plant architecture and auxin homeostasis. This study explores the role of LPA1 in determining lamina inclination in rice. LPA1 acts as a positive regulator to suppress lamina bending. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that LPA1 suppresses the auxin signalling that interacts with C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs, which regulates lamina inclination independently of OsBRI1. Mutant lpa1 plants are hypersensitive to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the lamina inclination response, which is suppressed by the brassinazole (Brz) inhibitor of C-22 hydroxylase involved in BR synthesis. A strong synergic effect is detected between lpa1 and d2 (the defective mutant for catalysis of C-23-hydroxylated BRs) during IAA-mediated lamina inclination. No significant interaction between LPA1 and OsBRI1 was identified. The lpa1 mutant is sensitive to C-22-hydroxylated and 6-deoxo BRs in the d61-1 (rice BRI1 mutant) background. We present evidence verifying that two independent pathways function via either BRs or BRI1 to determine IAA-mediated lamina inclination in rice. RNA sequencing analysis and qRT-PCR indicate that LPA1 influences the expression of three OsPIN genes (OsPIN1a, OsPIN1c and OsPIN3a), which suggests that auxin flux might be an important factor in LPA1-mediated lamina inclination in rice. PMID:26826218

  16. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  17. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  18. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries. PMID:25007200

  19. Abnormality of the spinal column in pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipoma with special reference to CT findings of the lamina defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbosacral spinal lipomas are usually associated with occult spinal dysraphism at the lumbosacral spine. During childfood, posterior arch defects in the lumbosacral spine are considered normal computed tomography (CT) findings because of the presence of interlaminar synchondrosis. In this study, we investigated the CT findings of the lumbosacral spine in the pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipomas. We aimed to characterize the radiological features of the abnormal spinal column in case of spinal lipomas. Twenty-one patients (age, 1 month to 3 years) were enrolled in this study: 11 patients had conus lipoma; 10 patients, filum lipoma. All patients showed lamina defects of the lumbosacral spine on 3D-CT. The number of the defective laminae was significantly larger in the patients with conus lipomas than in those with filum lipomas. Although the appearance of lamina defects in the patients with filum lipoma was similar to the reported findings of defective laminae in normal children, these patients were characterized by mild scoliosis and asymmetry of the posterior arches localized in the lower sacrum and coccyx. On the other hand, the patients with conus lipoma were characterized by wider lamina defects that extended rostrally, 'open-door like' deformity of lamina, vertebral dysgenesis, thoracolumber scoliosis and heterotopic ossification. Such CT characterization of the abnormality of the lumbosacral spine in lipoma patients will be useful to differentiate the pathological spina bifida from the normal open posterior arches in childhood. (author)

  20. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  1. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  2. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  3. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  4. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  5. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  6. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-05-01

    The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

  7. Effect of number of laminae on dynamic MOE of glued laminated timber composed of homogeneous-grade MSR lumbers of Japanese larch; Karamatsu doitsu tokyu laminae kosei shuseizai no doteki Young keisu ni oyobosu sekisosu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hashizume, T. [Nagano Prefectural Government Forestry Research Center, Nagano (Japan)

    1997-07-15

    The tapping method to measure Young`s modulus of wood is useful for non-destructive evaluation of sawn lumbers. The dynamic MOE values are calculated from the resonance frequency of the tap tone with a FFT spectrum analyzer. However, if a glulam is used for a bending member such as a beam, it is not certain that the static MOE value of the glulam is equal to the dynamic MOE value. In case of glulams composed of sawn lumbers from juvenile wood, some adjustment to the dynamic MOE values may be necessary for use. In the present study, the relationship between static MOE (Es) and dynamic MOE (Ed) was investigated, since it was expected that the variation of MOE in the cross section of homogeneous-grade glulams would be relatively small. Two types of specimens were used: glulams laminated horizontally (H-type) and vertically (V-type). Dynamic MOE was measured by longitudinal vibration (El) and flexural vibration, whose directions were horizontal (Eh) and vertical (Ev) in the direction of the adhesive face of the glulam. The results indicated that Eh/Es, in H-type and Ev/Es, in V-type were not influenced by the number of laminae. As it was supposed that El/Eh should be influenced by the number of laminae, the relationship between El and Eh was estimated by simple simulation for different numbers of laminae. The estimated ratios of El, Eh and Ev to Es were almost identical with the experimental data. 9 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  9. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... supply chain; risk assessment, analysis, and management; and emergency response. WHO helps to strengthen... in the world within increasingly complex supply chains. As national and global health programs work...; laboratory capacity; inspection and surveillance of products throughout the supply chain;...

  10. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losert; Geminard; Nasuno; Gollub

    2000-04-01

    Several mechanisms cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from the maximum frictional force F(max) experienced by a shearing plate in contact with wet or dry granular material after the layer has been at rest for a waiting time tau. The layer strength increases roughly logarithmically with tau only if a shear stress is applied during the waiting time. The mechanisms of strengthening are investigated by sensitive displacement measurements, and by imaging of particle motion in the shear zone. Granular matter can strengthen due to a slow shift in the particle arrangement under shear stress. Humidity also leads to strengthening, but is found not to be its sole cause. In addition to these time dependent effects, the static friction coefficient can also be increased by compaction of the granular material under some circumstances, and by a cycling of the applied shear stress. PMID:11088198

  11. Efficacy evaluation for the treatment of unstable lumbar disc herniation by traditional and modified lamina osteotomy replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-hai; WANG Xiao-qing; ZHANG Yue-lin; GUO Xiong; LIU Zong-zhi; LUO Zhen-qun; MA Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional lamina osteotomy replantation method is prone to nerve root injury and low back pain recurrence.Our team has proposed a modified approach that improves the osteotomy site and its fixation procedure.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of traditional and modified lamina replantation methods in treating unstable lumbar disc herniation.Methods From March 2008 to August 2011,124 patients with unstable lumbar disc herniation were enrolled and randomly divided into the following two groups according to random digital table:group A (traditional group) consisting of 61 patients who underwent traditional laminectomy replantation,and group B (modified group) consisting of 63 patients who underwent modified lamina replantation.Both surgeries were performed by the same surgeons.The two groups had no significant difference in gender,age,symptoms,time of onset and the prominent segment.Visual analogue scale (VAS),Oswertry disability index (ODI),and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores,operative time,blood loss,complication rate,radiographic healing rates,and low back pain recurrence rates were compared between the two groups.Results There were 121 patients followed up for more than one year,and the follow-up rate was 97.6%.Nerve injury occurred in two patients (3.3%) in the modified group and 12 patients (20.0%) in the traditional group.Dural injury occurred in one patient (1.6%) in the modified group and seven patients (11.7%) in the traditional group.Pseudarthrosis occurred in two patients in the modified group and in 18 patients in the traditional group with 1-year fusion rates of 96.7% and 70.0%,respectively.Recurrence of lower back pain after one year was noted in three patients (4.9%) in the modified group,and in 15 (25.0%) in the traditional group.Leg pain recurrence was noted in one patient (1.6%) in the modified group and in three cases (5.0%) in the traditional group.The one-year healing

  12. Experimental behavior of FRP strengthened masonry arches

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Basílio, Ismael; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental behavior of solid clay brick masonry arches strengthened with glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Twelve half-scaled segmental masonry arches subjected to a load applied at the quarter span were tested under displacement control up to failure. The arches were built using handmade low strength bricks and a commercial lime-based mortar, trying to mimic ancient structures. Besides reference unreinforced arches, five different strengthening arrangemen...

  13. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more f...

  14. Mechanisms for slow strengthening in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Losert, W.; Geminard, J. -C.; Nasuno, S.; Gollub, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Several mechanisms cause a granular material to strengthen over time at low applied stress. The strength is determined from the maximum frictional force F_max experienced by a shearing plate in contact with wet or dry granular material after the layer has been at rest for a waiting time \\tau. The layer strength increases roughly logarithmically with \\tau -only- if a shear stress is applied during the waiting time. The mechanisms of strengthening are investigated by sensitive displacement meas...

  15. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses.Methods: A review and analysis of data on strengthening health se...

  16. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  17. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  18. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  19. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  20. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  1. Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Michael W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate for neuropathic pain. But, a central unresolved question is whether this disinhibition can transform the activity and responses of spinal nociceptive output neurons to account for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury, local spinal administration of ATP-stimulated microglia or pharmacological disruption of chloride transport change the phenotype of spinal lamina I output neurons, causing them to 1 increase the gain of nociceptive responsiveness, 2 relay innocuous mechanical input and 3 generate spontaneous bursts of activity. The changes in the electrophysiological phenotype of lamina I neurons may account for three principal components of neuropathic pain: hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, respectively. Conclusion The transformation of discharge activity and sensory specificity provides an aberrant signal in a primarily nociceptive ascending pathway that may serve as a basis for the symptoms of neuropathic pain.

  2. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  3. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  4. Potential mechanisms for imperfect synchronization in parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongseok Park

    Full Text Available Neural activity in the brain of parkinsonian patients is characterized by the intermittently synchronized oscillatory dynamics. This imperfect synchronization, observed in the beta frequency band, is believed to be related to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of the disorder. Our study explores potential mechanisms behind this intermittent synchrony. We study the response of a bursting pallidal neuron to different patterns of synaptic input from subthalamic nucleus (STN neuron. We show how external globus pallidus (GPe neuron is sensitive to the phase of the input from the STN cell and can exhibit intermittent phase-locking with the input in the beta band. The temporal properties of this intermittent phase-locking show similarities to the intermittent synchronization observed in experiments. We also study the synchronization of GPe cells to synaptic input from the STN cell with dependence on the dopamine-modulated parameters. Earlier studies showed how the strengthening of dopamine-modulated coupling may lead to transitions from non-synchronized to partially synchronized dynamics, typical in Parkinson's disease. However, dopamine also affects the cellular properties of neurons. We show how the changes in firing patterns of STN neuron due to the lack of dopamine may lead to transition from a lower to a higher coherent state, roughly matching the synchrony levels observed in basal ganglia in normal and parkinsonian states. The intermittent nature of the neural beta band synchrony in Parkinson's disease is achieved in the model due to the interplay of the timing of STN input to pallidum and pallidal neuronal dynamics, resulting in sensitivity of pallidal output to the phase of the arriving STN input. Thus the mechanism considered here (the change in firing pattern of subthalamic neurons through the dopamine-induced change of membrane properties may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of the intermittent synchronization

  5. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  6. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FRP STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishen WU(吴智深); Hedong Niu

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly gives a State-of-the-Art report of recent development in FRP strengthening techniques for structural rehabilitation by starting with a brief review on some achievements in clarifying bonding/debonding mechanisms and developing evaluation/design methodology for predicting debonding failure caused by intermedioate flexural cracks of con crete.Due to some drawbacks of current FRP bonding technique,two effective FRP strengthening methods,i.e.FRP prestressing and hybrid strengthening techniques,are investigated in detail to make full advantage of FRP composite materials.Combining with the newly develiped PBO fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,where several anchorage treatments are also established to prevent anchorage bond failure due to high shear stress concentration after release of prestressed FRP ends.In addition,the fatigue performance of RC beams externally strenghened with prestressed PBO fiber sheets is experimentally studied.For the developments of hybrid composites and their strengthening methods,both experimental and analytical studies are performed to clarify the hybrid strengthening behavior in structures.

  7. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  8. Oxytocin-induced antinociception in the spinal cord is mediated by a subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons in lamina I-II which amplify GABAergic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlichter Rémy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT, secreted in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn by descending axons of paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN neurons, produces antinociception and analgesia. The spinal mechanism of OT is, however, still unclear and requires further investigation. We have used patch clamp recording of lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices and immunocytochemistry in order to identify PVN-activated neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and attempted to determine how this neuronal population may lead to OT-mediated antinociception. Results We show that OT released during PVN stimulation specifically activates a subpopulation of lamina II glutamatergic interneurons which are localized in the most superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-II. This OT-specific stimulation of glutamatergic neurons allows the recruitment of all GABAergic interneurons in lamina II which produces a generalized elevation of local inhibition, a phenomenon which might explain the reduction of incoming Aδ and C primary afferent-mediated sensory messages. Conclusion Our results obtained in lamina II of the spinal cord provide the first clear evidence of a specific local neuronal network that is activated by OT release to induce antinociception. This OT-specific pathway might represent a novel and interesting therapeutic target for the management of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  9. Climate Versus Local Cave Environment Controls on Trace Element and Stable Isotopic Cycles in Annual Laminae in Speleothem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.; Grassineau, N. V.; Muller, W.; Garcia-Anton, E.; Fairchild, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    Three types of laminae are commonly observed in stalagmites: visible, resulting from alternating crystal morphology, fluid inclusion abundance or calcite-aragonite couplets; fluorescent, related to captured organic matter and cryptic, defined by cyclical abundances of trace elements or stable isotopes. Many processes generate laminae but in regions where there are strong primary cycles in climate, annual lamination may form as a direct result of seasonal change in precipitation, temperature and vegetation or the indirect effects of local cave processes such as ventilation. Visible, fluorescent and cryptic lamination types are often all present and closely correlated in the same stalagmite, but the correspondence of annual cycles in fabric, trace element and stable isotopes, can be dissimilar in different regions of the world, or even from different areas in the same cave system. This especially applies to the interrelationships among trace elements and stable isotopes where controls on their behavior seem specific to the local environment, making generalised interpretations problematic. This study presents seasonally resolved stable isotope (20-100 μm resolution) and trace element (10 μm resolution by LA-ICPMS) data for visible laminae for which there is compelling evidence for annularity. Five cave sites with diverse regional climates and local microenvironments are compared: Voli Voli, Fiji (VV) and Krem Umsynrang, India (KU) are caves from tropical or subtropical environments with strong seasonal rainfall in summer months and a relatively small annual temperature range; New St Michaels Cave, Gibraltar (NSM) is a strongly seasonal Mediterranean site with winter rainfall and a large annual temperature range; Marble Arch, N. Ireland (MA) and High Pasture, Skye (HP) are British cave sites from temperate maritime climates where seasonality in temperature and rainfall is weaker. Laminae at the tropical sites with highest rainfall, VV and KU, show weakest seasonality

  10. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  11. Strengthening of Calcium Microalloying in Pure Gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Mingjiang; GENG Yonghong; JIN Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of calcium (Ca) microalloyed 24 carat gold (Au99.9Ca0.1) were measured and the corresponding microstructure was observed by TEM in order to investigate the strengthening mechanism.It was observed that the microalloying of 0.1wt% Ca improved the tensile strength (by 79% and 57% for the rolling and annealing states,respectively),hardness and E-Modulus as well as reduced the ductility of the 24 carat Au.Dispersed nano-sized precipitates and high density deformation twins were found in the rolled Au99.9Ca0.1,which are attributed to be the major strengthening factors.The twins subsided after annealing and the strengthening of the annealed Au99.9Ca0.1 is mainly contributed by the coarsened semi-coherent precipitates.

  12. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO, there is no...... reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...

  13. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  14. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  15. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  16. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  17. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more favorable results than a stretching/modality program. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-eight adults with lateral epicondylosis of greater than 4 weeks’ duration were randomized to an eccentric strengthening group or a stretching group. Exercises were taught by a physical therapist, and participants performed most of the exercises on their own at home. Pain scores with visual analog scale from 0 to 100 were obtained at baseline and then at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the start of the exercise program. Results: Both groups improved their pain scores from baseline to the 4-week time point, followed by nonsignificant further decreases in pain scores thereafter. No statistically significant differences were found between the eccentric strengthening group and stretching groups at any follow-up time point. Conclusions: Despite previous reports documenting favorable results with eccentric exercises for other tendinopathy, the authors were unable to show any statistical advantage to eccentric exercises for lateral epicondylosis during these periods compared with local modalities and stretching exercises. PMID:23016049

  18. Strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Afendras, G.; Papadatos, N.

    2014-01-01

    Let $X$ be an absolutely continuous random variable from the integrated Pearson family and assume that $X$ has finite moments of any order. Using some properties of the associated orthonormal polynomial system, we provide a class of strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds.

  19. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  20. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  1. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main constraint

  2. Additive strengthening mechanisms in dispersion hardened polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile data from polycrystalline samples of copper dispersion strengthened by alumina are analysed. The basis of this analysis is to look at the strain range from 0.05 to 0.20 where the stress-strain curves show a parabolic hardening behaviour and are parallel to one another. The means by which...

  3. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altman, Douglas G.; le Cessie, Saskia; Abrahamowicz, Michal;

    2014-01-01

    on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies...

  4. Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR to determine whether lamina dura (LD and periodontal ligament (PDL space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16 and in posteriors with sagittal section (17. Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25 and sagittal section (21, while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors.

  5. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  7. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...

  8. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  9. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  10. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  11. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  12. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  13. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  15. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  16. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  17. Grain boundary strengthening in austenitic nitrogen steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nitrogen and carbon on the strengthening of the austenitic steel Cr18Ni16Mn10 by grain boundaries is studied. It is established in accordance with previous results that contrary to carbon nitrogen increases the coefficient k in the Hall-Petch equation markedly. Because of a pronounced planar slip induced by nitrogen and the absence of any noticeable segregation of nitrogen atoms at the grain boundaries, nitrogen austenite presents an excellent object for testing different existing models of grain boundary strengthening (pile-up, grain boundary dislocation sources, work hardening theories). Based on the analysis of available data and measurements of interaction between nitrogen (carbon) atoms and dislocations it is shown that the nitrogen effect can be attributed to a strong blocking of dislocation sources in grains adjacent to those where the slip started. (orig.)

  18. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  19. Collection of "strengthening sets" of aerobics lesson.\\\\

    OpenAIRE

    CAKL, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor study was to create a strengthening sets for aerobic lessons including showing these possisions in practice on selective aerobic lessons . Based on special literature the author had chosen suitable muscle development exercises to increase the body strenth. These exercises were there practised for six weeks continuously. Before and after the research were selected individuals who were compared by 4 exact same tests to detect static and dynamic body strength. The result...

  20. Strengthening of structure using advanced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Recuero, A.; Miravete, A.

    1997-01-01

    [EN] Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Proffesionals involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, ...

  1. Understanding backward design to strengthen curricular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nurse educators have responded to the call for transformation in education. Challenges remain in planning curricular implementation to facilitate understanding of essential content for student success on licensure examinations and in professional practice. The conceptual framework Backward Design (BD) can support and guide curriculum decisions. Using BD principles in conjunction with educational models can strengthen and improve curricula. This article defines and describes the BD process, and identifies reported benefits for nursing education. PMID:24743175

  2. Strengthening behavior of carbon/metal nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, S. E.; Choi, H. J.; Hwang, J. Y.; Bae, D. H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites reinforced with nano-scale reinforcements exhibit excellent mechanical properties with low volume fraction of the reinforcement. For instance, only an addition of 0.7 vol.% few-layer graphene (FLG) into the pure titanium shows strength of ~1.5 GPa, obviously much superior to that of the monolithic titanium. The strengthening efficiency of composites is determined by several factors such as reinforcement geometrical/spatial characteristics and interfacial features between the ma...

  3. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    OpenAIRE

    a Fatehi; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Elwazri, A. M.; Yue, S

    2010-01-01

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly...

  4. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  5. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell c...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  7. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  8. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  9. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  10. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  11. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  12. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  13. The stress-strain relationships in wood and fiber-reinforced plastic laminae of reinforced glued-laminated wood beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Daniel Arthur

    The reinforcement of wood and wood composite structural products to improve their mechanical properties has been in practice for many years. Recently, the use of high-strength fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) as a reinforcement in such applications has been commercialized. The reinforcement is manufactured using a standard pultrusion process or alternatively a sheet-forming process commonly referred to as "pulforming". The high-modulus fibers are predominately unidirectional, although off-axis fibers are often used to enhance off-axis properties. The fibers used are either of a single type or multiple types, which are called "hybrids". Unidirectional, single, and hybrid fiber FRP physical properties and characteristics were compared to wood. Full-scale reinforced glulams were tested. Aramid-reinforced plastics (ARP) used as tensile reinforcements were found to be superior in strength applications to other types of FRP made with fiber, such as carbon and fiberglass. Carbon/aramid-reinforced plastic (CARP) was shown to be superior in both modulus and strength design situations. Fiberglass was shown to be suitable only in hybrid situations with another fiber such as aramid or carbon and only in limited use situations where modulus was a design criteria. The testing and analysis showed that the global response of reinforced glulam beams is controlled by localized strength variations in the wood such as slope of grain, knots, finger joints, etc. in the tensile zone. The elemental tensile strains in the extreme wood tensile laminae, due to global applied loads, were found to be well below the strain at failure in clear wood samples recovered from the failure area. Two areas affecting the relationship between the wood and the FRP were investigated: compatibility of the wood and FRP materials and interface characteristics between the wood and FRP. The optimum strain value at yield point for an FRP was assessed to be slightly higher than the clear wood value in tension for a

  14. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia from the Ischigualasto Formation (Triassic, Carnian and the early evolution of Sauropodomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo N Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The earliest dinosaurs are from the early Late Triassic (Carnian of South America. By the Carnian the main clades Saurischia and Ornithischia were already established, and the presence of the most primitive known sauropodomorph Saturnalia suggests also that Saurischia had already diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha. Knowledge of Carnian sauropodomorphs has been restricted to this single species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new small sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Ischigualsto Formation (Carnian in northwest Argentina, Panphagia protos gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of a partial skeleton. The genus and species are characterized by an anteroposteriorly elongated fossa on the base of the anteroventral process of the nasal; wide lateral flange on the quadrate with a large foramen; deep groove on the lateral surface of the lower jaw surrounded by prominent dorsal and ventral ridges; bifurcated posteroventral process of the dentary; long retroarticular process transversally wider than the articular area for the quadrate; oval scars on the lateral surface of the posterior border of the centra of cervical vertebrae; distinct prominences on the neural arc of the anterior cervical vertebra; distal end of the scapular blade nearly three times wider than the neck; scapular blade with an expanded posterodistal corner; and medial lamina of brevis fossa twice as wide as the iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We regard Panphagia as the most basal sauropodomorph, which shares the following apomorphies with Saturnalia and more derived sauropodomorphs: basally constricted crowns; lanceolate crowns; teeth of the anterior quarter of the dentary higher than the others; and short posterolateral flange of distal tibia. The presence of Panphagia at the base of the early Carnian Ischigualasto Formation suggests an earlier origin of Sauropodomorpha during the Middle Triassic.

  15. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  16. 经额底纵裂-终板入路切除颅咽管瘤%The operation experience of removal of craniopharyngioma via fronto-basal interhemispheric trans-lamina terminalis approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明; 高觉民; 汤忠华; 樊炼; 傅传经; 李铭; 李建

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨经额底纵裂-终板入路切除颅咽管瘤的手术方法和疗效.方法 回顾性分析2008年10月-2010年10月18例经额底纵裂-终板入路手术的颅咽管瘤患者的临床资料.评价该手术入路、显微操作技术的优缺点.结果 18例均顺利完成手术,肿瘤全切除16例(88.9%),次全切除2例;保留垂体柄17例(94.4%),未保留1例.视力改善13例.术后并发症主要为多尿及电解质紊乱.结论 经额底纵裂-终板入路是治疗颅咽管瘤安全有效的手术路径.

  17. Effects of muscle basal lamina transplantation on vascularization of hemisected spinal cord model in rats%肌基膜管植入对大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型的血管化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀英; 薛辉; 孙皎; 陈东

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察肌基膜管移植治疗大鼠脊髓损伤的血管生成情况,为在脊髓损伤中应用肌基膜管作为组织工程支架提供理论和实验依据。方法:利用冻融法将大鼠骨骼肌制备成肌基膜管,将其移植入大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型中,分别于术后3、5、7、14和28 d取材,利用碱性磷酸酶染色观察各个时间点支架中血管生成情况,比较不同时间点(3、5、7、14和28 d)血管生成数量。结果:肌基膜管在移植入大鼠脊髓损伤区后,血管由脊髓和肌基膜管交界处长入肌基膜管内部,最终在肌基膜管内部形成血管网。新生血管面积比5d组高于3d组(P<0. 05),7d组高于5d组(P<0.01),14 d组高于7d组(P<0.01),28 d组高于14d组(P<0. 05或P<0. 01)。结论:肌基膜管移植入大鼠脊髓半横断损伤模型中具有良好的血管化作用,有望成为修复脊髓损伤理想的组织工程材料。

  18. 多囊卵巢综合征患者卵泡基底膜超微结构的研究%Ultrastructure of basal lamina of follicles in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯淑英; 邝健全; 曹水良; 唐福星; 郭祖文; 余妙真; 杨冬梓; 翁梅英; 李琳

    2005-01-01

    运用透射电镜观察多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)组及正常妇女组卵泡的形态,用体视学方法测量两组各级卵泡基底膜的厚度.结果显示:两组原始卵泡的基底膜厚度相似,但随着卵泡的发育卵泡基底膜逐渐增厚,PCOS组增厚更明显,对照组初级卵泡基底膜的平均厚度是0.293±0.204μm,PCOS组是0.463±0.287μm,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).对照组次级卵泡基底膜的平均厚度为0.542±0.298μm,PCOS组为1.234±0.345μm,两组比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).两组原始卵泡的前颗粒细胞的超微结构相似,随着卵泡的发育,PCOS组的颗粒细胞内参与蛋白质合成的细胞器明显较对照组丰富;正常组窦前卵泡的颗粒细胞出现分化现象,PCOS组却未见分化现象.结果提示:PCOS患者卵泡基底膜屏障的增厚可能使卵泡刺激素FSH进入卵泡困难,颗粒细胞不能正常分化,"FSH-颗粒细胞轴"功能低下,导致不孕症.

  19. Effects of hyperthermia on microvascular basal lamina in the middle cerebral artery embolism model in rats%体温升高对大鼠大脑中动脉栓塞模型脑微血管的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟强; Chenxu Wang; Ashfaq Shuaib

    2009-01-01

    侧脑体积百分比增加至56.1%±8.4%(P<0.01).术后6h及24h,高温组中单位面积胶原蛋白Ⅳ与层粘连蛋白数量较对照组均下降(P<0.05).结论 脑梗死后体温升高可加重脑微血管破坏,增加脑梗死灶体积,从而加重神经功能损伤.

  20. 去细胞异体神经基膜管桥接神经缺损的实验研究%An experimental study of repairing nerve gap with acellular basal lamina tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴传昌; 王炜; 董佳生; 祁佐良; 钟斌; 曹谊林; 商庆新; 胡晓洁

    2001-01-01

    目的探索修复周围神经缺损的新的有效替代材料.方法将异体的预变性神经和正常神经经溶血卵磷脂裂解液处理后,得到一种没有细胞及细胞碎片的、空的神经基膜管,将其用来修复大鼠15mm坐骨神经缺损,通过一般观察、肌萎缩测量、电生理检测、连续切片组织学观察和计算机图像分析来评价神经再生.结果化学抽提的预变性神经和正常神经桥接物组均获得了密集的神经再生和良好的神经功能恢复,其中前者效果更为优越.结论这种材料极有可能成为自体神经的替代材料应用于临床较短的神经缺损的修复.

  1. Experimental study on repairing sciatic nerve defects by two kinds of acellular basal lamina grafts%大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管异体移植的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海; 周建生; 胡汝麒

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨化学萃取法(CEN)、冻融法(FTN)制备的异种鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管移植术后8、13、23天神经再生轴突距离、Schwann细胞迁入、再血管化及炎症反应异同.方法:将36只雌性Wistar鼠随机配对,分为CEN组与FTN组,每组18只,分别桥接移植两种方法制备的Sprague-Dawley鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管.观察术后8、13、23天移植物物理性状及组织形态学变化.结果:术后8、13、23天,神经轴突再生距离、近和远端Schwann细胞数、再血管化及炎症反应差异有显著性(P<0.05),CEN组优于FTN组.结论:化学萃取法制备的异种周围神经去细胞基膜管较冻融法能更快、更好地修复周围神经缺损,亦应有更大的临床实用价值.

  2. 大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学研究%The morphological study of two kinds of acellular basal Lamina tubes of sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海; 胡汝麒; 周建生

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察采用化学萃取法和反复冻融法制备大鼠坐骨神经去细胞基膜管的组织形态学变化.方法:雌性Sprague-Dawley鼠坐骨神经16条随机分为化学萃取法(chemical extracted nerve,CEN)和冻融法(freeze-thawed nerve,FTN)两组,每组18条.分别予Trinton-100化学萃取、-196℃~20℃反复冻融处理后,光镜、电镜观察其组织、形态学变化.结果:(1)CEN组基膜管管壁完整、贯通,无细胞结构,可见管状神经轮廓.(2)FTN组基膜管管壁破损、管腔堵塞,轴突、髓鞘、雪旺细胞及小血管变性、坏死,可见大量细胞碎片.结论:两种方法均能保持周围神经正常的三维空间结构,CEN制备的周围神经去细胞基膜管更具有组织形态学优势.

  3. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  4. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4(+)T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  5. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female – A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST’s showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  6. Hyperactive Dental Lamina in a 24-Year-old Female - A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashu; Nagar, Priya; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Munjal, Deepti; Sethi, Harsimran Singh

    2015-08-01

    An extra tooth to the normal formula of teeth sequence in any region of dental arch is regarded as Supernumerary teeth (ST). The reasons are still not clearly known, one of them being dichotomy of tooth bud, but the more accepted reason is the hyperactivity theory. Supernumerary teeth are present more in permanent dentition than in primary dentition and can present as a single entity or multiple, unilaterally or bilaterally, impacted or erupted, in either or both the dental arches. This article discusses the supernumerary teeth in detail with a case discussion of a non-syndromic 24-year-old girl, with six ST (bicuspids) present in all the four quadrants. In the mandible, ST's showed a classical clustered flower like presentation. The interesting feature in the presented case was the sequential orthopantomographs taken at various ages of the patient that showed continuous development of STs in all four quadrants, thus pointing to the theory of hyperactive dental lamina or atavism. An electronic search was conceded in PubMed, Cochrane Library and google scholar databases, and articles dated between December 1932 and December 2012 were selected to review the occurrence patterns of supernumerary teeth in non-syndromic cases. PMID:26436066

  7. Laminae type and possible mechanisms for the formation of laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m and gravity core GeoB 5836-2 (26°12.61' N, 35°21.56' E; water depth 1475 m. Sediment makeup includes six types: a a laminated structure with alternating light (mainly coccoliths and dark (diatom frustules layers, where the diatom component is indicative of the intra-annual variability between stratification and mixing events; b a pocket-like structure attributed to the sinking of particles within fecal pellets and aggregates; c a matrix of tightly packed diatoms that relates to extended stratification/mixing periods of the water column; d homogenous intervals that result from turbidity deposition; e silt accumulations which origin may lie in agglutinated foraminifers; and f pyrite layers with pyrite formation initiated at the seawater-brine interface.

  8. A bioinformatics analysis of Lamin-A regulatory network: a perspective on epigenetic involvement in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancio, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disease that leads to premature aging. HGPS is caused by mutation in the Lamin-A (LMNA) gene that leads, in affected young individuals, to the accumulation of the progerin protein, usually present only in aging differentiated cells. Bioinformatics analyses of the network of interactions of the LMNA gene and transcripts are presented. The LMNA gene network has been analyzed using the BioGRID database (http://thebiogrid.org/) and related analysis tools such as Osprey (http://biodata.mshri.on.ca/osprey/servlet/Index) and GeneMANIA ( http://genemania.org/). The network of interaction of LMNA transcripts has been further analyzed following the competing endogenous (ceRNA) hypotheses (RNA cross-talk via microRNAs [miRNAs]) and using the miRWalk database and tools (www.ma.uni-heidelberg.de/apps/zmf/mirwalk/). These analyses suggest particular relevance of epigenetic modifiers (via acetylase complexes and specifically HTATIP histone acetylase) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodelers (via pBAF, BAF, and SWI/SNF complexes). PMID:22533413

  9. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  10. Neurons and glial cells of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis directly respond to lipopolysaccharide and pyrogenic cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniela; Murgott, Jolanta; Rafalzik, Sandra; Wuchert, Florian; Schmalenbeck, Babette; Roth, Joachim; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2010-12-01

    During systemic immune challenge, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) with its dense vascularization by fenestrated capillaries lacking blood-brain barrier function allows direct access of circulating pyrogens to brain tissue located in close vicinity to the preoptic area. We aimed to analyze direct responses of OVLT cells to exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1) or the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. A primary microculture of the OVLT was established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, pyrogen-induced calcium signaling in single OVLT cells could be characterized. LPS--as opposed to FSL-1--stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium concentration in 17% of neurons, 9% of astrocytes, and microcultures. TNF-α evoked calcium signals in 11% of neurons, 22% of astrocytes, and 5% of microglial cells tested. A considerable population of neurons (11%) but only few astrocytes and microglial cells responded to IL-6, whereas 8% of microglial cells and 3% of astrocytes or neurons were activated by IL-1β. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT-intrinsic cells to stimulations with LPS or cytokines reinforces the suggested role of this brain structure as a responsive brain site to circulating pyrogens. PMID:20883673

  11. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  12. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  13. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  14. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Giannangeli, Don (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Charlton, William S. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  15. Substructural strengthening in molybdenum and Mo-33Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengthening from defect substructures has been studied in Mo-33Re deformed in tension and by cold rolling, and in shock-loaded molybdenum and Mo-33Re. In cold-rolled and tensile-deformed Mo-33Re, strengthening arises from dislocation-dislocation interactions for smaller strains (less than 0.3), while at larger strains by rolling there is additional strengthening from dislocation cell formation and texture development. In shock-loaded molybdenum, dislocation-dislocation interactions are the primary source of strengthening, while in shock-loaded Mo-33Re dislocations and twin boundaries both contribute to strengthening. The coefficients for dislocation strengthening in both shock-loaded molybdenum and shock-loaded Mo-33Re are consistent with the values for the cold-rolled Mo-33Re and with published values for a wide range of other materials, indicating that the strengthening mechanism is similar for conventional and shock deformation. (Auth.)

  16. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  17. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27591446

  18. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  19. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  20. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  1. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  2. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  3. Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S.; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lowe...

  4. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Timothy L. Megraw

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various...

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  6. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  7. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hyung Lee; Seung Woo Kwak; Eun Min Kang; Gyu Ah Kim; Sang Yeop Lee; Hyoung Won Bae; Gong Je Seong; Chan Yun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  8. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  9. [Basal cell carcinoma. Molecular genetics and unusual clinical features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, J

    2007-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer. Its incidence is steadily increasing. The development of basal cell carcinoma is linked to genetic factors, including the individual skin phototype, as well as the cumulative exposure to UVB. The vast majority of basal cell carcinomas are sporadic tumors, while familial cases associated with certain hereditary syndromes are less common. At the molecular level, basal cell carcinomas are characterized by aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog signaling, usually due to mutations either in the ptch or smoh genes. In addition, about half of the cases carry mutations in the tp53 tumor suppressor gene, which are often UVB-associated C-->T transition mutations. Clinically, basal cell carcinomas may show a high degree of phenotypical variability. In particular, tumors occurring in atypical locations, showing an unusual clinical appearance, or imitating other skin diseases may cause diagnostic problems. This review article summarizes the current state of the art concerning the etiology, predisposition and molecular genetics of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, examples of unusual clinical manifestations are illustrated. PMID:17440702

  10. Avaliação da Atividade Alimentar dos Invertebrados de Solo em Campos do Sul do Brasil – Bait-Lamina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Podgaiski

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The aim of this work is to inform about a pioneer bait-lamina test in the South Brazilian Campos to evaluate the soil invertebrates feeding activity which is an approaching to leaf litter decomposition rates in the ecosystems. The feeding activity was tested during two months, across 8 cm of soil depth and employing a comparison between two techniques of consumption quantification (conservative technique vs. practical technique in two different grassland areas (grazed and not grazed were described. One hundred independent sampling units (s.u. were established on each area, and in each s.u. two bait-lamina were inserted: one horizontally and another vertically. For each sampling date (9, 16, 22, 29 e 65 days of exposition, 20 s.u. were sorted and analyzed. We observed a high feeding activity from the beginning of the experiments, both in the surface and within the soil. Soil fauna feeding activity differed according to soil depth, being higher on the surface and for 6.5-8 cm deep in the soil. Both techniques lead to similar results when the two areas were compared. The grazed site showed lower invertebrate feeding activity than the site not grazed. These findings constitute a basis for future researches in Brazil, relating that the bait-lamina test can offer useful results around fifteen days of exposition.

  11. Austenitic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Raman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials play an important role in the fast breeder reactors.  Materials used in cladding tube and fuel pins should have better creep and void swelling resistance. To overcome these difficulties, a new class of material known as oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS steels are used. There are two groups of ODS steels, the ferritic and the austenitic ODS steels based on the matrix. The present paper reviews the current status of research in austenitic ODS steels. The interaction of dislocations with finely dispersed incoherent, hard particles that governs the strength and high temperature properties of ODS materials is briefly reviewed. The synthesis route adopted for these ODS steels, which is mostly through powder metallurgy route is also discussed. The role of various oxides such as Y2O3, ZrO2and TiO2and the clusters formed in these ODS steels on the mechanical properties and void swelling characteristics is also discussed.

  12. Study on WC dispersion-strengthened copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mengjun; ZHANG Liyong; LIU Xinyu

    2004-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) with WC as dispersoid was prepared by means of mechanical alloying (MA) following the traditional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. Influence of WC content on the properties of material was discussed in detail, and result shows that when the volume fraction of WC is 1.6%, the material achieves the best overall property, and a little more particle addition led to a less superior property owing to occurrence of particle agglomeration The as-sintered composite was designed to undergo a deformation of 75%. It is proved that appropriate deformation is helpful to attain a higher density and consequently better properties. Deformed material was then exposed to elevated temperature to test its effect on material. Annealing for 1 h at 1173K caused material to recover quite completely, but no obvious recrystallization was observed. It's supposed the particles handicaps motion of dislocations and material demonstrates good retention of strength with substantial improvement in elongation.

  13. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  14. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  15. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatehi, A., E-mail: arya.fatehi@gmail.com [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Calvo, J.; Elwazri, A.M.; Yue, S. [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-06-25

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. {approx}0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  16. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  17. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. ∼0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  18. Intestinal lamina propria retaining CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells is a suppressive site of intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Shin; Kanai, Takanori; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Totsuka, Teruji; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2007-04-15

    It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only does active suppression by regulatory T (T(REG)) cells play an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also that its dysregulation of immune response leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that murine CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) constitutively express CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR, and Foxp3 and suppress proliferation of responder CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Furthermore, cotransfer of intestinal LP CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells prevents the development of chronic colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells into SCID mice. When lymphotoxin (LT)alpha-deficient intercrossed Rag2 double knockout mice (LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-)), which lack mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, are transferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells, they develop severe wasting disease and chronic colitis despite the delayed kinetics as compared with the control LTalpha(+/+) x Rag2(-/-) mice transferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells. Of note, when a mixture of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells and CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells are transferred into LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-) recipients, CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells migrate into the colon and prevent the development of colitis in LTalpha(-/-) x Rag2(-/-) recipients as well as in the control LTalpha(+/+) x Rag2(-/-) recipients. These results suggest that the intestinal LP harboring CD4(+)CD25(+) T(REG) cells contributes to the intestinal immune suppression. PMID:17404275

  19. Determining the Characteristics of Composite Structure Laminae by Optical 3D Measurement of Deformation with Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Nestorović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental determination of the elastic constants of orthotropic composite materials and their bearing capacity (strength for furniture intended for sitting, and numerical verification of the experiment results by analysing with the final elements, was performed on the basis of the theory of elasticity of orthotropic and anisotropic composite materials. The requisite and sufficient material constants were determined in the experiments: moduli of elasticity and Poisson’s coefficients (longitudinal and tangential and skate modulus for plain stress. These constants, calculated by 3D measurements of deformation, are sufficient for determining the constitutive matrix of the lamina, and for reducing stiffness of the composite irrespective of the thickness of the layers, fibre orientation and choice of material. Experiments were conducted for the stiffness, shear and flexing of uniformly and complexly layered beech veneer sheets, while for new materials experiments for stiffness and shear in a uniform orientation were sufficient. Analysis of stiffness and deformations were conducted layer by layer, as well as by reduced volume stiffness for multilayered orthotropic shells of chair systems by a method of final elements by application of a composite final element, where combined reduced membrane matrices and flexing matrices are used. Numerical verification of the experiments, including systems of furniture intended for sitting – chairs – was conducted using the KOMIPS software system, which contains in its library a composite final element of the sheet. Experiments with chairs were performed with the aim of determining the stiffness of such systems, and they were confirmed by analytical results and measurement of the real movements on selected models. The results of research provide the design, re-design, construction and determination of the dimensions of not just chairs, but also of any other girder or surface systembased on laminates.

  20. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Lok; Kim, Hyunjoong; Girard, Michaël J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface depth (LCD) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG), focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT) at the anterior LC surface. Methods Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral) according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length. Results Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023). On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002), together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001), higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010), and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003) on the larger LCD. Conclusion In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship. PMID:27355646

  1. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I-III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D; Abraira, Victoria E; Polgár, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I-III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty in identifying glutamatergic synapses with light microscopy. Although there are numerous potential targets for antibodies, these are difficult to visualize with immunocytochemistry, because of protein cross-linking following tissue fixation. Although this can be overcome by antigen retrieval methods, these lead to difficulty in detecting other antigens. The aim of this study was to test whether the postsynaptic protein Homer can be used to reveal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal horn. Immunostaining for Homer gave punctate labeling when viewed by confocal microscopy, and this was restricted to synapses at the ultrastructural level. We found that Homer puncta were colocalized with the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, but not with the inhibitory synapse-associated protein gephyrin. We also examined several populations of glutamatergic axons and found that most boutons were in contact with at least one Homer punctum. These results suggest that Homer antibodies can be used to reveal the great majority of glutamatergic synapses without antigen retrieval. This will be of considerable value in tracing synaptic circuits, and also in investigating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in pain states. PMID:27185486

  2. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  3. Luster Polish Strengthening Treatment for Raceway Surface of Aeroengine Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Si-er; TENG Hong-fei; MA Fu-jian; HAO Jian-jun; CHEN Tao

    2007-01-01

    A new surface strengthening technology, luster polish strengthening treatnent, was proposed to treat the raceway surface of aeroengine bearings (9Cr18Mo) with the centrifugal strengthening machine exclusively designed for luster polish strengthening treatment. The experimental results showed that luster polish strengthening treatment produced a compressive residual stress layer with a depth of over 80 μm below the surface of the bearing raceway, and thus effectively removed the metamorphic layer in the raceway surface. After luster polish strengthening treatment, the average surface hardness of the aeroengine bearing raceway was increased from 61.02 HRC to 63.01 HRC, the surface roughness was reduced from 0.06 μm to 0.03 μm, and the contact fatigue life of the aeroengine bearings was improved by about 90%, with the dispersion of fatigue life being reduced remarkably.Theoretical calculation result agrees with that obtained by experiment.

  4. Behavior of preloaded RC beams strengthened with CFRP laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Eighteen reinforced concrete beams, including 16 beams strengthened with CFRP laminate at different levels of preload and 2 control beams, were tested to investigate the influence ofpreload level on flexural behavior of CFRP-strengthened RC beam. The experimental parameters include rebar ratios, number of plies of CFRP laminates and preload level at the time of strengthening. Theoretical analysis was also carried out to explain the experimental phenomena and results. The experimental and theoretical results indicated that the preload level has more influence on the stiffness and deflection of the strengthened beam, bothat post-cracking and post-yielding stage, than that on the yielding and ultimate flexural strength of the strengthened beam. The main failure mode of CFRP-strengthened beam is the intermediate crack-induced debonding of CFRP laminates, provided that the development length of CFRP laminates and shear capacity of the beam are sufficient.

  5. Use of Woven Fabrics for Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Parthraj R. Puranik; Deval A. Vasavada

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a great deal of research is currently being conducted concerning the use of fiber reinforced plastic wraps, laminates and sheets in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) application is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. But the use of woven fabrics for strengthening RC members has not been much investigated. Woven fabrics though cannot provide co...

  6. APPLICATION OF PRESTRESSED SHELLS TO STRENGTHEN STRIP FOUNDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-Martirosjan Zaven Grigor'evich; Pronozin Jakov Aleksandrovich; Naumkina Julija Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    Effective method of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings by pre-stressed shells is considered in the paper. Advantages of the proposed strengthening method, its production technology and pre-conditions of its analysis are also presented. Presently, strengthening of ground foundations and foundations of buildings and structures is a relevant civil engineering challenge. It is driven by high intensity of restructuring and modernization of buildings and alteration of geological eng...

  7. Behaviour of RC beams shear strengthening with NSM CFRP laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Salvador J. E.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of the Near Surface Mounted (NSM) technique with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates for the shear strengthening of T cross section reinforced concrete (RC) beams is assessed by experimental research. The influence of the percentage and inclination of CFRP laminates on the shear strengthening contribution was evaluated. The experimental program also includes beams strengthened according to the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) technique in ord...

  8. Study of the Tensile Properties of CFRP Strengthened Steel Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Lu; Weijie Li; Shan Li; Xiaojin Li; Tao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of steel plates strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets under tensile load. The number of CFRP layers (ranging from one to four), strengthening schemes (single-sided and double-sided bonding), and temperatures (ranging from 25 to 120 °C) were investigated. Results showed that the number of CFRP layers and strengthening schemes had insignificant effects on failure modes of specimens. The failure modes were dominated by the de...

  9. How to Strengthen Child Learners’Self-confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2013-01-01

    Self-confidence is closely related to L2 learning. In order to make their learners enjoy English learning, English teach-ers need to strengthen the learners’English learning confidence. This article is to find out English teachers’role to strengthening learners’self-confidence in ELL by means of class observation. The writer concludes improving speaking ability; giving praise and offering gentle error correcting can help to strengthen the learners’confidence.

  10. Fatigue test of RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Xie, Jianhe

    2008-11-01

    Applying prestress to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) can be used more efficiently since a greater portion energy of its tensile capacity is engaged. Based on carbon fiber laminate (CFL), fatigue tests are made to find out the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with prestressed CFL. The interfacial debonding is a main failure mode for RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs under the cyclic loading. Furthermore, it has been found that the stress value of CFLs decide whether the additional prestressing has a negative or positive effect on the fatigue behavior of the strengthened beam, and the excessive prestressing would reduce the fatigue life of the strengthened beam.

  11. China and ROK to Strengthen Cooperation in Environmental Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The environment ministers of China and the Republic of Korea have agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in tackling regional environmental problems while promoting the development ofrelevant industries.

  12. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  13. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  14. Strengthening Self-efficacy through Supportive Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, gender and socio-economic backgrounds. As a community we need to strengthen our support of young scientists from all backgrounds to sustain their enthusiasm and ensure their success in our field. Investing in mentoring programs that empower students and young professionals is one of the best ways to do so. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program, now entering its 20th year, has successfully developed and tested several mentoring models. The personalized, caring and consistent support is one of the key elements of the program's success; since its inception, 90% of SOARS participants have entered graduate school, research or science related careers after graduation. Many of our alumni who are now faculty apply the same mentoring strategies to build self-esteem and perseverance in their students. This presentation will cover the design and implementation of our four mentoring strategies, and provide insights on potential challenges, training aspects and impact assessment. The mentoring strategies include: 1) Multi-faceted, long-term mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students from diverse backgrounds. 2) Empowering advanced students to serve as peer mentors and role models. 3) Training faculty and professional scientists from all backgrounds to become mentors who are aware of diversity issues. 4) Providing mentor training for partner programs and laboratories. All four strategies have contributed to the creation of a mentoring culture in the geosciences.

  15. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  16. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  17. Achievements to date in strengthened safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is substantial progress in developing and implementing measures to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the Safeguards System. The measures comprise those to be implemented pursuant to the Agency's legal authority conferred by existing safeguards agreements as well as those to be implemented under the complementary legal authority conferred by Additional Protocols concluded on the basis of Document INFCIRC/540(Corrected). Activities on implementing measures under existing legal authority, particularly with respect to the evaluation of States' nuclear programmes, environmental sampling and the use of remote monitoring for safeguards purposes had been carried continuously ion the recent post. In 1998, additional protocols entered into force with four States (the Holy See, Jordan, New Zealand and Uzbekistan). Additional protocols with a further 27 States were approved by the Board and were awaiting ratification by the respective States. The additional protocol with Australia, which entered into force in December 1997, was being implemented following receipt of its Article 2 declaration. Agency consultations on concluding additional protocols take place with a number of States on a regular basis. As of 1 October 1999, Additional Protocols had been concluded and approved by the Board of Governors with a total of 45 States. Of these, Additional Protocols with 44 States had been signed and five had entered into force. (author)

  18. Nanotwinned fcc metals: Strengthening versus softening mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukowski, A.; Albe, K.; Farkas, D.

    2010-12-01

    The strengthening effect of twins in nanocrystalline metals has been reported both in experiment and simulation. While twins are mostly considered as effective barriers to dislocation slip transfer, they can also provide nucleation sites for dislocations or migrate during the deformation process, thereby contributing to plasticity. By comparing twinned and nontwinned samples, we study the effect of twins on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd using atomistic simulations. While Cu shows hardening due to the presence of twins, Pd shows the opposite effect. A quantitative dislocation analysis method is applied, which allows to analyze dislocation interactions with twin planes and grain boundaries and to measure dislocation, stacking fault, and twin-boundary densities as functions of strain. A statistical analysis of the occurring dislocation types provides direct evidence for the role of twin boundaries as effective sources for twinning dislocations, which are the reason for the observed softening in some fcc materials. In addition, we discuss how the orientation of the loading direction with respect to the twin planes affects the response of nanotwinned Cu and Pd.

  19. Micropolar crystal plasticity simulation of particle strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeur, J. R.; McDowell, D. L.

    2015-09-01

    The yield and work hardening behavior of a small-scale initial-boundary value problem involving dislocation plasticity in an idealized particle strengthened system is investigated using micropolar single crystal plasticity and is compared with results for the same problem from dislocation dynamics simulations. A micropolar single crystal is a work-conjugate higher-order continuum that treats the lattice rotations as generalized displacements, and supports couple stresses that are work-conjugate to the lattice torsion-curvature, leading to a non-symmetric Cauchy stress. The resolved skew-symmetric component of the Cauchy stress tensor results in slip system level kinematic hardening during heterogeneous deformation that depends on gradients of lattice torsion-curvature. The scale-dependent mechanical response of the micropolar single crystal is dictated both by energetic (higher-order elastic constants) and dissipative (plastic torsion-curvature) intrinsic material length scales. We show that the micropolar model captures essential details of the average stress-strain behavior predicted by discrete dislocation dynamics and of the cumulative slip and dislocation density fields predicted by statistical dislocation dynamics.

  20. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  1. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Legorreta, Emmanuel; Horta-Júnior, José de Anchieta C; Berrebi, Albert S; Saldaña, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus), the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm), the suprageniculate nucleus (SG), and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the MGB (MGBv), can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for PV, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin (CR); indeed, in many CR-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided in this article will

  2. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  3. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  4. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  5. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  6. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  7. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D.; Anzelon, George A.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory

    2016-09-28

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  8. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  9. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  10. Health Systems Analysis for Better Health System Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Peter; Bitran, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Health system strengthening and reform are often necessary actions to achieve better outcomes. The World Bank's 2007 strategy for health, nutrition, and population emphasizes the importance of health system strengthening for results. This paper proposes 'health systems analysis' as a distinct methodology that should be developed and practiced in the design of policies and programs for heal...

  11. Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families: A Model Child Abuse Prevention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maril

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…

  12. Strengthening of Concrete Structures with cement based bonded composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Due to demands on higher loads, degradation, re-construction etc. there is a constant need for repair or strengthening of existing concrete structures. Many varying methods exist to strengthen concrete structures, one such commonly used technique utilizes surface epoxy bonded FRPs (Fibre Reinforc...

  13. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10...

  14. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  15. Use of Woven Fabrics for Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthraj R. Puranik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, a great deal of research is currently being conducted concerning the use of fiber reinforced plastic wraps, laminates and sheets in the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC members. Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP application is a very effective way to repair and strengthen structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. But the use of woven fabrics for strengthening RC members has not been much investigated. Woven fabrics though cannot provide compressive strength, but have a great potential to provide bending or tensile strength to RC beams. In the present investigation, three different woven fabrics were used to strengthen RC beams. The aim is to study the effectiveness of woven fabric in strengthening of RC beams and the effect of number of fabric layers on load carrying capacity of RC beams.

  16. Joining of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels for Advanced Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B. W.; Brewer, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of structural materials capable of operation in the high temperatures, corrosive environments, and radiation damage spectra of future reactor designs remain one of the key pacing items for advanced reactor designs. The most promising candidate structural materials are vanadium-based refractory alloys, silicon carbide composites and oxide dispersion strengthened steels. Of these, oxide dispersion strengthened steels are a likely near-term candidate to meet required demands. This paper reviews different variants of oxide dispersion strengthened steels and discusses their capability with regard to high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and radiation damage resistance. Additionally, joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, which has been cited as a limiting factor preventing their use, is addressed and reviewed. Specifically, friction stir welding of these steels is reviewed as a promising joining method for oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  17. On-line tribochemical strengthening of gear surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that under favorable friction conditions some antiwear elements inlubricating additives can permeate into subsurface of metal which can strengthens the friction sur-faces and improves anti-wear capacity of frication pairs. It is in many ways similar to chemical heattreatment. A new concept, technology of on-line strengthening, was logically put forward. Based oncurrent gear surface treatment technology, the on-line strengthen of gear surface is proposed. Itsdesign method is established. Based on it, the on-line strengthen of gear is achieved on CL-100gear test machine. A new method is put forward for strengthen treatment of gear surface. Andthree kinds of surface film were suggested.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  19. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  20. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  2. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  3. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  4. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stacey, S.N.; Sulem, P.; Masson, G.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Sigurdsson, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Scherer, D.; Hemminki, K.; Rudnai, P.; Gurzau, E.; Koppova, K.; Botella-Estrada, R.; Soriano, V.; Juberias, P.; Saez, B.; Gilaberte, Y.; Fuentelsaz, V.; Corredera, C.; Grasa, M.; Hoiom, V.; Lindblom, A.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Rossum, M.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Vries, E. de; Santinami, M.; Mauro, M.G. Di; Maurichi, A.; Wendt, J.; Hochleitner, P.; Pehamberger, H.; Gudmundsson, J.; Magnusdottir, D.N.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Holm, H.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Frigge, M.L.; Blondal, T.; Saemundsdottir, J.; Bjarnason, H.; Kristjansson, K.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Okamoto, I.; Rivoltini, L.; Rodolfo, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hansson, J.; Nagore, E.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Kumar, R.; Karagas, M.R.; Nelson, H.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Rafnar, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Olafsson, J.H.; Kong, A.; Stefansson, K.

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A vari

  5. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  6. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  7. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  8. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...

  9. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  10. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  11. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  12. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  13. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Afefy, Hamdy M.; Kassem, Nesreen M.; Fawzy, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  14. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α-lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin.

  15. Slender reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdošová, K.; Bilčík, J.

    2011-06-01

    The requirement for a long life with relatively low maintenance costs relates to the use of building structures. Even though the structure is correctly designed, constructed and maintained, the need for extensions of its lifetime can appear. The preservation of the original structure with a higher level of resistance or reliability is enabled by strengthening. Conventional materials are replaced by progressive composites - mainly carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). They are used for strengthening reinforced concrete columns in two ways: added reinforcement in the form of CFRP strips in grooves or CFRP sheet confinement and eventually their combination. This paper presents the effect of the mentioned strengthening methods on slender reinforced concrete columns.

  16. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  17. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  18. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  19. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance linkage

  20. On the velocity-strengthening behavior of dry friction

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2013-01-01

    The onset of frictional instabilities, e.g. earthquakes nucleation, is intimately related to velocity-weakening friction, in which the frictional resistance of interfaces decreases with increasing slip velocity. While this frictional response has been studied extensively, much less attention has been given to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, in spite of its importance for various aspects of frictional phenomena such as the propagation speed of interfacial rupture fronts and the amount of stored energy released by them. In this note we suggest that a crossover from steady-state velocity-weakening friction at small slip velocities to steady-state velocity-strengthening friction at higher velocities might be a generic feature of dry friction. We further argue that while thermally activated rheology naturally gives rise to logarithmic steady-state velocity-strengthening friction, a crossover to stronger-than-logarithmic strengthening might take place at higher slip velocities, possibly accompanied by...

  1. Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using GFRP Wraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Saafan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experimental work described in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of GFRP composites in strengthening simply supported reinforced concrete beams designed with insufficient shear capacity. Using the hand lay-up technique, successive layers of a woven fiberglass fabric were bonded along the shear span to increase the shear capacity and to avoid catastrophic premature failure modes. The strengthened beams were fabricated with no web reinforcement to explore the efficiency of the proposed strengthening technique using the results of control beams with closed stirrups as a  web reinforcement. The test results of 18 beams are reported, addressing the influence of different shear strengthening schemes and variable longitudinal reinforcement ratios on the structural behavior. The results indicated that significant increases in the shear strength and improvements in the overall structural behavior of beams with insufficient shear capacity could be achieved by proper application of GFRP wraps.

  2. Shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian; LIU Xue-mei; ZHAO Tong

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of tests on the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) sheet. The shear transfer mechanism of the specimens reinforced with CFRP sheet was studied. The factors affecting the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet were analyzed. Several suggestions such as the number of layers, width and tensile strength of the CFRP sheet are proposed for this new strengthening technique. Finally, a simple and practical design method is presented in the paper. The calculated results of the suggested method are shown to be in good agreement with the test results. The suggested design method can be used in evaluating the shear capacity of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with CFRP sheet.

  3. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... HS patients, a population-based HS group of 430 population HS patients, and 20 780 controls. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses showed a 10.12% (P ....0001) was significantly higher in HS patients compared with controls. Additionally, age and sex-adjusted analyses showed a higher predicted estimate of BMR for the HS groups compared with controls (154.56 kcal/day (95% CI 54.96-254.16) (P = 0.0031) for the hospital-based HS group, and 82.63 kcal/day (95%CI 59...

  4. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  5. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  6. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  7. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  8. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  9. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  10. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  11. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  12. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakayama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a malignant neoplasm derived from nonkeratinizing cells that originate from the basal layer of the epidermis and is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor. BCC occurs most frequently at sun-exposed sites, with the head and neck being common areas. Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, morpheaform, infiltrating, metatypic, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. Several treatment options such as surgical excision and nonsurgical procedures are available. The choice of treatment should be determined based on the histological subtype of a lesion, cost, its size and location, patient age, medical condition of the patient, treatment availability, and the patient's wishes. The aim of any therapy selected for BCC treatment involving the head and neck is to ensure complete removal, the preservation of function, and a good cosmetic outcome.

  14. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  15. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  16. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    OpenAIRE

    D. De Domenico; A.A.Pisano; P. Fuschi

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP) plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars) and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may oc...

  17. Coefficient strengthening : a tool for formulating mixed integer programs

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kent; Pochet, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Providing a good formulation is an important part of solving a mixed integer program. We suggest to measure the quality of a formulation by whether it is possible to strengthen the coefficients of the formulation. Sequentially strengthening coefficients can then be used as a tool for improving formulations. We believe this method could be useful for analyzing and producing tight formulations of problems that arise in practice. We illustrate the use of the approach on a problem in production s...

  18. Post-compressed plates for strengthening preloaded reinforced concretecolumns

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lu; 王璐

    2013-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are the primary load-bearing structural components in buildings. Over time these columns may need to be repaired or strengthened either due to defective construction, having higher loads than those foreseen in the initial design of the structure, or as a result of material deterioration or accidental damage. Three external strengthening methods, namely steel jacketing, concrete jacketing and composite jacketing, are commonly adopted for upgrading the ultimate...

  19. Modeling and characterization of strengthened concrete tension members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The structural potential for cracking of externally strengthened concrete tension members, can be predicted with three parameters, describing the structural cracking potential based on fracture mechanical properties of the of concrete and interface between concrete and strengthening medium....... With these parameters, it is possible to design reinforcement and obtain a required cracking behavior of a given structure. Design recommendations for single and multiple cracking of the tension specimen are given in terms of fracture mechanical parameters, and a structural stiffness parameter....

  20. The Strengthening of Cu-15Ni-8Sn Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hui; WANG Ming-pu; HONG Bin

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure, property and relation between them of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy are studied by means of TEM and the measurement of hardness. The results show that γ ' metastable phase strengthens alloy because of its ordering structure.The ordering structure includes two types of DO22 and L12 ordering. Their strengthening for the alloy is much stronger than that of spinodal decomposition.

  1. Strengthening masonry infill panels using engineered cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Fischer, Gregor; Nateghi Alahi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive experimental study aims at investigating the behavior of masonry infill panels strengthened by fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC). The experimental program included testing of materials, masonry elements and panels. Material tests were carried out first...... on masonry elements. Finally, a total of 10 brick panels including two control specimens and eight specimens with different ECC-strengthening configuration were selected. The specimens were subjected to diagonal compression loading under displacement control to evaluate their in-plane deformation...

  2. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  3. ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heike D. Lenz; Vierstra, Richard D.; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A.

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy has an important function in cellular homeostasis. In recent years autophagy has been implicated in plant basal immunity and assigned negative (“anti-death”) and positive (“pro-death”) regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. We recently showed that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the autophagy-associated (ATG) genes ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a are compromised in their resistance towards infection with necrotrophic fun...

  4. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE NOSE—Treatment with Chemosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Gilbert A.; Beirne, Clinton G.

    1956-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas of the nose probably originate from embryologic cell rests left between cartilages and bones in the fusion and migration of the nasal precursors. Some carcinomas have been found to invade to the mucosal surface between subcutaneous structures or around the alar margins. Recurrences are particularly likely to develop deep extensions due to overlying scar tissue. In many cases, chemosurgical removal has disclosed unsuspected deep and lateral extensions. It is the treatment method of choice for many such lesions. PMID:13276824

  5. Subsystems of the basal ganglia and motor infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali Sarvestani, Iman

    2013-01-01

    The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In ...

  6. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  7. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  8. Study of the Tensile Properties of CFRP Strengthened Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyan Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental results of steel plates strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets under tensile load. The number of CFRP layers (ranging from one to four, strengthening schemes (single-sided and double-sided bonding, and temperatures (ranging from 25 to 120 °C were investigated. Results showed that the number of CFRP layers and strengthening schemes had insignificant effects on failure modes of specimens. The failure modes were dominated by the degradation of resin matrix at temperatures lower than Tg + 10 or 20 °C, where Tg is the glass transition temperature, and were dominated by the volume decrease of resin matrix at temperatures above that. Through bonding CFRP sheets, the ultimate load and post-elastic stiffness of specimens were significantly increased. However, the increase in the number of CFRP layers also led to the decrease in strengthening and stiffening efficiency. The double-sided strengthened specimens showed more preferable mechanical properties than the single-sided strengthened specimens. As temperature increased, significant decreases in ultimate load and post-elastic stiffness were observed. Analytical modeling to predict the mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures were conducted, respectively. The modeling results were verified by the test data.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  10. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14CO2. Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  11. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  12. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  13. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  14. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  15. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  16. Meige's syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige's syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige's syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige's syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige's syndrome. (author)

  17. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  18. Ancestral vascular lumen formation via basal cell surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Kucera

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  1. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  2. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  3. Uji Diagnostik Dermatoskopi Pada Pasien Karsinoma Sel Basal di RSUP. H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Rinanda, Fenni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal-cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm appeared from a non-keratinizing cell which comes from epidermic basal layer. Hispatological test to diagnose basal-cell carcinoma may give rise to uncomfortability and fear. Dermatoscopy test, on the other hand, constitutes a non-invasive, easy, and prompt test which may minimize risks that potentially occurs when conducting a biopsy. Objective: To find out dermatoscopy diagnostic test values in diagnosing basal-cell carcinoma. ...

  4. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naive T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  5. Dynamic Strengthening During High Velocity Shear Experiments with Siliceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Chang, J. C.; Boneh, Y.; Chen, X.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is generally accepted that dynamic-weakening is essential for earthquake instability, and many experimental works have documented this weakening. Recent observations revealed also opposite trends of dynamic-strengthening in experiments (Reches & Lockner, 2010). We present here our experimental results of this dynamic-strengthening and discuss possible implications to earthquake behavior. We ran hundreds of experiments on experimental faults made of siliceous rock including granite, syenite, diorite, and quartzite. The experimental fault is comprised of two solid cylindrical blocks with a raised-ring contact of 7 cm diameter and 1 cm width. We recognized general, three regimes of strength-velocity relations: (I) Dynamic weakening (drop of 20-60% of static strength) as slip velocity increased from ~0.0003 m/s (lowest experimental velocity) to a critical velocity, Vc=0.008-0.16 m/s; (II) Abrupt transition to dynamic strengthening regime during which the fault strength almost regains its static strength; and (III) Quasi-constant strength with further possible drops as velocity approaches ~1 m/s. The critical velocity depends on the sample lithology: Vc is ~0.06 m/s for granite, ~0.008 m/s for syenite, ~0.01 m/s for diorite, and ~0.16 m/s for quartzite. The strengthening stage is associated with temperature increase, wear-rate increase, and the occurrence of intense, high frequency stick-slip events (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Sammis et al., (this meeting) attributed this strengthening to dehydration of the thin water layer that covers the gouge particles as the temperature increases. On the other hand, we note that tens of experiments with dolomite samples (non-siliceous), which were deformed under similar conditions, did not exhibit the velocity strengthening (unpublished). Based on the analyses by Andrews (2004, 2005), we speculate that velocity strengthening may bound the slip velocity. The numerical models of Andrews show that the slip velocity along a slip

  6. Strut deformation in CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2014-01-01

    Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

  7. Strut Deformation in CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Panjehpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strut-and-tie model (STM method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions. It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level.

  8. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  9. Strut Deformation in CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Mohammad; Chai, Hwa Kian; Voo, Yen Lei

    2014-01-01

    Strut-and-tie model (STM) method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions). It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d) of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level. PMID:25197698

  10. CFRP Mechanical Anchorage for Externally Strengthened RC Beams under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alnadher; Abdalla, Jamal; Hawileh, Rami; Galal, Khaled

    De-bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) sheets and plates from the concrete substrate is one of the major reasons behind premature failures of beams that are externally strengthened with such CFRP materials. To delay or prevent de-bonding and therefore enhancing the load carrying capacity of strengthened beams, several anchorage systems were developed and used. This paper investigates the use of CFRP mechanical anchorage of CFRP sheets and plates used to externally strengthen reinforced concrete beams under flexure. The pin-and-fan shape CFRP anchor, which is custom-made from typical rolled fiber sheets and bundles of loose fiber is used. Several reinforced concrete beams were casted and tested in standard four-point bending scheme to study the effectiveness of this anchorage system. The beams were externally strengthened in flexure with bonded CFRP sheets and plates and then fastened to the soffit of the beams' using various patterns of CFRP anchors. It is observed that the CFRP plates begins to separate from the beams as soon as de-bonding occurs in specimens without CFRP anchors, while in beams with CFRP anchors de-bonding was delayed leading to increase in the load carrying capacity over the un-anchored strengthened beams.

  11. Development of the strengthened safeguards system and the Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 30 years, the IAEA's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. The paper summarizes the evolution of the safeguards system, describes strengthened safeguards, reports on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outlines plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  12. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [18F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [18F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [18F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [18F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [18F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [18F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [18F]dopa uptake overlap. D1 and D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [18F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  13. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  14. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  15. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  16. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  17. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  18. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  19. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  20. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  1. Strengthening of building structures using carbon composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Paranicheva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the question of ensuring the reliability of various building structures both at the stage of their construction and during operation is very urgent. There are a lot of different ways and constructive methods of structures strengthening. Аt the same time, traditional ways of concrete structures strengthening with steel reinforcement are such expensive, time consuming and in some cases require to interrupt the building operation. As an alternative, it is proposed to use composite materials based on high-strength carbon fibers.The authors consider the properties, advantages, disadvantages and the methods of application of these materials. This article presents results of a technical survey carried out in a public building in 2009. In this building the CFRP was used to strengthen concrete slabs, resting on the crossbar consoles. The calculation of the strength is adduced and the section selection is made. The authors demonstrate their conclusions about the feasibility of using carbon composite materials.

  2. RC Columns Strengthened with Novel CFRP Systems: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Napoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study undertaken to investigate the seismic behavior of full scale square (300 mm × 300 mm reinforced concrete (RC columns strengthened with novel systems employing carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP wraps. Experimental tests were carried out by subjecting specimens to a constant axial load and a cyclically reversed horizontal force applied in displacement control. Results have allowed for investigating the influence of the used strengthening systems on the specimens’ performance in terms of flexural strength and ductility as well as on the exhibited failure modes. The effectiveness of the studied techniques is also evaluated by comparing the performance of tested specimens with that of companion columns strengthened with alternative CFRP systems investigated in a previous experimental campaign.

  3. Experimental Study on CFRP Strengthened Cold Formed Channel Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Kalavagunta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel members usually display local-global buckling interaction which strongly effects the structural strength of columns. Through strengthening web of the members this buckling can be controlled to some extent. In this investigation, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP is used for strengthening cold formed steel channel member. This paper presents compression tests of cold-formed plain and CFRP strengthened steel channel section columns. This paper also proposes a design method based on Direct Strength Method provisions specified in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI, for determining the axial compression strength. Results obtained from the proposed design method are compared with experimental test data and are found to be in good agreement.

  4. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zergua Abdesselam

    2015-02-01

    The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understanding the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for more effective strengthening technique. This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng’s equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve. The effects of the shear deformations are calculated in an RC beam, an adhesive layer, and an FRP plate. The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses.

  5. New Strengthening Techniques with FRP Laminates and Interfacial Fracture Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YUAN; Zhishen WU

    2000-01-01

    The use of FRP composites in the form of sheet or plate bonded to the large-scale RC structures is becoming an increasing attractive solution to the strengthening of existing structures. Compared with traditional steel plate strengthening, FRP possesses excellent behavior such as lightness in weight, high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio, high corrosion and fatigue resistance, electronic neutrality, and great efficiency in construction. A important failure mode for FRP-strengthened structures is debondings.Therefore, the LEFM and NLFM are utilized to treat this problem. Closed form expressions for energy release rate, load-carrying capacity, load-displacement relation and interfacial crack propagation are obtained, in which a local shear stress-slip law with softening is adopted.

  6. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  7. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  8. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReitsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primatesshow increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burstrate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brainactivity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behaviorof downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns ofbasal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics,we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC relay neurons receivingcorrelated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus(GPi, a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observethat the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increaseswith the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as thoseseen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlationsthan do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also showthat the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlationtransfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatoryfiring patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlationsare best transferred through the system. To explain this lastresult, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficientfor oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysisindicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer isrobust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arisesdue to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when thelong timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall,these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affectthe transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  9. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  10. Novelty encoding by the output neurons of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mati Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia have focused on the resemblance of the dopamine signal to the temporal difference error. However the role of the network as a whole is still elusive, in particular whether the output of the basal ganglia encodes only the behavior (actions or it is part of the valuation process. We trained a monkey extensively on a probabilistic conditional task with seven fractal cues predicting rewarding or aversive outcomes (familiar cues. Then in each recording session we added a cue that the monkey had never seen before (new cue and recorded from single units in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr while the monkey was engaged in a task with new cues intermingled within the familiar ones. The monkey learned the association between the new cue and outcome and modified its licking and blinking behavior which became similar to responses to the familiar cues with the same outcome. However, the responses of many SNpr neurons to the new cue exceeded their response to familiar cues even after behavioral learning was completed. This dissociation between behavior and neural activity suggests that the BG output code goes beyond instruction or gating of behavior to encoding of novel cues. Thus, BG output can enable learning at the levels of its target neural networks.

  11. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  12. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  14. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  15. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  16. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  17. Crack-arresting and Strengthening Mechanism of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. B. He

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The failure process of reinforced concrete (RC beams is exactly the emergence and propagation process of cracks. According to the principles of Fracture Mechanics, if the cracks were retarded in RC beams, the structure performance would be improved. In this paper, hybrid fiber reinforced polymer (HFRP sheets are proposed to retard crack propagation in RC beams, and the crack-arresting and strengthening mechanism of the HFRP composite in the strengthening of RC beams is revealed, which is substantiated by the finite-element-modelling (FEM analysis and bending improvement of RC beams with externally-bonded hybrid glass/carbon FRP (Hybrid G/C FRP sheets.

  18. APPLICATION OF PRESTRESSED SHELLS TO STRENGTHEN STRIP FOUNDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosjan Zaven Grigor'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective method of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings by pre-stressed shells is considered in the paper. Advantages of the proposed strengthening method, its production technology and pre-conditions of its analysis are also presented. Presently, strengthening of ground foundations and foundations of buildings and structures is a relevant civil engineering challenge. It is driven by high intensity of restructuring and modernization of buildings and alteration of geological engineering conditions of the areas that are being built up. One of effective methods of strengthening of foundations of existing buildings represents arrangement of pre-stressed concrete shells with conventional steel or metal-free reinforcement. If compared with injection-based technologies, the proposed reinforcement method reduces the cost of construction work by 1.5 times, on average. Therefore, the per-unit cost of shell-based reinforcement of foundations is under 500 Russian roubles per 1 sq. m. of the building floor area. It is noteworthy that no restrictions are imposed on the operation of the building in the course of the above reconstruction, as the secluded backyard is the sole area that accommodates supplementary construction operations.

  19. Conceptual Precalculus: Strengthening Students' Quantitative and Covariational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Bernard L.; Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Tallman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past few decades points to ways precalculus and calculus courses can be strengthened to improve student learning in these courses. This research has informed the development of the Algebra and Precalculus Concept Readiness (APCR) and the Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) assessments. In this article, the authors present three…

  20. Development oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Froes, F.H.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Uniaxial tension creep response is reported for an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in weight percent) manufactured using the mechanical alloying process. Acceptable creep response is obtained at 900{degrees}C.

  1. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  2. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  3. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented in this...

  4. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. RESULTS: In total, 358 and 325...... over time. 6 patient safety culture dimensions became more positive (increase in mean) (pstress recognition (p

  5. Nested iterations and strengthened Cauchy-Bunyakowski-Schwarz inequalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Brandts; S. Korotov; M. Krizek

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is known that in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, the optimal constant in the strengthened Cauchy-Bunyakowski-Schwarz (CBS) inequality for the Laplacian for red-refined linear finite element spaces, takes values zero, $\\half\\sqrt{2}$ and $\\half\\sqrt{3}$, respectively. In this pap

  6. Information and Communication Technologies for Health Systems Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Kate; Shekar, Meera; Christopher H. Herbst; Mohammed, Rianna

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) for health or eHealth solutions hold great potential for generating systemic efficiencies by strengthening five critical pillars of a health system: human resources for health, supply chain management, health care financing, governance and service delivery, and infrastructure. This report describes the changing landscape of eHealth initiativ...

  7. State Council Resolutions on Further Strengthening Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Several resolutions on strengthening work in rural education have been made in order to accelerate development of rural education in China, deepen reform of rural education, guarantee a well-off society, and harmonize rural and urban development. This article presents a detailed plan of actions for each resolution. The resolutions are enumerated…

  8. Practice and Cognition to Strengthen College Students' Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    College students' ideological morality always is the hotspot concerned by various circles of the society, and to strengthen and improve the ideological and moral education in colleges, continually enhance the pertinence and actual effect of the moral education, help college students to dissolve their worldly confusion in moral culture, further…

  9. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  10. Evaluative Thinking: Using Results-Oriented Reasoning to Strengthen Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Courtney L.; Lee, Janet S.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    In today's world, much of what used to be individual work has become collaborative. Moreover, complex change initiatives often require individuals within and across organizations to team up to set and achieve meaningful goals. The role of researchers and evaluators is to offer support that can be used to strengthen the work of organizations and…

  11. Specific Suggestions to Strengthen Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the two decades ahead, China's development will face a period of important strategic opportunities. While coping with big power relations, China needs to be pluralistic in external relations and economic and trade relations. Therefore, strengthening relations with the developing countries and promoting South South cooperation is in China's interest and an essential link to ensure China's rise in the new century.

  12. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  13. Strengthening of certain types of arch dams at broad sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganov, G. M.; Volkov, V. I.; Uchevatkin, A. A. [FGOU VPO Moscow State University of the Natural Environment (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The problem of strengthening defective and damaged arch dams is formulated, and methodical calculations are performed to substantiate a set of structural and production measures permitting substantial improvement in the stress-strain state and an increase in the safety factor of the structure. Feasibility of practical implementation of the results is foreseen.

  14. Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.

    2016-06-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.

  15. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  16. Insights: The Right Way to Strengthen U.S. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Ray

    1983-01-01

    Discusses issues and problems related to strengthening and maintaining United States leadership in high technology. Among the areas considered are industry/university cooperatives, graduate study, financial support, and state/federal government roles. Indicates that prospects for maintaining leadership are high provided issues related to human…

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Hollow Steel Columns Strengthening by CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykha A.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for strengthening and retrofitting is well known and extensive research is progressing in this field. The reasons for strengthening and retrofitting are numerous: increased loads, changes in use, deterioration, and so on. In recent years, the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP for strengthening has shown to be a competitive method, both regarding structural performance, and economical aspects. Extensive research has been carried out in this field. However, most of the research has been undertaken on concrete structures and for confinement, flexural, and shear strengthening. Limited research has been carried out on steel structures strengthened with CFRP. This paper presents axially loaded steel columns strengthened for increased load. The topic is studied theoretically and through laboratory tests. The theory covers analytical methods. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers has been used to strengthen the columns. The tests have been undertaken on full scale specimens, non-strengthened for reference, partially strengthened and fully strengthened

  18. Novel percolation phenomena and mechanism of strengthening elastomers by nanofillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Jun; Wu, Sizhu; Wang, Wenchuan; Zhang, Liqun

    2010-03-28

    Nano-strengthening by employing nanoparticles is necessary for high-efficiency strengthening of elastomers, which has already been validated by numerous researches and industrial applications, but the underlying mechanism is still an open challenge. In this work, we mainly focus our attention on studying the variation of the tensile strength of nanofilled elastomers by gradually increasing the filler content, within a low loading range. Interestingly, the percolation phenomenon is observed in the relationship between the tensile strength and the filler loading, which shares some similarities with the percolation phenomenon occurring in rubber toughened plastics. That is, as the loading of nanofillers (carbon black, zinc oxide) increases, the tensile strength of rubber nanocomposites (SBR, EPDM) increases slowly at first, then increases abruptly and finally levels off. Meanwhile, the bigger the particle size, the higher the filler content at the percolation point, and the lower the corresponding tensile strength of rubber nanocomposites. The concept of a critical particle-particle distance (CPD) is proposed to explain the observed percolation phenomenon. It is suggested that rubber strengthening through nanoparticles is attributed to the formation of stretched straight polymer chains between neighbor particles, induced by the slippage of adsorbed polymer chains on the filler surface during tension. Meanwhile, the factors to govern this CPD and the critical minimum particle size (CMPS) figured out in this work are both discussed and analyzed in detail. Within the framework of this percolation phenomenon, this paper also clearly answers two important and intriguing issues: (1) why is it necessary and essential to strengthen elastomers through nanofillers; (2) why does it need enough loading of nanofillers to effectively strengthen elastomers. Moreover, on the basis of the percolation phenomenon, we give out some guidance for reinforcement design of rubbery materials

  19. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  20. TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH WORK ON HPFL STRENGTHENED RC STRUCTURE%高性能水泥复合砂浆钢筋网薄层加固钢筋混凝土结构的技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤繁华; 蒋隆敏

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes and systemizes the research work of some scholars on the issue of the strengthening effect of HPFL for RC structure.It concludes the basic characteristics and theory of HPFL strengthening RC structure,discusses the bonding HPFL to existing structure member and the advantages of HPFL strengthened RC structure.It systematically introduces the behavior of high-performance composite mortar in lamina reinforced materials of HPFL,the behavior of the reinforced constructional element in anti-bending,anti-shearing,compression resistance,seismic behavior,fatigue resistance and high temperature resistance etc,which provides some reference for the practical application of HPFL strengthened RC structure.%通过分析、整理有关学者对高性能水泥复合砂浆钢筋网薄层(High-Performance Ferrocement Laminate,简称HPFL)加固钢筋混凝土(Reinforce Concrete,简称RC)结构性能试验研究成果,归纳了HPFL加固RC结构的基本特性及加固RC结构的原理,探讨HPFL与原构件的粘结问题,以及HPFL加固RC结构的优势。综合论述HPFL这种薄层加固材料中高性能复合砂浆材料性能,被加固构件抗弯性能、抗剪性能、抗压性能、抗震性能、抗疲劳性能及抗高温性能等,为HPFL加固RC构件在实际工程的具体应用提供参考依据。

  1. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  2. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  3. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D;

    2013-01-01

    ) . Mice with knockdown of filaggrin, or lack of functional histidase, show decreased epidermal trans-UCA levels and increased UVB-induced skin damage (5) . FLG mutation carriers also have 10% increased serum vitamin D levels suggesting increased penetration of UVB (6) . We evaluated the prevalence of FLG......Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...... of BCC (2) . Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are observed in approximately 10% of Northern Europeans and are strongly associated with AD (3) . FLG mutations lead to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein and metabolite levels, including the chromophore trans-urocanic acid (UCA) (4...

  4. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  5. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition. PMID:26437207

  6. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  7. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Simon N.; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Daniel F Gudbjartsson; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC)1, we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 × 10−9). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 × 10−9), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 × 10−10...

  8. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  9. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  11. Reduction of anion reversal potential subverts the inhibitory control of firing rate in spinal lamina I neurons: towards a biophysical basis for neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejnowski Terrence J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of the transmembrane chloride gradient in spinal lamina I neurons contributes to the cellular hyperexcitability producing allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury. The resultant decrease in anion reversal potential (i.e. shift in Eanion to less negative potentials reduces glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but the large increase in membrane conductance caused by inhibitory input can nonetheless shunt concurrent excitatory input. Without knowing the relative contribution of hyperpolarization and shunting to inhibition's modulation of firing rate, it is difficult to predict how much net disinhibition results from reduction of Eanion. We therefore used a biophysically accurate lamina I neuron model to investigate quantitatively how changes in Eanion affect firing rate modulation. Results Simulations reveal that even a small reduction of Eanion compromises inhibitory control of firing rate because reduction of Eanion not only decreases glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but can also indirectly compromise the capacity of shunting to reduce spiking. The latter effect occurs because shunting-mediated modulation of firing rate depends on a competition between two biophysical phenomena: shunting reduces depolarization, which translates into reduced spiking, but shunting also shortens the membrane time constant, which translates into faster membrane charging and increased spiking; the latter effect predominates when average depolarization is suprathreshold. Disinhibition therefore occurs as both hyperpolarization- and shunting-mediated modulation of firing rate are subverted by reduction of Eanion. Small reductions may be compensated for by increased glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated input, but the system decompensates (i.e. compensation fails as reduction of Eanion exceeds a critical value. Hyperexcitability necessarily develops once disinhibition becomes incompensable

  12. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  13. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  14. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  15. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  16. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  17. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  18. Studies of contemporary glacier basal ice cryostructures to identify buried basal ice in the permafrost: an example from the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, E.; Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Shur, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In the permafrost, massive ice bodies occur as buried glacier ice, aufeis ice, recrystalized snow, massive segregated ice, injection ice, ice wedges or ice formed in underground cavities ("pool ice", "thermokarst-cave ice"). The origin of massive ice bodies in the permafrost bears considerable implications for the reconstructions of paleoenvironments and paleoclimates. Our work aims to help the permafrost scientists working on massive icy sediments to distinguish buried basal glacier ice from other types of buried ice. To do so, the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice must be well known. Field investigations at the Matanuska Glacier (Chugach range, South-central Alaska), consisted in descriptions and sampling of natural basal ice exposures. We have used the basal ice facies classification of Lawson (1979) which is simple, easy to use in the field and provides a good framework for the description of basal ice exposures. Cores were extracted and brought back to the laboratory for water and grain-size analyses. The sediments forming the cryostructure were mostly polymodal, poorly sorted gravelly silt to gravelly fine sand, with mud contents generally over 50%. These data will be used to calibrate three-dimensional (3D) models produced from micro-tomographic scans of basal ice which will produce quantitative estimates of volumetric ice and sediments contents of basal ice cryostructures. Ultimately, visual qualitative and quantitative characterization of the basal ice components of 3D models together with field observations and laboratory analysis will allow for a new micro-facies and cryostructures classification of the basal ice. Our work will also have applications in glaciology, glacial geology, geomorphology, Quaternary and paleo-climatological studies based on inferences made from the structure of basal glacier ice. This paper presents the internal composition of the basal ice facies in terms of cryostructures assemblages (Fortier et al.: 2007) and

  19. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA

  20. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD.

  1. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... in stages T1b and T1c compared with T1a disease. Of the patients 115 were treated with transurethral resection alone and 28 underwent radical cystectomy. Overall survival was 60.1%. Age was the only independent predictor of survival in patients older than 75 years. For patients up to 75 years old survival...

  2. Characterization of extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing in the lamina propria of vocal fold in a canine model: a long-term and consecutive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Ling, Wei; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yan; Han, Demin

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of vocal fold wound healing can be reflected by the changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the lamina propria. Although the expression of ECM proteins after vocal fold injury has been widely studied, such observations have lacked time continuity and integrity of marker proteins. In this study, we observed the morphology of injured vocal folds in a canine model. We used immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the expression and distribution of ECM proteins, such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin, from 15 days to 6 months after injury. The results showed that large amounts of ECM proteins were secreted 15-40 days after injury. Collagen and fibronectin secretion increased significantly, and were disorderly deposited. The secretion of decorin and elastin increased slightly, while hyaluronic acid decreased. The 15-40 day post-injury period may be the critical intervention stage in wound healing of vocal folds. From 3 to 6 months after injury, the secretion of ECM proteins declined. However, collagen and fibronectin secretion were still significantly higher than normal with irregular arrangement, while the secretion of elastin, hyaluronic acid and decorin decreased significantly at 6 months. This led to vocal fold inelasticity and stiffness, which required effective long-term interventions to treat scar formation.

  3. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  4. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast can...

  5. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the lungs: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Benson Nongrum; Debomaliya Bhuyan; Vanlalhuma Royte; Hughbert Dkhar

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and it rarely metastasizes. The prevalence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) varies between 0.0028% and 0.55% of all cases. Over 250 MBCC have been reported in the literature. We present a case with large recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face with radiological and histopathological findings indicating the presence of metastasis to the lungs.

  6. Photoletter to the editor: Basal cell carcinoma on the vermilion lip

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Ana; Encinas-Muñiz, Ana Isabel; Gutiérrez-González, Enrique; de la Mano, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The vermilion and vermilion border are rare locations for basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman, who presented with an asymptomatic erosive lesion on the vermilion area of the upper lip. Histopathology examination was consistent with basal cell carcinoma. We suggest that basal cell carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of erosive/ulcerative lesions arising on the vermilion area of the lip.

  7. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell...

  8. STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS IN Nb-Ti-V MICROALLOYED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Lopes Vieira Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yield strength of Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel has been investigated as a function of its microstructure obtained after industrial rolling on a hot strip mill. Optical (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to reveal the ferrite grain structure, fine carbonitride precipitation and dislocation substructures. It was found that the effects of solid solution and grain size hardening were not sufficient to justify the results of tensile testing. Additional strengthening was attributed to carbonitride precipitation in austenite, interphase precipitation during transformation, and the formation of dislocations. All contributions of these microstructural features on mechanical property were estimated from empirical models available from literature. A global effect of both austenite and interphase carbonitride precipitation hardening was proposed. It was verified that yield strength calculated from cumulative effect of different strengthening mechanisms has presented good fitting with experimental tensile test.

  9. A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Valvo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.

  10. Metallurgy. Origin of dramatic oxygen solute strengthening effect in titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Qi, Liang; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, Rachel; Rugg, David; Morris, J W; Asta, Mark; Chrzan, D C; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-02-01

    Structural alloys are often strengthened through the addition of solute atoms. However, given that solute atoms interact weakly with the elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. By using transmission electron microscopy and nanomechanical characterization, we report that the intense hardening effect of dilute oxygen solutes in pure α-Ti is due to the interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations reveal that distortion of the interstitial sites at the screw dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen that is consistent with experimental observations. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes.

  11. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  12. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  13. A novel CZT detector using strengthened electric field line anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Qiang; Li, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Lan; Niu, Li-Bo; Jiang, Hao; Li, Yuan-Jing

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, simulation and testing of a novel CZT detector with an electrode named the Strengthened Electric Field Line Anode (SEFLA). The Strengthened Electric Field (SEF) technique and Single Polarity Charge Sensing (SPCS) technique are implemented. It could achieve the same performance as Coplanar Grid, Pixel Array CZT detectors but requires only a simple readout system. Geant4, Ansoft Maxwell and a self-developed Induced Current Calculator (ICC) package are used to develop an understanding of how the energy spectrum is formed, and the parameters of the detector are optimized. A prototype is fabricated. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this design. The test shows that the SEFLA detector achieves a FWHM of 6.0% @59.5 keV and 1.6% @662 keV, which matches well with the simulations.

  14. CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enochsson, O.; Lundqvist, J.; Täljsten, Björn;

    2006-01-01

    are very suitable, not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature....... In this paper, laboratory tests on I I slabs with openings, loaded with a distributed load are presented together with analytical and numerical evaluations. Six slabs with openings have been strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) sheets. These slabs are compared with traditionally steel...... with externally bonded CFRP sheets. The performance is even better than for traditionally steel reinforced slabs. The numerical and analytical evaluations show good agreement with the experimental results. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  16. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  17. Durability of concrete structures strengthened with FRP laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test, the alkaline immersion test, the water immersion test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on mechanical behavior of FRP was studied. CFRP specimens subjected to aggressive environments showed good durability with no significant degradation in tensile strength and modulus; however, GFRP specimens exhibited a little decrease in mechanical property after aggressive environments exposure. Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on the bond behavior between FRP and concrete, mechanical behavior of concrete beams and columns strengthened with FRP laminates was studied. The results showed that the bond strength had a significant decrease compared with those specimens kept at room temperature, and the specimens strengthened with FRP exhibited good durability.

  18. Repair and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using CFRP Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrastructure's increasing decay is frequently combined with the need for upgrading so that structures can meet more stringent design requirements (e.g., increased traffic volumes in bridges exceeding the initial design loads), and hence the aspect of civil engineering infrastructure renewal has received considerable attention over the past few years throughout the world. At the same time, seismic retrofit has become equally important, especially in the areas of high seismic risk. The worldwide acceptance of external plate bonding using CFRP laminates for the repair of under strengthened or damaged reinforced concrete beams is the real incentive for many investigators to devote a great deal of effort to physically understand the response of such beams under externally applied loads. This paper is aimed towards providing a review of the repair and strengthening of the RC concrete structures using CFRP plates along with introducing the basics of the above mentioned technique

  19. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo OLANIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr and Nickel (Ni were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructural evolution and phase formation during oxide dispersion strengthening of duplex stainless steel composites were investigated. The influence of composition variation of the reinforcements on the microstructural and corrosion behaviour in simulated mine water of the composites were investigated. In this manuscript, it was established that composition has great influence on the structure/properties relationship of the composites developed.

  20. Internet Communication: Does It Strengthen Local Voluntary Organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Eimhjellen, Ivar Sognnæs

    2013-01-01

    Does communication through the Internet strengthen local voluntary organizations? This question is investigated by analyzing sustainability, vitality, and the use of the Internet by Norwegian local voluntary organizations. Using quantitative data, analyses show that the use of the Internet by Norwegian voluntary organizations is widespread. Primarily, organizations appreciate the technology for its one-way aspect of communication and information distribution, rather than for as...

  1. Strengthening of Structures Damaged by the Azores Earthquake of 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Costa; António Arêde

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses repair and strengthening techniques proposed for the rehabilitation of small buildings on Faial Island, Azores, hit and damaged by the Azores earthquake on 9 July 1998. A brief description is provided of the construction type and practice in the island, highlighting the main type of houses. Due to the lack of relevant information concerning construction material data, experimental tests were performed in situ, involving static and dynamic measurements. The experimental ca...

  2. Inventory of FRP strengthening methods in masonry structures

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Rashadul

    2008-01-01

    Masonry structures are prone to extensive damage followed by failure and collapse when subjected to loads resulting from wind, earthquake and other natural or man-made events. Recent earthquakes and terrorist acts have clearly demonstrated that the development of effective and affordable strategies for the strengthening of masonry is urgently needed. As a response to these challenges, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites may offer technically and economically viable soluti...

  3. Seismic analysis and strengthening of Pico Island Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa; Domingos Moreira; Nuno Neves

    2012-01-01

    The proposed study addresses the development of an integrated strategy for modelling, experimental calibration, numerical analysis and seismic strengthening carried out in two churches of the Pico Island, Azores, namely the Bandeiras and the Madalena churches. Following an initial description of the observed damages resulting from the 1998 earthquake, the modelling option for the churches structures is outlined. Reference is made to the use of ambient vibration tests that led to the definitio...

  4. Strengthening families through early intervention in high HIV prevalence countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan, U.; Richter, L.

    2009-01-01

    Families have been at the forefront of the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in high-prevalence countries. They have also borne the greatest costs associated with the epidemic, including impoverishment, which has strained their capacity to care for vulnerable members. Within this context, there is consensus that strengthening the capacity of families to care for children is one of the most important strategies for mitigating the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on children's lives in high-pre...

  5. Seismic evaluation of old masonry buildings: performance and strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Varum, H.; Vicente, R.; Rodrigues, H; Silva, J. A. R. Mendes da

    2006-01-01

    The concern and need to assess seismic vulnerability, particularly of the traditional masonry buildings under seismic actions is a key issue, that should be a priority in the mitigation of the seismic risk, definition of strengthening requirements needs and minimization of possible damages due to seismic actions, in the identification of critical buildings and safeguarding of built heritage. This paper provides information on the constructive and structural details of the tr...

  6. EMOTIONAL STRENGTHENING IN THE FAMILY: INTERVENTION FROM THE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar; Laura Beatriz Oros

    2012-01-01

    The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the c...

  7. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  8. Strengthening Globalization's Invisible Hand: What Matters Most?

    OpenAIRE

    Siems, Thomas F.; Adam S Ratner

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what matters most to sustaining strong economic growth in today's more globalized, knowledge economy. An examination of 2005-2006 statistical and survey data across 52 countries reveals that economic growth is driven mainly by developed and trustworthy financial markets, a well-educated and skilled workforce, and access to information and communications technologies. Moreover, we find that creditworthy financial markets are strengthened by free and open economies...

  9. Brand Heritage : Helping Strengthen the Brand Identity of Husqvarna Motorcycles

    OpenAIRE

    Gårdh, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to learn how brand heritage and retro brands can help HQM strengthen their brand identity. Background: Companies with a long history have a strategic choice to make re-garding the use of their heritage in marketing communications. Such companies also enjoy a history of interesting products, for which some may exist the possibility for a retro relaunch. Husqvarna is such a company, which made it interesting to find out how these two strategic to...

  10. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    OpenAIRE

    Oladayo OLANIRAN; Peter Apata OLUBAMBI; Benjamin Omotayo ADEWUYI; Joseph Ajibade OMOTOYINBO; Ayodeji Ebenezar AFOLABI; Davies FOLORUNSO; Adekunle ADEGBOLA; Emanuel IGBAFEN

    2015-01-01

    Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction) dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail...

  11. Flexural strengthening of masonry members using advanced cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Esmaeeli, Esmaeel; Manning, Elizabeth; Häßler, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two different cement based fiber reinforced composites for the flexural strengthening of masonry beams under monotonic loading are studied. Steel Fiber Reinforced Self- Compacting Concrete (SFRSCC) with tensile strain-softening behavior, and PVA fiber reinforced cement based mortar (SHCC) with tensile Strain-Hardening were the developed composites. Both composites were applied on the tensile surface of masonry beams and the effectiveness of this technique for the flexural stren...

  12. Strengthen the servant leadership to enhance the nurses’ job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xia HAO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Continue to improve and implement the service concept of "taking patients as the center" through enhancing nurses’ job satisfaction. Methods: Strengthen clinic functions of nursing department, which is guided by the demands of clinical nurses. Results: Clinical nurses’ job satisfaction keeps at a high level. Conclusion: Service-oriented mode of nursing management can make the nurses to keep good work experience and satisfaction.

  13. Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Abelson; Mita Giacomini; John Lavis; John Eyles

    2008-01-01

    This background paper was prepared to inform discussion at CHEPA's Health Policy Symposium Field of Dreams: Strengthening Health Policy Scholarship in Canada on November 2, 2007. We reflect on the characteristics of Canada's health policy community in relation to the larger and more mature international health policy community: its contributions, opportunities and constraints for growing into a well institutionalized Canadian academic field. Sources consulted in preparing this document includ...

  14. Project on strengthening of structures using advanced composites

    OpenAIRE

    Recuero, A.; Miravete, A.

    1997-01-01

    Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Engineers involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, what makes that an entity shou...

  15. Strengthen the Supervision over Pharmaceuticals via Modern Automatic Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fake pharmaceuticals inflicts severely upon people(?)~-s health through its circulation in markets.To strengthen the supervision of the pharmaceutical market,China is improving and is perfecting its national coding system in the field of pharmaceuticals. Bar-code tag and IC tag are available to the coding system.This paper summarizes the significance of IC tag to the supervision of pharmaceuticals and gives us a strategically general prospect of pharmaceutical supervision.

  16. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  17. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of FRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, S.; Kalidoss, S.; Srinivas, V.

    2012-12-01

    This paper focuses on nonlinear analysis of parent and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) beam using general purpose finite element software, ANSYS. Further, it is aimed to investigate the suitability of different elements available in ANSYS library to represent FRP, epoxy and interface. 3-D structural RC solid element has been used to model concrete and truss element is employed for modeling the reinforcements. FRP has been modelled using 3-D membrane element and layered element with number of layers, epoxy is modelled using eight node brick element, and eight node layered solid shell is used to mathematically represent the concrete-FRP interface behavior. Initially, the validation of the numerical model for the efficacy of different elements (SOLID65 for concrete and LINK8 for reinforcement) and material models is carried out on the experimental beam reported in literature. The validated model, elements and material properties is used to evaluate the load-displacement and load-strain response behavior and crack patterns of the FRP strengthened RC beams. The numerical results indicated that significant improvement in the displacement in the strengthened RC beams with the advancement of cracks. The study shows that FRP with shell elements is recommended when single layer of FRP is used. When multi layered FRP is used, solid layered element can be a reasonably good choice whereas the epoxy matrix with linear solid element does not need further complicated model. Interfacial element makes the analysis minimally improved at the cost of complicated modeling issues and considerable computation time. Hence, for nonlinear analysis of usual strengthened structures, unless it is specifically required for, interface element may not be required and a full contact can be assumed at interface.

  18. Strengthening of old metallic structures in fatigue with CFRP materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding strengthening of old metallic structures using unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer(CFRP) laminates has shown very usable to lengthen the service life of structural members in tension With the basis in a 110 year old riveted beam, centre notched test specimens have been...... to a direct linear elastic theory and compared with measured results. The experiments showed a good match between theory and measurements....

  19. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  20. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.