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Sample records for basal lamina strengthens

  1. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  2. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  3. The biophysical properties of Basal lamina gels depend on the biochemical composition of the gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Fabienna; Nowald, Constantin; Pflieger, Kerstin; Boettcher, Kathrin; Zahler, Stefan; Lieleg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The migration of cells within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) depends sensitively on the biochemical and biophysical properties of the matrix. An example for a biological ECM is given by reconstituted basal lamina gels purified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma of mice. Here, we compare four different commercial variants of this ECM, which have all been purified according to the same protocol. Nevertheless, in those gels, we detect strong differences in the migration behavior of leukocyte cells as well as in the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. We show that these differences correlate with the mechanical properties and the microarchitecture of the gels which in turn arise from small variations in their biochemical composition.

  4. Distribution and role in regeneration of N-CAM in the basal laminae of muscle and Schwann cells.

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    Rieger, F; Nicolet, M; Pinçon-Raymond, M; Murawsky, M; Levi, G; Edelman, G M

    1988-08-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is a membrane glycoprotein involved in neuron-neuron and neuron-muscle adhesion. It can be synthesized in various forms by both nerve and muscle and it becomes concentrated at the motor endplate. Biochemical analysis of a frog muscle extract enriched in basal lamina revealed the presence of a polydisperse, polysialylated form of N-CAM with an average Mr of approximately 160,000 as determined by SDS-PAGE, which was converted to a form of 125,000 Mr by treatment with neuraminidase. To define further the role of N-CAM in neuromuscular junction organization, we studied the distribution of N-CAM in an in vivo preparation of frog basal lamina sheaths obtained by inducing the degeneration of both nerve and muscle fibers. Immunoreactive material could be readily detected by anti-N-CAM antibodies in such basal lamina sheaths. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold techniques revealed N-CAM in close association with the basal lamina sheaths, present in dense accumulation at places that presumably correspond to synaptic regions. N-CAM epitopes were also associated with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix. The ability of anti-N-CAM antibodies to perturb nerve regeneration and reinnervation of the remaining basal lamina sheaths was then examined. In control animals, myelinating Schwann cells wrapped around the regenerated axon and reinnervation occurred only at the old synaptic areas; new contacts between nerve and basal lamina had a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve terminal. In the presence of anti-N-CAM antibodies, three major abnormalities were observed in the regeneration and reinnervation processes: (a) regenerated axons in nerve trunks that had grown back into the old Schwann cell basal lamina were rarely associated with myelinating Schwann cell processes, (b) ectopic synapses were often present, and (c) many of the axon terminals lacked a terminal Schwann cell capping the nerve-basal lamina contact area. These

  5. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

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    Karyn G Robinson

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR, synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2 appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups

  6. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  7. Impact of laminitis on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in basal epithelial cells of the equine digital laminae.

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    Le Wang

    Full Text Available The digital laminae is a two layer tissue that attaches the distal phalanx to the inner hoof wall, thus suspending the horse's axial skeleton in the hoof capsule. This tissue fails at the epidermal:dermal junction in laminitic horses, causing crippling disease. Basal epithelial cells line the laminar epidermal:dermal junction, undergo physiological change in laminitic horses, and lose versican gene expression. Versican gene expression is purportedly under control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and is a trigger for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; thus, its repression in laminar epithelial cells of laminitic horses may be associated with suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and loss of the epithelial cell phenotype. In support of the former contention, we show, using laminae from healthy horses and horses with carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting after sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescent tissue staining, that positive and negative regulatory components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are expressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of healthy horses. Furthermore, expression of positive regulators is suppressed and negative regulators elevated in laminae of laminitic compared to healthy horses. We also show that versican gene expression in the epithelial cells correlates positively with that of β-catenin and T-cell Factor 4, consistent with regulation by the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In addition, gene and protein expression of β-catenin correlates positively with that of integrin β4 and both are strongly suppressed in laminar basal epithelial cells of laminitic horses, which remain E-cadherin(+/vimentin(-, excluding mesenchymal transition as contributing to loss of the adherens junction and hemidesmosome components. We propose that suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and

  8. Collagen IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains in rodent basal laminae: sequence, distribution, association with laminins, and developmental switches

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Collagen IV is a major component of vertebrate basal laminae (BLs). Studies in humans have revealed a family of genes encoding alpha 1- alpha 6 collagen IV chains and implicated alpha 3-alpha 6 in disease processes (Goodpasture and Alport syndromes and diffuse leiomyomatosis). To extend studies of these components to an experimentally accessible animal, we cloned cDNAs encoding partial collagen alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5(IV) chains from the mouse. Ribonuclease protection assays showed that...

  9. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

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    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  10. Comparative analysis of basal lamina type IV collagen α chains, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 expressions in oral dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

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    Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Siar, Chong Huat; Katase, Naoki; Naito, Ichiro; Sado, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Noriyuki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of basal lamina (BL) collagen IV α chains and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in oral dysplasia (OED) and invasive carcinoma. Ten cases each of OEDs, carcinomas-in situ and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) were examined by immunohistochemistry. Another 5 cases, each of normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa, served as controls. Results showed that α1(IV)/α2(IV) and α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains were intact in BLs of control and OEDs. In BLs of carcinoma-in situ, α1(IV)/α2(IV) chains preceded α5(IV)/α6(IV) chains in showing incipient signs of disruption. OSCCs exhibited varying degrees of collagen α(IV) chain degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were absent in controls and OED, but weakly detectable in carcinoma-in situ. In OSCC, these proteolytic enzymes were expressed in areas corresponding to collagen α(IV) chain loss. Enzymatic activity was enhanced in higher grade OSCC, and along the tumor advancing front. Overall the present findings suggest that loss of BL collagen α(IV) chains coincided with gain of expression for MMP-2 and MMP-9, and that these protein alterations are crucial events during progression from OED to OSCC.

  11. COOH-terminal collagen Q (COLQ) mutants causing human deficiency of endplate acetylcholinesterase impair the interaction of ColQ with proteins of the basal lamina.

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    Arredondo, Juan; Lara, Marian; Ng, Fiona; Gochez, Danielle A; Lee, Diana C; Logia, Stephanie P; Nguyen, Joanna; Maselli, Ricardo A

    2014-05-01

    Collagen Q (ColQ) is a key multidomain functional protein of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), crucial for anchoring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the basal lamina (BL) and accumulating AChE at the NMJ. The attachment of AChE to the BL is primarily accomplished by the binding of the ColQ collagen domain to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and the COOH-terminus to the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which in turn plays a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. Yet, the precise mechanism by which ColQ anchors AChE at the NMJ remains unknown. We identified five novel mutations at the COOH-terminus of ColQ in seven patients from five families affected with endplate (EP) AChE deficiency. We found that the mutations do not affect the assembly of ColQ with AChE to form asymmetric forms of AChE or impair the interaction of ColQ with perlecan. By contrast, all mutations impair in varied degree the interaction of ColQ with MuSK as well as basement membrane extract (BME) that have no detectable MuSK. Our data confirm that the interaction of ColQ to perlecan and MuSK is crucial for anchoring AChE to the NMJ. In addition, the identified COOH-terminal mutants not only reduce the interaction of ColQ with MuSK, but also diminish the interaction of ColQ with BME. These findings suggest that the impaired attachment of COOH-terminal mutants causing EP AChE deficiency is in part independent of MuSK, and that the COOH-terminus of ColQ may interact with other proteins at the BL.

  12. Nuclear lamina in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 杨澄; 翟中和

    1996-01-01

    By using selective extraction and diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and embedment-free electron microscopy, the nuclear lamina was demonstrated in carrot and Ginkgo male generative cells. Western blotting revealed that the nuclear lamina was composed of A-type and B-type lamins which contained at least 66-ku and 84-ku or 66-ku and 86-ku polypeptides, respectively. These lamin proteins were localized at the nudear periphery as shown by immunogold-labelling. In situ hybridization for light microscope and electron microscope showed that plant cells have the homologous sequences of animal lamin cDNA. The sorting site of lamin mRNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm near the nudear envelope. The data have verified that there indeed exists nudear lamina in plant cells.

  13. Radiologic study on lamina dura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the thickness of lamina dura of the human teeth in periodontal disease, which obtained from the intraoral roentgenograms of the 122 cases taken by bisecting technic. All films were divided into the different ages, the different sexes, and the different location of the different teeth. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Compared with the normal teeth, the thickness of lamina dura in periodontal disease is increased in all of different ages, sexes and teeth. 2. Generally, the alveolar crest portion is the thickest among the root surfaces, and midroot, apex followed, and the average thickness of the posterior teeth is thicker than that of anterior teeth. 3. The mean value of the whole maxillary teeth is almost same as that of mandibular teeth. 4. On the whole cases, the differences of male and female is about 0.01 mm, which is not a significant differences.

  14. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase.

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    Zhironkina, Oxana A; Kurchashova, Svetlana Yu; Pozharskaia, Vasilisa A; Cherepanynets, Varvara D; Strelkova, Olga S; Hozak, Pavel; Kireev, Igor I

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear lamina represents a multifunctional platform involved in such diverse yet interconnected processes as spatial organization of the genome, maintenance of mechanical stability of the nucleus, regulation of transcription and replication. Most of lamina activities are exerted through tethering of lamina-associated chromatin domains (LADs) to the nuclear periphery. Yet, the lamina is a dynamic structure demonstrating considerable expansion during the cell cycle to accommodate increased number of LADs formed during DNA replication. We analyzed dynamics of nuclear growth during interphase and changes in lamina structure as a function of cell cycle progression. The nuclear lamina demonstrates steady growth from G1 till G2, while quantitative analysis of lamina meshwork by super-resolution microscopy revealed that microdomain organization of the lamina is maintained, with lamin A and lamin B microdomain periodicity and interdomain gap sizes unchanged. FRAP analysis, in contrast, demonstrated differences in lamin A and B1 exchange rates; the latter showing higher recovery rate in S-phase cells. In order to further analyze the mechanism of lamina growth in interphase, we generated a lamina-free nuclear envelope in living interphase cells by reversible hypotonic shock. The nuclear envelope in nuclear buds formed after such a treatment initially lacked lamins, and analysis of lamina formation revealed striking difference in lamin A and B1 assembly: lamin A reassembled within 30 min post-treatment, whereas lamin B1 did not incorporate into the newly formed lamina at all. We suggest that in somatic cells lamin B1 meshwork growth is coordinated with replication of LADs, and lamin A meshwork assembly seems to be chromatin-independent process.

  15. The lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus (Monotremata, Mammalia).

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    Zeller, U

    1988-01-01

    A vestigial and transitory lamina cribrosa was found in nestling platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The heads of two nest-young (180 and 333 mm length), one subadult and one adult Ornithorhynchus were serially sectioned and studied with special reference to the development of the nasal region. In nest-young Ornithorhynchus an irregularly shaped bar of cartilage develops at the foramen olfactorium advehens. In the subadult it is largely resorbed, and in the osseous skull of the adult it is completely lacking. Ontogeny and topographical relationships of this bar of cartilage indicate that it is part of a lamina cribrosa. It embraces the ramus medialis of the nervus ethmoidalis and the arteria ethmoidalis, as do the corresponding parts of the lamina cribrosa of Tachyglossus. Compared to other parts of the chondrocranium this bar develops late in ontogeny, as does the lamina cribrosa of other mammals. Therefore, it can be concluded that part of the lamina cribrosa is present for a short period during the ontogeny of Ornithorhynchus, contrary to earlier reports. As in many other water-adapted mammals, the olfactory system of Ornithorhynchus is reduced. This suggests that the rest of the lamina cribrosa of Ornithorhynchus is secondarily reduced. The common ancestor of Ornithorhynchus and Tachyglossidae most probably possessed a lamina cribrosa which can be traced back to the common mammalian stock. The lamina cribrosa developed only once in the phylogeny of mammals. Its lack in the adult Ornithorhynchus is not a "reptilian" character.

  16. How robust is a trend of ozone lamina characteristics?

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    Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-05-01

    This poster deals with the dependence of ozone lamina characteristics trend at the European ozonosonde stations to small changes in lamina definition. We change the depth of lamina( 3500,2500 and 1500 m), sharpness of laminae size of laminae (20,30,40nbar) and second minimum definition . We use data of vertical profile of ozone concentration from these European stations which have long series of ozone vertical profile observations: Hoheipeissenberg, Payerne, Uccle, Legionowo and Lindenberg.

  17. Medium Density Particleboard Reinforced with Bamboo Laminas

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    Juliana Cortez Barbosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of bamboo laminas of the species Dendrocalamus giganteus to three-layer medium density particleboard (MDP. These laminas were glued onto both the top and the bottom of each panel. With the manufactured panels laminated with bamboo, mechanical tests based on the Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR 14810 were carried out to determine the modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and the tensile strength parallel-to-surface. These mechanical tests were realized in particleboards of eucalyptus and in reinforced particleboard, both produced in the laboratory. The modulus of rupture and tensile strength parallel-to-surface of the laminated MDP had values close to those that have been reported. The reinforcements increased the values of these studied properties. Nevertheless, this fact indicated the possibility to produce a stronger MDP using bamboo lamina as surface layers. These results show the possibility of using coated-bamboo MDP for utilization in large spans, for example, in flooring for mezzanines with finish on both sides, and for robust furniture as bookshelves, beds, tables, etc.

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  19. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Dosedělová; Jana Dumková; Hervé Lesot; Kristýna Glocová; Michaela Kunová; Tucker, Abigail S.; Iva Veselá; Pavel Krejčí; František Tichý; Aleš Hampl; Marcela Buchtová

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A simila...

  20. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    . The strength-grain size relationships can be described in a number of empirical equations relating the yield stress and the flow stress in tension to various structural parameters. A number of such equations are reviewed and their predictive capability is discussed. Structural information of importance...... found, and this structural information is correlated with a number of strength structural equations. Finally, the flow stress of fcc and bcc polycrystalline specimens is related to the occurrence of microstructures formed by macroscopic and microscopic strain accommodation processes during plastic...... for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...

  1. Morphometry of primary and secondary epidermal laminae in equine hoof

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    Luana S. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the length of primary and secondary epidermal laminae of the toe and the lateral and medial quarters of horses, distributed into proximal, middle and distal thirds of the hooves. Eight limbs from adult crossbred horses, four females and four males, used to pull carts without pedal conditions. Fragments were taken from different regions of the hooves and subjected to conventional histological techniques. The samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The primary epidermal laminae were higher in the hooves of forelimbs compared to hindlimbs in the proximal and middle thirds and the regions of the medial quarter and toe. The secondary laminae were higher in forelimb of the middle third and medial quarter. Comparing the length of the epidermal laminae between hoof parts, it was seen that the primary laminae are lower in the proximal third and higher in the toe, while the secondary laminae are lower in the proximal third and medial quarter. The results suggested that the morphology of the laminae in the different regions of the hooves is influenced through the work performed by the animal, as well as through the different distribution of forces.

  2. Importance of greenstick lamina fractures in low lumbar burst fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, S.; Aydinli, U.

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar burst fractures (L3–L5) represent a small percentage of all spinal fractures. The treatment of fractures involving the lumbar spine has been controversial. Lamina fractures may be complete or of the greenstick type. Dural tears and nerve root entrapment may accompany these lamina fractures. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of dural tear in patients who had lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures and the importance of these lamina fractures when choosing the optimum treatment. Twenty-six patients with 28 lumbar burst fractures were treated from 1995 through 2002. The average follow-up was 60 months (range 32–110 months). The male to female ratio was 21:5 and the mean age was 37 years (17–64). Dural tear was detected in seven (25%) out of 28 burst fractures. The functional outcome of the entire study group was assessed using the Smiley-Webster Scale. Good to excellent results were obtained in 24 (92%) of 26 patients. Lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures occur mostly in the L2–L4 area. In the surgical treatment, any reduction manoeuvre will close the fracture and crush the entrapped neural elements. Therefore, it may be better to explore the greenstick lamina fracture whether there is any neural entrapment or not, before any reduction manoeuvre is attempted. PMID:16501977

  3. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity.

  4. Fate of the molar dental lamina in the monophyodont mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Dosedělová

    Full Text Available The successional dental lamina (SDL plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL, has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog, initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity.

  5. Role of histone deacetylases in gene regulation at nuclear lamina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice C Milon

    Full Text Available Theoretical models suggest that gene silencing at the nuclear periphery may involve "closing" of chromatin by transcriptional repressors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs. Here we provide experimental evidence confirming these predictions. Histone acetylation, chromatin compactness, and gene repression in lamina-interacting multigenic chromatin domains were analyzed in Drosophila S2 cells in which B-type lamin, diverse HDACs, and lamina-associated proteins were downregulated by dsRNA. Lamin depletion resulted in decreased compactness of the repressed multigenic domain associated with its detachment from the lamina and enhanced histone acetylation. Our data reveal the major role for HDAC1 in mediating deacetylation, chromatin compaction, and gene silencing in the multigenic domain, and an auxiliary role for HDAC3 that is required for retention of the domain at the lamina. These findings demonstrate the manifold and central involvement of class I HDACs in regulation of lamina-associated genes, illuminating a mechanism by which these enzymes can orchestrate normal and pathological development.

  6. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1981-03-01

    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  7. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  8. Less than 15% of the spinothalamic fibers originate from neurons in lamina I in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2004-01-01

    Lamina I neurons sending their axons into the spinothalamic tract are thought to play a crucial role in nociception, but many spinothalamic fibers do not originate from lamina I neurons. In cat, no consensus exists about what percentage of the spinothatamic tract cells are located in lamina I. After

  9. Axonal transport interruption and anatomy at the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    Pressure-induced, focal axonal transport abnormalities were studied in 14 cat eyes by the examination of serial step-section tissue radioautogram. Although the patterns of the transport interruption at the lamina cribrosa varied from eye to eye, the temporal sectors of the nerve head were most often involved by this abnormality. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa was studied in adjacent (6 micrometers) cross-sectional specimens. The thickness of the extra-bundle trabeculae and the nerve fiber bundle dimensions including the cross-sectional area and the number and the shape (the ratio of the major and the minor axis diameters) of the laminar pores were measured by computer-assisted perimeter analysis. There was no correlation between the location of the transport interruption and any of these anatomic measurements.

  10. Dynamics of Tetrahymena macronuclear lamina during cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIN; ZHONGHEZHAI

    1994-01-01

    During mitosis,the nuclear lamina in higher eukaryotic cells undergoes a distinctly morphological change.It breaks down into lamin polymers or monomers at prophase.At telophase,the lamins reassemble around the condensed chromatin to form the layer of lamina.Using antiserum to mammalian lamins,we studied the dynamics of lamina during cell division in the macronuleus of Tetrahymena shanghaiensis,which divided in the way of amitosis.In contrast to those in higher animal cells,the typical perinuclear lamin distribution in the macronucleus persisted throughout the whole cell cycle.It was further found that in some synchronized cells,the lamin distribution bisplayed an unusual pattern consisting of a series of spots within the macronucleus.Using South-western hybridization,we found that the purified 66 KD lamin in Tetrahymena showed specific affinity with the telomere DNA sequence in the same species.Therefore,we propose that pattern of immunofluorescence may be due to the interaction of lamin protein with the nucleoli and the condensed chromatins in the macronucleus.

  11. Relation between nuclear envelope and nuclear lamina in nuclear assembly in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡树涛; 翟中和

    1997-01-01

    Xenopus laevis egg extracts cell-free nuclear assembly system was used as an experimental model to study the process of nuclear lamina assembly in nuclear reconstitution in vitro. The experimental results showed that lamin was involved in the nuclear assembly in vitro. The assembly of nuclear lamina was preceded by the assembly of nuclear matrix, and probably, inner nuclear matrix assembly provided the basis for nuclear lamina assembly. Inhibition of normal assembly of nuclear lamina, by preincubating egg extracts cell-free system with anti-lamin antibodies, resulted in abnormal assembly of nuclear envelope, suggesting that nuclear envelope assembly is closely associated with nuclear lamina assembly.

  12. Nuclear Lamin-A Scales with Tissue Stiffness and Enhances Matrix-Directed Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joe; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Buxboim, Amnon; Harada, Takamasa; Dingal, P. C. Dave P.; Pinter, Joel; Pajerowski, J. David; Spinler, Kyle R.; Shin, Jae-Won; Tewari, Manorama; Rehfeldt, Florian; Speicher, David W.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in the extracellular matrix that determine E. Stem cell differentiation into fat on soft matrix was enhanced by low lamin-A levels, whereas differentiation into bone on stiff matrix was enhanced by high lamin-A levels. Matrix stiffness directly influenced lamin-A protein levels, and, although lamin-A transcription was regulated by the vitamin A/retinoic acid (RA) pathway with broad roles in development, nuclear entry of RA receptors was modulated by lamin-A protein. Tissue stiffness and stress thus increase lamin-A levels, which stabilize the nucleus while also contributing to lineage determination. PMID:23990565

  13. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in a transverse MMC lamina under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Both mechanical behavior and microstructural evaluation were undertaken at room temperature, 538 and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics are significantly different in monotonic tension and compression. The inelastic deformation mechanisms in compression are controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture is a new damage mode observed for metal-matrix composites (MMC).

  14. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  15. Heterogeneity of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid: a case showing blister formation at the lamina lucida, immune deposition beneath the lamina densa and autoantibodies against the 290-kD polypeptide along the lamina densa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Haruka; Ishii, Norito; Fukuda, Shunpei; Wakasa, Tomoko; Wakasa, Ken'ichi; Sogame, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takashi; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    An otherwise healthy 31-year-old man presented with multiple, vesicular, subepidermal blistering on the head, face, chest and oral cavity, leaving shallow scar formation, typical of Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and C3 along the basement membrane zone (BMZ), and indirect showed anti-BMZ autoantibodies (IgG, >40×) reacting with the dermal side under the salt-split study. Immunofluorescence staining for type IV collagen and laminins, as well as routine electron microscopy, demonstrated that the cleavage level of the blister was intra-lamina lucida. The immunoperoxidase method applied to lesional skin demonstrated IgG deposits along the lamina densa. The post-embedding immunogold method demonstrated that the autoantibodies against BMZ reacted with the lamina densa and the dermis just beneath it. Immunoblot studies demonstrated that the autoantibodies reacted with the 290-kD polypeptide (suggesting type VII collagen) when dermal extract was used as the substrate. The patient was treated with combination therapy consisting of 30 mg prednisolone, 900 mg nicotinamide and 750 mg tetracycline, and the number of newly forming blisters decreased. We concluded that Brunsting-Perry type pemphigoid, a rare autoimmune blistering disease, includes cases showing characteristics of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita as well as bullous pemphigoid. This case showed discrepancy between the blistering level (intra-lamina lucida) and location of antigen (lamina densa and sub-lamina densa areas).

  16. A conserved transcriptional network regulates lamina development in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Cristina; Lopes, Carla S; Casares, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The visual system of insects is a multilayered structure composed externally by the compound eye and internally by the three ganglia of the optic lobe: lamina, medulla and the lobula complex. The differentiation of lamina neurons depends heavily on Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is delivered by the incoming photoreceptor axons, and occurs in a wave-like fashion. Despite the primary role of lamina neurons in visual perception, it is still unclear how these neurons are specified from neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors. Here we show that a homothorax (hth)-eyes absent (eya)-sine oculis (so)-dachshund (dac) gene regulatory cassette is involved in this specification. Lamina neurons differentiate from NE progenitors that express hth, eya and so. One of the first events in the differentiation of lamina neurons is the upregulation of dac expression in response to Hh signaling. We show that this dac upregulation, which marks the transition from NE progenitors into lamina precursors, also requires Eya/So, the expression of which is locked in by mutual feedback. dac expression is crucial for lamina differentiation because it ensures repression of hth, a negative regulator of single-minded, and thus dac allows further lamina neuron differentiation. Therefore, the specification of lamina neurons is controlled by coupling the cell-autonomous hth-eya-so-dac regulatory cassette to Hh signaling.

  17. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  18. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes.

  19. Axon morphology at the lamina cribrosa in monkey eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Klewin, K M

    1986-01-01

    The eyes of 8 monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were studied. The mean cross-section area and the least diameter of axon cylinders were calculated from measurements made by computer assisted planimetry of electron photomicrographs of sections through the optic nerve head at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The density of intrabundle connective tissue and glial cell elements in nerve fiber bundles was also calculated. The mean cross-section area and minimum diameter of axons in the temporal part were less than in the nasal part of the nerve. The values for axons in the superior and inferior parts of the nerve were intermediate. A similar pattern of increasing dimensions was seen in axons from the more axial nerve compared to neurons in the more circumferential nerve sectors. The density of the intrabundle, nonaxonal tissue elements did not differ significantly across the nerve. Although axon dimensions may play some role in defining the vulnerability of neuronal tissue to a pressure insult, the results of this anatomic investigation do not support the hypothesis that differences in axonal distribution by size across the nerve section define the regional vulnerability of the nerve head to elevated intraocular pressure.

  20. Dynamics of lamin-A processing following precursor accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Lamin A (LaA is a component of the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament meshwork that underlies the inner nuclear membrane (INM of the nuclear envelope (NE. Newly synthesized prelamin A (PreA undergoes extensive processing involving C-terminal farnesylation followed by proteolysis yielding non-farnesylated mature lamin A. Different inhibitors of these processing events are currently used therapeutically. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is most commonly caused by mutations leading to an accumulation of a farnesylated LaA isoform, prompting a clinical trial using farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI to reduce this modification. At therapeutic levels, HIV protease inhibitors (PI can unexpectedly inhibit the final processing step in PreA maturation. We have examined the dynamics of LaA processing and associated cellular effects during PI or FTI treatment and following inhibitor washout. While PI reversibility was rapid, with respect to both LaA maturation and associated cellular phenotype, recovery from FTI treatment was more gradual. FTI reversibility is influenced by both cell type and rate of proliferation. These results suggest a less static lamin network than has previously been observed.

  1. Axon diversity of lamina I local-circuit neurons in the lumbar spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Peter; Luz, Liliana L; Pinho, Raquel; Aguiar, Paulo; Antal, Zsófia; Tiong, Sheena Y X; Todd, Andrew J; Safronov, Boris V

    2013-08-15

    Spinal lamina I is a key area for relaying and integrating information from nociceptive primary afferents with various other sources of inputs. Although lamina I projection neurons have been intensively studied, much less attention has been given to local-circuit neurons (LCNs), which form the majority of the lamina I neuronal population. In this work the infrared light-emitting diode oblique illumination technique was used to visualize and label LCNs, allowing reconstruction and analysis of their dendritic and extensive axonal trees. We show that the majority of lamina I neurons with locally branching axons fall into the multipolar (with ventrally protruding dendrites) and flattened (dendrites limited to lamina I) somatodendritic categories. Analysis of their axons revealed that the initial myelinated part gives rise to several unmyelinated small-diameter branches that have a high number of densely packed, large varicosities and an extensive rostrocaudal (two or three segments), mediolateral, and dorsoventral (reaching laminae III-IV) distribution. The extent of the axon and the occasional presence of long, solitary branches suggest that LCNs may also form short and long propriospinal connections. We also found that the distribution of axon varicosities and terminal field locations show substantial heterogeneity and that a substantial portion of LCNs is inhibitory. Our observations indicate that LCNs of lamina I form intersegmental as well as interlaminar connections and may govern large numbers of neurons, providing anatomical substrate for rostrocaudal "processing units" in the dorsal horn.

  2. Pseudoarthrosis following fracture of left lamina of C2 vertebra causing compressive myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.M. Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoarthrosis involving lamina of C2 vertebra requiring intervention is very rare. We report the unusual case of a 38-year-old man presenting with pseudoarthrosis of an old fracture involving left lamina of C2 vertebra. The patient presented with progressive spastic quadriparesis and history of sustaining injury to his neck 15 years ago. Imaging showed pseudoarthrosis involving the left lamina of C2 vertebra with significant cord compression. Posterior approach was used and decompressive laminectomy was done at C2 and C3 levels with removal of the affected segment with pseudoarthrosis. The postoperative period was uneventful and the neurological recovery was good.

  3. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  4. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  5. Lamina depth and thickness correlate with glaucoma severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between lamina cribrosa (LC morphology and glaucoma severity in patients with primary forms of open-angle glaucoma (OAG using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and Humphrey visual field test (HVF. Subjects and Methods: Patients with OAG (n = 166, divided into normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and high-tension glaucoma (HTG groups (n = 66 and n = 100, were imaged using SD-OCT to obtain horizontal B-scan images of the optic nerve head (ONH. Laminar depth (LD and laminar thickness (LT were measured at the center of ONH. Results: The mean (±standard deviation values of LD, LT, and visual field mean deviation (MD were 555.4 ± 142.3 μm, 179.9 ± 49.7 μm, and − 5.7 ± 6.4 dB, respectively. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, LD, LT, and intraocular pressure (IOP were significantly correlated with MD (P = 0.007, P = 0.037, and P = 0.004, respectively. In the subgroup analyses, only LD was associated with MD in the NTG group (n = 66, whereas LT and IOP were correlated with MD in the HTG group (n = 100. Neither axial length nor central corneal thickness was associated with LD or LT. Conclusions: Glaucoma severity, as measured by HVF MD, shows significant correlations with LD and LT, with greater severity associated with increasing LD and decreasing LT. Normal- and high-tension OAG patients have different associations with LD and LT, which implies that the pathogenesis of these two entities might be different.

  6. Pseudo-elastic Hysteresis Damping Characteristics of SMA Hybrid Composite Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shuangshuang; JIANG Xiance; SUN Guojun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite lamina subjected to longitudinally strain or stress controlled cyclic loading is investigated. The SMA is under pseudo-elastic condition and the fibers are embedded (bonded) to the host material. The influences of temperature, volume fraction of SMA and longitudinal modulus of the host material on the stress-strain relation and energy dissipation of the SMA hybrid composite lamina are discussed. The results indicate that the stress-strain curve of the lamina per cycle shows a hysteresis loop. The hysteresis damping decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing volume fractions of SMA. In addition, the hysteresis damping is nearly independent of the longitudinal modulus of the host material under strain controlled loading. However, it depends dramatically on the longitudinal modulus of the host material under stress controlled loading, which shows the SMA composite lamina has high pseudo-elastic hysteresis damping when the longitudinal modulus of the host material is low.

  7. Traumatic perforation of the lamina cribrosa during nasal intubation of a preterm infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Maaike J; Sival, Deborah A; van Doormaal-Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F; Ter Horst, Hendrik J

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic perforation of the lamina cribrosa and penetration of the brain occurred during nasotracheal intubation of a preterm infant requiring resuscitation. This rare complication is specifically associated with the nasal route of intubation. The complication resulted in significant morbidity. The

  8. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...

  9. Strengthening regional safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O. [Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  10. Strengthening Aboriginal community wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Batten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 the NSW Government has been investigating the concept of ‘wellbeing’ as it relates to Aboriginal communities. Adopting a focus on wellbeing has meant delving into questions about what makes communities strong, and what factors are unique to creating strong Aboriginal communities, as well as considering the government’s role (if any in supporting Aboriginal community wellbeing. This paper seeks to convey the essence of the journey into wellbeing to date. It details the positions and assumptions that this work started with, and analyses why this has shifted over time. It examines what worked and was feasible, and what didn’t. In particular, the paper overviews the creation of the Strengthening Aboriginal Community Wellbeing Framework (the policy context, and the development of a resource in the form of a user friendly software program for communities wishing to holistically assess their wellbeing – the ‘toolkit’ (the practical outcome of the work to date.

  11. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  12. Nuclear envelope lamin-A couples actin dynamics with immunological synapse architecture and T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Granado, José M; Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Trigueros-Motos, Laia; Cibrián, Danay; Morlino, Giulia; Blanco-Berrocal, Marta; Osorio, Fernando G; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Andrés, Vicente

    2014-04-22

    In many cell types, nuclear A-type lamins regulate multiple cellular functions, including higher-order genome organization, DNA replication and repair, gene transcription, and signal transduction; however, their role in specialized immune cells remains largely unexplored. We showed that the abundance of A-type lamins was almost negligible in resting naïve T lymphocytes, but was increased upon activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). The increase in lamin-A was an early event that accelerated formation of the immunological synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Polymerization of F-actin in T cells is a critical step for immunological synapse formation, and lamin-A interacted with the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex to promote F-actin polymerization. We also showed that lamin-A expression accelerated TCR clustering and led to enhanced downstream signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling, as well as increased target gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway reduced lamin-A-dependent T cell activation. Moreover, mice lacking lamin-A in immune cells exhibited impaired T cell responses in vivo. These findings underscore the importance of A-type lamins for TCR activation and identify lamin-A as a previously unappreciated regulator of the immune response.

  13. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II.

  14. Bullous pemphigoid: role of complement and mechanisms for blister formation within the lamina lucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Kitajima, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP), an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease, demonstrates tense blisters with or without widespread erythema, blistering along the lamina lucida, immunoglobulin G and/or complement deposits at the basement membrane zone, and the presence of circulating autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal molecules. These autoantibodies usually react against 180-kDa and/or 230-kDa proteins, designated as BP180 and BP230, respectively. The precise blistering mechanisms after autoantibodies bind to antigens are not fully understood. Immune complexes are thought to initially activate the complement cascade, which may induce activation of proteases and/or cytokines and cause dermal-epidermal separation. However, why does separation run specifically within the lamina lucida in a space as narrow as 500 nm wide? This review mainly focuses on the possible mechanisms of BP-specific blistering and how separation occurs along the lamina lucida, based on existing evidence.

  15. Third ventriculostomy through the lamina terminalis for intracranial pressure monitoring after aneurysm surgery: technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraemer Jorge L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A new ventriculostomy technique through the lamina terminalis is described. This technique is applied mainly during aneurysm surgery at the acute stage. METHOD: Thirteen patients were operated on intracranial aneurysms and, during the procedure, had the lamina terminalis fenestrated. A ventricular catheter was inserted into the third ventricule, left in place and connected to an external drainage system for further intracranial pressure (ICP monitoring and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF drainage. RESULTS: ICP readings and CSF drainage were obtained in all cases. No complication was recorded. CONCLUSION: Third ventriculostomy through the lamina terminalis is a simple and easy technique that can be used as an alternative to conventional ventriculostomy. This procedure can be indicated in cases where the ventricule is not reached by means of another technique, and when the decision to perform ventriculostomy is made at the end of aneurysm surgery.

  16. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: (1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; (2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as elliptic (=the widest part of a leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions and low nutrient soils. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between the proportion of trees with non-entire laminas (dissected, toothed, etc. and mean annual

  17. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-01-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  18. Observation of nuclei reassembled from demembranated Xenopus sperm nuclei and analysis of their lamina components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUJIAN; CHUANMAOZHANG; 等

    1994-01-01

    A cell-free preparation obtained from extracts of activated Xenopus laevis eggs induced chromatin decondensation and nuclear formation from demembranated Xenopus sperm nuclei.Electron microscopy revealed that the reassembled nucleus had a double-layered nuclear memblane,nuclear pore complexes,and decondensed chromatin etc.Indirect immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the presence of lamina in newly assembled nuclei.Western-blotting results showed that lamin LII was present in egg extracts and in lamina of the reassembled nuclei which were previously reported to contain only egg derived lamin LIII.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  20. Inelastic deformation mechanisms in SCS-6/Ti 15-3 MMC lamina under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam M.; Majumdar, Bhaskar S.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to study the inelastic deformation mechanisms in (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) Ti 15-3/SCS-6 lamina subjected to pure compression. Monotonic tests were conducted at room temperature (RT), 538 C and 650 C. Results indicate that mechanical response and deformation characteristics were different in monotonic tension and compression loading whereas some of those differences could be attributed to residual stress effects. There were other differences because of changes in damage and failure modes. The inelastic deformation in the (0)(sub 8) lamina under compression was controlled primarily by matrix plasticity, although some evidence of fiber-matrix debonding was observed. Failure of the specimen in compression was due to fiber buckling in a macroscopic shear zone (the failure plane). The inelastic deformation mechanisms under compression in (90)(sub 8) lamina were controlled by radial fiber fracture, matrix plasticity, and fiber-matrix debonding. The radial fiber fracture was a new damage mode observed for MMC's. Constitutive response was predicted for both the (0)(sub 8) and (90)(sub 8) laminae, using AGLPLY, METCAN, and Battelle's Unit Cell FEA model. Results from the analyses were encouraging.

  1. The anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in the normal cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Bade, B

    1982-10-01

    In normal cat eyes, the mean cross-sectional area of the nerve fiber bundles is greater in the temporal than in the nasal lamina cribrosa. The area occupied by the interbundle trabeculae is less in the temporal sectors than in the nasal sectors of the nerve. The number and the shape of the laminar pores are similar in all nerve sectors.

  2. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  3. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  4. Fos induction in lamina I projection neurons in response to noxious thermal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, A J; Spike, R C; Young, S; Puskár, Z

    2005-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons: the majority of these are activated by noxious stimulation, although some respond to other stimuli, such as innocuous cooling. In the rat, approximately 80% of lamina I projection neurons express the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, on which substance P acts. Lamina I neurons can be classified into three main morphological classes: pyramidal, fusiform and multipolar cells. It has been reported that in the cat, pyramidal cells respond to innocuous cooling, and whilst both fusiform and multipolar cells are activated by noxious mechanical and heat stimuli, only cells in the latter group respond to noxious cold [Nat Neurosci 1 (1998) 218]. However, we have previously shown that NK1 receptor-immunoreactive projection neurons belonging to each morphological class are equally likely to up-regulate the transcription factor Fos after noxious chemical stimulation, and that the density of innervation by substance P-containing (nociceptive) afferents is similar for cells of each type [J Neurosci 22 (2002) 4103]. This suggests that the morphological-physiological correlation that has been reported in the cat may not apply in the rat. We have tested this further by examining Fos expression in lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the rat after application of noxious heat or noxious cold stimuli under general anesthesia. Following noxious heat, 57-69% of NK1 receptor-immunoreactive spinoparabrachial neurons expressed Fos, and the proportion did not differ significantly between morphological groups. However, after noxious cold stimulation Fos was present in 63% of multipolar neurons, but only 19-26% of fusiform or pyramidal cells. These results suggest that although most NK1 receptor-expressing spinoparabrachial neurons are activated by noxious stimuli, responsiveness to noxious cold is significantly more common in those of the multipolar type. There therefore appears to be a correlation between morphology and function for

  5. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  6. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  7. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  8. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  9. Endomorphin-2 Inhibition of Substance P Signaling within Lamina I of the Spinal Cord Is Impaired in Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fa-Ping; Bai, Yang; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Ting; Li, Hui; Wang, Ya-Yun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Opiate analgesia in the spinal cord is impaired in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), but until now the reason is unknown. We hypothesized that it resulted from a decreased inhibition of substance P (SP) signaling within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the effects of endomorphin-2 (EM2), an endogenous ligand of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), on SP release within lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in rats with DNP. We established the DNP rat model and compared the analgesic efficacy of EM2 between inflammation pain and DNP rat models. Behavioral results suggested that the analgesic efficacy of EM2 was compromised in the condition of painful diabetic neuropathy. Then, we measured presynaptic SP release induced by different stimulating modalities via neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) internalization. Although there was no significant change in basal and evoked SP release between control and DNP rats, EM2 failed to inhibit SP release by noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in DNP but not in control and inflammation pain model. We also observed that EM2 decreased the number of FOS-positive neurons within lamina I of the SDH but did not change the amount of FOS/NK1R double-labeled neurons. Finally, we identified a remarkable decrease in MORs within the primary afferent fibers and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Taken together, these data suggest that reduced presynaptic MOR expression might account for the loss of the inhibitory effect of EM2 on SP signaling, which might be one of the neurobiological foundations for decreased opioid efficacy in the treatment of DNP. PMID:28119567

  10. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  11. Failure of a fiber composite lamina under three-dimensional stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTeresa, S J

    1999-08-31

    The efficient use of thick-section fiber composites requires a proven three-dimensional failure model. Numerous failure criteria have been proposed, but the lack of critical experimental results makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of these models. It is shown that the various predictions for failure of a lamina due to the simple state of uniaxial stress plus superposed hydrostatic pressure are disparate. These differences are sufficient to allow evaluation of failure criteria using data that has the normal scatter found for composite materials. A high-pressure test system for fiber composites is described and results for the effects of pressure on the transverse and longitudinal compression strengths of a carbon fiber/epoxy lamina are discussed. Results are compared with a few representative failure models.

  12. The inspiratory maneuver: a simple method to assess the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulica, Lucian; Behrman, Alison; Roark, Rick

    2005-09-01

    We describe a simple means of assessing the condition of the superficial lamina propria during endoscopy, which we use in our practice as an adjunct to careful stroboscopic examination. An intake of breath against partially adducted vocal folds serves to draw the mucosa inferomedially into the glottis, which reveals areas of diminished mobility, the relationship of mucosal lesions to deeper tissues of the vocal folds, and subtle submucosal lesions. This is possible because of the unique geometry of the glottis that renders the vector forces of airflow different at inspiration and expiration. Because the integrity of the superficial lamina propria is essential to healthy phonation, we have found the inspiratory maneuver useful across a wide variety of mucosal pathologic conditions.

  13. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  14. Lamina propria macrophage phenotypes in relation to Escherichia coli in Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Timothy R.; Rayment, Neil B.; Barry N Hudspith; Hands, Rebecca E; Taylor, Kirstin; Parkes, Gareth C; Prescott, Natalie J.; Petrovska, Liljana; Hermon-Taylor, John; Brostoff, Jonathan; Boussioutas, Alex; Mathew, Christopher G.; Bustin, Stephen A.; Sanderson, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal handling of E. coli by lamina propria (LP) macrophages may contribute to Crohn’s disease (CD) pathogenesis. We aimed to determine LP macrophage phenotypes in CD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls (HC), and in CD, to compare macrophage phenotypes according to E. coli carriage. Methods Mucosal biopsies were taken from 35 patients with CD, 9 with UC and 18 HCs. Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate E. coli-laden and unladen LP macrophages from ileal or ...

  15. Neurotrophin and Trk expression by cells of the human lamina cribrosa following oxygen-glucose deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Clark Abbot F; Lambert Wendi S; Wordinger Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Ischemia within the optic nerve head (ONH) may contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Ischemia has been reported to increase neurotrophin and high affinity Trk receptor expression by CNS neurons and glial cells. We have previously demonstrated neurotrophin and Trk expression within the lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the ONH. To determine if ischemia alters neurotrophin and Trk protein expression in cells from the human LC, cul...

  16. Determination of tensile and compressive moduli of laminae in unidirectionally reinforced laminate by flexural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used in engineering despite of various simplifications. One of which, that do matters in this article, is neglecting the difference between tensile and compressive moduli. Experimental tests reveal that for fibre reinforced composites tensile moduli are generally greater than compressive ones. This paper presents the results of testing the laminate composed of four unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae separated by layers of glass mat. The specimens were subjected to flexural, tensile and compressive loading in order to calculate corresponding moduli of elasticity. The results were compared using equations of Classical Beam Theory. Knowing the tensile and compressive moduli of glass mat reinforced laminae and performing flexural tests of laminate it is possible to calculate the tensile and compressive moduli of unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae. The experimental data taken into calculations correspond to linear normal strains of 0.0005 and 0.0025. The experimental data are consistent with results of calculations within acceptable margin of tolerance.

  17. Lamina specific loss of inhibition may lead to distinct neuropathic manifestations: a computational modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Javier Argüello Prada

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been reported that inhibitory control at the superficial dorsal horn (SDH can act in a regionally distinct manner, which suggests that regionally specific subpopulations of SDH inhibitory neurons may prevent one specific neuropathic condition. Methods In an attempt to address this issue, we provide an alternative approach by integrating neuroanatomical information provided by different studies to construct a network-model of the SDH. We use Neuroids to simulate each neuron included in that model by adapting available experimental evidence. Results Simulations suggest that the maintenance of the proper level of pain sensitivity may be attributed to lamina II inhibitory neurons and, therefore, hyperalgesia may be elicited by suppression of the inhibitory tone at that lamina. In contrast, lamina III inhibitory neurons are more likely to be responsible for keeping the nociceptive pathway from the mechanoreceptive pathway, so loss of inhibitory control in that region may result in allodynia. The SDH network-model is also able to replicate non-linearities associated to pain processing, such as Aβ-fiber mediated analgesia and frequency-dependent increase of the neural response. Discussion By incorporating biophysical accuracy and newer experimental evidence, the SDH network-model may become a valuable tool for assessing the contribution of specific SDH connectivity patterns to noxious transmission in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  19. Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of

  20. Multi-scale Rule-of-Mixtures Model of Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Roddick, Jaret C.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    A unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy lamina in which the carbon fibers are coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes is modeled with a multi-scale method, the atomistically informed rule-of-mixtures. This multi-scale model is designed to include the effect of the carbon nanotubes on the constitutive properties of the lamina. It included concepts from the molecular dynamics/equivalent continuum methods, micromechanics, and the strength of materials. Within the model both the nanotube volume fraction and nanotube distribution were varied. It was found that for a lamina with 60% carbon fiber volume fraction, the Young's modulus in the fiber direction varied with changes in the nanotube distribution, from 138.8 to 140 GPa with nanotube volume fractions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.0125. The presence of nanotube near the surface of the carbon fiber is therefore expected to have a small, but positive, effect on the constitutive properties of the lamina.

  1. Novel biodegradable α-TCP/poly(amino acid) composite artificial lamina following spinal surgery for prevention of intraspinal scar adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bo; Song, Yue-Ming; Liu, Hao; Liu, Li-Min; Gong, Quan; Li, Tao; Zeng, Jian-Cheng; Yuan, Hai-Feng

    2011-12-01

    Biodegradable copolymer α-TCP/poly(amino acid) composite artificial lamina was prepared and used in goat cervical vertebra resection repair. Cervical 4 was removed by laminectomy, and a vertebra defect of 27 × 9 mm was made. α-TCP/poly(amino acid) composite artificial lamina was inserted in the test group. The efficiency of the copolymer during repair and reconstruction of the goats' vertebra was tested by using X-ray, CT scanning, and histological and biomechanical measurements. In the 24 weeks following the operation, the artificial lamina refrained from shifting, and no dural adhesion pressure was observed. In contrast, the control group suffered from infiltration of soft tissue in the spinal canal, dural pressure and α-TCP/poly(amino acid) degradation. In conclusion, α-TCP/poly(amino acid) composite artificial lamina can significantly prevent scar tissue from infiltrating the spinal canal.

  2. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  3. Non-peptidergic primary afferents are presynaptic to neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactive lamina I projection neurons in rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abeer W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain-related (nociceptive information is carried from the periphery to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord mostly by two populations of small diameter primary afferents, the peptidergic and the non-peptidergic. The peptidergic population expresses neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, while the non-peptidergic fibers are devoid of neuropeptides, express the purinergic receptor P2X3, and bind the isolectin B4 (IB4. Although it has been known for some time that in rat the peptidergic afferents terminate mostly in lamina I and outer lamina II and non-peptidergic afferents in inner lamina II, the extent of the termination of the latter population in lamina I was never investigated as it was considered as very minor. Because our preliminary evidence suggested otherwise, we decided to re-examine the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I, in particular with regards to their innervation of projection neurons expressing substance P receptors (NK-1r. We used retrograde labeling of neurons from the parabrachial nucleus combined with lectin IB4 binding and immunocytochemistry. Samples were examined by confocal and electron microscopy. Results By confocal microscopy, we studied the termination of non-peptidergic afferents in lamina I using IB4 binding and P2X3 immunoreactivity as markers, in relation to CGRP immunoreactivy, a marker of peptidergic afferents. The number of IB4 or P2X3-labeled fibers in lamina I was higher than previously thought, although they were less abundant than CGRP-labeled afferents. There were very few fibers double-labeled for CGRP and either P2X3 or IB4. We found a considerable number of IB4-positive fiber varicosities in close apposition to NK-1r-positive lamina I projection neurons, which were distinct from peptidergic varicosities. Furthermore, we confirmed at the ultrastructural level that there were bona fide synapses between P2X3-immunoreactive non

  4. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschowitz, André; 10.4204/EPTCS.77.5

    2012-01-01

    We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax). Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the \\lambda-calculus with explicit substitution.

  5. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  6. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  7. Cortical lamina technique: A therapeutic approach for lateral ridge augmentation using guided bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Raison; Baron, Tarun-Kumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a novel technique, the bone lamina technique, in horizontal ridge augmentation clinically & radiographically using a combination of allogenic cortical shell, particulate xenograft and resorbable collagen membrane. Material and Methods Localized horizontal ridge defects, in ten patients (6 male, 4 female), with bucco-palatal ridge width less than 5 mm were included in this study. Localised ridge augmentation was performed using bone lamina technique with mineralised allogenic shell of 1 mm thickness trimmed to the appropriate size using stereo-lithographic models and fixed to the recipient site with stainless steel micro-screws of 1 mm diameter. The space between the shell & host bone was filled with particulate xenograft followed by placement of collagen membrane and primary closure of the site. Clinical parameters including ridge width before & after flap reflection & radiographic (CBCT) ridge width measurements were recorded pre-operatively,and six months after the augmentation procedure. Results obtained were analysed statistically. Results The mean clinical ridge width before flap reflection (BFR), after flap reflection (AFR) & radiographically was 3.7 ± 0.74 mm, 2 ± 0.70 mm & 1.77 ± 0.71 mm respectively at baseline which increased to 6.8 ± 0.95 mm, 5.15 ± 0.98 mm & 4.90 ± 0.90 mm with a mean gain in ridge width of 3.1 ± 0.63 mm (p< 0.005), 3.15 ± 0.63 mm (p<0.005) & 3.13 ± 0.70 mm (p< 0.005) respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that bone lamina technique can be effective means of horizontal ridge augmentation and the use of mineralized allograft in combination with xenograft and collagen membrane leads to good amount of bone regeneration for subsequent implant placement. Key words:Dental implant, guided bone regeneration, horizontal ridge defect, ridge augmentation. PMID:28149458

  8. Enhanced depth OCT imaging of the lamina cribrosa for 24 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Bonilla, Pedro; Giménez-Gómez, Rafael; Ríos-Jiménez, David; Varas-Fabra, María Luísa; Muñoz-Villanueva, María del Carmen; García-Catalán, Rocío; Font-Ugalde, Pilar; Poblador-Fernández, María Soledad; Lancho-Alonso, José Luís; Gallardo-Galera, José María

    2017-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa thickness (LCT) could be affected by dynamic changes in its structure. Using Spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we have studied the behaviour of the laminar region in 14 young subjects over 24h. Significant changes in LCT were observed, depending on the time at which the measurement was taken, with the maximum thickness being observed at 7.30 p.m., and the minimum at 7.30 a.m. This finding could suggests a circadian pattern in the LCT thickness in healthy subjects, which could have implications for the classification, diagnosis and prognosis of both normal and glaucomatous subjects. PMID:28251093

  9. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao; Bach-Holm, Daniella;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... the Bruch membrane opening plane to the anterior LC surface, was manually measured on selected B-scans covering the central three-quarters of the optic nerve head in each eye. RESULTS: Mean LC depth in patients with IIH (325.2 ± 92.1 µm) was significantly (p<0.01) decreased compared to control subjects...

  10. Application of Elliptic Fourier Analysis to Describe the Lamina Cribrosa Shape with Age and Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, P. G.; Grimm, J.L.; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K.L.; Sigal, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47 to 91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mm Hg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric centre of the LC extracted. The outline ...

  11. Delayed myelopathy secondary to stab wound with a retained blade tip within the laminae: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurologic deficit after a stab wound with a retained foreign body near the spinal canal is unusual, adequate radiological examination is fundamental in detecting retained foreign bodies, especially the CT scan, surgical extraction of the foreign body is the primary task and the surgical outcome is satisfactory. Here, we report a rare case of delayed myelopathy caused by spinal stenosis secondary to broken blade tip within thoracic laminae in an old man, who was injured in a knife attack 39 years ago. The incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prognosis are discussed.

  12. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis.

  13. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  15. Diverse firing properties and Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs of small local circuit neurons in spinal lamina I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elisabete C; Luz, Liliana L; Mytakhir, Oleh; Lukoyanov, Nikolai V; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2016-02-01

    Spinal lamina I is a key element of the pain processing system, which integrates primary afferent input and relays it to supraspinal areas. More than 90% of neurons in this layer are local circuit neurons, whose role in the signal processing is poorly understood. We performed whole-cell recordings in a spinal cord preparation with attached dorsal roots to examine morphological features and physiological properties of small local circuit neurons (n = 47) in lamina I. Cells successfully filled with biocytin (n = 17) had fusiform (n = 10), flattened (n = 4), and multipolar (n = 3) somatodendritic morphology; their axons branched extensively and terminated in laminae I-III. Intrinsic firing properties were diverse; in addition to standard tonic (n = 16), adapting (n = 7), and delayed (n = 6) patterns, small local circuit neurons also generated rhythmic discharges (n = 6) and plateau potentials (n = 10), the latter were suppressed by the L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine. The neurons received monosynaptic inputs from Aδ and C afferents and could generate bursts of spikes on the root stimulation. In addition, we identified lamina I neurons (n = 7) with direct inputs from the low-threshold Aβ afferents, which could be picked up by ventral dendrites protruding to lamina III. Stimulation of afferents also evoked a disynaptic inhibition of neurons. Thus, small local circuit neurons exhibit diverse firing properties, can generate rhythmic discharges and plateau potentials, and their dendrites extending into several laminae allow broad integration of Aβ-, Aδ-, and C-afferent inputs. These properties are required for processing diverse modalities of nociceptive inputs in lamina I and may underlie spinal sensitization to pain.

  16. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  17. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  18. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  19. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  20. Telocytes in gastric lamina propria of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Shengwei; Yu, Pengcheng; Ge, Tingting; Peng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we attempt to identify gastric telocytes (TCs) of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Toluidine blue staining showed TCs with one to two very thin and long telopodes (Tps) that were located in gastric lamina propria. Tps had characteristic structures, including podoms, podomers and dichotomous branching. Immunohistochemistry showed the existence of CD34+/PDGFRα+ TCs with moniliform Tps in stroma and were close to gastric glands and blood vessels. TEM micrographs also demonstrated the presence of TCs in interstitium between gastric glands. TCs/Tps were located in close proximity to gastric glands, blood vessels, endocrine cells and stem cells. In particular, Tps frequently surrounded stem cells. TCs and Tps, Tps and stem cells established close contacts. Moreover, the exosomes were also found near TCs/Tps. Our data confirmed the presence of TCs in gastric lamina propria of the amphibian, and suggested that TCs cooperate with resident stem cells to regulate endocrine cells and gastric glands regeneration and homeostasis. PMID:27629815

  1. Microfabric analysis of Mn-carbonate laminae deposition and Mn-sulfide formation in the Gotland Deep, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T.; Kemp, Alan E. S.

    2002-05-01

    The manganese carbonate deposits of the anoxic Littorina sediments of the Gotland Deep have been commonly related to the periodic renewal of deep water by inflowing saline water from the North Sea. The use of scanning electron microscopy-based techniques allows identification of small-scale sedimentary and geochemical features associated with Mn-carbonate laminae, which has significant implications for models of Mn-carbonate formation. Varves occurring in the Littorina sequence contain up to four laminae that may be placed in a seasonal cycle, and kutnahorite laminae occur within varves only as a winter-early spring deposit. This kutnahorite laminae seasonality is in agreement with the seasonal distribution of major Baltic inflow events recorded in historical records, and a direct causal link between inflows and kutnahorite deposition is implied. Benthic foraminifera tests are found to be heavily encrusted in kutnahorite, implying that benthic recolonization during oxidation events occurs concurrently with kutnahorite formation. The relatively common occurrence of small (50 to 100 μm) hexagonal γ-Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs, associated with 13% of kutnahorite laminae studied, is reported in Gotland Deep sediments for the first time. Although Mn-sulfide crystals are not usually preserved in the sediment, the discovery of Mn-sulfide pseudomorphs suggests that initial formation of Mn-sulfide in the Gotland Deep may occur much more commonly during the process of kutnahorite formation than previous reports of Mn-sulfide occurrence have implied.

  2. Glass strengthening and patterning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David C; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-27

    High intensity plasma-arc heat sources, such as a plasma-arc lamp, are used to irradiate glass, glass ceramics and/or ceramic materials to strengthen the glass. The same high intensity plasma-arc heat source may also be used to form a permanent pattern on the glass surface--the pattern being raised above the glass surface and integral with the glass (formed of the same material) by use of, for example, a screen-printed ink composition having been irradiated by the heat source.

  3. Burnishing Techniques Strengthen Hip Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.

  4. 27 CFR 24.153 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In any instance where the penal sum of the bond on file becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum or give a... limiting the amount of either bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds will show...

  5. 27 CFR 26.69 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.69 Strengthening bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of... surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to cover the entire liability. Strengthening... penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date of execution and the effective date....

  6. 27 CFR 19.246 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Strengthening bonds. In all cases when the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new... amount of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  7. Studies on glial isomeration of lamina cribrosa in rat%大鼠视神经筛板胶质异构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴超; 李大庆; 李英; Geoffrey Raisman; 阴正勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanism of optic nerve damage in glaucoma by study on structure of glial lamina cribrosa(LC) in rats.Methods Experimental study.Albino Swiss(AS) rats were divided into 3 groups.Bilateral eyes of 10 normal rats were employed to be group Ⅰ (right eye) and group Ⅱ (left eye).Group Ⅲ was from the left eyes of 13 rats underwent artificially intraocular hypertension in the right eyes.All rats were perfused and fixed with electronic microscopy fixative (2% paraformaldehyde + 2% glutaraldehyde).Trimmed optic nerves were embedded with resin.Serial 1.5 μm thick 'semithin' sections were cut,either (2 eyes from group Ⅲ) longitudinally,through the optic nerve head(ONH) from the retinal end to the commencement of the optic nerve,or (31 eyes) transversely (cross-sections).Ultrathin sections were cut in the middle of glial LC.The morphological observation of glial LC was obtained by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Bonferroni correction was used to cownteract the multiple comparision of each group.Results Fortified astrocytes formed the main supportive structure of glial LC in all rats,including group Ⅰ,group Ⅱ and group Ⅲ.Astrocytes were ranked as a fan-like radial array,firmly attached ventrally to the sheath of the LC by thick basal processes,but dividing dorsally into progressively more slender processes with only delicate attachments to the sheath.These fortified astrocytes form ventral stout basal end feet,radial array,axon free-'preterminal' layer before terminating in a complex layer of fine interdigitating delicate branches at the dorsal.LC astrocytes were highly and uniformly electron dense throughout all the cell processes.An equally striking feature of the astrocytic processes was their massive cytoskeletal 'strengthening' of longitudinal massed filaments and tubules.Especially,massive filaments accumulated as cytoskeletal cores to form 'scaffold' of fortified astrocytes.There was vulnerable area in the

  8. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  9. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  10. Forecasting for strengthening technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Producing technological innovation is currently one of the key items in being more competitive. However, production sectors are facing great challenges, including analysing a large amount of available technological and market information regarding the en- vironment for strategic decision-making and being able to launch themselves onto the market with technological developments bringing the desired economic returns. Several tools for analysing information have emerged for reducing the uncertainty of tech- nological and market changes. This article provides conceptual and reflective elements so that forecasting strengthens technolo- gical development (TD. Forecasting is initially proposed as being one of the future methods of analysis having a significant im- pact on decision-making, mainly within the field of economics but which could be extrapolated to making a contribution to TD. The techniques which have been the recent instrument for collecting information for producing forecasting are described, as is work about the concept of surveillance/monitoring and the processes used for coordinating such approaches. It can thus be sta- ted that they provide an excellent basis for strengthening TD by providing platforms for new or improved developments in pro- cesses or products. Reflection about these aspects provides perspectives for implementing technological forecasting (TF in pro- duction systems so that they obtain efficient and concrete results via deterministic methods as input in decision-making in techno- logy regarding its middle- and long-term competitiveness.

  11. The Effect of Various Weave Designs on Mechanical Behavior of Lamina Intraply Composite Made from Kenaf Fiber Yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The development of lamina intraply composite is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balance mechanical properties of polymer composite. This research will focuses on the effects of weave designs on the mechanical behavior of a single ply or also known as lamina intraply composite. The six (6) specimens of lamina intraply composites were made by kenaf fiber as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno and leno weave. The vacuum infusion technique was adopted due to advantages over hand lay-up. It was found that the plain, twill and satin weave exhibited better mechanical properties on tensile strength. The fiber content of the specimen was 40% and the result of the resin content of the specimen was 60% due to the higher permeability of natural fiber.

  12. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  13. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  14. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  15. Bending in laminas of NFPR: type of reinforcement, fracture and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtânia Antunes Leão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced plastics (NFRP have awakened considerable interest in the area of polymer composites, because of the need to develop new, environmentally friendly materials. One of the most complex ways of manufacturing this type of material is in the form of ultrathin laminar layers; however, this process hinders mechanical testing, mainly three and four-point bending. The present investigation faces this challenge and shows the influence of parameters, such as the grammage of reinforcing fabric and lamination process, on strength, stiffness and fracture characteristics for three-point bending in this type of structural element. The industrially manufactured laminas were composed of orthophthalic polyester resin reinforced with licuri fibers. Macromechanical and micromechanical analyses were conducted in the study of fracture characteristics for all the parameters. The mechanical behavior in the three-point bending of the laminar composite showed that the use of licuri fiber to obtain natural fiber-based plastic is completely viable.

  16. Computer aided identification of the Ficus L. species by the lamina shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Z. Gluhov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer aided plant species determination is the urgent task of the botanical science. Identification is often bases on the morphology of the lamina. It is promising to describe the leaf shapes through the harmonic values of elliptic Fourier decomposition, but the effectiveness of this approach requires further verification. Another task is a comparative evaluation of different classification algorithms. The work was conducted on the 2812 leaves images of the 15 Ficus L. species. To solve the described tasks the optimal set of the Fourier decomposition parameters was determined. The best results are achievable by using the classification with 18 Fourier harmonics. Number of reference points on the outline does not affect the result of the models. We compared an identification accuracy of the 30 classification algorithms. Random forest algorithm had the highest classification accuracy – 98%. Combining different prediction algorithms by stacking improves the efficiency of the leaf shapes recognition.

  17. Changes in activity of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis in the annual cycle in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S; Dziubek, K; Lach, H

    1978-01-01

    In 70 sexually mature male and femal Rana temporaria frogs captured in natural habitat, mean nuclear volumes for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the organon vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) were determined in seven characteristic stages in life. The mean nuclear volume for the cells of the pars ependymalis and pars parenchymalis of the OVLT showed distinct annual fluctuation. Maximum nuclear volume of the cells in both investigated parts of the OVLT were observed during the breeding period (Ist decade of April), and minimum volume of the nuclei of the pars ependymalis at the beginning of hibernation (IIIrd decade of October), and in the pars parenchymalis near the end of active life (Ist decade of September).

  18. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  20. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  1. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  2. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  4. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  5. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  6. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  7. The nuclear lamina promotes telomere aggregation and centromere peripheral localization during senescence of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, Vered; Vermolen, Bart J.; Garini, Yuval; Onderwater, Jos J.M.; Mommaas-Kienhuis, Mieke A.; Koster, Abraham J.; Young, Ian T.; Tanke, Hans; Dirks, Roeland W.

    2008-01-01

    Ex vivo, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) undergo spontaneous cellular senescence after a limited number of cell divisions. Intranuclear structures of the nuclear lamina were formed in senescent hMSCs, which are identified by the presence of Hayflick-senescence-associated factors. Notably, spati

  8. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  9. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P

    1996-01-01

    Polyclonal, mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD4+ T cells containing a large fraction of blasts activated in situ accumulate in the gut lamina propria of severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developing colitis after CD4+ T cell transplantation. CD4+ T cells isolated from different repopulated...

  10. Do Twin Boundaries Always Strengthen Metal Nanowires?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yongfeng; Huang Hanchen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology—that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowire...

  11. Morphological characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn lamina I neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2007-09-20

    Many Rexed's lamina I neurons are nociceptive and project to the brain. Lamina I projection neurons can be classified as multipolar, fusiform, or pyramidal, based on cell body shape and characteristics of their proximal dendrites in the horizontal plane. There is also evidence that both multipolar and fusiform cells are nociceptive and pyramidal neurons nonnociceptive. In this investigation we identified which types of lamina I neurons belong to the spinoparabrachial tract in the rat and characterized them regarding the presence or absence of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) immunoreactivity. For this, cholera toxin subunit B (CTb), conjugated to a fluorescent marker was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Sections were additionally stained for the detection of NK-1r immunoreactivity and were examined using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Serial confocal optical sections and 3D reconstructions were obtained for a considerable number of neurons per animal. Using immunofluorescence, we assessed the proportion of lamina I neurons belonging to the spinoparabrachial (SPB) tract and/or expressing NK-1r. The relative distribution of neurons belonging to the SPB tract was: 38.7% multipolar, 36.8% fusiform, 22.7% pyramidal, and 1.9% unclassified. Most of the SPB neurons expressing NK-1r were either multipolar or fusiform. Pyramidal SPB neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r, an observation that provides further support to the concept that most lamina I projection neurons of the pyramidal type are nonnociceptive. In addition, our study provides further evidence that these distinct morphological types of neurons differ in their phenotypic properties, but not in their projection patterns.

  12. 27 CFR 28.66 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonds. In all cases where the penal sum of any bond becomes insufficient, the principal shall either give a strengthening bond with the same surety to attain a sufficient penal sum, or give a new bond to... of any bond to less than its full penal sum. Strengthening bonds shall show the current date...

  13. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  14. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  15. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  16. Tagged Chromosomal Insertion Site System: A Method to Study Lamina-Associated Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Jennifer C; Reddy, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is important for chromatin regulation. This organization is nonrandom and appears to be tightly correlated with or regulated by chromatin state and scaffolding proteins. To understand how specific DNA and chromatin elements contribute to the functional organization of the genome, we developed a new tool-the tagged chromosomal insertion site (TCIS) system-to identify and study minimal DNA sequences that drive nuclear compartmentalization and applied this system to specifically study the role of cis elements in targeting DNA to the nuclear lamina. The TCIS system allows Cre-recombinase-mediated site-directed integration of any DNA fragment into a locus tagged with lacO arrays, thus enabling both functional molecular studies and positional analysis of the altered locus. This system can be used to study the minimal DNA sequences that target the nuclear periphery (or other nuclear compartments), allowing researchers to understand how genome-wide results obtained, for example, by DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, chromosome conformation capture (HiC), or related methods, connect to the actual organization of DNA and chromosomes at the single-cell level. Finally, TCIS allows one to test roles for specific proteins in chromatin reorganization and to determine how changes in nuclear environment affect chromatin state and gene regulation at a single locus.

  17. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  18. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S.

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  19. Disruption of neocortical lamina V neuronal bursts by serotonin in urethane anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M J; Mridha, K A

    1989-03-01

    Time-shared high speed cyclic voltametry using carbon fibre multibarrelled microelectrodes was used to monitor the concentration of 5-Hydroxytryptamine administered by iontophoresis to locations in lamina V of Sm l neocortex and to record spontaneous neuronal spike activity. In the absence of 5-Hydroxytryptamine at any one recording location the firing of two or more individual units was seen to be synchronized so that the pattern of multi-unit activity consisted of synchronized clusters of spike activity interspersed with period of neuronal silence. The repetition rate of such clusters of neuronal activity was seen to be between 0.5 and 4Hz. Maximum concentrations of 2.7 x 10(-7) M 5-Hydroxytryptamine produced by iontophoresis disrupted synchronized neuronal cluster activity. 5-Hydroxytryptamine at a concentration of 6.2 x 10(-8) M resulted in a greater than 50% inhibition of activity for 47 single units but a change in firing pattern from cluster restricted high frequency activity to a continuous mode of firing for a separate population of 11 units. Intraperitoneal administration of P-Chloroamphetamine produced similar changes of neuronal firing and hence loss of synchrony.

  20. Anterior Displacement of Lamina Cribrosa during Valsalva Maneuver in Young Healthy Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate lamina cribrosa (LC displacement during the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.Forty-eight eyes of 48 young healthy volunteers (age range: 20-34 years underwent intraocular pressure (IOP measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as Cirrus HD-OCT scans before and during the Valsalva maneuver. The optic nerve head (ONH parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, rim area, disc area, average C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio, cup volume, anterior LC depth (LCD, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, and neural canal opening diameter were measured on compensated OCT and compared during Valsalva challenge. The subjects were asked to take a five-minute break after each Valsalva maneuver.During the Valsalva maneuver, the IOP significantly increased, from 12.7 ± 3.0 mmHg to 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (P 0.05.The Valsalva maneuver induced anterior displacement of the LC, but did not alter the choroidal thickness or ONH morphology. The data describe the positional characteristics of the LC in response to the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes.

  1. Reproducibility of In-Vivo OCT Measured Three-Dimensional Human Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    Full Text Available PurposeTo determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D lamina cribrosa (LC microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT.MethodsThirty-nine eyes (8 healthy, 19 glaucoma suspects and 12 glaucoma from 49 subjects were scanned twice using swept-source (SS− OCT in a 3.5×3.5×3.64 mm (400×400×896 pixels volume centered on the optic nerve head, with the focus readjusted after each scan. The LC was automatically segmented and analyzed for microarchitectural parameters, including pore diameter, pore diameter standard deviation (SD, pore aspect ratio, pore area, beam thickness, beam thickness SD, and beam thickness to pore diameter ratio. Reproducibility of the parameters was assessed by computing the imprecision of the parameters between the scans.ResultsThe automated segmentation demonstrated excellent reproducibility. All LC microarchitecture parameters had an imprecision of less or equal to 4.2%. There was little variability in imprecision with respect to diagnostic category, although the method tends to show higher imprecision amongst healthy subjects.ConclusionThe proposed automated segmentation of the LC demonstrated high reproducibility for 3D LC parameters. This segmentation analysis tool will be useful for in-vivo studies of the LC.

  2. Application of Elliptic Fourier analysis to describe the lamina cribrosa shape with age and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, P G; Grimm, J L; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K L; Sigal, I A

    2014-11-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47-91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mmHg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric center of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using Elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC 1), or inversely (PC 2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC 3). Only PC 3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth.

  3. The Role of Endolithic Cyanobacteria in the Formation of Lithified Laminae in Bahamian Stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prufert-Bebout, L.; Macintyre, I.; Reid, R. P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microboring activity of endolithic cyanobacteria plays a major role in the formation of lithified laminae in modern marine stromatolites in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas. These stromatolites are composed primarily of fine grained carbonate sand that is trapped and bound by the filamentous cyanobacteria Schizothrix sp. Periodic introduction of coccoid endolithic cyanobacteria, Solentia sp., results in formation of lithified horizons, 200 to 1000 micron thick. We used SEM and petrographic analyses to examine both naturally occurring lithified layers dominated by endoliths and fused oolitic crusts generated in the laboratory by activity of endolithic cyanobacteria (Solentia sp.). Fused grain crusts consist of micritized grains that are welded together at point contacts. Micritization results from extensive microboring and rapid (days to weeks) carbonate precipitation within the bore holes. This precipitation appears to occur concurrently with further endolithic activity within the grain, Infilling of bore holes that cross from one grain to another at point contacts results in grain welding, Thus, while microboring destroys original grain textures, at the same time the endolith activity plays a constructional role in stromatolite growth by forming lithified layers of welded grains. These framework structures help to stabilize and preserve the stromatolite deposits.

  4. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells maintain T cell homeostasis but do not affect commensalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Nathan E; Staley, Christopher; Ghilardi, Nico; Sadowsky, Michael J; Igyártó, Botond Z; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2013-09-23

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are composed of two CD103(+) subsets that differ in CD11b expression. We report here that Langerin is expressed by human LP DCs and that transgenic human langerin drives expression in CD103(+)CD11b(+) LP DCs in mice. This subset was ablated in huLangerin-DTA mice, resulting in reduced LP Th17 cells without affecting Th1 or T reg cells. Notably, cognate DC-T cell interactions were not required for Th17 development, as this response was intact in huLangerin-Cre I-Aβ(fl/fl) mice. In contrast, responses to intestinal infection or flagellin administration were unaffected by the absence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs. huLangerin-DTA x BatF3(-/-) mice lacked both CD103(+) LP DC subsets, resulting in defective gut homing and fewer LP T reg cells. Despite these defects in LP DCs and resident T cells, we did not observe alterations of intestinal microbial communities. Thus, CD103(+) LP DC subsets control T cell homeostasis through both nonredundant and overlapping mechanisms.

  5. The Effect of Lamina Intraply Hybrid Composites on the Tensile Properties of Various Weave Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Nirmal, U.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The topic of natural fiber is one of the most active areas in thermoset composite research today. This paper will focuses on the effect of weave designs on the mechanical behaviour of lamina intraply hybrid composites. Twelve specimens were used and they were made of kenaf fibre and glass fibre as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno, and leno weave. Vacuum infusion technique was used due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up. The specimens were produced in two types which were kenaf fibre in warp direction interlace with glass fibre in weft direction (WK-WG) and glass fibre in warp direction interlace with kenaf fibre in weft direction (WG-WK). Various weave designs were found to affect the tensile properties. Glass fibre in warp direction has a greater effect on tensile strength compared to kenaf fibre in warp direction. Mock leno weave exhibited better mechanical properties for WK-WG and WG-WK, about 54.74 MPa and 99.46 MPa respectively.

  6. TLR5 mediates CD172α(+) intestinal lamina propria dendritic cell induction of Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Feidi; Wu, Wei; Cao, Anthony T; Xue, Xiaochang; Yao, Suxia; Evans-Marin, Heather L; Li, Yan-Qing; Cong, Yingzi

    2016-02-24

    Multiple mechanisms exist in regulation of host responses to massive challenges from microbiota to maintain immune homeostasis in the intestines. Among these is the enriched Th17 cells in the intestines, which regulates intestinal homeostasis through induction of antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA among others. However, the means by which Th17 cells develop in response to microbiota is still not completely understood. Although both TLR5 and CD172α(+) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDC) have been shown to promote Th17 cell development, it is still unclear whether TLR5 mediates the CD172α(+)LPDC induction of Th17 cells. By using a microbiota antigen-specific T cell reporter mouse system, we demonstrated that microbiota antigen-specific T cells developed into Th17 cells in the intestinal LP, but not in the spleen when transferred into TCRβxδ(-/-) mice. LPDCs expressed high levels of TLR5, and most CD172α(+)LPDCs also co-expressed TLR5. LPDCs produced high levels of IL-23, IL-6 and TGFβ when stimulated with commensal flagellin and promoted Th17 cell development when cultured with full-length CBir1 flagellin but not CBir1 peptide. Wild-type CD172α(+), but not CD172α(-), LPDCs induced Th17 cells, whereas TLR5-deficient LPDC did not induce Th17 cells. Our data thereby demonstrated that TLR5 mediates CD172α(+)LPDC induction of Th17 cells in the intestines.

  7. Intestinal lamina propria dendritic cells maintain T cell homeostasis but do not affect commensalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Nathan E.; Staley, Christopher; Ghilardi, Nico; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Igyártó, Botond Z.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are composed of two CD103+ subsets that differ in CD11b expression. We report here that Langerin is expressed by human LP DCs and that transgenic human langerin drives expression in CD103+CD11b+ LP DCs in mice. This subset was ablated in huLangerin-DTA mice, resulting in reduced LP Th17 cells without affecting Th1 or T reg cells. Notably, cognate DC–T cell interactions were not required for Th17 development, as this response was intact in huLangerin-Cre I-Aβfl/fl mice. In contrast, responses to intestinal infection or flagellin administration were unaffected by the absence of CD103+CD11b+ DCs. huLangerin-DTA x BatF3−/− mice lacked both CD103+ LP DC subsets, resulting in defective gut homing and fewer LP T reg cells. Despite these defects in LP DCs and resident T cells, we did not observe alterations of intestinal microbial communities. Thus, CD103+ LP DC subsets control T cell homeostasis through both nonredundant and overlapping mechanisms. PMID:24019552

  8. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  9. [A Role of the Basal Ganglia in Processing of Complex Sounds and Auditory Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkis, I G

    2015-01-01

    A hypothetical mechanism is suggested for processing of complex sounds and auditory attention in parallel neuronal loops including various auditory cortical areas connected with parts of the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus and basal ganglia. Release of dopamine in the striatum promotes bidirectional modulation of strong and weak inputs from the neocortex to striatal neurons giving rise to direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia. Subsequent synergistic disinhibition of one and inhibition of other groups of thalamic neurons by the basal ganglia result in the creation of contrasted neuronal representations of properties of auditory stimuli in related cortical areas. Contrasting is strengthened due to a simultaneous disinhibition of pedunculopontine nucleus and action at muscarine receptors on neurons in the medial geniculate body. It follows from this mechanism that involuntary attention to sound tone can enhance an early component of the responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortical area (50 msec) in the absence of dopamine due to a disinhibition of thalamic neurons via the direct pathway through the basal ganglia, whereas voluntary attention to complex sounds can enhance only those components of responses of neurones in secondary auditory cortical areas which latencies exceeds latencies of dopaminergic cells (i.e. after 100 msec). Various consequences of proposed mechanism are in agreement with known experimental data.

  10. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  11. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  12. Peritoneal elastic lamina invasion: limitations in its use as a prognostic marker in stage II colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Andrea; Messenger, David E; Cook, Megan; O'Connor, Brenda I; Hafezi, Sara; El-Zimaity, Hala; Kirsch, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) is an adverse prognostic feature, which may prompt consideration of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II disease. Controversies and challenges surrounding its assessment have led to consideration of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) as an alternative marker of advanced local spread. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the prognostic significance of peritoneal ELI in stage II CRC and (2) to determine the feasibility of ELI assessment in routine practice with the use of an elastic stain. Two hundred seventeen patients with stage II CRC (186, pT3; 31, pT4) were assessed for ELI and other established adverse histologic features. Of the pT3 tumors, 31 (16.7%) were ELI positive, 121 (65%) were ELI negative, and 34 (18.3%) lacked an identifiable elastic lamina. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival between pT3 ELI-negative and ELI-positive tumors (P = .517). The disease-free survival of pT4 tumors was significantly lower than that of pT3 ELI-negative tumors (P = .024) and pT3 ELI-positive tumors (P = .026), respectively. The elastic lamina was detected less frequently in right-sided pT3 tumors compared with left-sided tumors (65/91 [71.4%] versus 87/95 [91.6%], P ELI was not an adverse prognostic factor in this study. The frequent absence of an identifiable elastic lamina, particularly in right-sided tumors, may limit the use of ELI as a prognostic marker in CRC.

  13. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  14. Decreased Lamina Cribrosa Beam Thickness and Pore Diameter Relative to Distance From the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Lucy, Katie A.; Schuman, Joel S.; Sigal, Ian A.; Richard A Bilonick; Kagemann, Larry; Kostanyan, Tigran; Lu, Chen; Liu, Jonathan; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Fujimoto, James G.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the lamina cribrosa (LC) microstructure changes with distance from the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT), and to determine how this change differs in glaucoma. Methods: One hundred nineteen eyes (40 healthy, 29 glaucoma suspect, and 50 glaucoma) of 105 subjects were imaged using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The CRVT was manually delineated at the level of the anterior LC surface. A line was fit to the distribution of LC microstructural par...

  15. 3D Evaluation of the Lamina Cribrosa with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal Tension Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuko Omodaka; Takaaki Horii; Seri Takahashi; Tsutomu Kikawa; Akiko Matsumoto; Yukihiro Shiga; Kazuichi Maruyama; Tetsuya Yuasa; Masahiro Akiba; Toru Nakazawa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although the lamina cribrosa (LC) is the primary site of axonal damage in glaucoma, adequate methods to image and measure it are currently lacking. Here, we describe a noninvasive, in vivo method of evaluating the LC, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), and determine this method’s ability to quantify LC thickness. Methods This study comprised 54 eyes, including normal (n = 18), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG; n = 18), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG; n = 18) eye...

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  17. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  18. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  19. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  20. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared with non......-activated CD4+ T cells. In pulse-chase experiments it was shown that BrdU-labeled cells disappeared rapidly from the lamina propria of diseased mice. DNA analysis revealed that this was due to the presence of nearly four times as many apoptotic CD4+ T cells in diseased than in control mice. Further analyses...

  1. De novo expression of neurokinin-1 receptors by spinoparabrachial lamina I pyramidal neurons following a peripheral nerve lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Abeer W; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn is a major site of integration and transmission to higher centers of nociceptive information from the periphery. One important primary afferent population that transmits such information to the spinal cord expresses substance P (SP). These fibers terminate in contact with lamina I projection neurons that express the SP receptor, also known as the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r). Three types of lamina I projection neurons have been described: multipolar, fusiform, and pyramidal. Most neurons of the first two types are thought to be nociceptive and express the NK-1r, whereas most pyramidal neurons are nonnociceptive and do not express the NK-1r. In this immunocytochemical and behavioral study, we induced a neuropathic pain-like condition in the rat by means of a polyethylene cuff placed around in the sciatic nerve. We document that this lesion led to a de novo expression of NK-1r on pyramidal neurons as well as a significant increase in SP-immunoreactive innervation onto these neurons. These phenotypic changes were evident at the time of onset of neuropathic pain-related behavior. Additionally, we show that, after a noxious stimulus (intradermal capsaicin injection), these NK-1r on pyramidal neurons were internalized, providing evidence that these neurons become responsive to peripheral noxious stimulation. We suggest that the changes following nerve lesion in the phenotype and innervation pattern of pyramidal neurons are of significance for neuropathic pain and/or limb temperature regulation.

  2. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  3. Annual laminae as measured using fluorescence in historic stalagmites from Baradla Cave, Aggtelek National Park, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beynen, P.; Ford, D.; Schwarcz, H.

    2012-04-01

    capture delayed fluorescence. Experiments determined that there was negligible phosphorescence, that results were reproducible and were not affected by the grain of the film. Images were imported into IP-LAB Spectrum for data retrieval. They displayed strong couplet development with repeated layers of high-low fluorescence. Assuming that each couplet represents one climatic year, Sample AGG-1 was 165 years in age when collected; i.e. it commenced growing in 1827 CE. The true base of Sample AGG-2 was destroyed in extraction; it yielded an age of 156 years. Both are in excellent agreement with the expected ages. Correlation of fluorescence intensity and derived laminae thickness between the two samples is also excellent when fitted with a three-year running mean to avoid misallocation of individual years. Interannual fluorescence intensity grew slightly between ~1830 and 1900 CE, then was stable until minor decline commenced after 1970. Annual calcite lamina generally range between 0.5 and 1.0 mm in thickness in AGG-1 after 1900 CE, slightly less before that time. Thicknesses in AGG-2 follow the same trend but are consistently 0.1 -0.2 mm thinner. There is little correlation with the matching mean temperature and precipitation records from a nearby meteorological station that began operating in 1962. Relationships with much lengthier meteorological records from Miskolc and Budapest are being investigated.

  4. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  5. A Study on the Structure of Human Optic Nerve Lamina Cribrosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiFu; MeiyuLi

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the mechanism of nerve fiber damage in glaucoma by studing the structure of hu-man optic nerve lamina cribrosa(LC)in different regions.Methods:15 human eyes of 10cases were stuided.The specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy,and numbers and areas of pores in LC were measured by electron image analysis system.Draw a frequency distribution map with each curve represents the tendency of pores distribution in a particular part.The proportion of the connective tissue in respective quadrant can also be calcu-lated.The specimens were also prepared for histological examination.Results:There are many pores of various magnitude and shapes on the surface of LC.There are significantly more large pores(≥3000μm2)in the superior and in-ferior than those in the nasal and temporal quadrants,especially in the peripheral regions,In terms of area,the percentages of connective tissue in the nasal and temporal quadrants are the highest.Collageous fibers,various in diameter,are arranged in bundles and tangentially around each pore.Conclusion:In normal persons,the percentage of large pores in the superior and inferior peripheral parts is the highest,the density of the connective tissue is the lowest.So,the force received by unit area of the superior and inferior parts is bigger than that of the nasal and temporal sides.therefore,it is susceptible to the impact of high intraocular pressure at the early stage and causing correspond-ing visual edfect.Our study may suggest the mechanism of optic nerve damage of glaucoma,Eye Science 1995;11:147-154.

  6. Relationship between corneal hysteresis and lamina cribrosa displacement after medical reduction of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Marta; Palacios-Pozo, Elena; Davo-Cabrera, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between the displacement of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue with corneal hysteresis (CH) using spectral-domain coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) with medical treatment. Methods Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma who were going to start with treatment were imaged by means of 12 cross-sectional scans of the optic nerve using enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT before and after 1 week of treatment. We used the ‘follow-up’ mode to make sure that all the measurements were performed in the same location. We also measured the CH using an Ocular Response Analyzer, and we related it to the magnitude of displacement of LC and prelaminar tissue and the thickness of both structures. Results There was a significant variation of LC thickness from 132.66±37.40 to 160.09±41.13 µm (p<0001). LC distance was significantly reduced from 258.53±145 µm before treatment to 239.86±135 µm after it. No significant changes were found in the thickness and movement of prelaminar tissue before and after treatment. The only factors related with LC displacement were CH (R2=0.48) and age (R2=0.42). Conclusions A significant increase in LC thickness and a reduction in the posterior displacement of LC but not in the prelaminar tissue were demonstrated after IOP reduction with medical treatment. The factors most related with LC displacement were age and CH. PMID:27474156

  7. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Makuch, Renata; Stefan, Joanna; Görlich, Alicja; Semik, Danuta; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or light/dark, LD) conditions the level of BRP increases two times, in the morning and in the evening. The same pattern of changes in the BRP level was detected in whole brain homogenates, thus indicating that the majority of synapses in the brain peaks twice during the day. However, these two peaks in BRP abundance, measured as the fluorescence intensity of immunolabeling, seem to be regulated differently. The peak in the morning is predominantly regulated by light and involves the transduction pathway in the retina photoreceptors. This peak is present neither in wild-type Canton-S flies in constant darkness (DD), nor in norpA(7) phototransduction mutant in LD. However, it also depends on the clock gene per, because it is abolished in the per(0) arrhythmic mutant. In turn, the peak of BRP in the evening is endogenously regulated by an input from the pacemaker located in the brain. This peak is present in Canton-S flies in DD, as well as in the norpA(7) mutant in LD, but is absent in per(01), tim,(01) and cry(01) mutants in LD. In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system.

  8. De novo expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor in spinal lamina I pyramidal neurons in polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarestani, L; Waters, S M; Krause, J E; Bennett, G J; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A

    2009-05-20

    Spinal lamina I (LI) neurons play a major role in the transmission and integration of pain-related information that is relayed to higher centers. Alterations in the excitability of these neurons influence chronic pain development, and expression of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1r) is thought to play a major role in such changes. Novel expression of NK-1r may underlie hyperexcitability in new populations of LI neurons. LI projection neurons can be classified morphologically into fusiform, pyramidal, and multipolar cells, differing in their functional properties, with the pyramidal type being nonnociceptive. In agreement with this, we have shown that spinoparabrachial pyramidal neurons seldom express NK-1r, in contrast with the other two cell types. In this study we investigated in the rat the long-term changes in NK-1r expression by spinoparabrachial LI neurons following the unilateral injection in the hindpaw plantar surface of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected unilaterally into the parabrachial nucleus. Our results revealed that, ipsilaterally, pyramidal neurons were seldom immunoreactive for NK-1r both in saline-injected and in CFA-injected rats, up to 10 days post-CFA. However, a considerable number of pyramidal cells were immunoreactive for NK-1r at 15, 21, and 30 days post-CFA. Our data raise the possibility -- which needs to be confirmed by electrophysiology -- that most LI projection neurons of the pyramidal type are likely nonnociceptive in naive animals but might become nociceptive following the development of arthritis.

  9. Do Twin Boundaries Always Strengthen Metal Nanowires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Huang, Hanchen

    2009-01-01

    It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology-that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowires are circular cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is high and the presence of twin boundaries lowers this stress; twin boundaries soften nanowires. In contrast, when nanowires are square cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is low, and a higher stress is required for dislocations to penetrate twin boundaries; they strengthen nanowires.

  10. Do Twin Boundaries Always Strengthen Metal Nanowires?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongfeng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been widely reported that twin boundaries strengthen nanowires regardless of their morphology—that is, the strength of nanowires goes up as twin spacing goes down. This article shows that twin boundaries do not always strengthen nanowires. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, the authors show that whether twin boundaries strengthen nanowires depends on the necessary stress for dislocation nucleation, which in turn depends on surface morphologies. When nanowires are circular cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is high and the presence of twin boundaries lowers this stress; twin boundaries soften nanowires. In contrast, when nanowires are square cylindrical, the necessary stress of dislocation nucleation is low, and a higher stress is required for dislocations to penetrate twin boundaries; they strengthen nanowires.

  11. 78 FR 38053 - Regulatory Systems Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... supply chain; risk assessment, analysis, and management; and emergency response. WHO helps to strengthen... in the world within increasingly complex supply chains. As national and global health programs work...; laboratory capacity; inspection and surveillance of products throughout the supply chain;...

  12. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more f...

  13. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p positive (61......PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...

  14. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  15. Collateral projections of neurons in laminae I, III, and IV of rat spinal cord to thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, and lateral parabrachial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khater, Khulood M; Todd, Andrew J

    2009-08-20

    Projection neurons in lamina I, together with those in laminae III-IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r), form a major route through which nociceptive information reaches the brain. Axons of these cells innervate various targets, including thalamus, periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and lateral parabrachial area (LPb), and many cells project to more than one target. The aims of this study were to quantify projections from cervical enlargement to PAG and LPb, to determine the proportion of spinothalamic neurons at lumbar and cervical levels that were labelled from PAG and LPb, and to investigate morphological differences between projection populations. The C7 segment contained fewer lamina I spinoparabrachial cells than L4, but a similar number of spino-PAG cells. Virtually all spinothalamic lamina I neurons at both levels were labelled from LPb and between one-third and one-half from PAG. This suggests that significant numbers project to all three targets. Spinothalamic lamina I neurons differed from those labelled only from LPb in that they were generally larger, were more often multipolar, and (in cervical enlargement) had stronger NK1r immunoreactivity. Most lamina III/IV NK1r cells at both levels projected to LPb, but few were labelled from PAG. The great majority of these cells in C7 and over one-fourth of those in L4 were spinothalamic, and at each level some projected to both thalamus and LPb. These results confirm that neurons in these laminae have extensive collateral projections and suggest that different neuronal subpopulations in lamina I have characteristic patterns of supraspinal projection.

  16. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  17. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  18. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  19. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  20. Neurotrophin and Trk expression by cells of the human lamina cribrosa following oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Abbot F

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischemia within the optic nerve head (ONH may contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC loss in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Ischemia has been reported to increase neurotrophin and high affinity Trk receptor expression by CNS neurons and glial cells. We have previously demonstrated neurotrophin and Trk expression within the lamina cribrosa (LC region of the ONH. To determine if ischemia alters neurotrophin and Trk protein expression in cells from the human LC, cultured LC cells and ONH astrocytes were exposed to 48 hours of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Also cells were exposed to 48 hours of OGD followed by 24 hours of recovery in normal growth conditions. Cell number, neurotrophin and Trk receptor protein expression, neurotrophin secretion, and Trk receptor activation were examined. Results Cell number was estimated using an assay for cell metabolism following 24, 48 and 72 hours of OGD. A statistically significant decrease in LC and ONH astrocyte cell number did not occur until 72 hours of OGD, therefore cellular protein and conditioned media were collected at 48 hours OGD. Protein expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 by LC cells and ONH astrocytes increased following OGD, as did NGF secretion. Recovery from OGD increased BDNF protein expression in LC cells. In ONH astrocytes, recovery from OGD increased NGF protein expression, and decreased BDNF secretion. Trk A expression and activation in LC cells was increased following OGD while expression and activation of all other Trk receptors was decreased. A similar increase in Trk A expression and activation was observed in ONH astrocytes following recovery from OGD. Conclusions In vitro conditions that mimic ischemia increase the expression and secretion of neurotrophins by cells from the ONH. Increased Trk A expression and activation in LC cells following OGD and in ONH astrocytes following recovery from OGD suggest autocrine/paracrine neurotrophin signaling could be a

  1. Lamina cribrosa defects and optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma with high myopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugo Kimura

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether lamina cribrosa (LC defects are associated with optic disc morphology in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG eyes with high myopia. METHODS: A total of 129 POAG patients and 55 age-matched control subjects with high myopia were evaluated. Three-dimensional scan images obtained by swept source optical coherence tomography were used to detect LC defects. Radial B-scans and infrared images obtained by spectral domain optical coherence tomography were used to measure β-peripapillary atrophy (PPA lengths with and without Bruch's membrane (BM (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior, tilt angle (vertical and horizontal, and disc diameter (transverse and longitudinal. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitations (PICCs, disc area, ovality index, and cyclotorsion of the optic disc were analyzed as well. RESULTS: LC defects were found in 70 of 129 (54.2% POAG eyes and 1 of 55 (1.8% control eyes (P < 0.001. Age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness were not significantly different among POAG eyes with LC defects, POAG eyes without LC defects, and control eyes. Temporal PPA lengths without BM in all three groups correlated significantly with vertical and horizontal tilt angles, although no PPA length with BM correlated significantly with any tilt angle. PICCs were detected more frequently in POAG eyes with LC defects than those without LC defects (P = 0.01 and control eyes (P = 0.02. POAG eyes with LC defects showed a smaller ovality index (P = 0.004, longer temporal PPA without BM (P < 0.001, and larger vertical/horizontal tilt angles (vertical, P < 0.001; horizontal, P = 0.01, and transverse diameter (P = 0.01. In multivariate analysis for the presence of LC defects, presence of POAG (P < 0.001 and vertical tilt angle (P < 0.001 were identified as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LC defects was associated with myopic optic disc morphology in POAG eyes with high

  2. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FRP STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhishen WU(吴智深); Hedong Niu

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly gives a State-of-the-Art report of recent development in FRP strengthening techniques for structural rehabilitation by starting with a brief review on some achievements in clarifying bonding/debonding mechanisms and developing evaluation/design methodology for predicting debonding failure caused by intermedioate flexural cracks of con crete.Due to some drawbacks of current FRP bonding technique,two effective FRP strengthening methods,i.e.FRP prestressing and hybrid strengthening techniques,are investigated in detail to make full advantage of FRP composite materials.Combining with the newly develiped PBO fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,a more effective prestressing method is established as compared with carbon fiber sheets,where several anchorage treatments are also established to prevent anchorage bond failure due to high shear stress concentration after release of prestressed FRP ends.In addition,the fatigue performance of RC beams externally strenghened with prestressed PBO fiber sheets is experimentally studied.For the developments of hybrid composites and their strengthening methods,both experimental and analytical studies are performed to clarify the hybrid strengthening behavior in structures.

  3. Smart Textiles for Strengthening of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Marcin; Krzywoń, Rafał; Dawczyński, Szymon; Szojda, Leszek; Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Araujo, Pedro; Velez, Fernando Jose; Castro-Gomes, Joao

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents results of mechanical tests on a prototype of an innovative structural strengthening in form of self-monitoring fabric. Smart textile employs carbon fibers conductivity for measuring strains while monitoring changes of electric resistance under increasing load. A general solution was tested in a series of calibrating tests on strengthening of small size concrete slabs. Promising results of simple specimen, has encouraged the research team to perform the next tests using mastered carbon fibre reinforced fabric. Main tests were performed on natural scale RC beam. Smart textile proved its efficiency in both: strengthening and monitoring of strains during load increase. New strengthening proposal was given 10% increase of loading capacity and the readings of strain changes were similar to those obtained in classical methods. In order to calibrate the prototype and to define range limits of solution usability, textile sensor was tested in areas of large deformations (timber beam) and aswell as very small strains (bridge bearing block). In both cases, the prototype demonstrated excellent performance in the range of importance for structural engineering. This paper also presents an example of use of the smart strengthening in situ, in a real life conditions.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  5. NR2 subunits and NMDA receptors on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons of the mouse dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDermott Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NMDA receptors expressed by spinal cord neurons in the superficial dorsal horn are involved in the development of chronic pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury. The superficial dorsal horn has a complex and still poorly understood circuitry that is mainly populated by inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Little is known about how NMDA receptor subunit composition, and therefore pharmacology and voltage dependence, varies with neuronal cell type. NMDA receptors are typically composed of two NR1 subunits and two of four NR2 subunits, NR2A-2D. We took advantage of the differences in Mg2+ sensitivity of the NMDA receptor subtypes together with subtype preferring antagonists to identify the NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors expressed on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. To distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, we used transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the GAD67 promoter. Results Analysis of conductance ratio and selective antagonists showed that lamina II GABAergic interneurons express both the NR2A/B containing Mg2+ sensitive receptors and the NR2C/D containing NMDA receptors with less Mg2+ sensitivity. In contrast, excitatory lamina II interneurons express primarily NR2A/B containing receptors. Despite this clear difference in NMDA receptor subunit expression in the two neuronal populations, focally stimulated synaptic input is mediated exclusively by NR2A and 2B containing receptors in both neuronal populations. Conclusions Stronger expression of NMDA receptors with NR2C/D subunits by inhibitory interneurons compared to excitatory interneurons may provide a mechanism to selectively increase activity of inhibitory neurons during intense excitatory drive that can provide inhibitory feedback.

  6. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  7. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Omodaka, Kazuko; Takahashi, Seri; Matsumoto, Akiko; Maekawa, Shigeto; Kikawa, Tsutomu; Himori, Noriko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC), as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon). Methods This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint dist...

  8. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  9. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  10. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  11. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  12. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  13. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altman, Douglas G.; le Cessie, Saskia; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies...

  14. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  15. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  16. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more favorable results than a stretching/modality program. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-eight adults with lateral epicondylosis of greater than 4 weeks’ duration were randomized to an eccentric strengthening group or a stretching group. Exercises were taught by a physical therapist, and participants performed most of the exercises on their own at home. Pain scores with visual analog scale from 0 to 100 were obtained at baseline and then at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the start of the exercise program. Results: Both groups improved their pain scores from baseline to the 4-week time point, followed by nonsignificant further decreases in pain scores thereafter. No statistically significant differences were found between the eccentric strengthening group and stretching groups at any follow-up time point. Conclusions: Despite previous reports documenting favorable results with eccentric exercises for other tendinopathy, the authors were unable to show any statistical advantage to eccentric exercises for lateral epicondylosis during these periods compared with local modalities and stretching exercises. PMID:23016049

  17. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  18. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    , there is no reason why this framework could not be extended to the Baltic states.36 A NORBALDEFCO would not only cement the prominent role of Sweden and Finland within NATO as premier partners, it would also formally continue the work begun with Baltic independ- ence after the Cold War, and furthermore strengthen...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  19. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  20. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  1. Methods to Monitor DNA Repair Defects and Genomic Instability in the Context of a Disrupted Nuclear Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Susana; Kreienkamp, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome within the nuclear space is viewed as an additional level of regulation of genome function, as well as a means to ensure genome integrity. Structural proteins associated with the nuclear envelope, in particular lamins (A- and B-type) and lamin-associated proteins, play an important role in genome organization. Interestingly, there is a whole body of evidence that links disruptions of the nuclear lamina with DNA repair defects and genomic instability. Here, we describe a few standard techniques that have been successfully utilized to identify mechanisms behind DNA repair defects and genomic instability in cells with an altered nuclear lamina. In particular, we describe protocols to monitor changes in the expression of DNA repair factors (Western blot) and their recruitment to sites of DNA damage (immunofluorescence); kinetics of DNA double-strand break repair after ionizing radiation (neutral comet assays); frequency of chromosomal aberrations (FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization); and alterations in telomere homeostasis (Quantitative-FISH). These techniques have allowed us to shed some light onto molecular mechanisms by which alterations in A-type lamins induce genomic instability, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of aging and aging-related diseases. PMID:27147057

  2. Transformation of the output of spinal lamina I neurons after nerve injury and microglia stimulation underlying neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Michael W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinhibition of neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn, via microglia – neuron signaling leading to disruption of chloride homeostasis, is a potential cellular substrate for neuropathic pain. But, a central unresolved question is whether this disinhibition can transform the activity and responses of spinal nociceptive output neurons to account for the symptoms of neuropathic pain. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury, local spinal administration of ATP-stimulated microglia or pharmacological disruption of chloride transport change the phenotype of spinal lamina I output neurons, causing them to 1 increase the gain of nociceptive responsiveness, 2 relay innocuous mechanical input and 3 generate spontaneous bursts of activity. The changes in the electrophysiological phenotype of lamina I neurons may account for three principal components of neuropathic pain: hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and spontaneous pain, respectively. Conclusion The transformation of discharge activity and sensory specificity provides an aberrant signal in a primarily nociceptive ascending pathway that may serve as a basis for the symptoms of neuropathic pain.

  3. Nuclear envelope proteins Nesprin2 and LaminA regulate proliferation and apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in response to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Wang, Lu; Yao, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang; Shen, Bao-Rong; Cheng, Binbin; Wang, Yingxiao; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Qi, Ying-Xin

    2015-05-01

    The dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) influenced by flow shear stress is crucial for vascular remodeling. However, the roles of nuclear envelope (NE) proteins in shear stress-induced EC dysfunction are still unknown. Our results indicated that, compared with normal shear stress (NSS), low shear stress (LowSS) suppressed the expression of two types of NE proteins, Nesprin2 and LaminA, and increased the proliferation and apoptosis of ECs. Targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gene overexpression plasmid transfection revealed that Nesprin2 and LaminA participate in the regulation of EC proliferation and apoptosis. A protein/DNA array was further used to detect the activation of transcription factors in ECs following transfection with target siRNAs and overexpression plasmids. The regulation of AP-2 and TFIID mediated by Nesprin2 and the activation of Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6 by LaminA were verified under shear stress. Furthermore, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software and real-time RT-PCR, the effects of Nesprin2 or LaminA on the downstream target genes of AP-2, TFIID, and Stat-1, Stat-3, Stat-5 and Stat-6, respectively, were investigated under LowSS. Our study has revealed that NE proteins are novel mechano-sensitive molecules in ECs. LowSS suppresses the expression of Nesprin2 and LaminA, which may subsequently modulate the activation of important transcription factors and eventually lead to EC dysfunction.

  4. Oxytocin-induced antinociception in the spinal cord is mediated by a subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons in lamina I-II which amplify GABAergic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlichter Rémy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT, secreted in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn by descending axons of paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN neurons, produces antinociception and analgesia. The spinal mechanism of OT is, however, still unclear and requires further investigation. We have used patch clamp recording of lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices and immunocytochemistry in order to identify PVN-activated neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and attempted to determine how this neuronal population may lead to OT-mediated antinociception. Results We show that OT released during PVN stimulation specifically activates a subpopulation of lamina II glutamatergic interneurons which are localized in the most superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-II. This OT-specific stimulation of glutamatergic neurons allows the recruitment of all GABAergic interneurons in lamina II which produces a generalized elevation of local inhibition, a phenomenon which might explain the reduction of incoming Aδ and C primary afferent-mediated sensory messages. Conclusion Our results obtained in lamina II of the spinal cord provide the first clear evidence of a specific local neuronal network that is activated by OT release to induce antinociception. This OT-specific pathway might represent a novel and interesting therapeutic target for the management of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  5. Monosynaptic convergence of somatic and visceral C-fiber afferents on projection and local circuit neurons in lamina I: a substrate for referred pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Liliana L; Fernandes, Elisabete C; Sivado, Miklos; Kokai, Eva; Szucs, Peter; Safronov, Boris V

    2015-10-01

    Referred pain is a phenomenon of feeling pain at a site other than the site of the painful stimulus origin. It arises from a pathological mixing of nociceptive processing pathways for visceral and somatic inputs. Despite numerous studies based on unit recordings from spinal and supraspinal neurons, the exact mechanism and site of this mixing within the central nervous system are not known. Here, we selectively recorded from lamina I neurons, using a visually guided patch-clamp technique, in thoracic spinal cord preparation with preserved intercostal (somatic) and splanchnic (visceral) nerves. We show that somatic and visceral C fibers converge monosynaptically onto a group of lamina I neurons, which includes both projection and local circuit neurons. Other groups of lamina I neurons received inputs from either somatic or visceral afferents. We have also identified a population of lamina I local circuit neurons showing overall inhibitory responses upon stimulation of both nerves. Thus, the present data allow us to draw two major conclusions. First, lamina I of the spinal cord is the first site in the central nervous system where somatic and visceral pathways directly converge onto individual projection and local circuit neurons. Second, the mechanism of somatovisceral convergence is complex and based on functional integration of monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory as well as inhibitory inputs in specific groups of neurons. This complex pattern of convergence provides a substrate for alterations in the balance between visceral and somatic inputs causing referred pain.

  6. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form. W

  7. Structural Assessment of Externally Strengthened Bridge Deck Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob; Meyer, Christian

    2006-03-01

    Deteriorated concrete bridge decks are strengthened with external bonding technique using either steel plate or various FRPs to enhance the decreased load carrying capacity and serviceability. But the failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials can be changed according to mechanical properties of strengthening materials or strengthening scheme as well as the strengthening amount. In this paper, strengthening effect of deck strengthened with carbon fiber sheets, glass fiber sheets or steel plates is compared. And the theoretical load carrying capacity are evaluated using yield line theory and punching shear model properly modified for the strengthened RC member. The panels strengthened with sheet type FRP materials failed more often in a ductile mode, indicating that the failure developed after the rebar yielded.

  8. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  9. Prioritization of interventions for strengthening architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Architectural heritage is continuously exposed to natural disasters, such as strong earthquakes and this highlights the importance of reducing their vulnerability. While it is not possible to simultaneously strengthen all architectural heritage structures due to the limited skilled labour and budget restrictions, different buildings may need different treatments due to differences in exposure to seismic hazard, relative importance and vulnerability. Therefore, there is a need for a decision making strategy to find optimized solutions to achieve the highest possible stability and benefits. The primary objective of this research is to develop a practical step-by-step decision making process for the planning and prioritization of interventions in architectural heritage structures based on the level of seismic hazard, vulnerability and condition assessment, available preservation and strengthening techniques, compatibility with conservation ethics, available budget and expected benefits in various time schedules. The proposed methodology, is shown by diagram and mathematical formulae, and is demonstrated through a case study example.

  10. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  11. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  12. 27 CFR 25.94 - Strengthening bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Requirement. When the penal sum of the brewer's bond (calculated as provided in § 25.93) in effect is not... strengthening bond in sufficient penal sum if the surety is the same as on the bond in effect. If the surety is... bond may not in any way release a former bond or limit a bond to less than the full penal sum. (c)...

  13. Strengthening an affiliation without a merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegwer, Laura Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Froedtert Health and the Medical College of Wisconsin have created a shared governance structure with joint committees focused on value, IT, marketing, strategic planning, and other areas. A new funds-flow model shifts a percentage of the health system's bottom line to the medical college to support physician recruitment,joint initiatives, academic programs, and a strategic reserve. The strengthened affiliation has enhanced the ability of the organizations to engage in accountable care and population health initiatives, among other benefits.

  14. Strengthening care of injured children globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Abantanga, Francis; Goosen, Jacques; Joshipura, Manjul; Juillard, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Part of the solution to the growing problem of child injury is to strengthen the care that injured children receive. This paper will point out the potential health gains to be made by doing this and will then review recent advances in the care of injured children in individual institutions and countries. It will discuss how these individual efforts have been aided by increased international attention to trauma care. Although there are no major, well-funded global programmes to improve trauma care, recent guidance documents developed by WHO and a broad network of collaborators have stimulated increased global attention to improving planning and resources for trauma care. This has in turn led to increased attention to strengthening trauma care capabilities in countries, including needs assessments and implementation of WHO recommendations in national policy. Most of these global efforts, however, have not yet specifically addressed children. Given the special needs of the injured child and the high burden of injury-related death and disability among children, clearly greater emphasis on childhood trauma care is needed. Trauma care needs assessments being conducted in a growing number of countries need to focus more on capabilities for care of injured children. Trauma care policy development needs to better encompass childhood trauma care. More broadly, the growing network of individuals and groups collaborating to strengthen trauma care globally needs to engage a broader range of stakeholders who will focus on and champion the improvement of care for injured children.

  15. A case of transient hypothermia after trans-lamina terminalis and third ventricle clipping of an extremely high-position basilar tip aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Hidaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the trans-lamina terminalis and trans-third ventricular approach are rare. The risk associated with this approach is unknown. After an unsuccessful endovascular surgery, we performed direct surgical clipping via the third ventricle on a 78-year-old woman presenting with an extremely high-positioned, ruptured basilar tip aneurysm. She experienced transient hypothermia for 5 days, and it was considered that this was due to hypothalamic dysfunction. It is necessary to recognize that there is the potential for hypothermia after surgery via the lamina terminalis and third ventricle, even though the mechanisms of hypothalamic thermoregulation are still unclear.

  16. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  17. Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR to determine whether lamina dura (LD and periodontal ligament (PDL space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16 and in posteriors with sagittal section (17. Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25 and sagittal section (21, while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors.

  18. Inactivation of retinoblastoma protein does not overcome the requirement for human cytomegalovirus UL97 in lamina disruption and nuclear egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, Natalia I; Kamil, Jeremy P; Wang, Depeng; Lin, Alison; Sharma, Mayuri; Ericsson, Maria; Pesola, Jean M; Golan, David E; Coen, Donald M

    2013-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes one conventional protein kinase, UL97. During infection, UL97 phosphorylates the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) on sites ordinarily phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), inactivating the ability of pRb to repress host genes required for cell cycle progression to S phase. UL97 is important for viral DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, but this function can be replaced by human papillomavirus type 16 E7, which targets pRb for degradation. However, viruses in which E7 replaces UL97 are still defective for virus production. UL97 is also required for efficient nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids, which is associated with disruption of the nuclear lamina during infection, and phosphorylation of lamin A/C on serine 22, which antagonizes lamin polymerization. We investigated whether inactivation of pRb might overcome the requirement of UL97 for these roles, as pRb inactivation induces CDK1, and CDK1 phosphorylates lamin A/C on serine 22. We found that lamin A/C serine 22 phosphorylation during HCMV infection correlated with expression of UL97 and was considerably delayed in UL97-null mutants, even when E7 was expressed. E7 failed to restore gaps in the nuclear lamina seen in wild-type but not UL97-null virus infections. In electron microscopy analyses, a UL97-null virus expressing E7 was as impaired as a UL97-null mutant in cytoplasmic accumulation of viral nucleocapsids. Our results demonstrate that pRb inactivation is insufficient to restore efficient viral nuclear egress of HCMV in the absence of UL97 and instead argue further for a direct role of UL97 in this stage of the infectious cycle.

  19. Aberrant activation of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Chieh Shih; Sen-Yung Hsieh; Yi-Yueh Hsieh; Tse-Chin Chen; Chien-Yu Yeh; Chun-Jung Lin; Deng-Yn Lin; Cheng-Tang Chiu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nuclear factor of activated T cell 2 (NFAT2), the major NFAT protein in peripheral T cells, in sustained T cell activation and intractable inflammation in human ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: We used two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, immunohistochemistry, double immunohistochemical staining, and confocal microscopy to inspect the expression of NFAT2 in 107, 15, 48 and 5 cases of UC, Crohn's disease (CD), non-specific colitis, and 5 healthy individuals, respectively.RESULTS: Up-regulation with profound nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 of lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) of colonic mucosa was found specifically in the affected colonic mucosa from patients with UC, as compared to CD or NC (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Nucleo-translocation/activation of NFAT2 primarily occurred in CD8+T, but was less prominent in CD4+ T cells or CD20+B cells. It was strongly associated with the disease activity, including endoscopic stage (t = 0.2145, P = 0.0281) and histologic grade (t = 0.4167, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: We disclose for the first time the nucleo-translocation/activatin of NFAT2 in lamina propria mononuclear cells in ulcerative colitis. Activation of NFAT2 was specific for ulcerative colitis and highly associated with disease activity. Since activation of NFAT2 is implicated in an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop of sustained T-cell activation and NFAT proteins play key roles in the calcium/calcineurin signaling pathways, our results not only provide new insights into the mechanism for sustained intractable inflammation, but also suggest the calcium-calcineurin/NFAT pathway as a new therapeutic target for ulcerative colitis.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  1. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  2. Anchoring FRP laminates for the seismic strengthening of RC columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadone, Raphaëlle; Quiertant, Marc; FERRIER, Emmanuel; Chataigner, Sylvain; Mercier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of seismic strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) columns by externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP). Particularly, a novel strengthening system, designed for the flexural strengthening of columns is studied. This flexural strengthening is achieved by FRP plates bonded longitudinally and anchored at the column-stub junction. The proposed system is validated through an experimental campaign carried out on full-scale RC columns. Different...

  3. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  4. Capacity strengthening for environmental assessment in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adohinzin, Junior Bloh Nignilo; Xu, Ling; Du, Jing; Yang, Fenglin

    2011-09-01

    For over three decades, environmental assessment (EA) has gained increasing international recognition as a means of ensuring sustainable development. In light of environmental challenges, Benin has endorsed the principle that a healthy environment is a human right. This concern is manifested by the creation of many institutions for managing environmental issues. But until today, environmental problems are still on the rise and getting worse day by day because of Benin's limited experience in the field of EA. If EA is to be perceived as an instrument of sustainable development, it is important to take into account the achievements and the needs of the country in this field; because we cannot respond properly and adequately in the field of capacity strengthening in EA without first be familiar with what exists, what is fact, and what is needed. In this study, we address and analyze the status of existing resources in the field of EA in Benin with the purpose of identifying the needs for capacity strengthening to enhance environmental assessment effectiveness in the country. The detailed presentation of the results shows that the legislative and institutional resources are available and represent a strong element in the system of environmental management in Benin. However, there is still a room for improvements towards environmental governance before it becomes a solid system of decision supporting all sectors of intervention because the effective application of those laws and texts still constitute big challenges. Below are the main reasons that explain the particular situation: majority of the laws are put in force very late or taken without implementing decree at all; the organizational capabilities have large gaps; the absence of a mechanism for evaluating the needs for strengthening capacity for EA. Recommendations pinpointed three types of needs which must be filled to enhance the effectiveness of EA in Benin: upstream needs of the structure of EA

  5. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  6. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  7. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health......Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...

  8. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  9. Computer simulation of concentrated solid solution strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. T. K.; Arsenault, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction forces between a straight edge dislocation moving through a three-dimensional block containing a random array of solute atoms were determined. The yield stress at 0 K was obtained by determining the average maximum solute-dislocation interaction force that is encountered by edge dislocation, and an expression relating the yield stress to the length of the dislocation and the solute concentration is provided. The magnitude of the solid solution strengthening due to solute atoms can be determined directly from the numerical results, provided the dislocation line length that moves as a unit is specified.

  10. The irre cell recognition module (IRM) protein Kirre is required to form the reciprocal synaptic network of L4 neurons in the Drosophila lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthy, Kevin; Ahrens, Birgit; Rawal, Shilpa; Lu, Zhiyuan; Tarnogorska, Dorota; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Each neuropil module, or cartridge, in the fly's lamina has a fixed complement of cells. Of five types of monopolar cell interneurons, only L4 has collaterals that invade neighboring cartridges. In the proximal lamina, these collaterals form reciprocal synapses with both the L2 of their own cartridge and the L4 collateral branches from two other neighboring cartridges. During synaptogenesis, L4 collaterals strongly express the cell adhesion protein Kirre, a member of the irre cell recognition module (IRM) group of proteins ( Fischbach et al., 2009 , J Neurogenet, 23, 48-67). The authors show by mutant analysis and gene knockdown techniques that L4 neurons develop their lamina collaterals in the absence of this cell adhesion protein. Using electron microscopy (EM), the authors demonstrate, however, that without Kirre protein these L4 collaterals selectively form fewer synapses. The collaterals of L4 neurons of various genotypes reconstructed from serial-section EM revealed that the number of postsynaptic sites was dramatically reduced in the absence of Kirre, almost eliminating any synaptic input to L4 neurons. A significant reduction of presynaptic sites was also detected in kirre(0) mutants and gene knockdown flies using RNA interference. L4 neuron reciprocal synapses are thus almost eliminated. A presynaptic marker, Brp-short(GFP) confirmed these data using confocal microscopy. This study reveals that removing Kirre protein specifically disrupts the functional L4 synaptic network in the Drosophila lamina.

  11. Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

  12. Health metrics and evaluation: strengthening the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Frenk, Julio

    2008-04-05

    With the growing importance of health in the global agenda comes the responsibility to develop a scientific foundation of metrics and evaluation. The scope of this emerging field can be viewed in terms of key topics, including health outcomes, other social outcomes related to health systems, health services, resource inputs, evaluations of programmes and systems, and analyses to support policy choice. It can also be defined in terms of key activities that are needed to strengthen the scientific basis of the field: development of new methods, instruments, software, and hardware; setting global norms and standards for data collection; increasing the availability of high-quality primary data; systematic analysis and synthesis of existing datasets; strengthening national capacity to obtain, analyse, and use data; and reporting and disseminating results. We explore in depth topics with major scientific challenges and institutional and cultural barriers that are slowing the development of the field. Cutting across the various topical areas and disciplinary approaches to these problems are some common scientific issues, including limited comparability of measurement, uncorrected known biases in data, no standard approach to missing data, unrealistic uncertainty estimates, and the use of disease models that have not been properly validated. Only through concerted action will it be possible to assure the production, reproduction, and use of knowledge that is crucial to the advancement of global health.

  13. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Giannangeli, Don (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Charlton, William S. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  14. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  15. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  16. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  17. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  18. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  19. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  20. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia from the Ischigualasto Formation (Triassic, Carnian and the early evolution of Sauropodomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo N Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The earliest dinosaurs are from the early Late Triassic (Carnian of South America. By the Carnian the main clades Saurischia and Ornithischia were already established, and the presence of the most primitive known sauropodomorph Saturnalia suggests also that Saurischia had already diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha. Knowledge of Carnian sauropodomorphs has been restricted to this single species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new small sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Ischigualsto Formation (Carnian in northwest Argentina, Panphagia protos gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of a partial skeleton. The genus and species are characterized by an anteroposteriorly elongated fossa on the base of the anteroventral process of the nasal; wide lateral flange on the quadrate with a large foramen; deep groove on the lateral surface of the lower jaw surrounded by prominent dorsal and ventral ridges; bifurcated posteroventral process of the dentary; long retroarticular process transversally wider than the articular area for the quadrate; oval scars on the lateral surface of the posterior border of the centra of cervical vertebrae; distinct prominences on the neural arc of the anterior cervical vertebra; distal end of the scapular blade nearly three times wider than the neck; scapular blade with an expanded posterodistal corner; and medial lamina of brevis fossa twice as wide as the iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We regard Panphagia as the most basal sauropodomorph, which shares the following apomorphies with Saturnalia and more derived sauropodomorphs: basally constricted crowns; lanceolate crowns; teeth of the anterior quarter of the dentary higher than the others; and short posterolateral flange of distal tibia. The presence of Panphagia at the base of the early Carnian Ischigualasto Formation suggests an earlier origin of Sauropodomorpha during the Middle Triassic.

  1. Can neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Halis, Fikret; Saglam, Hasan Salih; Gokce, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Recent studies have demonstrated the role of systemic inflammation in the development and progression of cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether preoperatively measured neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can predict lamina propria invasion in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Material and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 304 consecutive and newly diagnosed patients with bladder cancer who had been treated with transurethral resection between January 2008 and June 2014. In total, 271 patients were included in the study and the patients were divided into two groups according to the pathological stage (Group 1: Ta, Group 2: T1). NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (N) by the absolute lymphocyte count (L). Results In total, 271 patients (27 women and 244 men) were enrolled. Mean age was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (67.3±10.8 vs. 62.9±10.8, pblood cell (WBC) and N counts were statistically insignificant (7.63±1.87 vs. 7.69±1.93, p=0.780; 4.72±1.54 vs. 4.46±1.38, p=0.140; respectively), L was significantly lower and NLR was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (2.07±0.75 vs. 2.4±0.87, p=0.001; 2.62±1.5 vs. 2.19±1.62, p=0.029; respectively). Conclusion Our data indicate that high NLR and low L are statistically associated with T1 stage, whereas low L are able to predict lamina propria invasion in patients with NMIBC. These findings suggest that pretreatment measurement of NLR may provide valuable information for the clinical management of patients with NMIBC. Prospective studies are now required to further validate the role of NLR as a risk factor in NMIBC. PMID:28124528

  2. Study on WC dispersion-strengthened copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mengjun; ZHANG Liyong; LIU Xinyu

    2004-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) with WC as dispersoid was prepared by means of mechanical alloying (MA) following the traditional powder metallurgy (P/M) route. Influence of WC content on the properties of material was discussed in detail, and result shows that when the volume fraction of WC is 1.6%, the material achieves the best overall property, and a little more particle addition led to a less superior property owing to occurrence of particle agglomeration The as-sintered composite was designed to undergo a deformation of 75%. It is proved that appropriate deformation is helpful to attain a higher density and consequently better properties. Deformed material was then exposed to elevated temperature to test its effect on material. Annealing for 1 h at 1173K caused material to recover quite completely, but no obvious recrystallization was observed. It's supposed the particles handicaps motion of dislocations and material demonstrates good retention of strength with substantial improvement in elongation.

  3. Austenitic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Raman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials play an important role in the fast breeder reactors.  Materials used in cladding tube and fuel pins should have better creep and void swelling resistance. To overcome these difficulties, a new class of material known as oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS steels are used. There are two groups of ODS steels, the ferritic and the austenitic ODS steels based on the matrix. The present paper reviews the current status of research in austenitic ODS steels. The interaction of dislocations with finely dispersed incoherent, hard particles that governs the strength and high temperature properties of ODS materials is briefly reviewed. The synthesis route adopted for these ODS steels, which is mostly through powder metallurgy route is also discussed. The role of various oxides such as Y2O3, ZrO2and TiO2and the clusters formed in these ODS steels on the mechanical properties and void swelling characteristics is also discussed.

  4. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  5. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  6. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  7. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4(+)T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  8. Phase-Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography Measurements of the Intraocular Pressure-Induced Deformation of the Porcine Lamina Cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Geraldes, Diogo M; Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert; Reinhard, Christina; Campbell, Ian C; Raji, Yazdan; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-04-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a complex mesh-like tissue in the posterior eye. Its biomechanical environment is thought to play a major role in glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness. Due to its small size and relative inaccessibility, high-resolution measurements of LC deformation, important in characterizing LC biomechanics, are challenging. Here we present a novel noninvasive imaging method, which enables measurement of the three-dimensional deformation of the LC caused by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior segments of porcine eyes were imaged using synchrotron radiation phase contrast micro-computed tomography (PC μCT) at IOPs between 6 and 37 mmHg. The complex trabecular architecture of the LC was reconstructed with an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Scans acquired at different IOPs were analyzed with digital volume correlation (DVC) to compute full-field deformation within the LC. IOP elevation caused substantial tensile, shearing and compressive devformation within the LC, with maximum tensile strains at 30 mmHg averaging 5.5%, and compressive strains reaching 20%. We conclude that PC μCT provides a novel high-resolution method for imaging the LC, and when combined with DVC, allows for full-field 3D measurement of ex vivo LC biomechanics at high spatial resolution.

  9. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  10. Cardiac electrical defects in progeroid mice and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome patients with nuclear lamina alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Torres, José; Calvo, Conrado J.; Llach, Anna; Guzmán-Martínez, Gabriela; Caballero, Ricardo; González-Gómez, Cristina; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J.; Guadix, Juan A.; Osorio, Fernando G.; López-Otín, Carlos; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benítez, Raul; Gordon, Leslie B.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Tamargo, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Andrés, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disease caused by defective prelamin A processing, leading to nuclear lamina alterations, severe cardiovascular pathology, and premature death. Prelamin A alterations also occur in physiological aging. It remains unknown how defective prelamin A processing affects the cardiac rhythm. We show age-dependent cardiac repolarization abnormalities in HGPS patients that are also present in the Zmpste24−/− mouse model of HGPS. Challenge of Zmpste24−/− mice with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol did not trigger ventricular arrhythmia but caused bradycardia-related premature ventricular complexes and slow-rate polymorphic ventricular rhythms during recovery. Patch-clamping in Zmpste24−/− cardiomyocytes revealed prolonged calcium-transient duration and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading and release, consistent with the absence of isoproterenol-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Zmpste24−/− progeroid mice also developed severe fibrosis-unrelated bradycardia and PQ interval and QRS complex prolongation. These conduction defects were accompanied by overt mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Remarkably, Cx43 mislocalization was also evident in autopsied left ventricle tissue from HGPS patients, suggesting intercellular connectivity alterations at late stages of the disease. The similarities between HGPS patients and progeroid mice reported here strongly suggest that defective cardiac repolarization and cardiomyocyte connectivity are important abnormalities in the HGPS pathogenesis that increase the risk of arrhythmia and premature death. PMID:27799555

  11. Fine control of nuclear confinement identifies a threshold deformation leading to lamina rupture and induction of specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Maël; Aubertin, Johannes; Piel, Matthieu

    2012-11-01

    The quest to understand how the mechanical and geometrical environment of cells impacts their behavior and fate has been a major force driving the recent development of new technologies in cell biology research. Despite rapid advances in this field, many challenges remain in order to bridge the gap between the classical and simple cell culture plate and the biological reality of actual tissue. In tissues, cells have their physical space constrained by neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we propose a simple and versatile device to precisely and dynamically control this confinement parameter in cultured cells. We show that there is a precise threshold deformation above which the nuclear lamina breaks and reconstructs, whereas nuclear volume changes. We also show that different nuclear deformations correlate with the expression of specific sets of genes, including nuclear factors and classical mechanotransduction pathways. This versatile device thus enables the precise control of cell and nuclear deformation by confinement and the correlative study of the associated molecular events.

  12. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  13. Luster Polish Strengthening Treatment for Raceway Surface of Aeroengine Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Si-er; TENG Hong-fei; MA Fu-jian; HAO Jian-jun; CHEN Tao

    2007-01-01

    A new surface strengthening technology, luster polish strengthening treatnent, was proposed to treat the raceway surface of aeroengine bearings (9Cr18Mo) with the centrifugal strengthening machine exclusively designed for luster polish strengthening treatment. The experimental results showed that luster polish strengthening treatment produced a compressive residual stress layer with a depth of over 80 μm below the surface of the bearing raceway, and thus effectively removed the metamorphic layer in the raceway surface. After luster polish strengthening treatment, the average surface hardness of the aeroengine bearing raceway was increased from 61.02 HRC to 63.01 HRC, the surface roughness was reduced from 0.06 μm to 0.03 μm, and the contact fatigue life of the aeroengine bearings was improved by about 90%, with the dispersion of fatigue life being reduced remarkably.Theoretical calculation result agrees with that obtained by experiment.

  14. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  15. How to Strengthen Child Learners’Self-confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文敬

    2013-01-01

    Self-confidence is closely related to L2 learning. In order to make their learners enjoy English learning, English teach-ers need to strengthen the learners’English learning confidence. This article is to find out English teachers’role to strengthening learners’self-confidence in ELL by means of class observation. The writer concludes improving speaking ability; giving praise and offering gentle error correcting can help to strengthen the learners’confidence.

  16. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  17. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  18. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  19. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  20. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  1. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  2. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly t...

  3. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  4. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  5. China and ROK to Strengthen Cooperation in Environmental Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The environment ministers of China and the Republic of Korea have agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in tackling regional environmental problems while promoting the development ofrelevant industries.

  6. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  7. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  8. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  9. Strengthening Crypto-1 Cipher Against Algebraic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Afianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies addressed the problem of data security in Mifare Classic. One of its weaknesses is the low random number quality. This causes SAT solver attacks to have lower complexity. In order to strengthen Crypto-1 against SAT solver attacks, a modification of the feedback function with better cryptographic properties is proposed. It applies a primitive polynomial companion matrix. SAT solvers cannot directly attack the feedback shift register that uses the modified Boolean feedback function, the register has to be split into smaller groups. Experimental testing showed that the amount of memory and CPU time needed were highest when attacking the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the original filter function. In addition, another modified Crypto-1, using the modified feedback function and a modified filter function, had the lowest percentage of revealed variables. It can be concluded that the security strength and performance of the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the modified filter function are better than those of the original Crypto-1.

  10. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  11. Strengthening Self-efficacy through Supportive Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, gender and socio-economic backgrounds. As a community we need to strengthen our support of young scientists from all backgrounds to sustain their enthusiasm and ensure their success in our field. Investing in mentoring programs that empower students and young professionals is one of the best ways to do so. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program, now entering its 20th year, has successfully developed and tested several mentoring models. The personalized, caring and consistent support is one of the key elements of the program's success; since its inception, 90% of SOARS participants have entered graduate school, research or science related careers after graduation. Many of our alumni who are now faculty apply the same mentoring strategies to build self-esteem and perseverance in their students. This presentation will cover the design and implementation of our four mentoring strategies, and provide insights on potential challenges, training aspects and impact assessment. The mentoring strategies include: 1) Multi-faceted, long-term mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students from diverse backgrounds. 2) Empowering advanced students to serve as peer mentors and role models. 3) Training faculty and professional scientists from all backgrounds to become mentors who are aware of diversity issues. 4) Providing mentor training for partner programs and laboratories. All four strategies have contributed to the creation of a mentoring culture in the geosciences.

  12. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice.

  13. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  14. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  15. Silicon Strengthened CrAlVN Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang LI; Yue-xiu QIU; Bo LI; Dong-liang ZHAO; De-en SUN; De-hui LI

    2015-01-01

    CrAlVN coatings are of good intrinsic mechanical and tribological properties but lack of strength.Silicon can provide nitride coating high strength and excellent oxidation resistance.Logically,the combination of CrAlVN and Si should provide a good candidate for dry machining.The effect of silicon content on CrAlSiVN coating′s me-chanical,tribological properties and oxidation resistance was investigated.The coatings were deposited on cemented tungsten carbide and Si wafer (100)substrates in an in-line magnetron sputtering system.Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometer,scanning electron microscopy,atomic force microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,electron probe micro-analyzer,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were employed to charac-terize the microstructure and chemistry.Nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester were used in characterization of the mechanical and tribological properties.Incorporating with silicon,the CrAlVN coating was strengthened (hard-ness:21.2 GPa up to 38.7 GPa);even after 2 h exposure to 700 ℃ in air,the hardness still maintains at 11.0 GPa.

  16. Nanotwinned fcc metals: Strengthening versus softening mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukowski, A.; Albe, K.; Farkas, D.

    2010-12-01

    The strengthening effect of twins in nanocrystalline metals has been reported both in experiment and simulation. While twins are mostly considered as effective barriers to dislocation slip transfer, they can also provide nucleation sites for dislocations or migrate during the deformation process, thereby contributing to plasticity. By comparing twinned and nontwinned samples, we study the effect of twins on the deformation behavior of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd using atomistic simulations. While Cu shows hardening due to the presence of twins, Pd shows the opposite effect. A quantitative dislocation analysis method is applied, which allows to analyze dislocation interactions with twin planes and grain boundaries and to measure dislocation, stacking fault, and twin-boundary densities as functions of strain. A statistical analysis of the occurring dislocation types provides direct evidence for the role of twin boundaries as effective sources for twinning dislocations, which are the reason for the observed softening in some fcc materials. In addition, we discuss how the orientation of the loading direction with respect to the twin planes affects the response of nanotwinned Cu and Pd.

  17. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  18. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  19. Avaliação da Atividade Alimentar dos Invertebrados de Solo em Campos do Sul do Brasil – Bait-Lamina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Podgaiski

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The aim of this work is to inform about a pioneer bait-lamina test in the South Brazilian Campos to evaluate the soil invertebrates feeding activity which is an approaching to leaf litter decomposition rates in the ecosystems. The feeding activity was tested during two months, across 8 cm of soil depth and employing a comparison between two techniques of consumption quantification (conservative technique vs. practical technique in two different grassland areas (grazed and not grazed were described. One hundred independent sampling units (s.u. were established on each area, and in each s.u. two bait-lamina were inserted: one horizontally and another vertically. For each sampling date (9, 16, 22, 29 e 65 days of exposition, 20 s.u. were sorted and analyzed. We observed a high feeding activity from the beginning of the experiments, both in the surface and within the soil. Soil fauna feeding activity differed according to soil depth, being higher on the surface and for 6.5-8 cm deep in the soil. Both techniques lead to similar results when the two areas were compared. The grazed site showed lower invertebrate feeding activity than the site not grazed. These findings constitute a basis for future researches in Brazil, relating that the bait-lamina test can offer useful results around fifteen days of exposition.

  20. Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice

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    Yuanyuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina” on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice.

  1. Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Depth in Open-Angle Glaucoma: Relationship with the Position of the Central Retinal Vessel Trunk.

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    Baek-Lok Oh

    Full Text Available To determine the factors influencing the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC surface depth (LCD in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG, focusing on the association between LCD and the position of the central retinal vessel trunk (CRVT at the anterior LC surface.Optic nerve heads of 205 OAG eyes were scanned using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. After processing the images using adaptive compensation, the LCD was determined from 11 horizontal B-scan images that divided the optic disc vertically into 12 equal parts. Eyes were divided into two groups (central or peripheral according to where the CRVT exits from the anterior LC surface. The influence of CRVT position on LCD was evaluated, taking into account age, gender, untreated intraocular pressure (IOP, IOP at optic-disc scanning, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness, visual-field mean deviation, central corneal thickness, and axial length.Patients in the peripheral CRVT group were younger and more myopic, and had a larger mean LCD and thinner global RNFL than those in the central CRVT group (all P≤0.023. On multivariate analysis, the peripheral CRVT location was significantly associated with a larger LCD (P = 0.002, together with the significant association of younger age (P<0.001, higher untreated IOP (P = 0.010, and thinner RNFL (P = 0.003 on the larger LCD.In OAG, CRVT location was an independent factor influencing the LCD, together with age, untreated IOP, and global RNFL thickness. The data indicate that the CRVT may contribute to the resistance of the LC against deformation. A longitudinal prospective observation is required to clarify this relationship.

  2. The collagen fibril architecture in the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera predicted by a computational remodeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther; Jonas, Jost B

    2011-06-01

    The biomechanics of the optic nerve head is assumed to play an important role in ganglion cell loss in glaucoma. Organized collagen fibrils form complex networks that introduce strong anisotropic and nonlinear attributes into the constitutive response of the peripapillary sclera (PPS) and lamina cribrosa (LC) dominating the biomechanics of the optic nerve head. The recently presented computational remodeling approach (Grytz and Meschke in Biomech Model Mechanobiol 9:225-235, 2010) was used to predict the micro-architecture in the LC and PPS, and to investigate its impact on intraocular pressure-related deformations. The mechanical properties of the LC and PPS were derived from a microstructure-oriented constitutive model that included the stretch-dependent stiffening and the statistically distributed orientations of the collagen fibrils. Biomechanically induced adaptation of the local micro-architecture was captured by allowing collagen fibrils to be reoriented in response to the intraocular pressure-related loading conditions. In agreement with experimental observations, the remodeling algorithm predicted the existence of an annulus of fibrils around the scleral canal in the PPS, and a predominant radial orientation of fibrils in the periphery of the LC. The peripapillary annulus significantly reduced the intraocular pressure-related expansion of the scleral canal and shielded the LC from high tensile stresses. The radial oriented fibrils in the LC periphery reinforced the LC against transversal shear stresses and reduced LC bending deformations. The numerical approach presents a novel and reasonable biomechanical explanation of the spatial orientation of fibrillar collagen in the optic nerve head.

  3. Monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT): a high resolution radioautographic study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosler, O.; Descarries, L.

    1988-06-22

    The monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) was examined in the adult rat by light and electron microscope radioautography after intraventricular administration of tritiated serotonin (( 3H)5-HT) or dopamine (( 3H)DA). Radioautographic and biochemical controls after 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine or 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning established the respective serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine (CA) identities of the axonal varicosities labeled under the conditions of the present experiments. For descriptive purposes, the OVLT was subdivided in three parts: two parenchymal zones, one juxtaventricular, the other juxtavascular, and the vascular core. Almost 10% of all axonal varicosities in the OVLT were found to be labeled with (3H)5-HT. This 5-HT innervation was most prominent in the rostrocaudal and ventrodorsal portions of the juxtaventricular zone and the dorsal aspect of the juxtavascular zone; there was none in the vascular core. (3H)DA-labeled varicosities were much less abundant and yet more numerous than earlier histofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies would have predicted. They predominated in the juxtavascular zone, where a majority presumably had a dopamine (DA) rather than a noradrenaline identity. Some were also found in the vascular core, where they most likely corresponded to peripheral autonomic noradrenaline endings. In the juxtaventricular zone of the OVLT, a significant proportion of the (3H)5-HT-labeled varicosity profiles could be observed to form axodendritic synapses, but in the juxtavascular zone no 5-HT or any (3H)DA-labeled ones were ever seen in synaptic junction. In the juxtavascular zone, the 5-HT and the presumed DA endings established close relationships with neurosecretory axons, and with astrocytic or tanycytic processes on which they occasionally formed synaptoid contacts.

  4. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  5. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

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    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  6. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  7. Family Strengthening Research: FY2014. OPRE Report 2015-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report provides detailed summaries of major research investments by OPRE's Division of Family Strengthening (DFS) along with brief overviews of past projects. The featured projects cover topics that include strengthening relationships within families, supporting fatherhood, nurturing children through their families, reducing teen pregnancy,…

  8. Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling approa...

  9. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10...

  10. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  11. Joining of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels for Advanced Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B. W.; Brewer, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of structural materials capable of operation in the high temperatures, corrosive environments, and radiation damage spectra of future reactor designs remain one of the key pacing items for advanced reactor designs. The most promising candidate structural materials are vanadium-based refractory alloys, silicon carbide composites and oxide dispersion strengthened steels. Of these, oxide dispersion strengthened steels are a likely near-term candidate to meet required demands. This paper reviews different variants of oxide dispersion strengthened steels and discusses their capability with regard to high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and radiation damage resistance. Additionally, joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, which has been cited as a limiting factor preventing their use, is addressed and reviewed. Specifically, friction stir welding of these steels is reviewed as a promising joining method for oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  12. On-line tribochemical strengthening of gear surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that under favorable friction conditions some antiwear elements inlubricating additives can permeate into subsurface of metal which can strengthens the friction sur-faces and improves anti-wear capacity of frication pairs. It is in many ways similar to chemical heattreatment. A new concept, technology of on-line strengthening, was logically put forward. Based oncurrent gear surface treatment technology, the on-line strengthen of gear surface is proposed. Itsdesign method is established. Based on it, the on-line strengthen of gear is achieved on CL-100gear test machine. A new method is put forward for strengthen treatment of gear surface. Andthree kinds of surface film were suggested.

  13. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  14. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain can be applied and resolve such cases. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cryotherapy

  15. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

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    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  16. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  17. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ohara, Kazuo

    1983-07-01

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan.

  18. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina

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    Emmanuel Márquez-Legorreta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus, the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm, the suprageniculate nucleus (SG, and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA, and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin. The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the medial geniculate body, can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for parvalbumin, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin; indeed, in many calretinin-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided

  19. Focused examination of the intestinal lamina propria yields greater molecular insight into mechanisms underlying SIV induced immune dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gastrointestinal (GI tract is critical to AIDS pathogenesis as it is the primary site for viral transmission and a major site of viral replication and CD4(+ T cell destruction. Consequently GI disease, a major complication of HIV/SIV infection can facilitate translocation of lumenal bacterial products causing localized/systemic immune activation leading to AIDS progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying GI disease we analyzed global gene expression profiles sequentially in the intestine of the same animals prior to and at 21 and 90d post SIV infection (PI. More importantly we maximized information gathering by examining distinct mucosal components (intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes [LPL], epithelium and fibrovascular stroma separately. The use of sequential intestinal resections combined with focused examination of distinct mucosal compartments represents novel approaches not previously attempted. Here we report data pertaining to the LPL. A significant increase (±1.7-fold in immune defense/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, cell signaling, transcription and cell division/differentiation genes were observed at 21 and 90d PI. Genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway (IL21, IL12R, STAT5A, IL10, SOCS1 and T-cell activation (NFATc1, CDK6, Gelsolin, Moesin were notably upregulated at 21d PI. Markedly downregulated genes at 21d PI included IL17D/IL27 and IL28B/IFNγ3 (anti-HIV/viral, activation induced cytidine deaminase (B-cell function and approximately 57 genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation, a critical metabolic shift associated with T-cell activation. The 90d transcriptome revealed further augmentation of inflammation (CXCL11, chitinase-1, JNK3, immune activation (CD38, semaphorin7A, CD109, B-cell dysfunction (CD70, intestinal microbial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (NLRX1 genes

  20. 3D evaluation of the lamina cribrosa with swept-source optical coherence tomography in normal tension glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available Although the lamina cribrosa (LC is the primary site of axonal damage in glaucoma, adequate methods to image and measure it are currently lacking. Here, we describe a noninvasive, in vivo method of evaluating the LC, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and determine this method's ability to quantify LC thickness.This study comprised 54 eyes, including normal (n = 18, preperimetric glaucoma (PPG; n = 18, and normal tension glaucoma (NTG; n = 18 eyes. We used SS-OCT to obtain 3 x 3 mm cube scans of an area centered on the optic disc, and then synchronized reconstructed B- and en-face images from this data. We identified the LC in these B-scan images by marking the visible borders of the LC pores. We marked points on the anterior and posterior borders of the LC in 12 B-scan images in order to create a skeleton model of the LC. Finally, we used B-spline interpolation to form a 3D model of the LC, including only reliably measured scan areas. We calculated the average LC thickness (avgLCT in this model and used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to compare it with circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT.We found that the correlation coefficient of avgLCT and cpRNFLT was 0.64 (p < 0.01. The coefficient of variation for avgLCT was 5.1%. AvgLCT differed significantly in the groups (normal: 282.6 ± 20.6 μm, PPG: 261.4 ± 15.8 μm, NTG: 232.6 ± 33.3 μm. The normal, PPG and NTG groups did not significantly differ in age, sex, refractive error or intraocular pressure (IOP, although the normal and NTG groups differed significantly in cpRNFLT and Humphrey field analyzer measurements of mean deviation.Thus, our results indicate that the parameters of our newly developed method of measuring LC thickness with SS-OCT may provide useful and important data for glaucoma diagnosis and research.

  1. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  2. Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations.

  3. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  4. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  5. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  6. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  7. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H.; Afefy, Hamdy M.; Kassem, Nesreen M.; Fawzy, Tarek M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity. PMID:25685473

  8. 下颈椎椎板螺钉固定可行性解剖学研究%Anatomical study about the feasibility of cervical vertebral lamina screws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 付晓玲; 吴凯; 陈伟高; 吴庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of the lower cervical spine (C3 -C7 ) laminar screw technique for fixing adult posterior cervical spine .Methods We chose 9 formalin fixed moist adult cervical specimens ,which consist of male 6 and female 3 of the age 38 to 63 years old .The average age is 51 .9 years old and the average height is 165 .6 cm .Then we measured the thickness and heightof C3 -C7 lamina ,the lamina length of L1 ,L2 ,and the lamina of axis and the sagittal plane angle .Results The thickness and height of C3 -C7 lamina ,and the lamina length of L1 and L2 of adult male is bigger than adult women .There was statistical sig-nificance between the thickness ,height ,lamina length difference of different genders lamina (P 0 .05) .The average lamina thickness of C2 ,C3 ,C4 ,C5 ,C6 ,C7 were respectively 4 .70 ,3 .87 , 3 .30 ,3 .84 and 5 .16 mm .The lamina thickness which was more than 4 .00 mm accounted for 54 .4% .The lamina thickness of C3 , C4 ,C6 ,C7 which was more than 4 .00 mm accounted respectively for 77 .8% ,61 .1% ,33 .3% ,and 88 .9% .Conclusion Crossing laminar screws in cervical spine is feasible in anatomy .The operation can make under direct vision ,and can accurately estimate the screw path length and entry angle .Patients with anatomic abnormalities can be used as an alternative fixation technique or as fixed in the fixed mode fails .So the results can provide a reference for clinical application .%目的:探讨下颈椎(C3~C7)椎板螺钉技术用于成人后路颈椎内固定的可行性。方法取9具甲醛溶液固定湿润成人下颈椎标本,其中男6具,女3具,年龄38~63岁,平均51.9岁,平均身高165.6 cm。测量C3~C7椎板厚度(T)、高度(H)、椎板长度(L1、L2)以及椎板长轴和矢状面的夹角(A )。结果成年男性C3~C7椎板的 T、H、L1、L2较成年女性大,不同性别间的椎板 T、H、L1、L2比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05),同性

  9. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  10. Self-flowing mortar for ferrocement in strengthening applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir Sakir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferrocement technology is becoming more and more important nowadays for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete structures mainly due to its inherent strength properties. However, its labour intensive nature makes it undesirable for rapid strengthening works. In narrow spaces, strengthening with conventional ferrocement is very critical and also time consuming. Self-flowing mortar (SFM could be used with this technology to overcome these limitations. This article discusses the applicability of SFM in ferrocement technology. The aim of this study is to summarize available knowledge on SFM to make it feasible for optimization in different industrial applications.

  11. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  12. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  13. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  14. Strengthening masonry infill panels using engineered cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Fischer, Gregor; Nateghi Alahi, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive experimental study aims at investigating the behavior of masonry infill panels strengthened by fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC). The experimental program included testing of materials, masonry elements and panels. Material tests were carried out first f...

  15. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  16. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance linkage

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  19. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  20. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  1. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  2. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  3. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  4. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  5. Normal sexual dimorphism in the human basal ganglia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Everaerd, D.S.; Pol, C.; Franke, B.; Tendolkar, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Male and female brains differ in both structure and function. Investigating this sexual dimorphism in healthy subjects is an important first step to ultimately gain insight into sex-specific differences in behavior and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The basal ganglia are among the main regions

  6. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  7. Comparison of the Thickness of the Lamina Cribrosa and Vascular Factors in Early Normal-tension Glaucoma with Low and High Intraocular Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyoo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the thickness of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and vascular factors of early normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with high and low intraocular pressure (IOP) that are expected to be associated with the development of glaucoma. Methods Seventy-one Korean NTG patients with low IOP (the highest IOP 15 mmHg, 31 patients) were included in this study. The thickness of LC and vascular factors were compared. The thickness of the LC was measured using the enhanced depth imaging method...

  8. Modeling and characterization of strengthened concrete tension members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The structural potential for cracking of externally strengthened concrete tension members, can be predicted with three parameters, describing the structural cracking potential based on fracture mechanical properties of the of concrete and interface between concrete and strengthening medium....... With these parameters, it is possible to design reinforcement and obtain a required cracking behavior of a given structure. Design recommendations for single and multiple cracking of the tension specimen are given in terms of fracture mechanical parameters, and a structural stiffness parameter....

  9. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also included in this article.

  10. Subgrade strengthening of roads and railroads as planar geotextile reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Gradkowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The proper quality of construction of roads and railroads can be achieved by strengthening the of the foundation bed. Measurements and tests the number and order of the layers of geotextile layer of ground indicate the effectiveness of technical solutions involving the reinforcement laid horizontally. The offer technical use of the geotextile reinforcement in the ground layer substrates of roads indicates the possible effectiveness of the strengthening of the subsoil of roads and is also incl...

  11. The Strengthening of Cu-15Ni-8Sn Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hui; WANG Ming-pu; HONG Bin

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure, property and relation between them of Cu-15Ni-8Sn alloy are studied by means of TEM and the measurement of hardness. The results show that γ ' metastable phase strengthens alloy because of its ordering structure.The ordering structure includes two types of DO22 and L12 ordering. Their strengthening for the alloy is much stronger than that of spinodal decomposition.

  12. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  13. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  14. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  15. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangpin; Peng Furong

    2016-01-01

    Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues

  17. The Defective Nuclear Lamina in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome Disrupts the Nucleocytoplasmic Ran Gradient and Inhibits Nuclear Localization of Ubc9▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B.; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J.; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J.; Paschal, Bryce M.

    2011-01-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways. PMID:21670151

  18. Butia capitata (Mart. Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr. Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO F. SANT'ANNA-SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  19. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B

    2015-03-01

    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  20. Pengaruh Bentuk dan Perbedaan Kombinasi Pengikat Kayu Lamina Balau Kuning (Shorea leavis Ridl terhadap Tingkat MoE dan MoR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusita Wardhani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Forms and Different Combinations of the Extension of Lamina of Yellow Balau Wood (Shorea leavis Ridl on MOE and MOR Levels The research aimed to find out the mechanical strength of MoE and MoR of lamina woods with different forms and combinations of the extension. Balau wood (Shorea leavis Ridl was used as an experiment object. The research experiment was assigned based on Completely Randomized Design with two treatments and three replications. The treatments were: 4 extension types as A factor, and 4 extension fastener types as B factor. With combination of 4 x 4 x 3, the samples needed in total were 48. The Lamina’s MoE (Elasticity’s Modulus ranged from 6.866,971 kg/cm² to 17.296,556 kg/cm² and nd the MoR (Modulus of Rupture ranged from about 40,586 kg/cm² to 118,240 kg/cm².

  1. Proliferation of progeria cells is enhanced by lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) through expression of extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidak, Sandra; Kubben, Nard; Dechat, Thomas; Foisner, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) localizes throughout the nucleoplasm and interacts with the fraction of lamins A/C that is not associated with the peripheral nuclear lamina. The LAP2α-lamin A/C complex negatively affects cell proliferation. Lamins A/C are encoded by LMNA, a single heterozygous mutation of which causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). This mutation generates the lamin A variant progerin, which we show here leads to loss of LAP2α and nucleoplasmic lamins A/C, impaired proliferation, and down-regulation of extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly, contrary to wild-type cells, ectopic expression of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin restores proliferation and extracellular matrix expression but not the levels of nucleoplasmic lamins A/C. We conclude that, in addition to its cell cycle-inhibiting function with lamins A/C, LAP2α can also regulate extracellular matrix components independently of lamins A/C, which may help explain the proliferation-promoting function of LAP2α in cells expressing progerin.

  2. The defective nuclear lamina in Hutchinson-gilford progeria syndrome disrupts the nucleocytoplasmic Ran gradient and inhibits nuclear localization of Ubc9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Datta, Sutirtha; Snow, Chelsi J; Chatterjee, Mandovi; Ni, Li; Spencer, Adam; Yang, Chun-Song; Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Matunis, Michael J; Paschal, Bryce M

    2011-08-01

    The mutant form of lamin A responsible for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (termed progerin) acts as a dominant negative protein that changes the structure of the nuclear lamina. How the perturbation of the nuclear lamina in progeria is transduced into cellular changes is undefined. Using patient fibroblasts and a variety of cell-based assays, we determined that progerin expression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome inhibits the nucleocytoplasmic transport of several factors with key roles in nuclear function. We found that progerin reduces the nuclear/cytoplasmic concentration of the Ran GTPase and inhibits the nuclear localization of Ubc9, the sole E2 for SUMOylation, and of TPR, the nucleoporin that forms the basket on the nuclear side of the nuclear pore complex. Forcing the nuclear localization of Ubc9 in progerin-expressing cells rescues the Ran gradient and TPR import, indicating that these pathways are linked. Reducing nuclear SUMOylation decreases the nuclear mobility of the Ran nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 in vivo, and the addition of SUMO E1 and E2 promotes the dissociation of RCC1 and Ran from chromatin in vitro. Our data suggest that the cellular effects of progerin are transduced, at least in part, through reduced function of the Ran GTPase and SUMOylation pathways.

  3. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  4. 不同内衬袋对片烟醇化质量的影响%Effects of Different Lining Bag on Aging Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Lamina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩仁

    2009-01-01

    研究了不同包装材料对片烟醇化质量的影响.结果表明,加衬塑料袋的片烟外观质量和感官质量明显优于牛皮纸袋和不加内衬袋处理,加衬激光微孔塑料袋的处理片烟质量最好;加衬内衬袋片烟的还原糖含量明显高于不加内衬袋片烟;加衬牛皮纸袋的片烟烟碱含量最低.%The effects of different lining bags on aging quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina were studied. TheResults showed that the appearance quality and sensory quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with plastic lining bag were better than those in treatments with kraft bag and without lining bag. The quality of flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with laser microporous plastic bag was the best. The reducing sugar content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatments with lining bag was higher than that in treatments without lining bag. The nicotine content in flue-cured tobacco lamina in treatment with kraft bag was the lowest.

  5. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  6. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  8. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  9. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  10. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  11. Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2013-09-13

    Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans.

  12. Dynamic Strengthening During High Velocity Shear Experiments with Siliceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Chang, J. C.; Boneh, Y.; Chen, X.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is generally accepted that dynamic-weakening is essential for earthquake instability, and many experimental works have documented this weakening. Recent observations revealed also opposite trends of dynamic-strengthening in experiments (Reches & Lockner, 2010). We present here our experimental results of this dynamic-strengthening and discuss possible implications to earthquake behavior. We ran hundreds of experiments on experimental faults made of siliceous rock including granite, syenite, diorite, and quartzite. The experimental fault is comprised of two solid cylindrical blocks with a raised-ring contact of 7 cm diameter and 1 cm width. We recognized general, three regimes of strength-velocity relations: (I) Dynamic weakening (drop of 20-60% of static strength) as slip velocity increased from ~0.0003 m/s (lowest experimental velocity) to a critical velocity, Vc=0.008-0.16 m/s; (II) Abrupt transition to dynamic strengthening regime during which the fault strength almost regains its static strength; and (III) Quasi-constant strength with further possible drops as velocity approaches ~1 m/s. The critical velocity depends on the sample lithology: Vc is ~0.06 m/s for granite, ~0.008 m/s for syenite, ~0.01 m/s for diorite, and ~0.16 m/s for quartzite. The strengthening stage is associated with temperature increase, wear-rate increase, and the occurrence of intense, high frequency stick-slip events (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Sammis et al., (this meeting) attributed this strengthening to dehydration of the thin water layer that covers the gouge particles as the temperature increases. On the other hand, we note that tens of experiments with dolomite samples (non-siliceous), which were deformed under similar conditions, did not exhibit the velocity strengthening (unpublished). Based on the analyses by Andrews (2004, 2005), we speculate that velocity strengthening may bound the slip velocity. The numerical models of Andrews show that the slip velocity along a slip

  13. Strut Deformation in CFRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Panjehpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strut-and-tie model (STM method evolved as one of the most useful designs for shear critical structures and discontinuity regions (D-regions. It provides widespread applications in the design of deep beams as recommended by many codes. The estimation of bottle-shaped strut dimensions, as a main constituent of STM, is essential in design calculations. The application of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP as lightweight material with high tensile strength for strengthening D-regions is currently on the increase. However, the CFRP-strengthening of deep beam complicates the dimensions estimation of bottle-shaped strut. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the effect of CFRP-strengthening on the deformation of RC strut in the design of deep beams. Two groups of specimens comprising six unstrengthened and six CFRP-strengthened RC deep beams with the shear span to the effective depth ratios (a/d of 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00 were constructed in this research. These beams were tested under four-point bending configuration. The deformation of struts was experimentally evaluated using the values of strain along and perpendicular to the strut centreline. The evaluation was made by the comparisons between unstrengthened and CFRP-strengthened struts regarding the widening and shortening. The key variables were a/d ratio and applied load level.

  14. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  15. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  16. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxid...

  17. The proprioception and neuromuscular stability of the basal thumb joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mobargha, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The basal thumb joint, or the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is an enigmatic construction. The concavo-convex shape of the CMC1 and wide range of movement, allows for both precision and power grips and is particularly susceptible to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous theories regarding the development of CMC1 osteoarthritis have focused on the role of gender, excessive joint load and ligament laxity as causative factors. An emerging theory is the role o...

  18. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  19. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  20. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  1. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  2. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  3. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  4. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  5. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  6. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  7. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence.

  8. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented...... in this paper. The proposed strengthening technique aims at increasing the lateral strength of infilled RC frames and maintaining the integrity of masonry infills during loading, which is an important seismic parameter for these elements. Material tests were conducted first for ECC in order to assess its......, and the cumulative absorption capacity of the tested specimens. Furthermore, the obtained backbone curves are idealized and the drift limits usually considered in seismic design are specified. The obtained results indicate that the proposed ECC-strengthening technique can effectively increase the lateral strength...

  9. RC Columns Strengthened with Novel CFRP Systems: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Napoli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study undertaken to investigate the seismic behavior of full scale square (300 mm × 300 mm reinforced concrete (RC columns strengthened with novel systems employing carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP wraps. Experimental tests were carried out by subjecting specimens to a constant axial load and a cyclically reversed horizontal force applied in displacement control. Results have allowed for investigating the influence of the used strengthening systems on the specimens’ performance in terms of flexural strength and ductility as well as on the exhibited failure modes. The effectiveness of the studied techniques is also evaluated by comparing the performance of tested specimens with that of companion columns strengthened with alternative CFRP systems investigated in a previous experimental campaign.

  10. Experimental Study on CFRP Strengthened Cold Formed Channel Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Kalavagunta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel members usually display local-global buckling interaction which strongly effects the structural strength of columns. Through strengthening web of the members this buckling can be controlled to some extent. In this investigation, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP is used for strengthening cold formed steel channel member. This paper presents compression tests of cold-formed plain and CFRP strengthened steel channel section columns. This paper also proposes a design method based on Direct Strength Method provisions specified in American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI, for determining the axial compression strength. Results obtained from the proposed design method are compared with experimental test data and are found to be in good agreement.

  11. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zergua Abdesselam

    2015-02-01

    The failure of strengthened beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials is due to high stress concentration of FRP–concrete interface. Understanding the cause and mechanism of the debonding of the FRP plate and the prediction of the stress distribution at the concrete–FRP interface are important for more effective strengthening technique. This paper presents an analytical solution, based on Smith and Teng’s equations, for interfacial shear and normal stresses in reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plate. However, the shear stress–strain relationship is considered to be bilinear curve. The effects of the shear deformations are calculated in an RC beam, an adhesive layer, and an FRP plate. The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses.

  12. New Strengthening Techniques with FRP Laminates and Interfacial Fracture Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong YUAN; Zhishen WU

    2000-01-01

    The use of FRP composites in the form of sheet or plate bonded to the large-scale RC structures is becoming an increasing attractive solution to the strengthening of existing structures. Compared with traditional steel plate strengthening, FRP possesses excellent behavior such as lightness in weight, high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio, high corrosion and fatigue resistance, electronic neutrality, and great efficiency in construction. A important failure mode for FRP-strengthened structures is debondings.Therefore, the LEFM and NLFM are utilized to treat this problem. Closed form expressions for energy release rate, load-carrying capacity, load-displacement relation and interfacial crack propagation are obtained, in which a local shear stress-slip law with softening is adopted.

  13. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  14. Toughening and strengthening mechanism of zirconia-alumina multiphase ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, M.Q.; Fan, S.G. [Research Inst. of Synthetic Crystals, Beijing, BJ (China); Shen, Q.; Zhang, L.M. [Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China)

    2003-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of compositions on the mechanical properties of zirconia-alumina multiphase ceramics was studied. The results showed that with the variety of ZrO{sub 2} content, the change of bending strength and fracture toughness of the multiphase ceramics exhibited a saddle shape which could be divided into three zones: ZTA, ADZ, and Transition zone. The mechanism of toughening and strengthening in each zone was mainly analyzed, and it was found that stress-induced transformation toughening of ZrO{sub 2} and dispersion strengthening of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were the two main factors. (orig.)

  15. Application Analysis of Strengthened Story in Frame-Core Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yuan; CHEN Chuan-yao; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    Lateral deflection formulas are presented for analysis of the strengthened story applied to frame-core structures. For the frame-core structures with top outriggers and with middle outriggers, the relationship between stiffness characteristic parameters of frame and outriggers and the top drift of structures under different loads is analyzed. It is indicated that when stiffness characteristic parameter of frame is large, outrigger efficiency for top drift reduction is low, and the mutation of internal forces occurs; when the stiffness characteristic parameter of frame is less than 3, installing the strengthened story is advantageous to frame-core structures.

  16. Notch sensitivity of hydrogenated oxygen-strengthened titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasz, M. L.; Ko, C. C.; Brotzen, F. R.; Mclellan, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    While earlier studies have shown that the tensile properties and fracture test intensity factors of oxygen-strengthened Ti remain nearly unaffected by the presence of about 70 ppm (weight) hydrogen, the Charpy V-notch test-determined impact properties of oxygen-bearing Ti are strongly affected by the presence of hydrogen. The present study establishes that, concurrently with the strengthening effect of oxygen, there is a substantial lowering of ductility. The presence of hydrogen has virtually no effect on the notch strength of Ti alloys of either low or high oxygen content, where hydrogen contents lie in the 25-80 range.

  17. The use of autologous cervical laminae as bone graft in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in patients undergoing one-stage posteroanterior cervical surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XIONG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and radiographic outcomes of using autologous cervical laminae as bone graft in anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF in patients with one-stage posteroanterior surgery for cervical spinal stenosis (cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods From January 2010 to June 2013, 37 patients with cervical spinal stenosis underwent surgical treatment in our hospital. Fifteen of them underwent one-stage posteroanterior cervical surgery using autologous cervical laminae as bone graft in ACDF (group A, and 22 patients underwent one-stage posteroanterior procedure using autologous iliac bone as bone graft in ACDF (group B. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, fusion rate, VAS score, JOA score and height of intervertebral space were compared between the two groups. Results The operative time was 102.7±13.9 min in group A and 128.9±12.3 min in group B, showing significant difference between two groups (t=–6.031, P=0.00. The intraoperative blood loss was 170.3±25.7 ml in group A and 191.1±32.0 ml in group B, and also showing significant difference between them (t=–2.097, P=0.04. All the patients were followed up from 6 months to 42 months (mean, 17.4 months. At 6 months after the surgery, the fusion rate of bone graft was 94.4% (14/15 in group A and 100% (22/22 in group B, and no significant difference was found between two groups (χ2=1.507, P=0.220. The postoperative VAS score, JOA score and intervertebral height were significantly improved compared with those before surgery in both groups (P0.05. Conclusion In anterior cervical discectomy and fusion during one-stage posteroanterior cervical surgery, the use of autologous cervical laminae as bone graft is feasible. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.02.12

  18. The lamina papyracea bust fracture reduction under nasal endoscope HE%眶内壁爆裂骨折的鼻内镜下手术修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何峰云; 张会娟; 赵娜

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻内镜下眼眶内壁爆裂性骨折手术修复的方法及临床疗效。方法:对19例伴有眼球内陷、眼球运动障碍、复视等症状、眼眶CT扫描显示眶内壁击出性骨折的患者,在确定骨折程度及范围后,于局麻加强化麻醉下行鼻内镜下取Messcolinger入路行筛窦眶纸板骨折修复术,分析其疗效。结果:术后鼻内镜下随诊6~12月,所有患者愈后理想,均达到治愈标准,无明显眼球凹陷及复视。结论:鼻内镜下经筛窦入路行眶内壁爆裂骨折修复具有创伤小、疗效稳定、手术时间短而且面部不留疤痕等特点,是一种有效的手术方法。%Objective:To evaluate the methods and clinical efficacy of the lamina papyracea bust fracture reduction under nasal endoscope. Methods:Al 19 cases had enophthalmos, eye movement disorders,and diplopia. The orbital CT scan of these cases show the medial orbital wal blow-out fracture clearly. The degree and range of the lamina papyracea displacement was measured on CT films. The reduction under nasalendoscope was performed with local and topical anesthesia. We selected the Meeserklinger 's route of entry,and then analyze the efficacy.Result: With 6~12 moths fol ow up, al patients were cured. The endophthalmos and diplopia disappeared in al cases.Conclusion:The The lamina papyracea bust fracture reduction under nasal endoscope has many advantages such as trauma, efficacy and stability, shorter operative time and no facial scar.It is an effective surgical methods.

  19. [Biomechanical properties of the cribriform lamina in glaucoma-induced atrophy of the optic nerve and after decompression operations on the scleral canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovoĭ, E N; Shmyreva, V F; Kaĭdalov, A B

    2008-01-01

    The authors made a mathematical and clinical analysis of the cribriform lamina (CL) of the optic nerve and nerve fiber bundles passing through its foramens in glaucoma-induced optic neuropathy. It was shown that in elevated intraocular pressure, there was a significant CL deformity leading to the compression and deformity of nerve fibers. The important biomechanical characteristic of CL deformity is the tangent of the angle between the longitudinal axis of the scleral canal and the perpendicular to the CL surface. An increase in the inner radius of the scleral canal of the optic nerve due to its dissection at decompression surgery is one of the ways of diminishing CL flexure and nerve fiber deformity. A small increase in the scleral canal radius (by approximately 10%) was demonstrated to eliminate significant CL flexure.

  20. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naive T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  1. Israel,China to Strengthen Water Technology Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ To turn desert into oasis is the top priority of the water-poor Israel.The country has made miraculous achievements in turning arid land into fertile agricultural farmland.Now Israel hopes to strengthen cooperation with China in water resources and technology and jointly meet the global water challenge.

  2. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  3. Strategies to Strengthen Our Anti-Bias Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1998-01-01

    Shares examples of how child care center directors dealt with homosexual bias issues in their centers. Suggests the following four strategies when strengthening antibias practices: use inclusive language and images in parent and staff orientations; examine personnel policies; use staff and parent meetings to explore myths, fears, and conflicting…

  4. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Lezzi, Peter; Vargheese, K. Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Harris, Jason; Mauro, John

    2016-11-01

    Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  5. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  6. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  7. FRP Composites Strengthening of Concrete Columns under Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of some of the progress in the area of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-strengthening of columns for several loading scenarios including impact load. The addition of FRP materials to upgrade deficiencies or to strengthen structural components can save lives by preventing collapse, reduce the damage to infrastructure, and the need for their costly replacement. The retrofit with FRP materials with desirable properties provides an excellent replacement for traditional materials, such as steel jacket, to strengthen the reinforced concrete structural members. Existing studies have shown that the use of FRP materials restore or improve the column original design strength for possible axial, shear, or flexure and in some cases allow the structure to carry more load than it was designed for. The paper further concludes that there is a need for additional research for the columns under impact loading senarios. The compiled information prepares the ground work for further evaluation of FRP-strengthening of columns that are deficient in design or are in serious need for repair due to additional load or deterioration.

  8. Insights: The Right Way to Strengthen U.S. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stata, Ray

    1983-01-01

    Discusses issues and problems related to strengthening and maintaining United States leadership in high technology. Among the areas considered are industry/university cooperatives, graduate study, financial support, and state/federal government roles. Indicates that prospects for maintaining leadership are high provided issues related to human…

  9. ONE OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS TO STRENGTHENING THE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman URBAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to point out at the relation between security and its key vehicle that is humans themselves. It presents an option to strengthen security through purposeful education of peiple and their comprehensive training in peaceful settlement of conflicts.

  10. Practice and Cognition to Strengthen College Students' Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    College students' ideological morality always is the hotspot concerned by various circles of the society, and to strengthen and improve the ideological and moral education in colleges, continually enhance the pertinence and actual effect of the moral education, help college students to dissolve their worldly confusion in moral culture, further…

  11. Nested iterations and strengthened Cauchy-Bunyakowski-Schwarz inequalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Brandts; S. Korotov; M. Krizek

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is known that in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, the optimal constant in the strengthened Cauchy-Bunyakowski-Schwarz (CBS) inequality for the Laplacian for red-refined linear finite element spaces, takes values zero, $\\half\\sqrt{2}$ and $\\half\\sqrt{3}$, respectively. In this pap

  12. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  13. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  14. Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.

  15. Shear crack propagation in MBC strengthened concrete beams”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas; Carolin, Anders

    2008-01-01

    study of MBC systems. Emphasis is placed on the cracking behavior of the MBC system used for shear strengthening of RC beams. Traditional foil strain gauges and photometric measurements have been used for monitoring of the cracking behavior. In this study it is shown that the use of mineral based shear...

  16. Strengthening the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning via Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.; Poling, Devereaux A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, national policy experts have questioned the overall quality of educational research, and they have suggested that researchers strengthen their scientific methods by maximizing the use of experimental designs. To promote more rigorous methodology, we discuss several new and often-overlooked opportunities for incorporating…

  17. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco Martinez, Andrea

    This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...

  18. Fatigue behaviour analysis for the durability prequalification of strengthening mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.; Masera, D.

    2011-07-01

    An innovative laboratory procedure used as a preliminary design stage for the pre-qualification of strengthening mortars applied to historical masonry buildings is described. In the analysis of the behaviour of masonry structures and their constituent materials, increasing importance has been assumed by the study of the long-term evolution of deformation and mechanical characteristics, which may be affected by both loading and environmental conditions. Through static and fatigue tests on mixed specimens historical brick-reinforced mortar it has been possible to investigate the durability of strengthening materials, in order to select, from a range of alternatives, the most suitable for the historical masonry. Cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of the historical brick-strengthening mortar system under static long-time loading. This methodology has proved useful in avoiding the errors associated with materials that are not mechanically compatible and guarantees the durability of strengthening work. The experimental procedure has been used effectively in the biggest restoration building site in Europe, the Royal Palace of Venaria, and it is in progress of carrying out at the Special Natural Reserve of the Sacro Monte di Varallo, in Piedmont (Italy).

  19. Strengthening Foster Parent-Adolescent Relationships through Filial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care,…

  20. "Strengthening" Ontario Universities: A Neoliberal Reconstruction of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Bob; Kuchapski, Renée

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews neoliberalism as an ideology that has influenced higher education generally and Ontario higher education in particular. It includes a discourse analysis of "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge" (Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, 2012), a government discussion…

  1. Specific Suggestions to Strengthen Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the two decades ahead, China's development will face a period of important strategic opportunities. While coping with big power relations, China needs to be pluralistic in external relations and economic and trade relations. Therefore, strengthening relations with the developing countries and promoting South South cooperation is in China's interest and an essential link to ensure China's rise in the new century.

  2. Evaluative Thinking: Using Results-Oriented Reasoning to Strengthen Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Courtney L.; Lee, Janet S.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    In today's world, much of what used to be individual work has become collaborative. Moreover, complex change initiatives often require individuals within and across organizations to team up to set and achieve meaningful goals. The role of researchers and evaluators is to offer support that can be used to strengthen the work of organizations and…

  3. Conceptual Precalculus: Strengthening Students' Quantitative and Covariational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Bernard L.; Carlson, Marilyn; Oehrtman, Michael; Tallman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past few decades points to ways precalculus and calculus courses can be strengthened to improve student learning in these courses. This research has informed the development of the Algebra and Precalculus Concept Readiness (APCR) and the Calculus Concept Readiness (CCR) assessments. In this article, the authors present three…

  4. Development oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Froes, F.H.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Uniaxial tension creep response is reported for an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in weight percent) manufactured using the mechanical alloying process. Acceptable creep response is obtained at 900{degrees}C.

  5. Notch-strengthening in two-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Metallic foams show notch-strengthening behavior when analyzing double-edge notched specimen in compression and tension. A discrete microstructural model has been used to simulate the effect of notch depth and specimen size on the net-section-strength. The non-uniform deformation behavior is analyze

  6. Lamin A and lamin C form homodimers and coexist in higher complex forms both in the nucleoplasmic fraction and in the lamina of cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thorsten; Maass, Kendra; Hergt, Michaela; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated and quantified the nuclear A-type lamin pool from human HeLa S3 suspension cells with respect to their distribution to detergent soluble and insoluble fractions. We devised a sequential extraction protocol and found that maximally 10% of A-type lamins are recovered in the soluble fraction. Notably, lamin C is enriched in low detergent fractions and only with 0.5% Nonidet P-40 lamin A and C are recovered in ratios nearly equivalent to those found in whole cell extracts and in the lamina fraction. Authentic nucleoplasmic proteins such as LAP2a, pRB and p53 are co-extracted to a large part together with the A-type lamins in these fractions. By sucrose density centrifugation we revealed that the majority of lamins co-sedimented with human IgG indicating they form rather small complexes in the range of dimers and slightly larger complexes. Some lamin A - but not lamin C - is obtained in addition in a much faster sedimenting fraction. Authentic nuclear proteins such as PCNA, p53 and LAP2a were found both in the light and the heavy sucrose fractions together with lamin A. Last but not least, immunoprecipitation experiments from both soluble fractions and from RIPA lysates of whole cells revealed that lamin A and lamin C do not form heterodimers but segregate practically completely. Correspondingly, immunofluorescence microscopy of formaldehyde-fixed cells clearly demonstrated that lamin A and C are localized at least in part to distinct patches within the lamina. Hence, the structural segregation of lamin A and C is indeed retained in the nuclear envelope to some extent too.

  7. The trajectory of sensory pathways from the lamina terminalis to the insular and cingulate cortex: a neuroanatomical framework for the generation of thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jacob H; McKinley, Michael J; D'Souza, Moyra; Kampe, Juliane; Oldfield, Brian J

    2008-04-01

    The pathways involved in the emotional aspects of thirst, the arousal and affect associated with the generation of thirst and the motivation to obtain satiation, have been studied but remain poorly understood. Rats were therefore injected with the neurotropic virus pseudorabies in either the insular or cingulate cortex. After 2 days of infection, pseudorabies-positive neurons were identified within the thalamus and lamina terminalis. In a separate group of rats, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was used in combination with either isotonic (0.15 M NaCl) or hypertonic (0.8 M NaCl) saline (1 ml/100 g body wt ip). Rats injected with CTb in the insular cortex and stimulated with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the paraventricular, rhomboid, and reuniens thalamic nuclei, whereas those rats injected with CTb in the cingulate cortex and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the medial part of the mediodorsal, interanteromedial, anteromedial, and ventrolateral part of the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei. Rats injected with CTb in the dorsal midline of the thalamus and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus, and insular cortex but not the subfornical organ. A small proportion of the CTb-positive neurons in the OVLT were immunopositive for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a putative osmoresponsive membrane protein. These results identify functional thalamocortical pathways involved in relaying osmotic signals to the insular and cingulate cortex and may provide a neuroanatomical framework for the emotional aspects of thirst.

  8. Hydrogen bonding motifs, spectral characterization, theoretical computations and anticancer studies on chloride salt of 6-mercaptopurine: An assembly of corrugated lamina shows enhanced solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, S.; Athimoolam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2015-10-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (an anti cancer drug), is coming under the class II Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In order to enhance the solubility with retained physiochemical/pharmaceutical properties, the present work was attempted with its salt form. The single crystals of 6-mercaptopurinium chloride (6MPCl) were successfully grown by slow evaporation technique under ambient temperature. The X-ray diffraction study shows that the crystal packing is dominated by N-H⋯Cl classical hydrogen bonds leading to corrugated laminar network. The hydrogen bonds present in the lamina can be dismantled as three chain C21(6), C21(7) and C21(8) motifs running along ab-diagonal of the unit cell. These primary chain motifs are interlinked to each other forming ring R63(21) motifs. These chain and ring motifs are aggregated like a dendrimer structure leading to the above said corrugated lamina. This low dimensional molecular architecture differs from the ladder like arrays in pure drug though it possess lattice water molecule in lieu of the chloride anion in the present compound. Geometrical optimizations of 6MPCl were done by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP function with two different basis sets. The optimized molecular geometries and computed vibrational spectra are compared with their experimental counterparts. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to interpret hyperconjugative interaction and Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT). The chemical hardness, electronegativity, chemical potential and electrophilicity index of 6MPCl were found along with the HOMO-LUMO plot. The lower band gap value obtained from the Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) analysis reiterates the pharmaceutical activity of the compound. The anticancer studies show that 6MPCl retains its activity against human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Hence, this anticancer efficacy and improved solubility demands 6MPCl towards the further pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Hollow Steel Columns Strengthening by CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykha A.H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for strengthening and retrofitting is well known and extensive research is progressing in this field. The reasons for strengthening and retrofitting are numerous: increased loads, changes in use, deterioration, and so on. In recent years, the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP for strengthening has shown to be a competitive method, both regarding structural performance, and economical aspects. Extensive research has been carried out in this field. However, most of the research has been undertaken on concrete structures and for confinement, flexural, and shear strengthening. Limited research has been carried out on steel structures strengthened with CFRP. This paper presents axially loaded steel columns strengthened for increased load. The topic is studied theoretically and through laboratory tests. The theory covers analytical methods. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers has been used to strengthen the columns. The tests have been undertaken on full scale specimens, non-strengthened for reference, partially strengthened and fully strengthened

  10. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  11. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  12. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  13. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  14. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  15. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  16. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  17. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  18. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Mihaila D.; Foia L; Solovan C

    2013-01-01

    Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in ...

  19. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  20. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  1. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  2. Basal autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Marcela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Martínez, Gonzalo J; Chiong, Mario; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-08-31

    Doxorubicin (Doxo) is one of the most effective anti-neoplastic agents but its cardiotoxicity has been an important clinical limitation. The major mechanism of Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity is associated to its oxidative capacity. However, other processes are also involved with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity but to date it is not clear how Doxo alters that process and its consequence on cardiomyocytes viability. Here we investigated the effect of Doxo 1uM for 24h of stimulation on cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We showed that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy. This inhibition is due to both Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation and Beclin 1 level decrease. To assess the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death, we evaluated the effects 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (BafA), siRNA Beclin 1 (siBeclin 1) and rapamycin (Rapa) on cell viability. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA, BafA and siBeclin 1 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release but, when autophagy was induced by Rapa, Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death was decreased. These results suggest that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy and contributes to cardiomyocyte death. Activation of autophagy could be used as a strategy to protect the heart against Doxo toxicity.

  3. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  4. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  5. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  6. Carcinogenesis of basal cell carcinomas: genetics and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J P

    2002-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer in humans. Like squamous cell carcinomas, they are also believed to be ultraviolet (UV)-induced, but several data suggest that some differences might exist in the mechanisms of their UV induction. The originating cells may arise from interfollicular basal cells, hair follicles or sebaceous glands, thus from a deeper zone than the SCC ones, which probably means exposure to different doses or wavelengths of UV. The p53 gene and the patched gene (PTCH) are major targets of UV for BCC induction. Mutations in p53 are present in about 56% of human BCC, even small early lesions. The "UV signature" is observed in 65% of them. Mutations in the PTCH play also a major role in BCC development, being responsible for hereditary BCCs in Gorlin's syndrome, sporadic BCC, and BCCs isolated from xeroderma pigmentosum, although with a lower incidence of "UV signature". Smoothened-activating mutations and PTCH2 mutations are also involved in BCC formation. Transgenic mice overexpressing Smoothened or Sonic hedgehog in the skin spontaneously produce skin lesions resembling human BCCs, but contrary to findings in the hairless albino mouse and with SCC, no data on experimental UV induction of BCCs are available.

  7. Treatment of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by various embryological deformities and carcinoma formation. It is caused by PTCHI gene mutations and is autosomal dominantly inherited. Some of the main symptoms of NBCCS are multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the mandible, hyperkeratosis of the palmar and plantar, skeletal deformity, calcification of the falx cerebri, and facial defomity. Recurrent KCOT is the main symptom of NBCCS and is present in approximately 90% of patients. In NBCCS, KCOTs typically occur in multiples. KCOTs can be detected in patients under the age of 10, and new and recurring cysts develop until approximately the age of 30. The postoperation recurrence rate is approximately 60%. This case report presents a 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a cyst found in the maxilla and mandible. The patient was diagnosed with NBCCS, and following treatment of marsupialization and enucleation, the clinical results were satisfactory. PMID:27847737

  8. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  10. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  11. CD4+ T regulatory cells from the colonic lamina propria of normal mice inhibit proliferation of enterobacteria-reactive, disease-inducing Th1-cells from scid mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, M; Brimnes, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2003-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into scid mice leads to a chronic colitis in the recipients. The transferred CD4+ T cells accumulate in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), express an activated Th1 phenotype and proliferate vigorously when exposed ex vivo to enteric bacterial antigens. As LP CD4...

  12. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive t

  13. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  14. A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Valvo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.

  15. How to strengthen customer loyalty, using customer segmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELNIC Elena Lidia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Do you provide exceptional customer service?”, “Is the customer service in your company extraordinary?” “How to convert satis fied customers into loyal customers?” - are the most frequent questions of today’s managers and have driven the research on this article to getting the answer to a highly important marketing topic “How to strengthen customer loyalty using customer segmentation?”. Anyone who has bought a product or a service has probably suffered at least once from a company’s apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences. If this is the case, the company is in a wrong direction, since loyalty is the most powerful tool in today competitive market. To strengthen the bonds with these high-profit customers, innovative companies are deploying enterprise-wide strategies built on consumer segmentation.

  16. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  17. STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS IN Nb-Ti-V MICROALLOYED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Lopes Vieira Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yield strength of Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel has been investigated as a function of its microstructure obtained after industrial rolling on a hot strip mill. Optical (OM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to reveal the ferrite grain structure, fine carbonitride precipitation and dislocation substructures. It was found that the effects of solid solution and grain size hardening were not sufficient to justify the results of tensile testing. Additional strengthening was attributed to carbonitride precipitation in austenite, interphase precipitation during transformation, and the formation of dislocations. All contributions of these microstructural features on mechanical property were estimated from empirical models available from literature. A global effect of both austenite and interphase carbonitride precipitation hardening was proposed. It was verified that yield strength calculated from cumulative effect of different strengthening mechanisms has presented good fitting with experimental tensile test.

  18. Metallurgy. Origin of dramatic oxygen solute strengthening effect in titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Qi, Liang; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, Rachel; Rugg, David; Morris, J W; Asta, Mark; Chrzan, D C; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-02-06

    Structural alloys are often strengthened through the addition of solute atoms. However, given that solute atoms interact weakly with the elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. By using transmission electron microscopy and nanomechanical characterization, we report that the intense hardening effect of dilute oxygen solutes in pure α-Ti is due to the interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations reveal that distortion of the interstitial sites at the screw dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen that is consistent with experimental observations. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes.

  19. SURFACE CAST IRON STRENGTHENING USING COMBINED LASER AND ULTRASONIC PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Devojno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  20. Deformation behavior of dispersion-strengthened copper at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mengjun; ZHANG Yingchun; LUO Yun; LIU Xinyu

    2006-01-01

    The deformation behavior of dispersion-strengthened copper with different compositions was investigated by hot compression simulation tests on a Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. The microstructure during deformation at high temperature was also studied. The result shows that at the beginning of hot compression simulation, the flowing stress of the dispersion-strengthened copper quickly attains a peak value and the stress shows a greater decrease when the temperature is higher and the strain rate is lower. The dispersion particles lead to an obvious increase in the recrystallization temperature. Under experimental conditions, dynamic recovery is the main softening method. The constitutive equation at high temperature of 1.2%Al2O3-0.4%WC/Cu is obtained.

  1. CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enochsson, O.; Lundqvist, J.; Täljsten, Björn;

    2006-01-01

    are very suitable, not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature....... In this paper, laboratory tests on I I slabs with openings, loaded with a distributed load are presented together with analytical and numerical evaluations. Six slabs with openings have been strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) sheets. These slabs are compared with traditionally steel...... with externally bonded CFRP sheets. The performance is even better than for traditionally steel reinforced slabs. The numerical and analytical evaluations show good agreement with the experimental results. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. EMOTIONAL STRENGTHENING IN THE FAMILY: INTERVENTION FROM THE SCHOOL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Alejandra Vargas Rubilar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychological consequences from relational styles characterized by lack of affection and interactional mismanagement between family members can inhibit or block the attempt by members to achieve their full potential for healthy psy -chosocial development. In this context, emotional strengthening families would become a key condition for overcoming these dysfunctional patterns.The aim of this work is to show why psychoeducation and emotional stimula-tion can be particularly useful in the context of psychosocial risk due to poverty and present some strategies to approach such goal from the school environment. This approach is mainly focused on the strengthening of emotional resources in parents and primary caregivers to achieve a direct impact on the children’s emo-tional development.

  3. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  4. Durability of concrete structures strengthened with FRP laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test, the alkaline immersion test, the water immersion test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on mechanical behavior of FRP was studied. CFRP specimens subjected to aggressive environments showed good durability with no significant degradation in tensile strength and modulus; however, GFRP specimens exhibited a little decrease in mechanical property after aggressive environments exposure. Based on the fast freeze-thaw cycling test and the wet-thermal exposure test, the influence of aggressive environments on the bond behavior between FRP and concrete, mechanical behavior of concrete beams and columns strengthened with FRP laminates was studied. The results showed that the bond strength had a significant decrease compared with those specimens kept at room temperature, and the specimens strengthened with FRP exhibited good durability.

  5. Strengthen the Supervision over Pharmaceuticals via Modern Automatic Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fake pharmaceuticals inflicts severely upon people(?)~-s health through its circulation in markets.To strengthen the supervision of the pharmaceutical market,China is improving and is perfecting its national coding system in the field of pharmaceuticals. Bar-code tag and IC tag are available to the coding system.This paper summarizes the significance of IC tag to the supervision of pharmaceuticals and gives us a strategically general prospect of pharmaceutical supervision.

  6. STRENGTHENING COMPANY IMAGE IN SERVICE SECTOR BY IMPROVING RELATIONAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Jamila Jaganjac

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the theoretical model of managing intellectual capital with an emphasis on the relational capital. Relational capital is especially relevant in the service sector, where differentiation is mostly based on non-price competition. Development of relational capital which strengthens the image through satisfaction of internal and external users encourages innovation and allows each process to be enriched with new knowledge. To illustrate this concept, the paper ...

  7. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  8. STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS IN Nb-Ti-V MICROALLOYED STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinícius Lopes Vieira Martins; Felipe Pereira Vasconcelos; Juno Gallego

    2014-01-01

    Yield strength of Nb-Ti-V microalloyed steel has been investigated as a function of its microstructure obtained after industrial rolling on a hot strip mill. Optical (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to reveal the ferrite grain structure, fine carbonitride precipitation and dislocation substructures. It was found that the effects of solid solution and grain size hardening were not sufficient to justify the results of tensile testing. Additional strengthening w...

  9. Animal-assisted intervention and social skills strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Tjaša

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis describe animal-assisted interventions, more precisely, the significance of animal-assisted interventions for strengthening of social skills. Theoretical part includes a detailed presentation of the benefits of therapeutic dog in work with vulnerable populations. I focused on delimitation of the term animal-assisted interventions which includes animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activity and the differences and similarities between them. I continued with therapeuti...

  10. Strengthen the servant leadership to enhance the nurses’ job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xia HAO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Continue to improve and implement the service concept of "taking patients as the center" through enhancing nurses’ job satisfaction. Methods: Strengthen clinic functions of nursing department, which is guided by the demands of clinical nurses. Results: Clinical nurses’ job satisfaction keeps at a high level. Conclusion: Service-oriented mode of nursing management can make the nurses to keep good work experience and satisfaction.

  11. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco Martinez, Andrea

    This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...... migration at all stages of their journey. It provides a set of specific policies to address the needs of unaccompanied migrant children in Mozambique....

  12. Strengthening DoD Cyber Security with the Vulnerability Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening DoD Cyber Security with the Vulnerability Market 472Defense ARJ, January 2014, Vol. 21 No. 1: 466–484 music piracy . This event was sanctioned by...keep any vulnerabilities secret and subsequently refuse to patch the products. For 3 weeks in 2000, the Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI...the music recording industry and required all participants to sign a nondisclosure agreement prior to accessing SDMI data files (Craver, 2001). Bug

  13. Powder-metallurgy superalloy strengthened by a secondary gamma phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotval, P. S.

    1971-01-01

    Description of experiments in which prealloyed powders of superalloy compositions were consolidated by extrusion after the strengthening by precipitation of a body-centered tetragonal gamma secondary Ni3 Ta phase. Thin foil electron microscopy showed that the mechanical properties of the resultant powder-metallurgy product were correlated with its microstructure. The product exhibited high strength at 1200 F without loss of ductility, after thermomechanical treatment and aging.

  14. Strengthening of old metallic structures in fatigue with CFRP materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding strengthening of old metallic structures using unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer(CFRP) laminates has shown very usable to lengthen the service life of structural members in tension With the basis in a 110 year old riveted beam, centre notched test specimens have been...... to a direct linear elastic theory and compared with measured results. The experiments showed a good match between theory and measurements....

  15. Strengthening relations with Latin American countries through health diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambassador of Peru to the United States, Luis Miguel Castilla, visited the Center for Global Health (CGH) at the National Cancer Institute a year ago with the objective of strengthening collaboration between US NCI and the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas of Peru and Ministry of Health of Peru. As part of this partnership, Ambassador Castilla convened a Roundtable dinner at the Peru Embassy to discuss “The need for creating and implementing comprehensive cancer control plans in the Latin America region".

  16. A Basal Lithostrotian Titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a Complete Skull: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of Titanosauria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rubén D. F.; Lamanna, Matthew C.; Novas, Fernando E.; Ridgely, Ryan C.; Casal, Gabriel A.; Martínez, Javier E.; Vita, Javier R.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian—Turonian) Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1) maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2) complex maxilla—lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3) medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4) ‘tongue-like’ ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5) separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6) absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7) subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8) cervical vertebrae with ‘strut-like’ centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9) extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs. The cranial endocast of Sarmientosaurus preserves some of the most complete information obtained to date regarding the brain and sensory systems of sauropods. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as a basal member of Lithostrotia, as the most plesiomorphic titanosaurian to be preserved with a complete skull. Sarmientosaurus provides a wealth of new cranial evidence that reaffirms the close relationship of titanosaurs to Brachiosauridae. Moreover, the presence of the relatively derived lithostrotian Tapuiasaurus in Aptian deposits indicates that the new Patagonian genus represents a ‘ghost lineage’ with a comparatively plesiomorphic craniodental form, the evolutionary

  17. A Basal Lithostrotian Titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda with a Complete Skull: Implications for the Evolution and Paleobiology of Titanosauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D F Martínez

    Full Text Available We describe Sarmientosaurus musacchioi gen. et sp. nov., a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian Lower Member of the Bajo Barreal Formation of southern Chubut Province in central Patagonia, Argentina. The holotypic and only known specimen consists of an articulated, virtually complete skull and part of the cranial and middle cervical series. Sarmientosaurus exhibits the following distinctive features that we interpret as autapomorphies: (1 maximum diameter of orbit nearly 40% rostrocaudal length of cranium; (2 complex maxilla-lacrimal articulation, in which the lacrimal clasps the ascending ramus of the maxilla; (3 medial edge of caudal sector of maxillary ascending ramus bordering bony nasal aperture with low but distinct ridge; (4 'tongue-like' ventral process of quadratojugal that overlaps quadrate caudally; (5 separate foramina for all three branches of the trigeminal nerve; (6 absence of median venous canal connecting infundibular region to ventral part of brainstem; (7 subvertical premaxillary, procumbent maxillary, and recumbent dentary teeth; (8 cervical vertebrae with 'strut-like' centroprezygapophyseal laminae; (9 extremely elongate and slender ossified tendon positioned ventrolateral to cervical vertebrae and ribs. The cranial endocast of Sarmientosaurus preserves some of the most complete information obtained to date regarding the brain and sensory systems of sauropods. Phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as a basal member of Lithostrotia, as the most plesiomorphic titanosaurian to be preserved with a complete skull. Sarmientosaurus provides a wealth of new cranial evidence that reaffirms the close relationship of titanosaurs to Brachiosauridae. Moreover, the presence of the relatively derived lithostrotian Tapuiasaurus in Aptian deposits indicates that the new Patagonian genus represents a 'ghost lineage' with a comparatively plesiomorphic craniodental form, the evolutionary history

  18. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  19. Retrofitting Heritage Buildings by Strengthening or Using Seismic Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Moshe; Bloch, Jacob; Ribakov, Yuri

    2008-07-01

    Many heritage buildings in the Mediterranean area include stone domes as a structural and architectural element. Present stage of these buildings often requires strengthening or retrofitting in order to increase their seismic resistance. Strengthening is possible by casting above existing dome a thin reinforced concrete shell with a support ring. It yields reduction of stresses and strains in the dome. This paper deals with examples of actual restoration and strengthening of three structures in Georgia, two of them damaged by an earthquake in 1991, (a temple in Nikortzminda and a synagogue in Oni, built in 11th and 19r century, respectively) and a mosque in Akhaltzikhe, built in 18th century. Retrofitting of these structures was aimed at preservation of initial geometry and appearance by creating composite (stone—reinforced concrete, or stone—shotcrete) structures, which were partially or fully hidden. Further improving of seismic response may be achieved by using hybrid seismic isolation decreasing the seismic forces and adding damping. A brief description of the design procedure for such cases is presented.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  1. Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Pau, Gregoire; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Modrusan, Zora; Januario, Thomas; Tsui, Vickie; Durham, Alison B; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y; Dirix, Luc; Fisher, David C; Rudin, Charles M; Sofen, Howard; Migden, Michael R; Yauch, Robert L; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-03-09

    Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance.

  2. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

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    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  3. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  4. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  5. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still...... use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data...... use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration...

  6. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  7. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  8. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    was 66.1 years. The most common localisations were the forehead (31.3%), the nose (31.0%) and the cheek (14.7%). Primary BCC comprised 54.0%; the remaining cases were relapses, most frequently after curettage (36.9%), radiotherapy (18.9%) and photodynamic therapy (11.7%). MMS leads to 40% smaller skin......INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... of the surrounding healthy skin, and it also offers higher cure rates than standard tumour excision with a predefined margin of healthy skin. The superiority of MMS relies on the fact that the entire (100%) margin of the excised tissue is examined microscopically for residual tumour in contrast to the traditional...

  9. Auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear responses in chinchillas.

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    Alex León

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochlear microphonics (CM, auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments. We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the

  10. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

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    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  11. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  13. Strengthening health workforce capacity through work-based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matovu Joseph KB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E and continuous quality improvement (CQI in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84% from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80% were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and

  14. Reduction of anion reversal potential subverts the inhibitory control of firing rate in spinal lamina I neurons: towards a biophysical basis for neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejnowski Terrence J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of the transmembrane chloride gradient in spinal lamina I neurons contributes to the cellular hyperexcitability producing allodynia and hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury. The resultant decrease in anion reversal potential (i.e. shift in Eanion to less negative potentials reduces glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but the large increase in membrane conductance caused by inhibitory input can nonetheless shunt concurrent excitatory input. Without knowing the relative contribution of hyperpolarization and shunting to inhibition's modulation of firing rate, it is difficult to predict how much net disinhibition results from reduction of Eanion. We therefore used a biophysically accurate lamina I neuron model to investigate quantitatively how changes in Eanion affect firing rate modulation. Results Simulations reveal that even a small reduction of Eanion compromises inhibitory control of firing rate because reduction of Eanion not only decreases glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarization, but can also indirectly compromise the capacity of shunting to reduce spiking. The latter effect occurs because shunting-mediated modulation of firing rate depends on a competition between two biophysical phenomena: shunting reduces depolarization, which translates into reduced spiking, but shunting also shortens the membrane time constant, which translates into faster membrane charging and increased spiking; the latter effect predominates when average depolarization is suprathreshold. Disinhibition therefore occurs as both hyperpolarization- and shunting-mediated modulation of firing rate are subverted by reduction of Eanion. Small reductions may be compensated for by increased glycine/GABAA receptor-mediated input, but the system decompensates (i.e. compensation fails as reduction of Eanion exceeds a critical value. Hyperexcitability necessarily develops once disinhibition becomes incompensable

  15. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  16. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  17. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpandev; Shetty, Raman; Rajkumar, C; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216) switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6%) to week 24 (1.0%) in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001), while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort. PMID:25143902

  18. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  19. 76 FR 17962 - Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Geological Survey Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater... titled ``Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States''. The report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and...

  20. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Leslie M Shaw; Khachaturian, Zaven

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received ne...

  1. MD-1 deficiency attenuates dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis through modulating the function of colonic lamina propria dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaqin; Zhang, Guqin; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Shang, Jian; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Available evidence suggests that both dysregulated innate and adaptive immune pathways contribute to the aberrant intestinal inflammatory response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Myeloid Differentiation 1 (MD-1), also known as Lymphocyte Antigen 86 (Ly86), a secreted protein interacting with radioprotective 105 (RP105), plays an important role in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Previous studies showed that MD-1 may be involved in the (patho) physiological regulation of the innate immune system and inflammation. In this study, we reported for the first time that MD-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in both human IBD patients and DSS-treated WT mice. We showed that MD-1(-/-) mice were less susceptible to the development of colitis than WT controls as demonstrated by significantly reduced weight loss, disease activity index, colon histological scores, cellular infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. In addition, mucosal barrier function seemed to be intact in response to the loss of MD-1. Finally, lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) from the colon of MD-1(-/-) mice after DSS exposure not only decreased in number but also significantly down-regulated the expression of surface maturation co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40 and CD86 compared with those from WT mice. Taken together, our results reveal that MD-1 deficiency is of critical importance in down-regulating induction and progression of DSS colitis, thereby suggesting that MD-1 might be a target for future interventional therapies of IBD.

  2. [CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE MUCOSAL LAMINA PROPRIA OF THE JEJUNUM IN MICE SUBJECTED TO THE CONDITIONS SIMULATING LONG-DURATION SPACEFLIGHT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminova, G G; Sapinj, M R; Yerofeyeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The cellular composition of the lamina propria of the mucous membrane of the jejunum was examined in the villi (LPV) and between the crypts (LPC). Two groups of male C57/BL6 mice aged 4-5 months were studied. Experimental group of animals (n=8) for 30 days was living under the terrestrial conditions in "BIOS-SLA" blocks and received a paste-like food made with standard feed containing water and casein. The control group of animals (n=6) were kept in standard vivarium conditions and received standard dry pellets. Studies have shown no significant changes in the content of lymphocytes in LPV and LPC in a terrestrial experiment. LPV was characterized by a sharp reduction in the number of plasma cells. In both LPV and LPC the number of eosinophils was increased, while the content of low differentiated forms of cells (blasts and large lymphocytes) was decreased. It is suggested that the changes in the contents of different cell types in ground-based experiment were due not only to the limited mobility of the animals but also to different composition of the feed.

  3. Characterization of extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing in the lamina propria of vocal fold in a canine model: a long-term and consecutive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Xu, Wen; Ling, Wei; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yan; Han, Demin

    2014-06-01

    The characterization of vocal fold wound healing can be reflected by the changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the lamina propria. Although the expression of ECM proteins after vocal fold injury has been widely studied, such observations have lacked time continuity and integrity of marker proteins. In this study, we observed the morphology of injured vocal folds in a canine model. We used immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the expression and distribution of ECM proteins, such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, decorin and fibronectin, from 15 days to 6 months after injury. The results showed that large amounts of ECM proteins were secreted 15-40 days after injury. Collagen and fibronectin secretion increased significantly, and were disorderly deposited. The secretion of decorin and elastin increased slightly, while hyaluronic acid decreased. The 15-40 day post-injury period may be the critical intervention stage in wound healing of vocal folds. From 3 to 6 months after injury, the secretion of ECM proteins declined. However, collagen and fibronectin secretion were still significantly higher than normal with irregular arrangement, while the secretion of elastin, hyaluronic acid and decorin decreased significantly at 6 months. This led to vocal fold inelasticity and stiffness, which required effective long-term interventions to treat scar formation.

  4. Immunohistochemical characterization of the lymphocyte and the immunoglobulin-containing cell in the epithelium and the lamina propria of normal human intestines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsueda,Kazuhiro

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify difference of the mucosal immunity in various sites of normal large and small intestines, we studied the population of lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulin (Ig-containing cells in situ in biopsy specimens taken from various sites (ascending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of the large intestine and from the duodenum using an immunohistochemical method. Monoclonal antibodies against pan-T (Leu 1, cytotoxic/suppressor T (Leu2a, helper/inducer T (Leu3a, suppressor T (Leu15 and natural killer/K (Leu7 cells, and polyclonal antibodies to human IgG, IgA and IgM were used. In the duodenum, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs were more prominent than in the large intestine. Immunoelectron microscopic observation revealed that some Leu2a+ IELs possessed pseudopods extending into intestinal epithelial cells, indicating that some IELs belong to the cytotoxic T cell subset. Leu7+ IELs were scarcely observed and Leu7+/Leu1+ ratio was higher in the large intestine than in the duodenum. Furthermore, the number of Leu7+ cells were more in the distal than the proximal colon. In the lamina propria Ig-containing cells tended to be fewer in the rectum than in the duodenum and the proximal colon. Our findings may suggest the variation of local immune responses and the difference of assigned immunological functions among the various sites of the intestines.

  5. A study of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy laminates by utilizing an outer lamina of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Lance, David G.

    1991-01-01

    The damage tolerance of carbon/epoxy was examined when an outer layer of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) material was utilized on the specimen. Four types of 16 ply quasi-isotropic panels, (0,+45,90,-45)s2 were tested. The first contained no Spectra, while the others had one lamina of Spectra placed on either the top (impacted side), bottom or both surfaces of the composite plate. A range of impact energies up to approximately 8.5 Joules (6.3 ft-lbs) was used to inflict damage upon these specimens. Glass/Phenolic honeycomb beams with a core density of 314 N/m3 (2.0 lb/ft3) and 8 ply quasi-isotropic facesheets were also tested for compression-after-impact strength with and without Spectra at impact energies of 1,2,3 and 4 Joules (.74, 1.47, 2.21 and 2.95 ft-lbs). It was observed that the composite plates had little change in damage tolerance due to the Spectra, while the honeycomb panels demonstrated a slight increase in damage tolerance when Spectra was added, the damage tolerance level being more improved at higher impact energies.

  6. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  7. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.

  8. Acrylic Rubber Latex in Ferrocement for Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In India, the early deterioration of reinforced concrete structures has become a big social problem in recent years. An essential research is needed for the development of effective repair materials and their execution systems comes to an important issue from the viewpoint of the longevity of infrastructures at present. Ferrocement laminates are introduced to enhance the overall performance of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures and these days the use of it is a promising technology for increasing the flexural strength of deficient reinforced concrete members. Approach: The repair system aims to provide quantitative repair enhancement as well as extending the life of deteriorated concrete members. This research in particular inspired the initiation of the present work which aimed to develop a material with unique properties and a very wide range of practical applications. The mechanical properties of mortar through difference in polymer content with Acrilic Latex by ferrocement among three different volume fractions of mesh reinforcement were studied. Following the encouraging progress made in the formulation and evaluation of the polymer modified repair mortar, tests were carried out involving the application of the reinforced repair material to the soffit of the reinforced concrete beams of 3 m length. Results: The levels of damage of the original beams prior to repair did not affect the ultimate load of the strengthened beams tested. The performance of the strengthened beams was compared to the control beams with respect to cracking, deflection and ultimate strength which confirm preeminent results. Conclusion: This accomplished the fact that acrylic rubber latex modified ferrocement is a doable alternative strengthening component for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. Further developments in these systems will create dramatic improvement into the field of rehabilitation of old privileged structures.

  9. Developing a manual for strengthening mental health nurses' clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Cassedy, Paul; Gonge, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from a study aimed at developing the content and implementation of a manual for a research-based intervention on clinical supervision of mental health nursing staff. The intervention was designed to strengthen already existing supervision practices through...... educational preparation for supervision and systematic reflection on supervision. The intervention consists of three sessions and was implemented on two groups of mental health hospital staff. We present an outline of the manual and explain how the trial sessions made us adjust the preliminary manual...

  10. Intrinsic Strengthening of Coherent Twin Boundaries in Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen Luo; Yuchen Wang; Yanbo Wang; Yuanming Wang; Manling Sui

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to simulate the deformation process of copper with different density of parallel coherent twin boundaries (TBs). It is shown that the strength of perfect copper crystal enhances with increasing coherent TB density. Based on the local hydrostatic pressure analysis, we found that stress concentrations are more likely to form in the interior of the crystal rather than around the TBs.Since the dislocation nucleation is suppressed in the vicinity of the coherent TBs and each TB plane hinders dislocations from propagating, the coherent TBs can be regarded as an intrinsic strengthening phase relative to perfect crystal.

  11. Fracture toughness of oxide-dispersion strengthened copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The fracture toughness of an oxide-dispersion strengthened copper alloy AL-15 has been examined at room temperature and 250{degrees}C, in air and in vacuum (< 10{sup {minus}6} torr). Increasing test temperature causes a significant decrease in the fracture toughness of this material, in either air or vacuum environments. In addition, specimens oriented in the T-L orientation (crack growth parallel to the extrusion direction) show significantly lower toughness than those in the L-T orientation (crack growth perpendicular to the extrusion direction).

  12. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; LI

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas,but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present.Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas,the summarization of principles of greening design,and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts,some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengthening greening construction of ecological residential areas were proposed to promote the healthy development of greening construction in ecological residential areas.

  13. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Baker, Ian [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L12 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Ni3Al(Ti) L12, NiAl B2, Fe2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L12 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L12 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were

  14. Strengthening of Concrete Structures with cement based bonded composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Polymers). The method is very efficient and has achieved world wide attention. However, there are some drawbacks with the use of epoxy, e.g. working environment, compatibility and permeability. Substituting the epoxy adherent with a cement based bonding agent will render a strengthening system...... with improved working environment and better compatibility to the base concrete structure. This study gives an overview of different cement based systems, all with very promising results for structural upgrading. Studied parameters are structural retrofit for bending, shear and confinement. It is concluded...

  15. Microstructural change on electron irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, H.; Akasaka, N.; Takahashi, H.; Shibahara, I.; Onose, S.

    1992-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels were irradiated in a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) to study their response to irradiation. Fe-13Cr with 0.25 wt% Y2O3 as dispersed particles and containing additions of either 0.45% Nb, 0.45% V and 0.67% Zr were irradiated at 673 and 723 K up to 15 dpa. The Y2O3 particles in all specimens were stable under these irradiation conditions. During irradiation, two types of dislocations were formed but observable voids were not formed. Furthermore, plate-like and granular-like precipitates formed in both the irradiated and nonirradiated regions.

  16. Study of mechanism of strengthening materials with laser shock processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大浩; 吴鸿兴; 王声波; 洪昕; 王劼; 戴宇生; 夏小平; 张永康; 张宏; 唐亚新; 余承业

    1999-01-01

    The material of surface layer absorbs the energy of laser and produces plasma, when the high power laser radiates the surface of material. The plasma blows up and produces an intense shock wave. When the surface of material is covered with a confining medium and an absorptive coating layer, the shock wave can be strengthened greatly. There-fore a huge momentum is exerted on the surface of material. There is a plastic deformation layer in the material when the shock stress exceeds the dynamic yield strength of material. Due to the residual compressive stress, the high density of dislocation in the plastic layer, the anti-fatigue life of material is prolonged.

  17. Up-scaling Strategies for Strengthening of Women's Land Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents proposals on strategies of up-scaling based on the concepts of gendered land tools, described in the ‘Gender Mechanism' document by the Global Land Tool Network (GLTN, 2006). The 23 priority land tools selected by GLTN are discusses, in view of how the existing land tools best ...... can be applied in a global quest for strengthening women's land tenure security and access to land. It is argued that the GLTN concept of gendering land tools is about building gender-sensitive processes of upgrading land tenure security....

  18. Fostering Learner Autonomy by Strengthening Learners’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠艳霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discus some practical ways to develop the learners’autonomous English learning abilities. After ana-lyzed the motivation problems, the author strengthened learners’motivation through classroom teaching successfully by building good social relations, promoting negotiation, promoting interaction in the classroom and setting up adequate evaluation systems, etc. The author finds that using the content of regular college classroom teaching as a meaningful context for the development of responsibility can enhance the learning effect. The teacher’s guiding role in autonomous learning should never be ignored. Devel-oping autonomous English learning in vocational colleges in China is our long-term pedagogical goal.

  19. [Strengthen the prevention of occupational trichloroethylene health hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and an important industrial material. It can be absorbed into the body through respiratory tract and skin, and cause occupational hazards. The acute hazard induced by TCE is occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis. Epidemiological data showed that long-term occupational exposure to TCE could also increase the risk of cancer and cause damage to reproductive system and nervous system. Thus, it is of great significance to strengthen the prevention of occupational TCE health hazards. In this paper, the health hazards and preventive measures of TCE are reviewed.

  20. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.