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Sample records for basal lamina strengthens

  1. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

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    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  2. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize

  3. Neutrophil migration through preexisting holes in the basal laminae of alveolar capillaries and epithelium during streptococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D C; Behzad, A R; Chu, F

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there are preexisting holes in the endothelial and epithelial basal laminae of alveolar walls and to determine the path taken by neutrophils as they migrate from the capillaries to the airspace of the alveoli during inflammation. Using transmission electron microscopy and serial thin sections of normal rabbit and mouse lung, we have demonstrated the presence of slit-like holes in the capillary basal laminae and round holes in the basal laminae of type 2 pneumocytes. The slits in the capillary basal laminae were observed at the intersection of the thick and thin walls where endothelium, pericytes, and fibroblasts make close contact. The round holes in the type 2 cell basal laminae were observed at sites of close contact with fibroblasts. Neutrophils were observed to migrate through these slits and holes during streptococcal pneumonia in rabbit lungs. We conclude that during inflammation in the lung, migrating neutrophils displace pericytes and fibroblasts from the slits in the capillary basal lamina and then crawl through these slits into the alveolar interstitium. We postulate that neutrophils find their way to type 2 pneumocytes by following interstitial fibroblasts. We believe that neutrophils displace fibroblasts from their close contacts with the type 2 cells and then crawl through the holes in the basal lamina into the basal lateral space of the type 2 cells. From there, neutrophils migrate into the alveolar airspace.

  4. Electron microscopic observation of 137Cs-irradiated rat testis. Production of basal laminae for germ cells, despite their absence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hajime; Esaki, Michiyo

    2003-01-01

    Whole body γ-ray irradiation of rats with caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at embryonic day 20 induced marked reduction of the weight of the testis. Body weight and other tissues, however, seemed to remain normal. By light microscopy, complete loss of germ cells was observed in the testis. Other components, such as Sertoli cells and interstitial cells, seemed to be normal. The testes from day 8 postpartum rats contained very few spermatogonia compared with newborn rats, indicating loss of germ cells between days 0 and 8. In the adult, 137 Cs-irradiated testes showed two conspicuous features other than the loss of germ cells: empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells and multilayered seminiferous tubule basal laminae (lamina densa). The junctional structures (ectoplasmic specializations) between Sertoli cells, however, seemed normal. The thickness of each layer of multilayered basal laminae was the same as that of normal rats and electron-lucent layers similar to lamina lucida were interposed between them. Of the empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells, basal laminae bridge the gap. The basal laminae contained laminin, type IV collagen and heparan sulphate proteoglycan evenly distributed among layers, suggesting a normal composition. Rough estimation of the amount of basal laminae deposited in 137 Cs-irradiated rats indicates that it is within a range similar to that in normal testis. These features imply that Sertoli cells are, in part, determined perinatally to produce basal laminae for germ-line cells. (author)

  5. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

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    Karyn G Robinson

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR, synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2 appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups

  6. Chikungunya virus dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti is associated with temporal basal lamina degradation during bloodmeal digestion.

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    Shengzhang Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mosquito, the midgut epithelium is the initial tissue to become infected with an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus that has been acquired from a vertebrate host along with a viremic bloodmeal. Following its replication in midgut epithelial cells, the virus needs to exit the midgut and infect secondary tissues including the salivary glands before it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The viral exit mechanism from the midgut, the midgut escape barrier (MEB, is poorly understood although it is an important determinant of mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. Using chikungunya virus (CHIKV as a model in Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that the basal lamina (BL of the extracellular matrix (ECM surrounding the midgut constitutes a potential barrier for the virus. The BL, predominantly consisting of collagen IV and laminin, becomes permissive during bloodmeal digestion in the midgut lumen. Bloodmeal digestion, BL permissiveness, and CHIKV dissemination are coincident with increased collagenase activity, diminished collagen IV abundance, and BL shredding in the midgut between 24-32 h post-bloodmeal. This indicates that there may be a window-of-opportunity during which the MEB in Ae. aegypti becomes permissive for CHIKV. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are the principal extracellular endopeptidases responsible for the degradation/remodeling of the ECM including the BL. We focused on Ae. aegypti (AeMMP1, which is expressed in midgut epithelial cells, is inducible upon bloodfeeding, and shows collagenase (gelatinase activity. However, attempts to inhibit AeMMP activity in general or specifically that of AeMMP1 did not seem to affect its function nor produce an altered midgut escape phenotype. As an alternative, we silenced and overexpressed the Ae. aegypti tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (AeTIMP in the mosquito midgut. AeTIMP was highly upregulated in the midgut during bloodmeal digestion and was able to inhibit MMP activity in

  7. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sun Young; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; Suh, Sang Gyung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  8. Radiologic study on lamina dura

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    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the thickness of lamina dura of the human teeth in periodontal disease, which obtained from the intraoral roentgenograms of the 122 cases taken by bisecting technic. All films were divided into the different ages, the different sexes, and the different location of the different teeth. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Compared with the normal teeth, the thickness of lamina dura in periodontal disease is increased in all of different ages, sexes and teeth. 2. Generally, the alveolar crest portion is the thickest among the root surfaces, and midroot, apex followed, and the average thickness of the posterior teeth is thicker than that of anterior teeth. 3. The mean value of the whole maxillary teeth is almost same as that of mandibular teeth. 4. On the whole cases, the differences of male and female is about 0.01 mm, which is not a significant differences.

  9. Radiologic study on lamina dura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1981-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the thickness of lamina dura of the human teeth in periodontal disease, which obtained from the intraoral roentgenograms of the 122 cases taken by bisecting technic. All films were divided into the different ages, the different sexes, and the different location of the different teeth. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Compared with the normal teeth, the thickness of lamina dura in periodontal disease is increased in all of different ages, sexes and teeth. 2. Generally, the alveolar crest portion is the thickest among the root surfaces, and midroot, apex followed, and the average thickness of the posterior teeth is thicker than that of anterior teeth. 3. The mean value of the whole maxillary teeth is almost same as that of mandibular teeth. 4. On the whole cases, the differences of male and female is about 0.01 mm, which is not a significant differences.

  10. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhironkina, O.A.; Kurchashova, S.Y.; Pozharskaia, V.A.; Cherepanynets, V.D.; Strelkova, O.S.; Hozák, Pavel; Kireev, I.I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-432 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03403S Grant - others:Russian Fund for Basic Research(RU) 13-04-00885; Russian Fund for Basic Research(RU) 15-54-78077 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nuclear lamina * Microdomains * Interphase * Nucleus * DNA replication * Cell cycle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  11. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG.

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    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-11-15

    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  13. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  14. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  15. Size dependence of ozone lamina characteristics and their correlations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Laštovička, Jan; Kozubek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, September (2015), s. 116-123 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone laminae * correlations among laminae * vertical resolution of ozone sonde measurements Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682615300055

  16. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  17. Mechanisms and timing of replacement dental lamina regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, H.; Dumková, J.; Lesot, H.; Glocová, K.; Hampl, A.; Tucker, A.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, special feature (2013), s. 272-272 ISSN 1932-8486. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /10./. 08.07.2013-12.07.2013, Barcelona] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  19. Quantification of the spatial organization of the nuclear lamina as a tool for cell classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, C.H.; Zatreanu, D.A.; Raz, V.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope that plays multiple regulatory roles in chromatin organization and gene expression as well as a structural role in nuclear stability. The lamina proteins, also referred to as lamins, determine nuclear lamina organization and

  20. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  1. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  2. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  3. The diagnostic value of the alveolar lamina dura in generalised bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlencordt, J.; Kruse, H.P.; Franke, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the alveolar lamina dura in 134 patients have been analysed. They included 32 cases with urolithiasis in whom generalised bone disease had been excluded, 37 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, 31 cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism and 34 cases with primary osteoporosis. The state of the lamina dura was related to biochemical, radiological and histological findings in the various groups. The value of the lamina dura in the diagnosis of generalised skeletal abnormalities has been defined. (orig.) [de

  4. Robust nuclear lamina-based cell classification of aging and senescent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; van 't Hoff, Merel L R; Vermolen, Bart J; Young, Ian T; Raz, Vered

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the shape of the nuclear lamina are exhibited in senescent cells, as well as in cells expressing mutations in lamina genes. To identify cells with defects in the nuclear lamina we developed an imaging method that quantifies the intensity and curvature of the nuclear lamina. We show that this method accurately describes changes in the nuclear lamina. Spatial changes in nuclear lamina coincide with redistribution of lamin A proteins and local reduction in protein mobility in senescent cell. We suggest that local accumulation of lamin A in the nuclear envelope leads to bending of the structure. A quantitative distinction of the nuclear lamina shape in cell populations was found between fresh and senescent cells, and between primary myoblasts from young and old donors. Moreover, with this method mutations in lamina genes were significantly distinct from cells with wild-type genes. We suggest that this method can be applied to identify abnormal cells during aging, in in vitro propagation, and in lamina disorders.

  5. Functional Characterization of Lamina X Neurons in ex-Vivo Spinal Cord Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Krotov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of lamina X neurons in the spinal cord remain unknown despite the established role of this area for somatosensory integration, visceral nociception, autonomic regulation and motoneuron output modulation. Investigations of neuronal functioning in the lamina X have been hampered by technical challenges. Here we introduce an ex-vivo spinal cord preparation with both dorsal and ventral roots still attached for functional studies of the lamina X neurons and their connectivity using an oblique LED illumination for resolved visualization of lamina X neurons in a thick tissue. With the elaborated approach, we demonstrate electrophysiological characteristics of lamina X neurons by their membrane properties, firing pattern discharge and fiber innervation (either afferent or efferent. The tissue preparation has been also probed using Ca2+ imaging with fluorescent Ca2+ dyes (membrane-impermeable or -permeable to demonstrate the depolarization-induced changes in intracellular calcium concentration in lamina X neurons. Finally, we performed visualization of subpopulations of lamina X neurons stained by retrograde labeling with aminostilbamidine dye to identify sympathetic preganglionic and projection neurons in the lamina X. Thus, the elaborated approach provides a reliable tool for investigation of functional properties and connectivity in specific neuronal subpopulations, boosting research of lamina X of the spinal cord.

  6. The Insulator Protein SU(HW) Fine-Tunes Nuclear Lamina Interactions of the Drosophila Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bemmel, J.G.; Pagie, L.; Braunschweig, U.; Brugman, W.; Meuleman, W.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Van Steensel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL) are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs) in

  7. Ultrastructral studies of epidermis in acute radiation dermatitis. Basal lamina thickening and coated vesicles. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, M.; Komura, J.; Ofuji, S.

    1978-06-29

    Fine structural changes of keratinocytes by x-ray were examined in normal skin area around a lesion of Bowen's disease. The area was exposed to about 600 r over 28 days. The findings were: a decreased number of desmosomes and microvilli, formation of cytoplasmic vaculoes with or without membrane, perinuclear aggregation of tonofibrils, intracytoplasmic desmosomes and gap junction, cytoplasmic occurrence of dense bodies, lipid droplet and glycogen particles, changes in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and deep invagination of the nuclear membrane. Possible exocytotic nature of coated vesicles in x-ray irradiated keratinocytes is discussed.

  8. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  9. Stretch independent regulation of prostaglandin E(2) production within the isolated guinea-pig lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Christopher J; de Vente, Jan; Gillespie, James I

    2010-02-01

    To use an isolated preparation of the guinea-pig bladder lamina propria (LP) to investigate the effects of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) on the release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The bladders of female guinea-pigs (200-400 g) were isolated and opened to expose the urothelial surface. The LP was dissected free of the underlying detrusor muscle and cut into strips from the dome to base. Strips were then incubated in Krebs buffer at 37 degrees C. Each tissue piece was then exposed to the stable ATP analogue, BzATP, and a NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate (DEANO), and the effect on PGE(2) output into the supernatant determined using the Parameter(TM) PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay kit (R & D Systems, Abingdon, UK). Experiments were repeated in the presence of purinergic receptor and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX I and COX II, antagonists. The cellular location of COX I, COX II and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) within the bladder LP was also determined by immunohistochemistry. PGE(2) production was significantly increased by BzATP. Antagonist studies showed the purinergic stimulation involved both P(2)X and P(2)Y receptors. The BzATP response was inhibited by the COX inhibitor indomethacin (COX I >COX II) but not by DUP 697 (COX II >COX I). Thus, BzATP stimulation occurs because of COX I stimulation. NO had no effect on PGE(2) production over the initial 10 min of an exposure. However, PGE(2) output was increased 100 min after exposure to the NO donor. In the presence of NO, the BzATP stimulation was abolished. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the location of COX I to the basal and inner intermediate urothelial layers and to cells within the diffuse layer of LP interstitial cells. In addition, nNOS was also located in the basal urothelial layers whilst COX II was found in the interstitial cell layers. There is complex interaction between ATP and NO to modulate PGE(2) release from the bladder LP in the un-stretched preparation. Such

  10. Toughening MoSi2 with Niobium metal -- Effects of size and orientation of ductile laminae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of size and orientation of ductile laminae on the toughness of brittle matrix composites have been evaluated using MoSi 2 composites reinforced with Nb laminae. Nb laminae with thicknesses ranging from 0.127 to 1.0 mm were hot pressed with MoSi 2 powder to prepare the composites. Toughness of the composites was measured using four-point bend test on chevron-notched specimens. It was found that the toughness of the composites increased with increasing size of the niobium laminae. Furthermore, toughening was observed at crack propagation directions perpendicular to the laminae plane, indicating that ductile laminae offer two dimensional toughening. A model based on the bridging contribution of the ductile phase has been proposed to analyze the chevron-notched specimens of the ductile-phase-reinforced brittle matrix composites. The analysis showed that the dependence of the toughness of the composites on the size and orientation of the ductile laminae could be interpreted in terms of their bridging capability and bending contributions

  11. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  12. The essential oil in lamina and petiole of heracleum-dissectum leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanarella, L; Bos, R; Fisher, FC

    The essential oils of lamina and petiole of Heracleum dissectum are described. Fifty-seven compounds have been identified by mass spectrometry and retention indices. Differences between the oils of the two organs were mainly quantitative.

  13. Experimental Investigations on the effect of Additive on the Tensile Properties of Fiber Glass Fabric Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Sai Divya, A.; Raghu Kumar, B., Dr; Lakshmi Narayana, G., Dr

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of additives on tensile behaviour of fiber glass fabric at lamina level to explore an alternative skin material for the outer body of aerospace applications and machines. This experimental work investigates the effect of silica concentration in epoxy resin lapox L-12 on the tensile properties of glass fabric lamina of 4H-satin weave having 3.6 mm thickness. The lamina was prepared by using hand lay-up method and tests were conducted on it. Various tensile properties values obtained from experimentation were compared for four glass fiber lamina composites fabricated by adding the silica powder to resin bath. The effect of variations in silica concentration (0% SiO2, 5% SiO2, 10% SiO2 and 15% SiO2) on the tensile properties of prepared material revealed that maximum stiffness was obtained at 15% and yield strength at 10% SiO2 concentration in glass fiber lamina. Increasing the silica concentration beyond 10% had led to deterioration in the material properties. The experimentation that was carried out on test specimen was reasonably successful as the effect of silica powder as an additive in glass fiber lamina enhanced the mechanical properties up to certain limit. The underpinning microscopic behaviour at the source of these observations will be investigated in a follow up work.

  14. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  15. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the

  16. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  17. The value of CT in the diagnosis of traumatic fronto-basal CSF fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeter, P.; Ebeling, U.; Sankt Elisabethenkrankenhaus, Ravensburg

    1982-01-01

    In 20 patients with fronto-basal CSF fistulae, radiograms, tomograms and CTs in the axial and coronal projection were taken before operation. The evaluation showed that small fractures of the cribriform lamina could be demonstrated most clearly by CT with narrow coronal sections. Although the resolution properties of CT is still inferior to that of tomography for small osseous fissures, good CT results could be achieved by the better demonstration of accompanying mucosal swelling and/or small effusions. Fractures of the walls of the frontal sinuses, on the other hand, were shown better by tomography and those of the frontal calotte by normal radiograms. (orig.) [de

  18. The formation process of the flood type lamina in the Lake Mokoto, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Takeshi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Mokoto consist of organic mud with the lamination. The 09Mk-1C core at 2009. In the soft X-ray photograph, the cyclic lamina set is observed. The cyclic lamina set consists of low- and high-density lamina. According to the meteorological data in Abashiri region, the annually precipitation is high from August to September. Probably, the cyclic lamina set is formed by seasonal change of precipitation. In August 2016, it showed a precipitation of 425 mm which is about 4 times the average precipitation. In February 2017, the 10 cm class short core (17Mk-4SC core) was collected and the flood lamina was observed. Six layers showing different color were observed in top 6.5 cm. The first, third and fifth layers from the top are relatively light in color (L*value=17). The second, fourth and sixth layers are relatively dark in color (L*value=8). Thickness of the first to fourth layers is about 5 mm, but the thickness of the fifth layer reaches 4 cm. According to the observation of the soft X-ray photograph, the third and fifth layers were high-density lamina, and the others were low-density lamina. Because these layers were not observed in the 15Mk-3C core collected in March 2015, they were deposited after that. It is estimated that the third layer showing the high-density lamina is the sediment of the flood event in August 2016. This is supported by the fact that the total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS) contents are diluted and the C/N ratio is relatively high value. Because this lamina is remarkable, it will be used as a future key bed. On the other hand, the fifth layer showing the high-density is a very thick. In this layer, the TS content is diluted and the C/N ratio is high, but the TOC content shows the highest value. This suggests that sediments with high TOC content flowed out from Mokoto River Basin. It has

  19. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II.

  1. Effect of Lamina Thickness of Prepreg on the Surface Accuracy of Carbon Fiber Composite Space Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhanwen; Xie, Yongjie; Shi, Hanqiao; Zhang, Boming; Guo, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of the replication composite mirror always decreases. Lamina thickness of prepreg affects the layers and layup sequence of composite space mirror, and which would affect surface accuracy of space mirror. In our research, two groups of contrasting cases through finite element analyses (FEA) and comparative experiments were studied; the effect of different lamina thicknesses of prepreg and corresponding lay-up sequences was focused as well. We describe a special analysis model, validated process and result analysis. The simulated and measured surface figures both get the same conclusion. Reducing lamina thickness of prepreg used in replicating composite space mirror is propitious to optimal design of layup sequence for fabricating composite mirror, and could improve its surface accuracy.

  2. Isolation of Eosinophils from the Lamina Propria of the Murine Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Claudia; Beller, Alexander; Chu, Van Trung

    2016-01-01

    Only recently has it become apparent that eosinophils play a crucial role in mucosal immune homeostasis. Although eosinophils are the main cellular component of the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, they have often been overlooked because they express numerous markers, which are normally used to characterize macrophages and/or dendritic cells. To study their function in mucosal immunity, it is important to isolate them with high purity and viability. Here, we describe a protocol to purify eosinophils from the lamina propria of the murine small intestine. The method involves preparation of the small intestine, removal of epithelial cells and digestion of the lamina propria to release eosinophils. A protocol to sort eosinophils is included.

  3. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales.

  4. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-06-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  5. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  6. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  7. Glymphatic stasis at the site of the lamina cribrosa as a potential mechanism underlying open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wostyn, Peter; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    The underlying pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear, but the lamina cribrosa seems to be the primary site of injury, and raised intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. In recent years, a decreased intracranial pressure, leading to an abnormally high trans-lamina

  8. Single‑shot lamina technique of paravertebral block as an adjunct to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thoracic paravertebral block can be employed as an alternative or an adjunct to general anesthesia (GA) for breast cancer surgery. There is no report of this new lamina technique for catheter placement in our environment. In low‑resource settings, potent opioids are lacking and the extended postoperative analgesia it ...

  9. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q.; Bach-Holm, Daniella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...

  10. Transient and Partial Nuclear Lamina Disruption Promotes Chromosome Movement in Early Meiotic Prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jana; Paouneskou, Dimitra; Velkova, Maria; Daryabeigi, Anahita; Laos, Triin; Labella, Sara; Barroso, Consuelo; Pacheco Piñol, Sarai; Montoya, Alex; Kramer, Holger; Woglar, Alexander; Baudrimont, Antoine; Markert, Sebastian Mathias; Stigloher, Christian; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Dammermann, Alexander; Alsheimer, Manfred; Zetka, Monique; Jantsch, Verena

    2018-04-23

    Meiotic chromosome movement is important for the pairwise alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is required for correct chromosome segregation. Movement is driven by cytoplasmic forces, transmitted to chromosome ends by nuclear membrane-spanning proteins. In animal cells, lamins form a prominent scaffold at the nuclear periphery, yet the role lamins play in meiotic chromosome movement is unclear. We show that chromosome movement correlates with reduced lamin association with the nuclear rim, which requires lamin phosphorylation at sites analogous to those that open lamina network crosslinks in mitosis. Failure to remodel the lamina results in delayed meiotic entry, altered chromatin organization, unpaired or interlocked chromosomes, and slowed chromosome movement. The remodeling kinases are delivered to lamins via chromosome ends coupled to the nuclear envelope, potentially enabling crosstalk between the lamina and chromosomal events. Thus, opening the lamina network plays a role in modulating contacts between chromosomes and the nuclear periphery during meiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  12. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Popken

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA.

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  14. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  15. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  16. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  17. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  18. Anterior lamina cribrosa insertion in primary open-angle glaucoma patients and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Lee

    Full Text Available To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients and healthy subjects.Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1 ALI distance (ALID--the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO to the ALI; and (2 marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD--the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian.Both ALID (256 ± 54 vs. 209 ± 37 µm, mean ± SD, p < 0.001 and mALCSD (232 ± 63 vs. 187 ± 40 µm, p < 0.001 were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o'clock and 11.5 o'clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group.The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation.

  19. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, December (2014), s. 88-95 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12070; GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone laminae * long-term trends * atmospheric dynamics Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682614002119

  20. Lamina specific loss of inhibition may lead to distinct neuropathic manifestations: a computational modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Javier Argüello Prada

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been reported that inhibitory control at the superficial dorsal horn (SDH can act in a regionally distinct manner, which suggests that regionally specific subpopulations of SDH inhibitory neurons may prevent one specific neuropathic condition. Methods In an attempt to address this issue, we provide an alternative approach by integrating neuroanatomical information provided by different studies to construct a network-model of the SDH. We use Neuroids to simulate each neuron included in that model by adapting available experimental evidence. Results Simulations suggest that the maintenance of the proper level of pain sensitivity may be attributed to lamina II inhibitory neurons and, therefore, hyperalgesia may be elicited by suppression of the inhibitory tone at that lamina. In contrast, lamina III inhibitory neurons are more likely to be responsible for keeping the nociceptive pathway from the mechanoreceptive pathway, so loss of inhibitory control in that region may result in allodynia. The SDH network-model is also able to replicate non-linearities associated to pain processing, such as Aβ-fiber mediated analgesia and frequency-dependent increase of the neural response. Discussion By incorporating biophysical accuracy and newer experimental evidence, the SDH network-model may become a valuable tool for assessing the contribution of specific SDH connectivity patterns to noxious transmission in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  1. Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions Regulate Cardiac Stem Cell Lineage Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshko, Andrey; Shah, Parisha P; Gupta, Mudit; Babu, Apoorva; Morley, Michael P; Manderfield, Lauren J; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Calderon, Damelys; Aghajanian, Haig; Sierra-Pagán, Javier E; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Qiaohong; Li, Li; Dubois, Nicole C; Morrisey, Edward E; Lazar, Mitchell A; Smith, Cheryl L; Epstein, Jonathan A; Jain, Rajan

    2017-10-19

    Progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types through coordinated expression of lineage-specific genes and modification of complex chromatin configurations. We demonstrate that a histone deacetylase (Hdac3) organizes heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina during cardiac progenitor lineage restriction. Specification of cardiomyocytes is associated with reorganization of peripheral heterochromatin, and independent of deacetylase activity, Hdac3 tethers peripheral heterochromatin containing lineage-relevant genes to the nuclear lamina. Deletion of Hdac3 in cardiac progenitor cells releases genomic regions from the nuclear periphery, leading to precocious cardiac gene expression and differentiation into cardiomyocytes; in contrast, restricting Hdac3 to the nuclear periphery rescues myogenesis in progenitors otherwise lacking Hdac3. Our results suggest that availability of genomic regions for activation by lineage-specific factors is regulated in part through dynamic chromatin-nuclear lamina interactions and that competence of a progenitor cell to respond to differentiation signals may depend upon coordinated movement of responding gene loci away from the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  3. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  4. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  5. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47?72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column...

  6. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  7. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  8. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  9. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  10. Vigas de madeira laminada colada com laminas pre-classificadas de eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Sandra Zampieri

    1998-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnologico Comprovar a viabilidade de realização e desempenho de vigas de madeira laminada colada de Eucalyptus grandis classificadas de acordo com sua rigidez cujas lâminas estão divididas em classes de resistência onde o parâmetro de comparação é o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal. Para isso caracterizou-se física e mecanicamente a madeira e fez-se a classificação das laminas em grupos de acordo com o módulo de e...

  11. The prognosis significance and application value of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Hu, Xiumei; Meng, Yutong; Zhao, Hongying; Cao, Qing; Jin, Mulan

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) and the clinicopathological prognostic factors of colon cancer, to evaluate the feasibility of ELI with use of an elastic stain to help diagnose serosal invasion of colon cancer in routine practice, so as to help us to provide a more accurate estimate for prognosis and stage of patients and a marker for postoperative treatment. 254 cases with colon cancer were included in the study. According to the presence of elastic lamina (EL) and elastic lamina invasion (ELI), all cases were divided into four groups: pT3 EL negative (pT3 EL (-)), pT3 ELI positive (pT3 ELI (+)), pT3 ELI negative (pT3 ELI (-)) and pT4a. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the relationship between elastic lamina invasion and other established adverse histologic features. The EL and ELI positive rates were 81.5% and 42.1% respectively. There were significant differences in mph node metastasis, venous invasion and tumor buds between pT3 ELI (-) and pT3 ELI (+), pT3 ELI (-) and pT4a. There was no significant difference in same factors between pT3 ELI (+) and pT4a. In pT3 stage, there were significant differences in lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and tumor buds between EL (-) and ELI (+). There were no significant differences in same factors between EL (-) and ELI (-). EL was detected less frequently in right-sided tumors compared with left-sided tumors. ELI might be the prognostic factors of colon cancer with II stage and might be the marker of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with pT3 ELI (+) might have similar prognosis to patients with pT4a. For patients with pT3 colon cancer, EL(-) might have similar prognosis as ELI (-) and might take the same therapy. In addition, the right half colon EL positive rate was lower than the left colon. Elastic staining might be a useful tool to help determine the invasive depth and stage of colon cancer.

  12. Compartmentalised expression of meprin in small intestinal mucosa: enhanced expression in lamina propria in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottaz, Daniel; Buri, Caroline; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rösmann, Sandra; Macdonald, Thomas T; Sanderson, Ian R; Sterchi, Erwin E

    2007-03-01

    Epithelial cells in the human small intestine express meprin, an astacin-like metalloprotease, which accumulates normally at the brush border membrane and in the gut lumen. Therefore, meprin is targeted towards luminal components. In coeliac disease patients, peptides from ingested cereals trigger mucosal inflammation in the small intestine, disrupting epithelial cell differentiation and function. Using in situ hybridisation on duodenal tissue sections, we observed a marked shift of meprin mRNA expression from epithelial cells, the predominant expression site in normal mucosa, to lamina propria leukocytes in coeliac disease. Meprin thereby gains access to the substrate repertoire present beneath the epithelium.

  13. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-05-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs.

  14. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  15. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  16. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  17. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  18. Boomerang deformity of cervical spinal cord migrating between split laminae after laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S; Gomibuchi, F; Shimoda, H; Ikezawa, Y; Segawa, H; Kaneko, F; Uchiyama, S; Homma, T

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy were studied to elucidate the mechanism underlying boomerang deformity, which results from the migration of the cervical spinal cord between split laminae after laminoplasty with median splitting of the spinous processes (boomerang sign). Thirty-nine cases, comprising 25 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 8 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and 6 patients with cervical disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis, were examined. The clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively compared between patients with (B group, 8 cases) and without (C group, 31 cases) boomerang sign. Moderate increase of the grade of this deformity resulted in no clinical recovery, although there was no difference in clinical recovery between the two groups. Most boomerang signs developed at the C4/5 and/or C5/6 level, where maximal posterior movement of the spinal cord was achieved. Widths between lateral hinges and between split laminae in the B group were smaller than in the C group. Flatness of the spinal cord in the B group was more severe than in the C group. In conclusion, the boomerang sign was caused by posterior movement of the spinal cord, narrower enlargement of the spinal canal and flatness of the spinal cord.

  19. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  20. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  1. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  2. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  3. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  4. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A

    2012-12-01

    The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field.

  5. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  6. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  7. Size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults on the strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure hcp metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Jiang, Ping; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The size effects of nano-spaced basal stacking faults (SFs) on the tensile strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium have been investigated by a series of large-scale 2D columnar and 3D molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike the strengthening effect of basal SFs on Mg alloys, the nano-spaced basal SFs are observed to have no strengthening effect on the nanocrystalline pure cobalt and magnesium from MD simulations. These observations could be attributed to the following two reasons: (i) Lots of new basal SFs are formed before (for cobalt) or simultaneously with (for magnesium) the other deformation mechanisms (i.e. the formation of twins and the edge dislocations) during the tensile deformation; (ii) In hcp alloys, the segregation of alloy elements and impurities at typical interfaces, such as SFs, can stablilise them for enhancing the interactions with dislocation and thus elevating the strength. Without such segregation in pure hcp metals, the edge dislocations can cut through the basal SFs although the interactions between the dislocations and the pre-existing SFs/newly formed SFs are observed. The nano-spaced basal SFs are also found to have no restriction effect on the formation of deformation twins.

  8. Evaluation of the rostral projection of the sacral lamina as a component of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Harvey; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela

    2018-05-20

    To determine the association between a greater rostral projection of the sacral lamina and clinical signs of cauda equina syndrome (CES) in German shepherd dogs (GSD) with presumptive degenerative lumbosacral disease (DLSS). Retrospective cohort study. One hundred forty-three GSD (125 police dogs and 18 pet dogs) presenting for either CES or prebreeding evaluation. Fifty-five were classified as affected by CES and diagnosed with DLSS, and 88 were classified as unaffected on the basis of clinical and imaging findings. The position of the rostral edge of the sacral lamina was measured from radiographs and/or computed tomography (CT) scans. This position was compared between affected and unaffected dogs. In dogs that underwent both radiography and CT scanning, the agreement between sacral lamina localization using each imaging modality was determined. Owners/handlers were contacted to determine whether dogs subsequently developed clinical signs compatible with CES at a mean of 29 months (unaffected). The sacral lamina did not extend as far rostrally in affected dogs, compared to unaffected dogs (P = .04). Among the 88 dogs unaffected by CES at initial evaluation, 2 developed clinical signs consistent with CES at follow-up. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina, previously proposed as a potential risk factor in dogs with CES due to lumbosacral degeneration, was not associated with a diagnosis of DLSS in this study; the opposite was true. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina may not be a predisposing factor in the development of CES due to DLSS in GSD. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  10. Using the trans-lamina terminalis route via a pterional approach to resect a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma involving the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Robert, Thomas; Alsaiari, Sultan; Obaid, Sami; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2016-01-01

    Retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas involving the anterior third ventricle are challenging to access. Although the pterional approach is a common route for suprasellar lesions, when the craniopharyngioma extends behind the chiasma into the third ventricle, access is even more difficult, and the lamina terminalis may offer a good working window. The translamina terminalis approach provides direct access to the retrochiasmatic portion of the tumor with minimal brain retraction and no manipulation of the visual nerves. In this video, we emphasize the utility of using the lamina terminalis corridor to resect the retrochiasmatic intraventricular portion of a craniopharyngioma. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hrLNC0hDKe4 .

  11. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  12. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  14. Low-Cost Intra-Articular Distraction Technique Using Kirschner Wires and a Toothed Lamina Spreader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas Gregory

    We describe a low-cost (instrument cost) technique for joint distraction using 2 Kirschner wires and a toothed lamina spreader in lieu of a Hintermann distractor. The described technique allows for temporary intra-articular distraction and visualization and preservation of the articular surface with extra-articular instrumentation. The technique can also allow for closed reduction and percutaneous treatment in cases of soft tissue compromise. Additionally, the technique uses common orthopedic surgical instruments, leading to a minimal learning curve for novice surgeons. We have found this distraction technique to be most effective for intra-articular preparation of hindfoot and midfoot arthrodeses and for navicular fracture reduction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lamina Cribrosa Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Choi, Da Ye Diana; Lim, Dong Hui; Chung, Tae Young; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2018-04-01

    To determine deep optic nerve head structure changes after transient intraocular pressure elevation during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was performed in each myopic eye that underwent LASIK surgery. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography images were created at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month. Lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness, LC depth and prelaminar thickness at the superior, middle and inferior portions of the optic nerve head were measured by two investigators. Forty eyes in 40 patients were included in the present study. During follow-up, there were no significant differences in prelaminar thickness or LC depth. The LC demonstrated increased thickness at postoperative 1 day at all three locations (superior, middle, and inferior) (p LASIK surgery. However, the thickness will gradually return to baseline morphology. Temporary intraocular pressure increase during LASIK does not appear to induce irreversible LC thickness changes. © 2018 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  16. Isolation and Flow Cytometry Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells from the Intestinal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges. They provide immunity to various types of infections but may also contribute to organ homeostasis as they produce factors acting on epithelial cells thereby enhancing barrier integrity. Here, we describe how these cells can be isolated from their environment and provide an in-depth protocol how to visualize the various ILC subsets by flow cytometry.

  17. Nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix organization in sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Jenkins, H; Goldberg, M W; Allen, T D; Hutchison, C J

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear lamina and matrices were prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extracts using a fractionation and extraction procedure. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that while chromatin was efficiently removed from nuclei during the extraction procedure, the distribution of lamins was unaffected. Consistent with this data, the amount of lamin B3, determined by immunoblotting, was not affected through the extraction procedure. Nuclear matrices were visualised in DGD sections by TEM. Within these sections filaments were observed both at the boundary of the nucleus (the lamina) and within the body of the nucleus (internal nuclear matrix filaments). To improve resolution, nuclear matrices were also prepared as whole mounts and viewed using field emission in lens scanning electron microscopy (FEISEM). This technique revealed two distinct networks of filaments. Filaments lying at the surface of nuclear matrices interconnected nuclear pores. These filaments were readily labelled with monoclonal anti-lamin B3 antibodies. Filaments lying within the body of the nuclear matrix were highly branched but were not readily labelled with antilamin B3 antibodies. Nuclear matrices were also prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in lamin B3 depleted extracts. Using FEISEM, filaments were also detected in these preparations. However, these filaments were poorly organised and often appeared to aggregate. To confirm these results nuclear matrices were also observed as whole mounts using TEM. Nuclear matrices prepared from control nuclei contained a dense array of interconnected filaments. Many (but not all) of these filaments were labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies. In contrast, nuclear matrices prepared from "lamin depleted nuclei' contained poorly organised or aggregated filaments which were not specifically labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies.

  18. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  19. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...

  20. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  1. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  2. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  3. Angled Growth of the Dental Lamina Is Accompanied by Asymmetrical Expression of the WNT Pathway Receptor Frizzled 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Putnová, Iveta; Dosedělová, Hana; Bryja, V.; Landová, Marie; Buchtová, Marcela; Štembírek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 29. ISSN 1664-042X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-29273P Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : FZD6 * successional dental lamina * WNT signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016

  4. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P

    1996-01-01

    Polyclonal, mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD4+ T cells containing a large fraction of blasts activated in situ accumulate in the gut lamina propria of severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developing colitis after CD4+ T cell transplantation. CD4+ T cells isolated from different repopulated...

  5. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  6. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  7. Diagenetic variation at the lamina scale in lacustrine organic-rich shales: Implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Cao, Yingchang; Liu, Keyu; Jiang, Zaixing; Wu, Jing; Hao, Fang

    2018-05-01

    Lacustrine carbonate-rich shales are well developed within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata of the Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) of eastern China and across southeast Asia. Developing an understanding of the diagenesis of these shales is essential to research on mass balance, diagenetic fluid transport and exchange, and organic-inorganic interactions in black shales. This study investigates the origin and distribution of authigenic minerals and their diagenetic characteristics, processes, and pathways at the scale of lacustrine laminae within the Es4s-Es3x shale sequence of the BBB. The research presented in this study is based on thin sections, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and SEM-catholuminescence (CL) observations of well core samples combined with the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses performed using a laser microprobe mass spectrometer. The dominant lithofacies within the Es4s-Es3x sequence are a laminated calcareous shale (LCS-1) and a laminated clay shale (LCS-2). The results of this study show that calcite recrystallization1 is the overarching diagenetic process affecting the LCS-1, related to acid generation from organic matter (OM) thermal evolution. This evolutionary transition is the key factor driving the diagenesis of this lithofacies, while the transformation of clay minerals is the main diagenetic attribute of the LCS-2. Diagenetic differences occur within different laminae and at variable locations within the same lamina level, controlled by variations in mineral composition and the properties of laminae interfaces. The diagenetic fluid migration scale is vertical and responses (dissolution and replacement) are limited to individual laminae, between zero and 100 μm in width. In contrast, the dominant migration pathway for diagenetic fluid is lateral, along the abrupt interfaces between laminae boundaries, which leads to the vertical

  8. Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

    2013-12-01

    Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

  9. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  10. Trichoepithelioma And Multiple Basal Cell Epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S.K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple trichoepithelioma and basal cell epithelioma is reported. Although malignant degeneration of trichoepithelioma is debated, clinical and histopathological studies, in our case, hint at that. The case is reported for its rarity.

  11. Use of basal stimulation at anesthesiology department

    OpenAIRE

    MARKOVÁ, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The theme ?The Use of Basal Stimulation at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department? was chosen in order to map out the use of this nursing method by the nurses and the staff who I cooperate with. The theoretical part deals with the environment at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department where the basal stimulation is used and also with special characteristics of the nursing care. Further, it deals with monitoring patients, causes of consciousness defects occurrence and kinds ...

  12. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  13. Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Y.; Hori, T.; Watanabe, T.; Takenobu, A.; Takigawa, H.; Kishimoto, M.; Tanaka, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 5-10% of primary intracranial germ cell tumors arise in basal ganglia and thalamus, where CT studies have been made. MR of the tumors in the pineal region, and to our knowledge, from one tumor in the basal ganglia were similar. In the present case, MR produced confusion in confirming diagnosis, which may require additional evidence from the clinical course, tumor markers, and CT images. (orig.)

  14. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  15. Effects of collagen microstructure and material properties on the deformation of the neural tissues of the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A P; Jan, N-J; Sigal, I A

    2017-08-01

    It is widely considered that intraocular pressure (IOP)-induced deformation within the neural tissue pores of the lamina cribrosa (LC) contributes to neurodegeneration and glaucoma. Our goal was to study how the LC microstructure and mechanical properties determine the mechanical insult to the neural tissues within the pores of the LC. Polarized light microscopy was used to measure the collagen density and orientation in histology sections of three sheep optic nerve heads (ONH) at both mesoscale (4.4μm) and microscale (0.73μm) resolutions. Mesoscale fiber-aware FE models were first used to calculate ONH deformations at an IOP of 30mmHg. The results were then used as boundary conditions for microscale models of LC regions. Models predicted large insult to the LC neural tissues, with 95th percentile 1st principal strains ranging from 7 to 12%. Pores near the scleral boundary suffered significantly higher stretch compared to pores in more central regions (10.0±1.4% vs. 7.2±0.4%; p=0.014; mean±SD). Variations in material properties altered the minimum, median, and maximum levels of neural tissue insult but largely did not alter the patterns of pore-to-pore variation, suggesting these patterns are determined by the underlying structure and geometry of the LC beams and pores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first computational model that reproduces the highly heterogeneous neural tissue strain fields observed experimentally. The loss of visual function associated with glaucoma has been attributed to sustained mechanical insult to the neural tissues of the lamina cribrosa due to elevated intraocular pressure. Our study is the first computational model built from specimen-specific tissue microstructure to consider the mechanics of the neural tissues of the lamina separately from the connective tissue. We found that the deformation of the neural tissue was much larger than that predicted by any recent microstructure-aware models of the lamina. These results

  16. Computerized tomographic diagnosis of basal skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tokutaro; Shimoyama, Ichiro; Endoh, Mitsutoshi; Ninchoji, Toshiaki; Uemura, Kenichi.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of basal skull fractures used to be difficult, particularly on the basis of routine skull roentgenography alone. We have now examined the diagnostic value of conventional computerized tomography in basal skull fractures. We studied 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures. We examined them based on at least one of the following computerized tomographic criteria for basal skull fractures: 1) fracture line(s), 2) intracranial air, 3) fluid in the paranasal sinuses, and 4) fluid in the middle ear, including the mastoid air cells. The signs of the fracture line and of the intracranial air are definite indications of basal skull fracture, but the signs of fluid in the paranasal sinuses and/or in the middle ear are not definite. When combined, however, with such other clinical signs as black eye, Battle's sign, CSF leakage, CSF findings, and profuse nasal or ear bleeding, the diagnosis is more reliable. Seventy cases (85.4%) in this series had basal skull fractures according to our computerized tomographic criteria. Among them , 26 cases (31.7%) were diagnosed with fracture lines, 17 cases (20.7%) with intracranial air, 16 cases (19.5%) with fluid in the paranasal sinuses, 10 cases (12.2%) with fluid in the middle ear, and one case (1.2%) with fluid in both. Twelve cases (14.6%) of the 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures could not have been diagnosed on our computerized tomographic criteria alone. We diagnosed them because of CSF leakage, CSF findings, surgical findings, etc. (author)

  17. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  18. Application of Elliptic Fourier analysis to describe the lamina cribrosa shape with age and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, P G; Grimm, J L; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K L; Sigal, I A

    2014-11-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47-91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mmHg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric center of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using Elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC 1), or inversely (PC 2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC 3). Only PC 3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  20. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography.Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch's membrane openings (BMO. The mean LC depth (mLCD was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated.The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P -6 dB and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < -6 dB, P = 0.95.LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change.

  1. Basigin/EMMPRIN/CD147 mediates neuron-glia interactions in the optic lamina of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kathryn D; Wyman, Robert J; Meinertzhagen, Ian A

    2007-11-15

    Basigin, an IgG family glycoprotein found on the surface of human metastatic tumors, stimulates fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that remodel the extracellular matrix, and is thus also known as Extracellular Matrix MetalloPRotease Inducer (EMMPRIN). Using Drosophila we previously identified novel roles for basigin. Specifically, photoreceptors of flies with basigin eyes show misplaced nuclei, rough ER and mitochondria, and swollen axon terminals, suggesting cytoskeletal disruptions. Here we demonstrate that basigin is required for normal neuron-glia interactions in the Drosophila visual system. Flies with basigin mutant photoreceptors have misplaced epithelial glial cells within the first optic neuropile, or lamina. In addition, epithelial glia insert finger-like projections--capitate projections (CPs)--sites of vesicle endocytosis and possibly neurotransmitter recycling. When basigin is missing from photoreceptors terminals, CP formation between glia and photoreceptor terminals is disrupted. Visual system function is also altered in flies with basigin mutant eyes. While photoreceptors depolarize normally to light, synaptic transmission is greatly diminished, consistent with a defect in neurotransmitter release. Basigin expression in photoreceptor neurons is required for normal structure and placement of glia cells.

  2. Correlating Corneal Biomechanics and Ocular Biometric Properties with Lamina Cribrosa Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bartolomé, Francisco; Martínez de la Casa, Jose María; Camacho Bosca, Irene; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; Aguilar Munoa, Soledad; Martín Juan, Alberto; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    To examine interrelations between corneal biomechanics, ocular biometric variables and optic disc size (ODS), lamina cribosa depth (LCD) or thickness (LCT) in a healthy population. In a cross-sectional case-control study, the following measurements were made in 81 eyes of 81 participants: axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness using the optical biometer Lenstar LS900; and corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained in each participant. Mean ODS, mean LCD, and mean LCT were measured in 11 equally spaced horizontal B-scans, excluding the LC insertion area under Bruch's membrane and scleral rim. LCD was measured in 74 of 81 eyes (91.36%); LCT in 60/81 (75.3%); ODS in 81/81 (100%). CRF was poorly, but significantly, correlated with LCT (Pearson's R = 0.264; P = 0.045). IOPcc, IOPg, CH, and ocular biometrics variables were poorly (non-significantly) correlated with LCD, LCT, and ODS. CRF was poorly but directly correlated with LCT. No association was detected between CH or ocular biometric variables and ODS, LCD, or LCT.

  3. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  4. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  5. Severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae in a Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Mukai, Shuhei; Fushimi, Yasuo; Matsushita, Kouhei; Miyoshi, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Kitajima, Hideo; Takamure, Senro; Matsushita, Toshihiko; Kitamura, Nobuo; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2007-12-01

    An 11-month-old Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat underwent clinical and histological analyses. During the observation period, it showed normal appetite and fecal volume but persistent chronic bloat symptoms. Compared to controls, the steer's feces contained undigested large straws. Necropsy revealed normal rumen, reticulum, and abomasum but a small omasum. The rumen, reticulum, and abomasum mucosa was normal, with well-developed ruminal papillae. However, severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae was observed along with hypoplasia reticular groove and ruminoreticular fold. The contents of the reticulum, omasum, and abomasums comprised undigested large sized hay particles. The omasum papillae showed no pathological abnormalities. This is a rare case of a steer with chronic bloat probably caused by severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae.

  6. Cholera toxin B subunit labeling in lamina II of spinal cord dorsal horn following chronic inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing Ping; Tian, Li

    2002-07-26

    We have investigated the effect of inflammation on the labeling pattern of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, an A-fiber marker, by an intra-sciatic nerve injection of the tracer. Following chronic inflammation in one hind paw in rats, there was substantial CTB labeling in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, which is normally absent. However, there was no change in the labeling pattern of wheat germ agglutinin or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase/thiamine monophosphatase, two C-fiber markers. The CTB labeling in lamina II after peripheral nerve injury has been interpreted as central sprouting of A-fibers or uptake of the tracer by injured C-fibers. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation and nerve injury may share some common mechanisms in generating allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  7. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  8. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pchronic periodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  9. The influence of basal-ice debris on patterns and rates of glacial erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Egholm, David L.

    2018-05-01

    Glaciers have played a key role for shaping much of Earth's high topography during the cold periods of the Late Cenozoic. However, despite of their distinct influence on landscapes, the mechanisms of glacial erosion, and the properties that determine their rate of operation, are still poorly understood. Theoretical models of subglacial erosion generally highlight the influence of basal sliding in setting the pace of erosion, but they also point to a strong influence of other subglacial properties, such as effective bed pressure and basal-ice debris concentration. The latter properties are, however, not easily measured in existing glaciers, and hence their influence cannot readily be confirmed by observations. In order to better connect theoretical models for erosion to measurable properties in glaciers, we used computational landscape evolution experiments to study the expected influence of basal-ice debris concentration for subglacial abrasion at the scale of glaciers. The computational experiments couple the two erosion processes of quarrying and abrasion, and furthermore integrate the flow of ice and transport of debris within the ice, thus allowing for the study of dynamic feedbacks between subglacial erosion and systematic glacier-scale variations in basal-ice debris concentration. The experiments explored several physics-based models for glacial erosion, in combination with different models for basal sliding to elucidate the relationship between sliding speed, erosion rate and basal-ice debris concentration. The results demonstrate how differences in debris concentration can explain large variations in measured rates. The experiments also provide a simple explanation for the observed dependence of glacier-averaged rate of erosion on glacier size: that large glacier uplands feed more debris into their lower-elevation parts, thereby strengthening their erosive power.

  10. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  11. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I?III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polg?r, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  12. Antinociceptive action of oxytocin involves inhibition of potassium channel currents in lamina II neurons of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbon Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence in the literature shows that oxytocin (OT has a strong spinal anti-nociceptive action. Oxytocinergic axons originating from a subpopulation of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons establish synaptic contacts with lamina II interneurons but little is known about the functional role of OT with respect to neuronal firing and excitability. Results Using the patch-clamp technique, we have recorded lamina II interneurons in acute transverse lumbar spinal cord slices of rats (15 to 30 days old and analyzed the OT effects on action potential firing ability. In the current clamp mode, we found that bath application of a selective OT-receptor agonist (TGOT reduced firing in the majority of lamina II interneurons exhibiting a bursting firing profile, but never in those exhibiting a single spike discharge upon depolarization. Interestingly, OT-induced reduction in spike frequency and increase of firing threshold were often observed, leading to a conversion of the firing profile from repetitive and delayed profiles into phasic ones and sometimes further into single spike profile. The observed effects following OT-receptor activation were completely abolished when the OT-receptor agonist was co-applied with a selective OT-receptor antagonist. In current and voltage clamp modes, we show that these changes in firing are strongly controlled by voltage-gated potassium currents. More precisely, transient IA currents and delayed-rectifier currents were reduced in amplitude and transient IA current was predominantly inactivated after OT bath application. Conclusion This effect of OT on the firing profile of lamina II neurons is in good agreement with the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of OT described in vivo.

  13. Glymphatic stasis at the site of the lamina cribrosa as a potential mechanism underlying open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostyn, Peter; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2017-07-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear, but the lamina cribrosa seems to be the primary site of injury, and raised intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. In recent years, a decreased intracranial pressure, leading to an abnormally high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference, has gained interest as a new risk factor for glaucoma. New research now lends support to the hypothesis that a paravascular transport system is present in the eye analogous to the recently discovered 'glymphatic system' in the brain, which is a functional waste clearance pathway that promotes elimination of interstitial solutes, including β-amyloid, from the brain along paravascular channels. Given that β-amyloid has been reported to increase by chronic elevation of intraocular pressure in glaucomatous animal models and to cause retinal ganglion cell death, the discovery of a paravascular clearance system in the eye may provide powerful new insights into the pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma. In this review, we provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma, present supporting preliminary data from our own post-mortem study and hypothesize that the disease may result from restriction of normal glymphatic flow at the level of the lamina cribrosa owing to a low intracranial pressure and/or a high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure gradient. If confirmed, this viewpoint could offer new perspectives for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this devastating disorder. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Scafè, M.; Raiteri, G.; Brentari, A.; Dlacic, R.; Troiani, E.; Falaschetti, M. P.; Besseghini, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compr...

  15. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared with non......-activated CD4+ T cells. In pulse-chase experiments it was shown that BrdU-labeled cells disappeared rapidly from the lamina propria of diseased mice. DNA analysis revealed that this was due to the presence of nearly four times as many apoptotic CD4+ T cells in diseased than in control mice. Further analyses...

  16. Correlation of radiographic size and the presence of radiopaque lamina with histological findings in 70 periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Penarrocha, Miguel; Ortega, Bárbara; Martí, Eva; Bagán, José Vicente; Vera, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to relate the histological diagnosis of chronic inflammatory periapical lesions with the radiographic images of these lesions. A total of 70 biopsy specimens obtained during periapical surgery were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under a microscope. Histological analysis established the diagnosis as granuloma, cyst, or scar tissue. The location of the lesion was recorded, as were the radiographic size (maximum and minimum diameter in mm and area in mm(2)) and the presence of radiopaque lamina around the lesion, using an image analyzing system. The distribution of the biopsy specimens was 65.7% granulomas, 25.7% scar tissue, and 8.6% cysts, 1 of which was a keratocyst. The largest lesions were cysts and epithelialized granulomas, with statistically significant differences. Radiopaque lamina was observed around 9 lesions; of these, only 2 were histologically diagnosed as cysts, with the rest as granulomas. Most of the apical lesions were granulomas. Cysts had the largest radiotransparent images; however, in the 70 cases studied, neither the radiographic size nor the presence of associated radiopaque lamina alone was sufficient to determine the type of lesion. Histological analysis is required.

  17. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  18. Basal cell nevus syndrome: 2 case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jin Soo

    2008-01-01

    The basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts and skeletal abnormalities. We experienced two cases that represented several characteristics of BCNS. Case 1: a thirty three year-old man visited CSU hospital. His radiographs showed four cystic lesions at both maxillary sinus and both mandibular angle, with bifid rib and ectopic calcification of falx cerebri. After marsupialization and enucleation, recurrent and newly developing tendency were found on his follow-up radiographs. Case 2: a seventeen year-old man had four large cystic lesions which were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocysts. He had craniofacial anomalies which included ectopic calcification and frontal bossing.

  19. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1988-01-01

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  20. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masayuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Kimura, Hirohiko

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  1. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  2. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  3. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  4. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  5. Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2002-02-01

    We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.

  6. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  7. HIV communication capacity strengthening: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth

    2014-08-15

    HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.

  8. Microbial Communities and Their Predicted Metabolic Functions in Growth Laminae of a Unique Large Conical Mat from Lake Untersee, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Koo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the distribution of microbial taxa and their predicted metabolic functions observed in the top (U1, middle (U2, and inner (U3 decadal growth laminae of a unique large conical microbial mat from perennially ice-covered Lake Untersee of East Antarctica, using NextGen sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the U1 lamina was dominated by cyanobacteria, specifically Phormidium sp., Leptolyngbya sp., and Pseudanabaena sp. The U2 and U3 laminae had high abundances of Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Closely related taxa within each abundant bacterial taxon found in each lamina were further differentiated at the highest taxonomic resolution using the oligotyping method. PICRUSt analysis, which determines predicted KEGG functional categories from the gene contents and abundances among microbial communities, revealed a high number of sequences belonging to carbon fixation, energy metabolism, cyanophycin, chlorophyll, and photosynthesis proteins in the U1 lamina. The functional predictions of the microbial communities in U2 and U3 represented signal transduction, membrane transport, zinc transport and amino acid-, carbohydrate-, and arsenic- metabolisms. The Nearest Sequenced Taxon Index (NSTI values processed through PICRUSt were 0.10, 0.13, and 0.11 for U1, U2, and U3 laminae, respectively. These values indicated a close correspondence with the reference microbial genome database, implying high confidence in the predicted metabolic functions of the microbial communities in each lamina. The distribution of microbial taxa observed in each lamina and their predicted metabolic functions provides additional insight into the complex microbial ecosystem at Lake Untersee, and lays the foundation for studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique mat structures and their evolutionary significance.

  9. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  10. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  12. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  13. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2018-03-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  15. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma, a rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common human malignant neoplasm. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms. Vulvar basal cell carcinomas are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic. However, these tumours may appear in areas which are normally covered with ultraviolet light. We present the case of a 60 years old woman diagnosed with invasive breast cancer for which she underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient presented to our department with an ulcerated vulvar lesion. On inspection, the tumour measured 3/2 cm and was located on the left labium majus. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of vulvar basal cell carcinoma and a wide local excision was performed with no relapse at one year. In conclusion, early detection of BCC’s is critical to allow complete surgical cure so any abnormality on the vulva should be biopsied. A wide safety margin of 1cm should be achieved when resecting the tumour and the physician should keep in mind that the BCC’s of the vulva has a high recurrence rate. Previous chemotherapy is not associated with this type of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  16. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  17. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an ...

  18. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed b...

  19. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  1. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  2. Abnormality of the spinal column in pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipoma with special reference to CT findings of the lamina defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Ochi, Satoko; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2009-01-01

    Lumbosacral spinal lipomas are usually associated with occult spinal dysraphism at the lumbosacral spine. During childfood, posterior arch defects in the lumbosacral spine are considered normal computed tomography (CT) findings because of the presence of interlaminar synchondrosis. In this study, we investigated the CT findings of the lumbosacral spine in the pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipomas. We aimed to characterize the radiological features of the abnormal spinal column in case of spinal lipomas. Twenty-one patients (age, 1 month to 3 years) were enrolled in this study: 11 patients had conus lipoma; 10 patients, filum lipoma. All patients showed lamina defects of the lumbosacral spine on 3D-CT. The number of the defective laminae was significantly larger in the patients with conus lipomas than in those with filum lipomas. Although the appearance of lamina defects in the patients with filum lipoma was similar to the reported findings of defective laminae in normal children, these patients were characterized by mild scoliosis and asymmetry of the posterior arches localized in the lower sacrum and coccyx. On the other hand, the patients with conus lipoma were characterized by wider lamina defects that extended rostrally, 'open-door like' deformity of lamina, vertebral dysgenesis, thoracolumber scoliosis and heterotopic ossification. Such CT characterization of the abnormality of the lumbosacral spine in lipoma patients will be useful to differentiate the pathological spina bifida from the normal open posterior arches in childhood. (author)

  3. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  4. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  5. Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.

  6. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  7. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  8. Strengthening entrepreneurship through coaching and developing competencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening entrepreneurship is an important strategy for stimulating the transition to sustainable agriculture. But how is that done? One example is the Interactive Strategic Management method, which supports entrepreneurs in the creation and execution of future-focused strategies.

  9. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  10. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  11. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  12. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  13. Numerical Investigation of Masonry Strengthened with Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Ramaglia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two main fiber strengthening systems typically applied in masonry structures have been investigated: composites made of basalt and hemp fibers, coupled with inorganic matrix. Starting from the experimental results on composites, the out-of-plane behavior of the strengthened masonry was assessed according to several numerical analyses. In a first step, the ultimate behavior was assessed in terms of P (axial load-M (bending moment domain (i.e., failure surface, changing several mechanical parameters. In order to assess the ductility capacity of the strengthened masonry elements, the P-M domain was estimated starting from the bending moment-curvature diagrams. Key information about the impact of several mechanical parameters on both the capacity and the ductility was considered. Furthermore, the numerical analyses allow the assessment of the efficiency of the strengthening system, changing the main mechanical properties. Basalt fibers had lower efficiency when applied to weak masonry. In this case, the elastic properties of the masonry did not influence the structural behavior under a no tension assumption for the masonry. Conversely, their impact became non-negligible, especially for higher values of the compressive strength of the masonry. The stress-strain curve used to model the composite impacted the flexural strength. Natural fibers provided similar outcomes, but a first difference regards the higher mechanical compatibility of the strengthening system with the substrate. In this case, the ultimate condition is due to the failure mode of the composite. The stress-strain curves used to model the strengthening system are crucial in the ductility estimation of the strengthened masonry. However, the behavior of the composite strongly influences the curvature ductility in the case of higher compressive strength for masonry. The numerical results discussed in this paper provide the base to develop normalized capacity models able to

  14. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  15. Cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina affection in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta: A functional proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Assunta; Besio, Roberta; Carnemolla, Chiara; Landi, Claudia; Armini, Alessandro; Aglan, Mona; Otaify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A; Forlino, Antonella; Bini, Luca; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-09-07

    . Our analyses demonstrated the occurrence of an altered cytoskeleton and, for the first time in OI, of nuclear lamina organization. Hence, cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton components may be considered as novel drug targets for clinical management of the disease. Finally, according to our analyses, OI emerged to share similar deregulated pathways and molecular aberrances, as previously described, with other rare disorders caused by different genetic defects. Those aberrances may provide common pharmacological targets to support classical clinical approach in treating different diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  17. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  18. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  19. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  20. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive primary afferents, we know little about their responses to noxious stimuli. In this study we have looked for phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in these neurons in response to different types of noxious stimulus applied to one hindlimb of anaesthetised rats. The stimuli were mechanical (repeated pinching, thermal (immersion in water at 52°C or chemical (injection of 2% formaldehyde. Results Five minutes after each type of stimulus we observed numerous cells with phosphorylated ERK (pERK in laminae I and IIo, together with scattered positive cells in deeper laminae. We found that virtually all of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons contained pERK after each of these stimuli and that in the great majority of cases there was internalisation of the NK1r on the dorsal dendrites of these cells. In addition, we also saw neurons in lamina III that were pERK-positive but lacked the NK1r, and these were particularly evident in animals that had had the pinch stimulus. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli.

  1. Selective attentional enhancement and inhibition of fronto-posterior connectivity by the basal ganglia during attention switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia interact to selectively gate a desired action. Recent studies have shown that this selective gating mechanism of the basal ganglia extends to the domain of attention. Here, we investigate the nature of this action-like gating mechanism for attention using a spatial attention-switching paradigm in combination with functional neuroimaging and dynamic causal modeling. We show that the basal ganglia guide attention by focally releasing inhibition of task-relevant representations, while simultaneously inhibiting task-irrelevant representations by selectively modulating prefrontal top-down connections. These results strengthen and specify the role of the basal ganglia in attention. Moreover, our findings have implications for psychological theorizing by suggesting that inhibition of unattended sensory regions is not only a consequence of mutual suppression, but is an active process, subserved by the basal ganglia. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  3. The basis for the strengthening of safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime, by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. This paper will summarize the evolution of the safeguards system, describe strengthened safeguards, report on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outline plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  4. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively.

  5. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  6. Oxytocin-induced antinociception in the spinal cord is mediated by a subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons in lamina I-II which amplify GABAergic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlichter Rémy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT, secreted in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn by descending axons of paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN neurons, produces antinociception and analgesia. The spinal mechanism of OT is, however, still unclear and requires further investigation. We have used patch clamp recording of lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices and immunocytochemistry in order to identify PVN-activated neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and attempted to determine how this neuronal population may lead to OT-mediated antinociception. Results We show that OT released during PVN stimulation specifically activates a subpopulation of lamina II glutamatergic interneurons which are localized in the most superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-II. This OT-specific stimulation of glutamatergic neurons allows the recruitment of all GABAergic interneurons in lamina II which produces a generalized elevation of local inhibition, a phenomenon which might explain the reduction of incoming Aδ and C primary afferent-mediated sensory messages. Conclusion Our results obtained in lamina II of the spinal cord provide the first clear evidence of a specific local neuronal network that is activated by OT release to induce antinociception. This OT-specific pathway might represent a novel and interesting therapeutic target for the management of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  7. Comparison of 640-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography Versus 32-Slice MDCT for Imaging of the Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Koumellis, Panos; Francis, Ian S; Liu, Christopher S C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 640-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting osteo-odonto laminar resorption in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) compared with the current standard 32-slice MDCT. Explanted OOKP laminae and bone-dentine fragments were scanned using 640-slice MDCT (Aquilion ONE; Toshiba) and 32-slice MDCT (LightSpeed Pro32; GE Healthcare). Pertinent comparisons including image quality, radiation dose, and scanning parameters were made. Benefits of 640-slice MDCT over 32-slice MDCT were shown. Key comparisons of 640-slice MDCT versus 32-slice MDCT included the following: percentage difference and correlation coefficient between radiological and anatomical measurements, 1.35% versus 3.67% and 0.9961 versus 0.9882, respectively; dose-length product, 63.50 versus 70.26; rotation time, 0.175 seconds versus 1.000 seconds; and detector coverage width, 16 cm versus 2 cm. Resorption of the osteo-odonto lamina after OOKP surgery can result in potentially sight-threatening complications, hence it warrants regular monitoring and timely intervention. MDCT remains the gold standard for radiological assessment of laminar resorption, which facilitates detection of subtle laminar changes earlier than the onset of clinical signs, thus indicating when preemptive measures can be taken. The 640-slice MDCT exhibits several advantages over traditional 32-slice MDCT. However, such benefits may not offset cost implications, except in rare cases, such as in young patients who might undergo years of radiation exposure.

  8. Lamina cribrosa position and Bruch's membrane opening differences between anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolleda, Gema; Pérez-Sarriegui, Ane; Díez-Álvarez, Laura; De Juan, Victoria; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J

    2018-06-01

    To compare the optic nerve head morphology among primary open-angle glaucoma, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, their fellow healthy eyes and control eyes, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. Observational cross-sectional study including 88 eyes of 68 patients. In this study, 23 non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, 17 fellow unaffected eyes, 25 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes, and 23 age-matched control eyes were included. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk area were evaluated. Bruch's membrane opening diameter, optic cup depth, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and prelaminar tissue thickness were assessed. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and primary open-angle glaucoma eyes had similar visual field mean deviation and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P = 0.6 and P = 0.56, respectively). Bruch's membrane opening diameter was significantly larger in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes than in control eyes (P = 0.02). Lamina cribrosa and disk cup were deeper in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma than both control and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P open-angle glaucoma eyes than in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P opening diameter was found in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes compared with control eyes. This issue has clinical implications because Bruch's membrane opening has been considered a stable reference for disk-related measures.

  9. Estimation of Lamina Stiffness and Strength of Quadriaxial Non-Crimp Fabric Composites Based on Semi-Laminar Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadriaxial non-crimp fabric (QNCF composites are increasingly being used as primary structural materials in aircraft and automotive applications. Predicting the mechanical properties of QNCF lamina is more complicated compared with that of unidirectional (UD composites, because of the knitting connection of different plies. In this study, to analyze the stiffness and strength of the QNCF composites, a novel modeling strategy for the meso-scale features is presented based on the semi-laminar assumption. Following the view of the mechanical properties of single composite lamina, the complex QNCF layer is decomposed into individual plies. Three different representative unit cells along fiber direction are selected to predict the mechanical performance of QNCF, including in-plane stiffness, damage initiation, and stiffness degradation. To validate the developed modeling strategy, the predictions are compared with existing experimental results, where a good agreement is presented on the prediction of in-plane stiffness and strength. Furthermore, the effect of in-plane fiber distortion, induced by the stitching yarn on the mechanical properties, is studied.

  10. [Effectiveness of posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system in treatment of lumbar spondylolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongjie; Song, Yueming; Zeng, Jiancheng; Liu, Hao; Liu, Limin; Kong, Qingquan; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system and bone grafting for lumbar spondylolysis. Between January 2005 and October 2009, 22 patients with lumbar spondylolysis underwent posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system and bone grafting. There were 19 males and 3 females with an average age of 18.4 years (range, 12-26 years). The main symptom was low back pain with an average disease duration of 16 months (range, 8-56 months). The visual analogue scale (VAS) was 6.0 +/- 1.2 and Oswestry disability index (ODI) was 72.0% +/- 10.0% preoperatively. The X-ray films showed bilateral spondylolysis at L4 in 9 cases and at L5 in 13 cases. The range of motion (ROM) at upper and lower intervertebral spaces was (11.8 +/- 2.8) degrees and (14.1 +/- 1.9) degrees, respectively. All incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-45 months (mean, 25 months). Low back pain was significantly alleviated after operation. The VAS score (0.3 +/- 0.5) and ODI (17.6% +/- 3.4%) were significantly decreased at last follow-up when compared with preoperative scores (P spondylolysis, having a high fusion rate, low complication rate, and maximum retention of lumbar ROM.

  11. Small Intestinal Submucosa Implantation for the Possible Treatment of Vocal Fold Scar, Sulcus, and Superficial Lamina Propria Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J; Cabin, Jonathan A; Iacob, Codrin E

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate the histologic effects of grafting porcine-derived small intestinal submucosa (SIS) into the vocal fold superficial lamina propria (SLP) layer for the potential treatment of vocal fold scar, sulcus and superficial lamina propria atrophy. Small intestinal submucosa was implanted into the right vocal fold SLP of 6 mongrel dogs. The left vocal fold served as a sham surgical control. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperative, bilateral vocal fold specimens were evaluated histologically. At 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, SIS-implanted vocal folds demonstrated moderate and mild inflammation and acute and chronic inflammation. At 6 weeks, inflammation was minimal and chronic. The 6-week specimens showed copious amounts of newly generated hyaluronic acid (HA) within the graft. There was no reactive fibrosis at 6 weeks. In the canine model, SIS appears safe for SLP grafting. Inflammation is similar to that of sham surgery. Small intestinal submucosa results in newly generated HA without concomitant fibrosis. Small intestinal submucosa has potential to be used in treatment of disorders with SLP, including vocal fold scar, sulcus, and atrophy. Studies evaluating the effect of SIS implantation on vocal fold function, as well as the ultimate fate of the graft, are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  13. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  14. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  15. Potential mechanisms for imperfect synchronization in parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongseok Park

    Full Text Available Neural activity in the brain of parkinsonian patients is characterized by the intermittently synchronized oscillatory dynamics. This imperfect synchronization, observed in the beta frequency band, is believed to be related to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of the disorder. Our study explores potential mechanisms behind this intermittent synchrony. We study the response of a bursting pallidal neuron to different patterns of synaptic input from subthalamic nucleus (STN neuron. We show how external globus pallidus (GPe neuron is sensitive to the phase of the input from the STN cell and can exhibit intermittent phase-locking with the input in the beta band. The temporal properties of this intermittent phase-locking show similarities to the intermittent synchronization observed in experiments. We also study the synchronization of GPe cells to synaptic input from the STN cell with dependence on the dopamine-modulated parameters. Earlier studies showed how the strengthening of dopamine-modulated coupling may lead to transitions from non-synchronized to partially synchronized dynamics, typical in Parkinson's disease. However, dopamine also affects the cellular properties of neurons. We show how the changes in firing patterns of STN neuron due to the lack of dopamine may lead to transition from a lower to a higher coherent state, roughly matching the synchrony levels observed in basal ganglia in normal and parkinsonian states. The intermittent nature of the neural beta band synchrony in Parkinson's disease is achieved in the model due to the interplay of the timing of STN input to pallidum and pallidal neuronal dynamics, resulting in sensitivity of pallidal output to the phase of the arriving STN input. Thus the mechanism considered here (the change in firing pattern of subthalamic neurons through the dopamine-induced change of membrane properties may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of the intermittent synchronization

  16. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  17. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57 Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  1. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  2. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  3. Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There exists limited understanding of how e-Health solutions are perceived, designed, implemented and used. ... The Strengthening Equity through Applied Research Capacity Building in e-Health (SEARCH) program will cultivate local research capacity to examine e-health and ... Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.

  4. Strengthening Information Society Research Capacity Alliance ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-13

    The project is expected to strengthen the body of theoretically based, methodologically sound, interdisciplinary research on information society issues. Project ID. 106618. Project status. Closed. Start Date. September 13, 2011. End Date. August 12, 2014. Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding.

  5. Strengthening Social and Emotional Intelligences through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burth, Jeanne Hager; McConnell, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Using writing to allow children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to express how they are feeling or to stimulate thinking about a social situation will allow the students the opportunity to strengthen social and emotional intelligences. By giving prompts about different social and emotional situations or ideas to children, the teacher allows…

  6. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  7. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  8. Strengthening partnerships among Africa's science granting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will support regional training courses and on-site coaching to strengthen the capacity of participating councils to design and manage collaborative agreements. It will also co-fund demand-led collaborative research projects in selected areas of interest to the private sector. Sharing of evidence, lessons learned ...

  9. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main

  10. Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Community Land Rights and Responses to Involuntary Displacement Caused by Development Projects in Zimbabwe ... The construction of hydro-electric dams and other large mining and agricultural projects, for example, have led to negative consequences due to weak land tenure rights and a more general ...

  11. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  12. Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Louise; Willis, Felicity; Paine, Crystal; Windsor, Corina

    2007-01-01

    The "Working Together for Children: Strengthening Transition Pathways" Team has identified that there is a gap between the Early Childhood settings and schools within the Dubbo area. Through meetings with early childhood professionals within Dubbo the authors have identified that the current landscape of care and education within their community…

  13. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  14. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  15. Writing Strengthens Orthography and Alphabetic-Coding Strengthens Phonology in Learning to Read Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.Q.; Liu, Y.; Chan, D.H.L.; Ye, F.F.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning to write words may strengthen orthographic representations and thus support word-specific recognition processes. This hypothesis applies especially to Chinese because its writing system encourages character-specific recognition that depends on accurate representation of orthographic form.

  16. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  17. Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR to determine whether lamina dura (LD and periodontal ligament (PDL space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16 and in posteriors with sagittal section (17. Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25 and sagittal section (21, while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors.

  18. In vitro evaluation of a basic fibroblast growth factor-containing hydrogel toward vocal fold lamina propria scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erndt-Marino, Josh D; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Diaz-Rodriguez, Patricia; Kulwatno, Jonathan; Diaz-Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Thibeault, Susan; Hahn, Mariah S

    2018-04-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold lamina propria can lead to debilitating voice disorders that can significantly impair quality of life. The reduced pliability of the scar tissue-which diminishes proper vocal fold vibratory efficiency-results in part from abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) that have taken on a fibrotic phenotype. To address this issue, bioactive materials containing cytokines and/or growth factors may provide a platform to transition fibrotic VFF within the scarred tissue toward an anti-fibrotic phenotype, thereby improving the quality of ECM within the scar tissue. However, for such an approach to be most effective, the acute host response resulting from biomaterial insertion/injection likely also needs to be considered. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory capacity of an injectable hydrogel containing tethered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the dual context of scar and biomaterial-induced acute inflammation. An in vitro co-culture system was utilized containing both activated, fibrotic VFF and activated, pro-inflammatory macrophages (MΦ) within a 3D poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel containing tethered bFGF. Following 72 h of culture, alterations in VFF and macrophage phenotype were evaluated relative to mono-culture and co-culture controls. In our co-culture system, bFGF reduced the production of fibrotic markers collagen type I, α smooth muscle actin, and biglycan by activated VFF and promoted wound-healing/anti-inflammatory marker expression in activated MΦ. Cumulatively, these data indicate that bFGF-containing hydrogels warrant further investigation for the treatment of vocal fold lamina propria scar. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1258-1267, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  20. Estimating shrub biomass from basal stem diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J K

    1976-01-01

    Stem lengths and oven dry wt of stemwood and foilage were determined for shrubs in dia classes of 0 to 0.5 cm, 0.5 to 2 cm and 2 to 5 cm in various habitat types in Idaho and Montana. The logarithm of basal stem dia was closely correlated with the logarithm of wt. Regression components are presented for estimating leaf wt and total above-ground wt of 25 woody shrub species using a linear equation relating these 2 variables. Percentage stemwood wt is given for the 3 dia classes. Dia distributions for the smallest dia class were normal except for a few species with fine twigs; distributions for the other classes were positively skewed. Applications to forest fuel studies are briefly discussed.

  1. Estimating shrub biomass from basal stem diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J K

    1976-01-01

    Stem lengths and oven dry wt of stemwood and foilage were determined for shrubs in dia classes of 0 to 0.5 cm, 0.5 to 2 cm and 2 to 5 cm in various habitat types in Idaho and Montana. The logarithm of basal stem dia was closely correlated with the logarithm of wt. Regression components are presented for estimating leaf wt and total above-ground wt of 25 woody shrub species using a linear equation relating these 2 variables. Percentage stemwood wt is given for the 3 dia classes. Dia distributions for the smallest dia class were normal except for a few species with fine twigs: distributions for the other classes were positively skewed. Applications to forest fuel studies are briefly discussed.

  2. CT cisternography of the basal cisterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanski, M.; Dickob, M.; Wittkowski, W.; Muenster Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Air cisternograms at post mortem and positive contrast cisternograms on patients were performed in order to study intracisternal structures, particularly cranial nerves, as seen on CT. Air and contrast CT cisternograms showed excellent demonstration of the second, third, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cranial nerves. The ninth and tenth cranial nerves could not always be separated from each other and demonstration of the first, fourth, eleventh and twelfth cranial nerves was often not possible or was unsatisfactory. With a knowledge of the normal anatomy and of important surrounding structures, the individual cranial nerves are easily identified. The anthropologic baseline appears highly suitable for CT examination of the basal cisterns. The complementary coronal projection is also very valuable. (orig.) [de

  3. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  4. Prediction of Precipitation Strengthening in the Commercial Mg Alloy AZ91 Using Dislocation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagesen, L. K.; Miao, J.; Allison, J. E.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.

    2018-03-01

    Dislocation dynamics simulations were used to predict the strengthening of a commercial magnesium alloy, AZ91, due to β-Mg17Al12 formed in the continuous precipitation mode. The precipitate distributions used in simulations were determined based on experimental characterization of the sizes, shapes, and number densities of the precipitates for 10-hour aging and 50-hour aging. For dislocations gliding on the basal plane, which is expected to be the dominant contributor to plastic deformation at room temperature, the critical resolved shear stress to bypass the precipitate distribution was 3.5 MPa for the 10-hour aged sample and 16.0 MPa for the 50-hour aged sample. The simulation results were compared to an analytical model of strengthening in this alloy, and the analytical model was found to predict critical resolved shear stresses that were approximately 30 pct lower. A model for the total yield strength was developed and compared with experiment for the 50-hour aged sample. The predicted yield strength, which included the precipitate strengthening contribution from the DD simulations, was 132.0 MPa, in good agreement with the measured yield strength of 141 MPa.

  5. Strengthening of the Cooperative Framework for ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) was established in February 2004 to promote nuclear education and training in Asia. Initially ANENT member countries cooperated with 5 group activities encompassing broad areas. As of 2006, the cooperative framework was strengthened in a way to focus on web-based nuclear education and training for a period of several years to come. In this context, the Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI has contributed, in particular, to the development of the ANENT web-portal including a cyber platform, and making available relevant courses and materials on the web-portal. This paper discusses details of the strengthened cooperative framework in terms of NTC's effort for realizing web-based education and training through regional networking

  6. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  7. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  8. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  9. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  10. A Classic Case of Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattaprasad Dadhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited condition characterized mainly by basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratinizing odontogenic tumors, and other systemic anomalies. As these manifestations do not alter the patient′s lifestyle, most of the cases are diagnosed through oral abnormalities. A classic case of basal cell nevus syndrome fulfilling almost all the major and minor criteria has been reported here.

  11. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  13. The majority of lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells from scid mice with colitis undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Petersen, T R; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that adoptively transferred CD4(+) T-cells mediate an chronic colitis in severe combined immune deficient (scid) mice. Colitis is accompanied by activation and apoptosis of Fas ligand and TNF-alpha expressing CD4(+) T-cells in the diseased colonic lamina propria (Eur. J....... Immunol. 28:3655 (1998)). Here we investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism in these lamina propria infiltrating CD4(+) T-cells. We observe that freshly isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells can kill Fas transfected P815 mastocytoma cells in a TCR/CD3 redirected chromium-release assay, but do...... not express TNF-alpha mediated cytotoxicity. Pre-incubation of the isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells with an anti-FasL antiserum partially blocked killing of the Fas transfected target cells, indicating a role for the Fas-FasL system in the killing process. Treatment of scid mice with colitis with anti-Fas...

  14. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, A.; Antunes, S.C.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. - Bait-lamina assay for in situ evaluation of soil functions under site-specific risk assessments.

  15. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  16. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirofuji, A.; Takiguchi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Kuramochi, A.; Tsuchida, T.; Arai, E.; Shimizu, M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back) showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology

  17. Superficial Type of Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas: Detailed Comparative Study of Its Dermoscopic and Histopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirofuji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated in detail the dermoscopic and histopathological findings in a case of a superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs. These multiple lesions (occurring in the chest, neck, and back showed three different findings, respectively. Dermoscopy of the erythematous and brown-colored patch on the anterior chest showed spoke wheel areas, and the histopathological cross-section revealed vertical spoke wheel structures. In the black- and brown-colored patch at the neck, the dermatoscopy showed a maple leaf-like structure, which was in accordance with the strengthening of the histological lateral connection of the lesion. The brown-colored patch of the lateral back histologically showed irregularly enlarged spoke wheel-like areas with peripheral increased melanin pigments, which correlated with the dark black color of dermoscopic maple leaf-like areas. The vertical spoke wheel areas by dermatoscopy revealed a horizontal spoke wheel structure by histopathology.

  18. Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity (Lebanon) ... Women's Rights and Citizenship framework; to strengthen and rationalize its institutional ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference.

  19. Modelling the initiation of basal sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, E.; Schoof, C.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation of basal sliding is a thermally-controlled process that affects ice speed, englacial heat transport, and melt water production at the bed, and ultimately influences the large-scale dynamics of ice sheets. From a modelling perspective, describing the onset of sliding in thin-film models suitable for ice sheet scale simulations is problematic. In particular, previous work concluded that, under shallow-ice mechanics, the scenario of a hard switch from frozen to molten bed leads to an infinite vertical velocity at the onset, and higher-order mechanical formulations are needed to describe sliding initiation. An alternative view considers the occurrence of subtemperate sliding, which allows for a smooth sliding velocity across the onset. However, the sliding velocity decreases rapidly as temperature drops below the melting point, thus raising the issue of whether a mechanical model that does not resolve the ice sheet thickness scale is ever appropriate to model the onset of sliding. In this study we first present a boundary layer model for the hard switch scenario. Our analysis, which considers a thermo-mechanically coupled Stokes flow near the onset, shows that the abrupt onset of sliding is never possible. In fact, the acceleration of ice flow deflects the flowlines towards the bed, which freezes again immediately downstream to the onset. This leads to the conclusion that the sliding velocity must change smoothly across the onset, thus the temperature dependence of sliding needs to be taken into account. In this context, we examine a limiting case of standard temperature-dependent sliding laws, where sliding onset takes the form of an extended transition region interposed between fully frozen and temperate bed. In the transition region basal temperature is at the melting point, and the sliding velocity varies smoothly as dictated by the energy budget of the bed. As the extent of this region is not small compared to the ice sheet length scale, we couple

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  1. Impact of Basal Conditions on Grounding-Line Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koellner, S. J.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Muto, A.; Holschuh, N.; Nowicki, S.

    2017-12-01

    An often-made assumption included in ice-sheet models used for sea-level projections is that basal rheology is constant throughout the domain of the simulation. The justification in support of this assumption is that physical data for determining basal rheology is limited and a constant basal flow law can adequately approximate current as well as past behavior of an ice-sheet. Prior studies indicate that beneath Thwaites Glacier (TG) there is a ridge-and-valley bedrock structure which likely promotes deformation of soft tills within the troughs and sliding, more akin to creep, over the harder peaks; giving rise to a spatially variable basal flow law. Furthermore, it has been shown that the stability of an outlet glacier varies with the assumed basal rheology, so accurate projections almost certainly need to account for basal conditions. To test the impact of basal conditions on grounding-line evolution forced by ice-shelf perturbations, we modified the PSU 2-D flowline model to enable the inclusion of spatially variable basal rheology along an idealized bedrock profile akin to TG. Synthetic outlet glacier "data" were first generated under steady-state conditions assuming a constant basal flow law and a constant basal friction coefficient field on either a linear or bumpy sloping bed. In following standard procedures, a suite of models were then initialized by assuming different basal rheologies and then determining the basal friction coefficients that produce surface velocities matching those from the synthetic "data". After running each of these to steady state, the standard and full suite of models were forced by drastically reducing ice-shelf buttressing through side-shear and prescribed basal-melting perturbations. In agreement with previous findings, results suggest a more plastic basal flow law enhances stability in response to ice-shelf perturbations by flushing ice from farther upstream to sustain the grounding-zone mass balance required to prolong the

  2. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  3. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  4. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.

  6. A basal sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia from the Ischigualasto Formation (Triassic, Carnian and the early evolution of Sauropodomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo N Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The earliest dinosaurs are from the early Late Triassic (Carnian of South America. By the Carnian the main clades Saurischia and Ornithischia were already established, and the presence of the most primitive known sauropodomorph Saturnalia suggests also that Saurischia had already diverged into Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha. Knowledge of Carnian sauropodomorphs has been restricted to this single species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new small sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Ischigualsto Formation (Carnian in northwest Argentina, Panphagia protos gen. et sp. nov., on the basis of a partial skeleton. The genus and species are characterized by an anteroposteriorly elongated fossa on the base of the anteroventral process of the nasal; wide lateral flange on the quadrate with a large foramen; deep groove on the lateral surface of the lower jaw surrounded by prominent dorsal and ventral ridges; bifurcated posteroventral process of the dentary; long retroarticular process transversally wider than the articular area for the quadrate; oval scars on the lateral surface of the posterior border of the centra of cervical vertebrae; distinct prominences on the neural arc of the anterior cervical vertebra; distal end of the scapular blade nearly three times wider than the neck; scapular blade with an expanded posterodistal corner; and medial lamina of brevis fossa twice as wide as the iliac spine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We regard Panphagia as the most basal sauropodomorph, which shares the following apomorphies with Saturnalia and more derived sauropodomorphs: basally constricted crowns; lanceolate crowns; teeth of the anterior quarter of the dentary higher than the others; and short posterolateral flange of distal tibia. The presence of Panphagia at the base of the early Carnian Ischigualasto Formation suggests an earlier origin of Sauropodomorpha during the Middle Triassic.

  7. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  8. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  9. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  10. Catalysis-enhanced strengthening of porous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, L.N.; Shchukin, E.D.; Burenkova, L.N.; Romanovskij, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Change in the strength of compressed tablets of the catalyst on the basis of ZrO 2 (84 mass %) and Y 2 O 3 (16 mass %) after conducting the endothermal reaction of the methanol and ethanol dehydration at 700-800 deg C is studied. It is shown, that the key factor, determining the strengthening effect by 65-88% is not at all the reaction exothermal nature, which could lead to local heating of the catalyst surface. In reality significant increase in concentration of surface defects, as compared to the equilibrium at the given temperature is achieved on the account of conjugation of processes of catalysis and surface defects formation [ru

  11. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  12. Gold's monetary roll will be strengthened - Plumbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Delivering his Presidential address at the Chamber's annual general meeting, Mr Plumbridge said the gold market would enter a new phase and listed seven reasons why gold's monetary role would be strengthened. There was a dramatic increase in the demand for gold jewellery. He also forecasted that South African uranium production would again attain its former peak annual production of about 6000t. There is an essential need for a sustained growth in nuclear power and the prospects for uranium mining industry remain encouraging

  13. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  14. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  15. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  16. computed tomography features of basal ganglia and periventricular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV is probably the most common cause of basal ganglia and periventricular calcification today. on-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) shows diffuse cerebral atrophy in 90% of cases. Bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia calcification is seen in 30% of cases, but virtually never before 1 year of age.1. CMV (FIG.2).

  17. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...

  18. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  19. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  1. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas. To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. Pubmed was used to search the following terms: axillary basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. The papers and their citations were evaluated. Basal cell nevus syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma of the axilla were observed in two women; this represents 2.5% (2 of 79) of the patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma. Both women had pigmented tumors that were histologically nonaggressive. The cancers did not recur after curettage or excision. Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla has only been described in 79 individuals; two of the patients were women with pigmented tumors who had basal cell nevus syndrome. Similar to other patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma, the tumors were histologically nonaggressive and did not recur following treatment. Whether PTCH1 gene mutation predisposes basal cell nevus patients to develop axillary basal cell carcinomas remains to be determined.

  2. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  3. The strengthening effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.R.; Ison, K.T.; Gishen, P

    2000-06-01

    AIM: To examine whether single-needle vertebroplasty is effective in strengthening vertebrae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four adjacent intact lumbar vertebrae were removed from each of nine adult post-mortem subjects. One or two vertebra of each set was injected with low viscosity acrylic bone cement using a single-track posterolateral approach. Vertebral strength was measured during constant rate axial compression. RESULTS: Single-needle injection delivered different quantities of cement (1-8 ml) in an asymmetric distribution. Injected vertebrae were stronger than controls in 10 out of 12 cases (P < 0.01), suggesting that cement injection increases the load needed to cause initial vertebral fracture. Compression was continued past the point of initial failure, to simulate progressive vertebral collapse. Injected specimens were more resistant to deformation than control specimens (P < 0.05), most of which initially deformed with little increase in load. CONCLUSION: Single-track injection of bone cement appeared to strengthen vertebrae against both initial failure and subsequent collapse. The magnitude of strength increase from vertebroplasty was variable, and did not correlate with the volume of cement injected. Further investigation is needed to optimize the technique. Gishen, P. (2000)

  4. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  5. Basal melting driven by turbulent thermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbanipour Esfahani, Babak; Hirata, Silvia C.; Berti, Stefano; Calzavarini, Enrico

    2018-05-01

    Melting and, conversely, solidification processes in the presence of convection are key to many geophysical problems. An essential question related to these phenomena concerns the estimation of the (time-evolving) melting rate, which is tightly connected to the turbulent convective dynamics in the bulk of the melt fluid and the heat transfer at the liquid-solid interface. In this work, we consider a convective-melting model, constructed as a generalization of the Rayleigh-Bénard system, accounting for the basal melting of a solid. As the change of phase proceeds, a fluid layer grows at the heated bottom of the system and eventually reaches a turbulent convection state. By means of extensive lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations employing an enthalpy formulation of the governing equations, we explore the model dynamics in two- and three-dimensional configurations. The focus of the analysis is on the scaling of global quantities like the heat flux and the kinetic energy with the Rayleigh number, as well as on the interface morphology and the effects of space dimensionality. Independently of dimensionality, we find that the convective-melting system behavior shares strong resemblances with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard one, and that the heat flux is only weakly enhanced with respect to that case. Such similarities are understood, at least to some extent, considering the resulting slow motion of the melting front (with respect to the turbulent fluid velocity fluctuations) and its generally little roughness (compared to the height of the fluid layer). Varying the Stefan number, accounting for the thermodynamical properties of the material, also seems to have only a mild effect, which implies the possibility of extrapolating results in numerically delicate low-Stefan setups from more convenient high-Stefan ones. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the geophysically relevant problem of modeling Arctic ice melt ponds.

  6. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  7. Bone augmentation of the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina in MOOKP--will it delay laminar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Shanmugasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to describe a new technique and analyse the early outcomes of augmenting the canine tooth using a mandibular bone graft in an attempt to delay or retard the process of laminar resorption following the modified osteo odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. This was a retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent the bone augmentation procedure between December 2012 and February 2014 were retrospectively analysed. The procedure, performed by the oromaxillofacial surgeon, involved securing a mandibular bone graft beneath the periosteum on the labial aspect of the canine tooth chosen to be harvested for the MOOKP procedure. This procedure was performed simultaneously with the Stage 1 A of the MOOKP. Three months later, the tooth was harvested and fashioned into the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina similar to the method described in the Rome-Vienna Protocol. The bone augmentation procedure was performed in 11 eyes (five SJS/ six chemical injuries). The mean follow-up after Stage 2 of MOOKP procedure in these eyes was 7.45 months (2 to 20 months). Complications noted were peripheral laminar exposure (three eyes-SJS) and bone graft exposure and necrosis in the mouth (nine-SJS). No evidence of clinical laminar resorption was noted in any of the eyes. Laminar resorption in MOOKP can lead to vision and globe threatening complications due to the consequent cylinder instability and chances of extrusion. Augmenting the bone on the labial aspect of the canine tooth might have a role to play in delaying or preventing laminar resorption.

  8. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M.; Queener, Hope M.; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-01-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (−0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

  9. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  10. Laminae type and possible mechanisms for the formation of laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m and gravity core GeoB 5836-2 (26°12.61' N, 35°21.56' E; water depth 1475 m. Sediment makeup includes six types: a a laminated structure with alternating light (mainly coccoliths and dark (diatom frustules layers, where the diatom component is indicative of the intra-annual variability between stratification and mixing events; b a pocket-like structure attributed to the sinking of particles within fecal pellets and aggregates; c a matrix of tightly packed diatoms that relates to extended stratification/mixing periods of the water column; d homogenous intervals that result from turbidity deposition; e silt accumulations which origin may lie in agglutinated foraminifers; and f pyrite layers with pyrite formation initiated at the seawater-brine interface.

  11. Experimental Tests on Steel Plate-to-Plate Splices Bonded by C-FRPS Laminas with and without Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Aniello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental investigation carried out on steel splices bonded by (Carbon-Fiber–Reinforced Polymers C-FRPs are presented in this paper. The main aim of the study is to examine the influence of different parameters on the type of failure and on the ductility of splices. Different configurations of the specimens were considered, including butt and lapped joints using different arrangements for end anchorage of the bonded C-FRP laminas, such as (i external bonding; and (ii anchored jacketing with C-FRP sheets transversally wrapped to the longitudinal axis of the joints. The results in terms of failure modes and response curves are described and discussed, highlighting the potentiality of these types of bonded connections for metal structures. In particular, experimental results showed that (i the failure modes exhibited by both butt and lapped wrapped splices were substantially similar; (ii the wrapped anchoring is beneficial in order to achieve large deformations prior to failure, thus allowing a satisfactory ductility, even though a more timely installation process is necessary.

  12. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafè

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC Test Method, described in ASTM D 6641 / D 6641M-09. This method presents many advantages, especially: the load application on the specimen (end load combined with shear load, the reproducibility of measurements and the experimental equipment quite simplified. Six different laminates were tested in compressive tests. They were realized by the same unidirectional prepreg, but with different stacking sequences: two cross-ply [0/90]ns, two angle-ply [0/90/±45]ns and two unidirectional laminates [0]ns and [90]ns. The estimate of the compressive strength of the unidirectional laminates at 0°, was done by an indirect analytical method, developed from the classical lamination theory, and which uses a multiplicative parameter known as Back-out Factor (BF. The BF is determined by using the experimental values obtained from compression tests.

  13. Implications of basal micro-earthquakes and tremor for ice stream mechanics: Stick-slip basal sliding and till erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. Grace; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Walter, Jacob I.; Winberry, J. Paul

    2018-03-01

    The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) is unique among Antarctic ice streams because it moves by stick-slip. The conditions allowing stick-slip and its importance in controlling ice dynamics remain uncertain. Local basal seismicity previously observed during unstable slip is a clue to the mechanism of ice stream stick-slip and a window into current basal conditions, but the spatial extent and importance of this basal seismicity are unknown. We analyze data from a 2010-2011 ice-plain-wide seismic and GPS network to show that basal micro-seismicity correlates with large-scale patterns in ice stream slip behavior: Basal seismicity is common where the ice moves the least between unstable slip events, with small discrete basal micro-earthquakes happening within 10s of km of the central stick-slip nucleation area and emergent basal tremor occurring downstream of this area. Basal seismicity is largely absent in surrounding areas, where inter-slip creep rates are high. The large seismically active area suggests that a frictional sliding law that can accommodate stick-slip may be appropriate for ice stream beds on regional scales. Variability in seismic behavior over inter-station distances of 1-10 km indicates heterogeneity in local bed conditions and frictional complexity. WIP unstable slips may nucleate when stick-slip basal earthquake patches fail over a large area. We present a conceptual model in which basal seismicity results from slip-weakening frictional failure of over-consolidated till as it is eroded and mobilized into deforming till.

  14. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  15. Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Mark G; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    Although the mammalian basal ganglia have long been implicated in motor behavior, it is generally recognized that the behavioral functions of this subcortical group of structures are not exclusively motoric in nature. Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory. One prominent hypothesis is that this brain region mediates a form of learning in which stimulus-response (S-R) associations or habits are incrementally acquired. Support for this hypothesis is provided by numerous neurobehavioral studies in different mammalian species, including rats, monkeys, and humans. In rats and monkeys, localized brain lesion and pharmacological approaches have been used to examine the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning. In humans, study of patients with neurodegenerative diseases that compromise the basal ganglia, as well as research using brain neuroimaging techniques, also provide evidence of a role for the basal ganglia in habit learning. Several of these studies have dissociated the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning from those of a cognitive or declarative medial temporal lobe memory system that includes the hippocampus as a primary component. Evidence suggests that during learning, basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe memory systems are activated simultaneously and that in some learning situations competitive interference exists between these two systems.

  16. Biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina in the modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis: engineering of tissue to restore lost vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Yoh; Marx, Robert E; Perez, Victor L; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) is a biologic keratoprosthesis that is used to treat a severely scarred cornea. The procedure involves multiple stages, including the transplantation of buccal mucosa to the damaged ocular surface and the implantation of an osteo-odonto lamina with a mounted polymethylmethacrylate lens. Among the keratoprostheses currently available, the MOOKP has proven to be the most effective based on the number of patients who have undergone the procedure and the duration of documented follow-up. Upon successful biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina, the keratoprosthesis is able to resist resorption, provide stability, and prevent bacterial invasion and epithelial ingrowth. The effectiveness of the MOOKP is dependent on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the dental tissues and periodontal ligament.

  17. Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Cairns, N J; Lantos, P L

    1998-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits was studied in the upper laminae of the superior frontal gyrus in cases of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid-beta-stained tissue was counterstained with collagen IV to determine whether the spatial distribution of the amyloid-beta deposits along the cortex was related to blood vessels. In all patients, amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels were aggregated into distinct clusters and in many patients, the clusters were distributed with a regular periodicity along the cortex. The clusters of diffuse and primitive deposits did not coincide with the clusters of blood vessels in most patients. However, the clusters of classic amyloid-beta deposits coincided with those of the large diameter (>10 microm) blood vessels in all patients and with clusters of small-diameter (upper cortical laminae.

  18. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  19. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-09

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  1. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al 2 O 3 , is very similar to the GlidCop trademark alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to ∼3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90 degrees C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of ±0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as ∼2 x 10 -9 s -1 . These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys

  2. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  3. Brownfield regeneration: Towards strengthening social cohesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In broader terms, the paper refers to the topic of brownfield regeneration, as one of the most complex mechanisms for sustainable spatial development. In addition to the fact that brownfield regeneration demands a variety of instruments, such as: tax subsidies, the change of land use ownership, soil remediation, planning regulative amendments, etc., the complexity of brownfield regeneration is primarily seen in a number of stakeholders participating in such a process. Thus, the paper focuses on the social aspect of brownfield regeneration - precisely, on researching the community role and reviewing the possibilities for achieving the 'local' interests in complex developmental processes. The main research hypothesis is that brownfield regeneration positively affects the creation of and strengthening the social cohesion in the areas close to the brownfield site. More precisley, the paper presents the ways towards strenghtening social cohesion in the initial phase of the brownfield regeneration process, as well as the effects of such a process in its operationalisation phase on social cohesion. The thesis is examined by two main parameters: 1 participation of local community, and 2 social costs and benefits of brownfield regeneration versus greenfield investment. The research results are presented in the form of argumentative essay. In fact, the critical overview of arguments for and against the main research hypothesis is provided based on the review of interdisciplinary literature in the domain of brownfield regeneration. Such research organisation ensures the identification and description of the measures needed for strengthening social cohesion, as an utmost goal of this research. The final research contribution is about offering the guidelines for similar methodological approach in urban research.

  4. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  5. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  6. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  7. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  8. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons in the mouse spinal cord: A focus on lamina X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Deuchars, Susan A

    2016-09-01

    Lamina X of the spinal cord is a functionally diverse area with roles in locomotion, autonomic control and processing of mechano and nociceptive information. It is also a neurochemically diverse region. However, the different populations of cells in lamina X remain to be fully characterised. To determine the co-localisation of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine (which play major roles in the spinal cord) in lamina X of the adult and juvenile mouse, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurons, combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurons were observed in lamina X of both adult and juvenile mice and in both age groups a population of cells containing both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP were observed in lumbar, thoracic and cervical spinal cord. Such dual labelled cells were predominantly located ventral to the central canal. Immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and GAD67 revealed a small number of double labelled terminals located lateral, dorsolateral and ventrolateral to the central canal. This study therefore describes in detail a population of ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP neurons predominantly ventral to the central canal of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord of adult and juvenile mice. These cells potentially correspond to a sub-population of the cholinergic central canal cluster cells which may play a unique role in controlling spinal cord circuitry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (? 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  10. Repopulation with IgA-containing cells of bronchial and intestinal lamina propria after transfer of homologous peyer's patch and bronchial lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzik, R.; Clancy, R.L.; Perey, D.Y.E.; Day, R.P.; Bienenstock, J.

    1975-01-01

    Transfer of 50 million rabbit allogeneic lymphocytes from either bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) or Peyer's patches into 1000 R x-irradiated recipients results, 6 days later, in predominant repopulation of gut and bronchial lamina propria, as well as spleen, with IgA-containing cells. After repopulation with BALT or Peyer's patch cells, lymphoid follicles in both gut and lung showed peripheral cellular membrane type of fluorescence with fluorescein-conjugated anti-IgA antisera only. Six days after x-irradiation alone, little evidence of repopulation was seen and immunofluorescent qualitative observations of gut and lung, and quantitative data in the spleen, confirmed these findings. After transfer of 50 million lymph node cells, very few immunoglobulin-containing cells were seen in the gut or bronchial lamina propria. These results suggest that there may be a common mucosal immunologic system, and that repopulation of gut and lung lamina propria may be through the organized lymphoid tissue therein. (U.S.)

  11. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  12. Airway Basal Cell Heterogeneity and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Robert E; Janes, Sam M

    2017-09-01

    Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 491-3. ©2017 AACR See related article by Pagano et al., p. 514 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  14. Computed tomography of calcification of the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Churl Min; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Soon Yong

    1981-01-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are rarely found at routine autopsies and in skull radiographs. CT is superior to the plain skull radiographs in detecting intracranial attenuation differences and may be stated to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of intracranial calcifications. Of 5985 brain CT scans performed in Kyung Hee University Hospital during past 3 years, 36 cases were found to have high attenuation lesions suggesting calcifications within basal ganglia. 1. The incidence of basal ganglia calcification on CT scan was about 0.6%. 2. Of these 36 cases, 34 cases were bilateral and the remainder was unilateral. 3. The plain skull films of 23 cases showed visible calcification of basal ganglia in 3 cases (13%). 4. No specific metabolic disease was noted in the cases

  15. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  16. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2003-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  17. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  18. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma of the nose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallot, T; Raulo, Y; Zeller, J; Faivre, J M; Horn, G; Baruch, J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study of 81 patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the nose was to present the oncological and cosmetic results of surgical treatment and compare these results with those of other possible treatments. We report a series of 81 cases of histologically proven BCC of the nose located chiefly on the alae nasi and on the lower end of this organ; 42 p. 100 of the tumors had previously been treated and had recurred. The patients' mean age was 63 years, and the shortest follow-up was 3 years. Excision of the tumor under simple or reinforced local anaesthesia was complete in 88 p. 100 of the cases, incomplete or borderline in 12 p. 100 and systematically repeated. Extemporaneous histological examination was performed in 18 p. 100 of the cases. The operative lesion was repaired with a graft or a flap. There was no postsurgical treatment. The recurrence rate was 4 p. 100 with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. The cosmetic result was good in 78 p. 100 of the patients. Numerous treatments have been used against BCC of the nose, the results, advantages and disadvantages of each of these treatments are given below: 1. Cryosurgery. The problem with this method is that it is relatively difficult to perform and requires reliable operators. The cure rate is similar to that of other treatments. 2. Chemotherapy is not frequently used. 3. Electrocoagulation. Contrary to the conventional excision, this method precludes all histological controls, and the common idea of good oncological results is now being revised. 4. Radiotherapy. The recurrence rate varies from 7 to 11.8 p. 100 with fair cosmetic results. It requires numerous sessions, cannot be repeated in case of recurrence and complicates the surgical treatment. In addition, there is a long-term risk of radiodystrophy. 5. Curietherapy by local implantation of 192Iridium has a recurrence rate of 2.5 to 7 p. 100. This treatment requires hospitalization and is costly. It is indicated in cases of complex surgery

  20. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr’s disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly present...

  1. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  2. Bilateral basal ganglia calcifications visualised on CT scan.

    OpenAIRE

    Brannan, T S; Burger, A A; Chaudhary, M Y

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-eight cases of basal ganglia calcification imaged on computed axial tomography were reviewed. Most cases were felt to represent senescent calcification. The possibility of a vascular aetiology in this group is discussed. A less common group of patients was identified with calcification secondary to abnormalities in calcium metabolism or radiation therapy. Three cases of basal ganglia calcifications were detected in juvenile epileptic patients receiving chronic anticonvulsants. These ca...

  3. Treatment of basal cell epithelioma with high energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y. (Hyogo-ken Cancer Center, Kobe (Japan)); Kumano, M.; Kumano, K.

    1981-11-01

    Thirty patients with basal cell epithelioma received high energy electron beam therapy. They were irradiated with a dose ranging from 4,800 rad (24 fractions, 35 days) to 12,000 rad (40 fractions, 57 days). Tumors disappeared in all cases. These were no disease-related deaths; in one patient there was recurrence after 2 years. We conclude that radiotherapy with high energy electron beam is very effective in the treatment of basal cell epithelioma.

  4. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Mitochondrial disorder Symptoms: Headache ? tetanic seizure Medication: Diazepam Clinical Procedure: Admission Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. Case Report: We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a...

  5. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheyer, Torsten; Sander, P. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys que...

  6. Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling...... instead of 3D calculations to predict the response of a structure and that it opens up for simpler evaluation of strengthened concrete structures using the finite element method....

  7. Basal Forebrain Gating by Somatostatin Neurons Drives Prefrontal Cortical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nelson; Alonso, Alejandra; Morales, Cristian; Espinosa, Pedro; Chávez, Andrés E; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2017-11-17

    The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior. Optogenetic inactivation of somatostatin neurons in vivo rapidly modified neural activity in the basal forebrain, with the consequent enhancement and desynchronization of activity in the prefrontal cortex, reflected in both neuronal spiking and network oscillations. Cortical activation was partially dependent on cholinergic transmission, suppressing slow waves and potentiating gamma oscillations. In addition, recruitment dynamics was cell type-specific, with interneurons showing similar temporal profiles, but stronger responses than pyramidal cells. Finally, optogenetic stimulation of quiescent animals during resting periods prompted locomotor activity, suggesting generalized cortical activation and increased arousal. Altogether, we provide physiological and behavioral evidence indicating that somatostatin neurons are pivotal in gating the synaptic output of the basal forebrain, thus indirectly controlling cortical operations via both cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shike; Zhang Yalin; Xu Derong; Zou Gaowei; Chen Dan; He Sujun; Zhou Lichao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  9. Thermal history regulates methylbutenol basal emission rate in Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Goldstein, Allen H; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2006-07-01

    Methylbutenol (MBO) is a 5-carbon alcohol that is emitted by many pines in western North America, which may have important impacts on the tropospheric chemistry of this region. In this study, we document seasonal changes in basal MBO emission rates and test several models predicting these changes based on thermal history. These models represent extensions of the ISO G93 model that add a correction factor C(basal), allowing MBO basal emission rates to change as a function of thermal history. These models also allow the calculation of a new emission parameter E(standard30), which represents the inherent capacity of a plant to produce MBO, independent of current or past environmental conditions. Most single-component models exhibited large departures in early and late season, and predicted day-to-day changes in basal emission rate with temporal offsets of up to 3 d relative to measured basal emission rates. Adding a second variable describing thermal history at a longer time scale improved early and late season model performance while retaining the day-to-day performance of the parent single-component model. Out of the models tested, the T(amb),T(max7) model exhibited the best combination of day-to-day and seasonal predictions of basal MBO emission rates.

  10. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  11. Evaluating the performance of skewed prestressed concrete bridge after strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Ali Fadhil; Zonglin, Wang

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this paper are to explain the application of repairing and strengthening methods on the damaged members of the bridge structure, to analyze the static and dynamic structural response under static and dynamic loads after strengthening, and to evaluate the structural performance after application of strengthening method. The repairing and strengthening methods which are used in this study include treatment of the cracks, thickening the web of box girder along the bridge length and adding internal pre-stressing tendons in the thickening web, and construct reinforced concrete cross beams (diaphragms) between two box girders. The results of theoretical analysis of static and dynamic structural responses after strengthening show that the tensile stresses are decreased and become less than the allowable limit values in the codes. The values of vertical deflection are decreased after strengthening. The values of natural frequencies after strengthening are increased, indicating that the strengthening method is effective to reduce the vibration of the bridge structure. Therefore, the strengthening methods are effective to improve the bearing capacity and elastic working state of the bridge structure and to increase the service life of the bridge structure.

  12. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  13. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  14. Strengthening links between waterfowl research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Eadie, John M.; Howerter, David; Johnson, Fred A.; Nichols, James; Runge, Michael C.; Vrtiska, Mark; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-01-01

    Waterfowl monitoring, research, regulation, and adaptive planning are leading the way in supporting science-informed wildlife management. However, increasing societal demands on natural resources have created a greater need for adaptable and successful linkages between waterfowl science and management. We presented a special session at the 2016 North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA on the successes and challenges of linking research and management in waterfowl conservation, and we summarize those thoughts in this commentary. North American waterfowl management includes a diversity of actions including management of harvest and habitat. Decisions for waterfowl management are structured using decision analysis by incorporating stakeholder values into formal objectives, identifying research relevant to objectives, integrating scientific knowledge, and choosing an optimal strategy with respect to objectives. Recently, the consideration of the value of information has been proposed as a means to evaluate the utility of research designed to meet objectives. Despite these advances, the ability to conduct waterfowl research with direct management application may be increasingly difficult in research institutions for several reasons including reduced funding for applied research and the lower perceived value of applied versus theoretical research by some university academics. In addition, coordination between researchers and managers may be logistically constrained, and communication may be ineffective between the 2 groups. Strengthening these links would help develop stronger and more coordinated approaches for the conservation of waterfowl and the wetlands upon which they depend.

  15. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  16. Teaching Strategies for Strengthening Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilin del Carmen González Castillo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply teaching strategies for strengthening the environmental values in the teachers of School Children's House "Linda Barinas" located in the Carmen parish, municipality Barinas, Barinas state. The nature of the study was inserted into the qualitative paradigm, the kind of research in an action research based on a field study. Key informants were five (05 teachers working in the aforementioned institution. The technique for collecting information through an in-depth interview. The technique and data analysis was performed by means of categorization, triangulation and theorizing. The study led to the conclusion: teachers are unaware of employed teaching strategies, learning strategies in addressing environmental education. In addition, the institution lacks the promotion of educational activities that contribute to improving the environment. Similarly, the absence of a positive attitude towards the environment in which every member of the institution appropriates the existing environmental problems at school. In implementing the action plan training workshops conducted for teachers regarding teaching strategies, environmental values and environmental education, produced a motivation and interest of how to implement that knowledge, when planning, organizing and controlling.

  17. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Strengthening Crypto-1 Cipher Against Algebraic Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Afianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies addressed the problem of data security in Mifare Classic. One of its weaknesses is the low random number quality. This causes SAT solver attacks to have lower complexity. In order to strengthen Crypto-1 against SAT solver attacks, a modification of the feedback function with better cryptographic properties is proposed. It applies a primitive polynomial companion matrix. SAT solvers cannot directly attack the feedback shift register that uses the modified Boolean feedback function, the register has to be split into smaller groups. Experimental testing showed that the amount of memory and CPU time needed were highest when attacking the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the original filter function. In addition, another modified Crypto-1, using the modified feedback function and a modified filter function, had the lowest percentage of revealed variables. It can be concluded that the security strength and performance of the modified Crypto-1 using the modified feedback function and the modified filter function are better than those of the original Crypto-1.

  19. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  1. Strengthening CERN’s international relations

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Council’s decision in June to open membership of CERN to the world in a clear and well-defined way means that it’s time to strengthen our international relations. Non-Member State interest, and participation, in CERN has been rising for many years, and with the LHC running smoothly that trend is continuing.   Furthermore, the long-term future of particle physics may well see Europe contributing to facilities in other regions of the world, with European participation coordinated through CERN. It was with these developments in mind that I established the External Relations Office under Felicitas Pauss at the start of my mandate last year. Council’s decision underlines the need for that office, and clarifies its liaison role of with Member and non-Member States. Clarity of function demands clarity of name, so from now on, the Office will be known as the Office for International Relations. It will continue to be headed by Felicitas Pauss. The Office’s main r...

  2. Strengthening foundation phase teacher education through mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn Dixon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a multidimensional mentorship model implemented between lecturers from the foundation phase at the Wits School of Education and four master’s students from the University of Limpopo, as part of the Departments of Education’s research initiative to strengthen foundation phase teacher education. Using three critical incidents, we interrogate mentors’ experiences of their mentoring practices. Two sets of literature, mentoring and social capital are used as a lens for analysing these incidents. Initial findings suggest the relationship has moved from the initiation to cultivation stage (Kram, 1985; Ragins & Kram, 2007. But, cultural preconceptions, implicit assumptions and institutional practices can impede or enhance information flows and trust. It is argued that weak ties characterised by mentors’ heterogeneity is a strength that has resulted in growing professional development. Through a process of reflection-on-practice, we have begun to think of ourselves as a fledging community of practice. This opens up possibilities for the larger research project.

  3. Achievements to date in strengthened safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.

    1999-01-01

    There is substantial progress in developing and implementing measures to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the Safeguards System. The measures comprise those to be implemented pursuant to the Agency's legal authority conferred by existing safeguards agreements as well as those to be implemented under the complementary legal authority conferred by Additional Protocols concluded on the basis of Document INFCIRC/540(Corrected). Activities on implementing measures under existing legal authority, particularly with respect to the evaluation of States' nuclear programmes, environmental sampling and the use of remote monitoring for safeguards purposes had been carried continuously ion the recent post. In 1998, additional protocols entered into force with four States (the Holy See, Jordan, New Zealand and Uzbekistan). Additional protocols with a further 27 States were approved by the Board and were awaiting ratification by the respective States. The additional protocol with Australia, which entered into force in December 1997, was being implemented following receipt of its Article 2 declaration. Agency consultations on concluding additional protocols take place with a number of States on a regular basis. As of 1 October 1999, Additional Protocols had been concluded and approved by the Board of Governors with a total of 45 States. Of these, Additional Protocols with 44 States had been signed and five had entered into force. (author)

  4. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  5. Strengthening Self-efficacy through Supportive Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, gender and socio-economic backgrounds. As a community we need to strengthen our support of young scientists from all backgrounds to sustain their enthusiasm and ensure their success in our field. Investing in mentoring programs that empower students and young professionals is one of the best ways to do so. The Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program, now entering its 20th year, has successfully developed and tested several mentoring models. The personalized, caring and consistent support is one of the key elements of the program's success; since its inception, 90% of SOARS participants have entered graduate school, research or science related careers after graduation. Many of our alumni who are now faculty apply the same mentoring strategies to build self-esteem and perseverance in their students. This presentation will cover the design and implementation of our four mentoring strategies, and provide insights on potential challenges, training aspects and impact assessment. The mentoring strategies include: 1) Multi-faceted, long-term mentoring of undergraduate and graduate students from diverse backgrounds. 2) Empowering advanced students to serve as peer mentors and role models. 3) Training faculty and professional scientists from all backgrounds to become mentors who are aware of diversity issues. 4) Providing mentor training for partner programs and laboratories. All four strategies have contributed to the creation of a mentoring culture in the geosciences.

  6. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  7. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  8. Improving the engineering strength of heat strengthened glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, YM

    2016-01-01

    Although glass is increasingly used as a structural material, glass is not produced to strength standards, like steel and concrete. Of the three types of glass: annealed, heat strengthened and fully tempered, only heat strengthened glass has the properties to function as a safe structural material.

  9. Using Evidence to Strengthen Health Systems in Africa and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project is timely for Lebanon, a country that is working to strengthen its primary health care system to respond to current priorities such as the emerging crisis of Syrian refugees. Timely access to information The project will strengthen institutional and individual abilities to conduct and use systematic and rapid reviews to ...

  10. South-South cooperation as a mechanism to strengthen public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South-South cooperation as a mechanism to strengthen public health services in Africa: ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Implementation of new models of development cooperation have been on the increase ... health system strengthening, aid effectiveness, sustainable development goals, Africa ...

  11. Strengthening and stress relaxation of Opalinus Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Otto

    2010-01-01

    undisturbed far-field for the long lasting periods of geological times. Consequently, demands on concepts for backfilling and closure of a repository in a clay-stone formation as well as model calculations for safety analyses generally do not take into account convergence by viscous deformation, which would result from stress re-distribution at underground openings. Although there is some doubt, whether Opalinus Clay is creeping at all, some very long lasting laboratory tests were performed on this item in the author's laboratory. A nearly linear dependence of the long-term creep rate on the deviatoric stress was found. In recent work, the technique of stress-relaxation was used. For this, strengthening by strain rate controlled deformation was stopped, i.e. the strain was kept constant for a long time, and the relaxation of the stress was measured. In course of this technique, the deformability which may result from artefacts is ruled out as far as possible by compaction and strengthening. Then, the stress relaxation - if any - will be maintained by true long-term deformation processes which should be active and responsible for any convergence in an at least only partly backfilled mine. In this contribution, the results of the laboratory work and their discussion will be presented. (authors)

  12. Information collection strategies to support strengthened safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, L.; Hill, J.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA Board of Governors approved the implementation of Part 1 of Strengthened Safeguards in June 1995. Since then, the collection and analysis of information beyond that provided by States parties and acquired by inspectors under NPT Safeguards Agreements has been an integral part of IAEA safeguards. The Agency has formally established internal structures and procedures to facilitate the effective use of open-source and other information not previously used in safeguards. Over this period the IAEA Division of Safeguards Information Technology (SGIT) has been building its collections of electronically held open source information. Some of these collections are quite nuclear-specific, such as material from the Monterey Institute in California, and nuclear news collections provided voluntarily by a number of Member States. Others are completely general news sources. Several of these collections contain many more reports than could possibly be reviewed by a human analyst. So a need has arisen for computerised search facilities to identify nuclear-relevant items from those collections. The Agency has more than one piece of software available to help searching and analysis of substantial collections of reports. Search 97 from Verity was chosen for this particular application because it is very straightforward to use, and it was expected that personnel from all over the Department of Safeguards would carry out these searches on a routine basis. The approach whereby special-purpose search mechanisms are designed for use by a large number of users, who are unfamiliar with the details of the search software, seems to be unusual if not unique to the Agency

  13. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Márquez-Legorreta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus, the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm, the suprageniculate nucleus (SG, and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA, and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin. The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the medial geniculate body, can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for parvalbumin, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin; indeed, in many calretinin-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided

  14. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  15. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  16. Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

    2012-08-22

    Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  18. Toward sophisticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: Review on basal ganglia deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K; Gibson, William S J; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H; Blaha, Charles D

    2015-11-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; Delong, Mahlon R

    2011-07-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of 'motor' portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the 'limbic' basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia and deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guridi, Jorge; Alegre, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, research into the neurophysiology of the basal ganglia has provided new insights into the pathophysiology of movement disorders. The presence of pathological oscillations at specific frequencies has been linked to different signs and symptoms in PD and dystonia, suggesting a new model to explain basal ganglia dysfunction. These advances occurred in parallel with improvements in imaging and neurosurgical techniques, both of which having facilitated the more widespread use of DBS to modulate dysfunctional circuits. High-frequency stimulation is thought to disrupt pathological activity in the motor cortex/basal ganglia network; however, it is not easy to explain all of its effects based only on changes in network oscillations. In this viewpoint, we suggest that a return to classic anatomical concepts might help to understand some apparently paradoxical findings. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2003-01-01

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  2. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (BCNS is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Multiple organ systems may be affected in this syndrome including abnormalities of the skin, skeletal system, genitourinary system and central nevus system. In this report, we present a case of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome in a 26-year-old male patient. The patient had multiple odontogenic keratocyst in the posterior of mandible, syndactyly in both hand and bifid rib. After enucleation and curettage, he was followed for two years. A number of both clinical and radiological criteria are used to diagnose this syndrome. Basal cell carcinoma syndrome is diagnosed with two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria. We must suspect this disorder in young patients with multiple odontogenic keratocyst and dental abnormalities whether related or not with other clinical manifestations or familial history.

  3. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  4. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    )max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P......Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2...... is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications...

  5. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ohara, Kazuo

    1983-07-01

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan.

  6. Two cases of seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Kimura, Tetsunori

    2017-03-01

    Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells (SKBCC) is an extremely rare histopathological variant of seborrheic keratosis that has histological similarities to melanoma in situ. We herein report two cases of SKBCC and provide the first description of the dermoscopic features of this condition, in addition to the histopathological findings. Both of the two lesions showed typical histological architectures of seborrheic keratosis with rows or focal clusters of monomorphic clear cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and small round nucleus in the basal layer. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that most clear cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE12) in a peripheral pattern but were negative tor Melan-A. Dermoscopy revealed typical features of ordinary seborrheic keratosis, while unfortunately did not reflect the presence of basal clear cells. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. A Case of Nonhealing Leg Ulcer: Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a three-year history of a painless, nonhealing ulcer located on the left lower leg. She had no response to previous therapy with local wound care. Skin examination revealed an ulcer 2.7 x 3.7 cm in size, and the surrounding skin showed minimal erythema. The surface of the ulcer demonstrated shiny granulation tissue. Biopsy of the ulcer edge and base showed basal cell carcinoma. Venous Doppler ultrasonography and dermatological examination did not reveal chronic venous insufficiency. Basal cell carcinomas rarely arise from previous long-term ulcers or developing de novo. We suggest that patients who develop non-healing leg ulcers, should be examined for basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  9. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  10. Relevance of detail in basal topography for basal slipperiness inversions: a case study on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrke-Smith, Teresa M.; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar; Farrell, Patrick E.

    2018-04-01

    Given high-resolution satellite-derived surface elevation and velocity data, ice-sheet models generally estimate mechanical basal boundary conditions using surface-to-bed inversion methods. In this work, we address the sensitivity of results from inversion methods to the accuracy of the bed elevation data on Pine Island Glacier. We show that misfit between observations and model output is reduced when high-resolution bed topography is used in the inverse model. By looking at results with a range of detail included in the bed elevation, we consider the separation of basal drag due to the bed topography (form drag) and that due to inherent bed properties (skin drag). The mean value of basal shear stress is reduced when more detailed topography is included in the model. This suggests that without a fully resolved bed a significant amount of the basal shear stress recovered from inversion methods may be due to the unresolved bed topography. However, the spatial structure of the retrieved fields is robust as the bed accuracy is varied; the fields are instead sensitive to the degree of regularisation applied to the inversion. While the implications for the future temporal evolution of PIG are not quantified here directly, our work raises the possibility that skin drag may be overestimated in the current generation of numerical ice-sheet models of this area. These shortcomings could be overcome by inverting simultaneously for both bed topography and basal slipperiness.

  11. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  12. Initiatives to strengthen physical protection in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, H.; Yagi, T.; Endo, M.; Murajiri, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) was established under the approval of the Japanese Government in 1972 to function as an important organization to implement national safeguards system together with the Government. It has been also working on R and D of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, and enhancing the awareness of the importance of the physical protection among physical protection related people. Japan has now 52 nuclear power reactors, accounting for about one-third of the nations electricity generation. Also nuclear fuel cycle facilities as enrichment plants, radioactive waste disposal facilities and reprocessing plant are either in operation or under construction at Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture. NMCC is doing several initiatives to strengthen and increase the understanding of the physical protection in Japan by disseminating necessary information to people which are described in the following: 1. Physical protection seminar for the physical protection specialists and management people - It is very important for the physical protection specialists as well as management people who are working at nuclear facilities to be able to get access to the related sophisticated information on the information on the global physical protection issues, physical protection regulations, physical protection systems and equipment etc. This kind of seminar was started in 19xx and is held once a year for two days in Tokyo. The curriculum includes global physical protection issues, physical protection related activities such as terrorism, current R and D, and application of equipment, experiences gained at nuclear facilities. About 70 people participate in the seminar every year. 2. Physical protection seminar for the physical protection related local people - It is more and more important for the nuclear industry to disseminate information to the local people about the nuclear facility operation. Such local people as local government

  13. Strengthened safeguards: Present and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The safeguards system is experiencing what has been seen as a revolution and, in doing so, it is confronting a series of challenges. These can be grouped into three areas. Drawing and maintaining safeguards conclusions - The process by which the safeguards conclusions are derived is based upon the analysis, evaluation and review of all the information available to the Agency. This process is on- going, but the State Evaluation Reports are compiled and reviewed periodically. For States with an additional protocol in force, the absence of indicators of the presence of undeclared nuclear material or activities provides the basis for the safeguards conclusion. Future challenges center on States' expectations of, and reactions to, the results of the evaluation and review process. Designing and implementing integrated safeguards - The conceptual framework of integrated safeguards is being actively pursued. Basic principles have been defined and integrated safeguards approaches have been developed for various types of facilities. Work is also progressing on the design of integrated safeguards approaches for specific States. Complementary access is being successfully implemented, and procedures for the use of unannounced inspections are being developed with the prospect of cost- effectiveness gains. Costs neutrality vs. quality and credibility - The Department faces serious staff and financial challenges. It has succeeded so far in 'doing more' and 'doing better' within a zero-real growth budget, but the scope for further significant efficiency gains is exhausted. There is no capacity to absorb new or unexpected tasks. Difficulties in recruiting and retaining qualified and experienced staff exacerbate the problems and add to costs. The Director General of the IAEA has referred to the need for new initiatives to bridge the budgetary gap; a possible measure is proposed. The tasks of meeting the challenges and demands of strengthened safeguards have been added to

  14. Strengthening Indonesia's health workforce through partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, A; Rosskam, E; Afzal, M M; Suryowinoto, T B; Mukti, A G

    2015-09-01

    results. Indonesia's experience indicates that irrespective of geographical or economic status, countries can benefit from multi-stakeholder coordination and engagement to increase access to health workers, strengthen health systems, as well as achieve and sustain UHC. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  16. Review and analysis of management guidelines of basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Nunez, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    International guidelines for management of basal cell carcinoma are reviewed and analyzed for decision-making in the appropriate therapeutic behavior for patients. The different therapies for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma are described. Different therapies are evaluated according to the risk (low or high) of recurrence to determine the appropriate treatment. According to the evidence, low-risk tumors have responded to topical therapy, curettage and electrodesiccation, cryotherapy or simple resection, and high-risk tumors are managed with surgery, radiotherapy or Mohs' micrographic surgery [es

  17. Optimal cost for strengthening or destroying a given network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Amikam; Cohen, Reuven; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening or destroying a network is a very important issue in designing resilient networks or in planning attacks against networks, including planning strategies to immunize a network against diseases, viruses, etc. Here we develop a method for strengthening or destroying a random network with a minimum cost. We assume a correlation between the cost required to strengthen or destroy a node and the degree of the node. Accordingly, we define a cost function c (k ) , which is the cost of strengthening or destroying a node with degree k . Using the degrees k in a network and the cost function c (k ) , we develop a method for defining a list of priorities of degrees and for choosing the right group of degrees to be strengthened or destroyed that minimizes the total price of strengthening or destroying the entire network. We find that the list of priorities of degrees is universal and independent of the network's degree distribution, for all kinds of random networks. The list of priorities is the same for both strengthening a network and for destroying a network with minimum cost. However, in spite of this similarity, there is a difference between their pc, the critical fraction of nodes that has to be functional to guarantee the existence of a giant component in the network.

  18. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  19. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  20. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  1. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.; Piotukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    transportation of nuclear materials is carried out by Promatomnadzor. Promatomnadzor also issues permits on movement of nuclear materials across the borders of Belarus. State Customs Committee is responsible for detection of unauthorised imports and exports of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. They report each case to other responsible authorities. Belarus is a transport corridor between the East and West, and the issues relating to regulation of export and import, exercising control over export, import of nuclear materials, prevention of smuggling of nuclear materials and maintaining of international co-operation are very important for us. Further development of the safeguards system - It should be noted that control over use of nuclear materials and facilities, which is still of crucial importance can not ensure the absence of undeclared nuclear activities as required. The IAEA has developed the strengthened safeguards system (INFIRC/590) the essence of which is to expand control over relevant technologies, dual use commodities and services. Of course, the implementation of the system provides for more effective and efficient safeguards. Co-operation with the IAEA and other international organisations is regarded as one of the conditions of further improvement of reliability and efficiency of the safeguards. In conclusion I would like to express my profound gratitude to the IAEA and donor countries, in particular Japan, USA and Sweden, for their assistance aimed at strengthening safeguards in Belarus. (author)

  2. Self-flowing mortar for ferrocement in strengthening applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir Sakir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferrocement technology is becoming more and more important nowadays for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete structures mainly due to its inherent strength properties. However, its labour intensive nature makes it undesirable for rapid strengthening works. In narrow spaces, strengthening with conventional ferrocement is very critical and also time consuming. Self-flowing mortar (SFM could be used with this technology to overcome these limitations. This article discusses the applicability of SFM in ferrocement technology. The aim of this study is to summarize available knowledge on SFM to make it feasible for optimization in different industrial applications.

  3. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  4. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  6. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC, as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon.This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm, centered on the circular Bruch's membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24-2, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP, MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT, and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela's method.We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001. The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001 and 0.46 (P < 0.001 with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm. Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013, vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020 and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034 were independent variables significantly

  7. aqueous leaf extract of rothmannia longiflora improves basal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    E-mail: ikpidanielewa@yahoo.com. Summary: This study evaluated the action of aqueous leaf extract of Rothmannia longiflora on basal metabolic .... Animals and Induction of Diabetes. Fifteen male rats of Wistar strain weighing .... lipids have a higher concentration of energy than do carbohydrates. Therefore in their ...

  8. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  9. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...

  10. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  11. EEG alpha rhythm, ocular activity and basal skin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaten, M.N.; Beaujon, J.N.R.; Sjouw, W.

    Most hypotheses about the origin of the occipital alpha rhythm stress the specific influence of ocular activity. In this study, the influence of eye-movement frequency and extreme upward deviation of the eyeballs (enlarging the corneo-retinal potential) on occipital alpha activity and basal skin

  12. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  13. Bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia on T1-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images is unusual, the purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of high signal intensity and underlying disease. During the last three years, 8 patients showed bilateral high signal intensity in basal ganglia on T1-weighted image, as compared with cerebral white matter. Authors analyzed the images and underlying causes retrospectively. Of 8 patients, 5 were male and 3 were female. The age ranged from 15 days to 79 years. All patient were examined by a 0.5T superconductive MRI. Images were obtained by spin echo multislice technique. Underlying causes were 4 cases of hepatopathy, 2 cases of calcium metabolism disorder, and one case each of neurofibromatosis and hypoxic brain injury. These process were bilateral in all cases and usually symmetric. In all cases the hyperintense areas were generally homogenous without mass effect or edema, although somewhat nodular appearance was seen in neurofibromatosis. Lesions were located in the globus pallidus and internal capsule in hepatopathy and neurofibromatosis, head of the caudate nucleus in disorder of calcum metabolism, and the globus pallidus in hypoxic brain injury. Although this study is limited by its patient population, bilateral hyperintense basal ganglia is associated with various disease entities. On analysis of hyperintense basal ganglia lesion, the knowledge of clinical information improved diagnostic accuracy

  14. Modulating basal ganglia and cerebellar activity to suppress parkinsonian tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Zhao, Yan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the detailed pathophysiology of the parkinsonian tremor is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the generation of parkinsonian tremor is related to abnormal activity within the basal ganglia. The cerebello-thalamic-cortical loop has been suggested to indirectly

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, R J; Sau, P; Benson, P M

    1990-02-01

    Two cases of basal cell carcinoma of the nipple are presented, bringing the total number of reported cases to 15. The majority, including our two patients, are elderly men. This finding suggests a causal role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In our cases excision was curative.

  16. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... identify the variation of grain yield response to basal fertilizer among 199 rice varieties with different genetic background, and finally choose the suitable rice varieties for us to ... proper timing, rate, placement, and use of modified forms ... sowed in seedling-bed with uniform nutritional conditions until 3-leaf.

  17. Do gap junctions regulate synchrony in the parkinsonian basal ganglia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) typically suffer severely from different types of symptoms. Motor symptoms, restricting the patients’ ability to perform controlled movements in daily life, are of special clinical interest and have been related to neural activity in the basal ganglia.

  18. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  19. [Modern diagnosis and treatment in children with congenital basal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A V; Roginskiy, V V; Kapitanov, D N; Ivanov, A L; Shelesko, E V; Gorelyshev, S K; Evteev, A A; Lemeneva, N V; Zinkevich, D N; Kochkin, Yu A; Ozerova, V I; Satanin, L A

    Basal encephalocele is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in children. Its most common symptoms include nasal liquorrhea, difficulty in nasal breathing, and deformity of the naso-orbital region. The study group included 19 patients with basal encephalocele, aged 2 months to 18 years. Ten (59%) patients were operated on through a transnasal endoscopic approach; 3 (17.5%) patients were operated on through a transcranial approach; 4 (23.5%) patients were operated on using a combined approach: the patients underwent simultaneous elimination of a cranio-orbital region deformity using the basal transcranial approach as well as hernial sac resection and hernioplasty using the transnasal endoscopic approach. Two children had no surgery due to minimal symptoms and a lack of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Application of the algorithms for diagnosis and treatment of encephalocele, suggested by the authors, enabled making the timely diagnose, defining the optimal surgical tactics, and achieving good treatment results. A differentiated approach to the choice of a surgical technique for basal encephalocele, the use of auto-tissues for skull base reconstruction, intraoperative and postoperative lumbar drainage, and simultaneous elimination of deformity of the fronto-naso-orbital region enable avoiding complications and achieving good functional and aesthetic results.

  20. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rattus sp. Low concentrations of kola nut extract stimulated the heart by increasing rate and force of contraction as well as metabolic rate. Higher concentrations reduced rate and amplitude of beat resulting, at still higher concentrations in heart failure. Keywords: Kolanut, extract, basal metabolic rate, mammalian heart ...

  1. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  2. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological an...

  3. Neuroradiology of basal ganglia diseases in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Passerini, A.; D'Incerti, L.

    1987-01-01

    Computerized tomography and NMR imaging findings observed in the diseases affecting the basal ganglia in childhood and adolescence are discussed. First the dystonic syndromes associated with hereditary neurologic disorders of probable metabolic degenerative origin are considered; then the non-hereditary dystonias caused by various intoxications or acute insults are briefly discussed. 26 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  5. Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food insecurity among students living with HIV: Strengthening safety nets at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa. ... of age and managed as part of the Campus Health Service antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme.

  6. Strengthening African Union for African Integration: An African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to secure African continent, speed up development process, and strengthen our survival ... Regional integration generally involves a somewhat complex web of cooperation ... networking of various government institutions to provide and shape.

  7. More Decent Jobs in Peru: Strengthening Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More Decent Jobs in Peru: Strengthening Research and Policymaking Capacities. Despite ... In turn, such understanding requires appropriate data. Currently ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  8. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  9. 1 The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Afekwo Mbonu

    2012-08-31

    ) governance and governance structures of health systems. .... Strengthened evidence base from the awarded research projects complemented by a set of ..... Canadian recipients which purchase equipment using IDRC funds ...

  10. West African think tank strengthens outreach and partnerships ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... ... on organizational strengthening measures to increase its financial autonomy. ... were then put into practice with key financial and technical partners. ... Développement Afrique) is an independent non-profit organization ...

  11. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, John E.; Kelly, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  12. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  13. Practical approaches to implementing facility wide equipment strengthening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, R.H.; Smietana, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equipment strengthening programs typically focus on components required to ensure operability of safety related equipment or to prevent the release of toxic substances. Survival of non-safety related equipment may also be crucial to ensure rapid recovery and minimize business interruption losses. Implementing a strengthening program for non-safety related equipment can be difficult due to the large amounts of equipment involved and limited budget availability. EQE has successfully implemented comprehensive equipment strengthening programs for a number of California corporations. Many of the lessons learned from these projects are applicable to DOE facilities. These include techniques for prioritizing equipment and three general methodologies for anchoring equipment. Pros and cons of each anchorage approach are presented along with typical equipment strengthening costs

  14. Strengthening of non-seismically detailed reinforced concrete beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    work and in order to carry the anchorages sufficiently away from the column face ..... Owing to the strengthening application, joint shear stress–strain behaviour was ..... structures (ACI 352R-02), MI: American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills.

  15. Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening industry-research linkage for small scale industrial development in Ghana - the relevance of scientific and technological information. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search ...

  16. Impact of a quality improvement project to strengthen infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of a quality improvement project to strengthen infection prevention and control training at rural healthcare facilities. ... African Journal of Health Professions Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  17. Implementation phase – Strengthening community to health facility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do ... Access to quality sexual and reproductive health information, services, prenatal services, and delivery services is ... should contribute to strengthening and improving the quality of provincial maternal health services.

  18. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nowadays, most of the strengthening strategies are based on global ..... In the present work, sliding shear capacity was calculated based on the code formulations, ... This study has been carried out with the financial support of State Planning ...

  19. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  20. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  1. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  2. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance

  3. An IFNG SNP with an estrogen-like response element selectively enhances promoter expression in peripheral but not lamina propria T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsky, R; Deem, R L; Bream, J H; Young, H A; Targan, S R

    2006-07-01

    This study examines mucosa-specific regulatory pathways involved in modulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in lamina propria T cells. Previous studies identified mucosa-specific CD2 cis-elements within the -204 to -108 bp IFNG promoter. Within this region, a single-site nucleotide polymorphism, -179G/T, imparts tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation of IFNG in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and is linked with accelerated AIDS progression. We discovered a putative estrogen response element (ERE) introduced by the -179T, which displays selective activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) vs lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). Transfection of PBMC with constructs containing the -179G or -179T site revealed CD2-mediated enhancement of the -179T compared to -179G allele, although, in LPMC, a similar level of expression was detected. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis demonstrated CD2-mediated nucleoprotein binding to the -179T but not the -179G in PBMC. In LPMC, binding is constitutive to both -179G and -179T regions. Sequence and EMSA analysis suggests that the -179T allele creates an ERE-like binding site capable of binding recombinant estrogen receptor. Estrogen response element transactivation is enhanced by CD2 signaling, but inhibited by estrogen in PBMC but not in LPMC, although expression of estrogen receptor was similar. This is the first report to describe a potential molecular mechanism responsible for selectively controlling IFN-gamma production in LPMC.

  4. Crossed cerebellar and cerebral cortical diaschisis in basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Joon Seok; Ryu, Young Hoon; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Byung Moon; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Byung Hee

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenomenon of diaschisis in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage using cerebral blood flow SPECT. Twelve patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage were studied with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT. Asymmetric index (AI) was calculated in the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions as | C R -C L |/ (C R -C L ) x 200, where C R and C L are the mean reconstructed counts for the right and left ROIs, respectively. Hypoperfusion was considered to be present when AI was greater than mean + 2 SD of 20 control subjects. Mean AI of the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage was significantly higher than normal controls (p<0.05): Cerebellum (18.68±8.94 vs 4.35±0.94, mean ±SD), thalamus (31.91±10.61 vs 2.57±1.45), basal ganglia (35.94±16.15 vs 4.34±2.08), parietal (18.94±10.69 vs 3.24±0.87), frontal (13.60±10.8 vs 4.02±2.04) and temporal cortex (18.92±11.95 vs 5.13±1.69). Ten of the 12 patients had significant hypoperfusion in the contralateral cerebellum. Hypoperfusion was also shown in the ipsilateral thalamus (n=12), ipsilateral parietal (n=12), frontal (n=6) and temporal cortex (n=10). Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and cortical diaschisis may frequently occur in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage, suggesting that CCD can develop without the interruption of corticopontocerebellar pathway

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Cases with or without Xeroderma Pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Sushil Ram; Shrestha, Sachet; Thapa, Sushma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, O P

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in humans and comprises the vast majority of skin cancers. It predominantly affects fair-skinned individuals, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The objective of the study is to identify the epidemiology, its topography and different histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma in patients with or without Xeroderma Pigmentosum. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from Jan 2009 to Dec 2016. Ethical approval was taken from MEMG/IRC/GA. The study included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma irrespective of their age and sex. This study showed 77 individuals with 91 biopsies of BCC including 5 cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum. The predominant histological subtype was nodular with 41 (53.94%) cases, followed by the 14 (18.42%) cases of pigmented and 10 (13.15%) cases baso-squamous subtype. The most frequent sites of involvement were the head and neck, with predominance in the nasal and orbital region. The mean age was 57.68 years but the basal cell carcinoma in cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum was seen more in younger age groups. There were 43 (55.84 %) male patients and 34 (44.16 %) female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.26:1. Nodular and pigmented varieties were the most frequent subtypes with nose being the commonest site of involvement. Basal cell carcinomas in cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum were noted in younger age group with multiple lesions.

  6. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  7. Modeling and characterization of strengthened concrete tension members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The structural potential for cracking of externally strengthened concrete tension members, can be predicted with three parameters, describing the structural cracking potential based on fracture mechanical properties of the of concrete and interface between concrete and strengthening medium....... With these parameters, it is possible to design reinforcement and obtain a required cracking behavior of a given structure. Design recommendations for single and multiple cracking of the tension specimen are given in terms of fracture mechanical parameters, and a structural stiffness parameter....

  8. Strengthening Leadership Competencies of Thai Secondary School Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiyot Wanutha; Kowat Tesaputa; Anan Sri-Ampai

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed 1) to investigate components and indicators of the leadership competencies of secondary school teachers, 2) to explore the existing situations and desirable situations of secondary school teachers’ leadership competencies, 3) to study the techniques to strengthen teachers’ leadership competencies, 4) to develop the teacher-leadership competencies strengthening program, and 5) to find out the results of implementing the program to improve the teacher’s ...

  9. Strengthened glass for high average power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqua, K.A.; Lindquist, A.; Jacobs, S.D.; Lambropoulos, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advancements in high repetition rate and high average power laser systems have put increasing demands on the development of improved solid state laser materials with high thermal loading capabilities. The authors have developed a process for strengthening a commercially available Nd doped phosphate glass utilizing an ion-exchange process. Results of thermal loading fracture tests on moderate size (160 x 15 x 8 mm) glass slabs have shown a 6-fold improvement in power loading capabilities for strengthened samples over unstrengthened slabs. Fractographic analysis of post-fracture samples has given insight into the mechanism of fracture in both unstrengthened and strengthened samples. Additional stress analysis calculations have supported these findings. In addition to processing the glass' surface during strengthening in a manner which preserves its post-treatment optical quality, the authors have developed an in-house optical fabrication technique utilizing acid polishing to minimize subsurface damage in samples prior to exchange treatment. Finally, extension of the strengthening process to alternate geometries of laser glass has produced encouraging results, which may expand the potential or strengthened glass in laser systems, making it an exciting prospect for many applications

  10. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Behavior of masonry strengthened infilled reinforced concrete frames under in-plane load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila M. Abdel-Hafez

    2015-08-01

    The ductility of infilled frame strengthened with ferrocement was the best of all strengthened frames, while strengthening with GFRP increases its ultimate load carrying capacity but reduces its ductility.

  12. A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangpin; Peng Furong

    2016-01-01

    Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues

  13. Effect of horizontal reinforcement in strengthening of masonry members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.H.; Ilyas, M.; Ggaffar, A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of a new technique for strengthening masonry wall panels using steel strips on compressive and shear strength enhancement. The experimental work includes eight wall panels, four each for compressive and shear strength evaluation. This work was the phase I of extensive research project which include testing of strengthened masonry wall panels under monotonic load (Phase-I), static cyclic load (Phase-2) and dynamic load (Phase-3). The wall panels were strengthened with different steel strip arrangements, which consist of single/double face application of coarse and fine steel strip mesh with reduced spacing of horizontal strips. This paper investigates only the effectiveness of horizontal steel strips on strength enhancement. Four masonry wall panels are considered in two groups and in each group, one wall was retrofitted with coarse steel mesh on single face and on second wall fine steel mesh was applied on one side. Furthermore, test results of strengthened specimens are also compared with the un-strengthened specimen (REFE). The mechanisms by which load was carried were observed, varying from the initial, uncracked state, and the final, fully cracked state. The results demonstrate a quite significant increase in the compressive and shear capacity of strengthened panels as compared to REFE-panel. However, increase in the compressive strength of fine mesh above that of coarse mesh is negligible. The technique/approach is found quite viable for strengthening of masonry walls, for rehabilitation of old deteriorated buildings and unreinforced masonry structures in seismic zones. (author)

  14. Strengthening Masonry Arches with Lime-Based Mortar Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alecci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure modes. Despite the advantages of this technique compared to more traditional methods, FRP systems have disadvantages related to their low resistance to high temperatures, impossibility of application on wet surfaces, low permeability, and poor compatibility with masonry supports. Therefore, composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in an inorganic matrix were recently proposed as alternatives to FRPs for strengthening historic masonry constructions. These composite materials are easier to install, have higher resistance to high temperatures, and permit higher vapor permeability than FRPs. The inorganic matrix is frequently a cement-based mortar, and the composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in a cement-based mortar are usually identified as FRCM (fabric reinforced cementitious matrix composites. More recently, the use of natural lime mortar as an inorganic matrix has been proposed as an alternative to cement-based mortars when historic compatibility with the substrate is strictly required, as in case of restoration of historic buildings. In this paper, the effectiveness of a fabric made of basalt fibers embedded in lime mortar matrix (Basalt-FRLM for the strengthening of masonry arches is investigated. An experimental investigation was performed on 1:2 scaled brick masonry arches strengthened at the extrados with a layer of Basalt-FRLM and tested under vertical load. The results obtained are compared with previous results obtained by the authors by testing masonry arches strengthened at their extrados with FRCM and FRP composites. This investigation highlights the effectiveness of Basalt-FRLM in increasing load

  15. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma: how much can we rely on dermatoscopy to differentiate from non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas? Analysis of 1256 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of each basal cell carcinoma is known to be different according to the histological growth pattern. Among these aggressive lesions, sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are the most common type. This is a challenging-to-treat lesion due to its deep tissue invasion, rapid growth, risk of metastasis and overall poor prognosis if not diagnosed in early stages. To investigate if sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are diagnosed later compared to non-sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma Method: All lesions excised from 2000 to 2010 were included. A pathologist classified the lesions in two cohorts: one with specimens of non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (superficial, nodular and pigmented), and other with sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma. For each lesion, we collected patient's information from digital medical records regarding: gender, age when first attending the clinic and the tumor location. 1256 lesions were included, out of which 296 (23.6%) corresponded to sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma, whereas 960 (76.4%) were non-aggressive subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. The age of diagnosis was: 72.78±12.31 years for sclerodermiform basal cell and 69.26±13.87 years for non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (Pbasal cell carcinomas are diagnosed on average 3.52 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas were diagnosed 3.40 years and 2.34 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas in younger and older patients respectively (P=.002 and P=.03, respectively). retrospective design. The diagnostic accuracy and primary clinic conjecture of sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas is quite low compared to other forms of basal cell carcinoma such as nodular, superficial and pigmented. The dermoscopic vascular patterns, which is the basis for the diagnosis of non-melanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, may not be particularly useful in identifying sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas in early stages

  16. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  18. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  20. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected.

  1. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  2. Sonographic detection of basal ganglia abnormalities in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Blitzer, A; Benecke, R; Grossmann, A; Dressler, D

    2014-02-01

    Abnormalities of the lenticular nucleus (LN) on transcranial sonography (TCS) are a characteristic finding in idiopathic segmental and generalized dystonia. Our intention was to study whether TCS detects basal ganglia abnormalities also in spasmodic dysphonia, an extremely focal form of dystonia. Transcranial sonography of basal ganglia, substantia nigra and ventricles was performed in 14 patients with spasmodic dysphonia (10 women, four men; disease duration 16.5 ± 6.1 years) and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in an investigator-blinded setting. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 spasmodic dysphonia patients but only in one healthy individual (Fisher's exact test, P spasmodic dysphonia severity (Spearman test, r = 0.82, P spasmodic dysphonia to that of more widespread forms of dystonia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  3. [New hypothesis on the replication of centrioles and basal bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, J P

    1996-12-01

    Certain morphological data, obtained in studies of the ultrastructure of centrioles and basal bodies in cells of metazoa and protists, lead us to think that the cartwheel represents of the most appropriate organization for a self-reproducing and transmissible centriolar organizer. Centrioles and basal bodies might then not be simply the centres of replication of those organizers, but also reservoirs containing several superposed centriolar organizers, which are released depending on the requirements of the cell. As an isolated cartwheel is extremely unlikely to be detected, either in conventional electron microscopy or in immunocytochemistry, it is thus the reservoir which has so far been under consideration. Such a hypothesis would permit the explanation that biogenesis de novo and biogenesis in proximity to preexisting organelles may differ only in terms of the number of morphogenetic units involved.

  4. The effect of glycogen phosphorolysis on basal glutaminergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Szczęsny, Tomasz; Rakus, Darek

    2011-01-14

    Astrocytic glycogen metabolism sustains neuronal activity but its impact on basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not clear. To address this issue, we have compared the effect of glycogen breakdown inhibition on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in rat hippocampal pure neuronal culture (PNC) and in astrocyte-neuronal co-cultures (ANCC). Amplitudes of mEPSC in ANCC were nearly twice as large as in PNC with no difference in current kinetics. Inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase reduced mEPSC amplitude by roughly 40% in ANCC being ineffective in PNC. Altogether, these data indicate that astrocyte-neuronal interaction enhances basal mEPSCs in ANCC mainly due to astrocytic glycogen metabolism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L. Hone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.

  7. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  8. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-02-15

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y{sub 2}O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} oxides and body-centered cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} particles is much smaller than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3} with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  9. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  10. The Centrioles, Centrosomes, Basal Bodies, and Cilia of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattao, Ramona; Kovács, Levente; Glover, David M

    2017-05-01

    Centrioles play a key role in the development of the fly. They are needed for the correct formation of centrosomes, the organelles at the poles of the spindle that can persist as microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) into interphase. The ability to nucleate cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) is a property of the surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). The centriole has a dual life, existing not only as the core of the centrosome but also as the basal body, the structure that templates the formation of cilia and flagellae. Thus the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body have an impact upon many aspects of development and physiology that can readily be modeled in Drosophila Centrosomes are essential to give organization to the rapidly increasing numbers of nuclei in the syncytial embryo and for the spatially precise execution of cell division in numerous tissues, particularly during male meiosis. Although mitotic cell cycles can take place in the absence of centrosomes, this is an error-prone process that opens up the fly to developmental defects and the potential of tumor formation. Here, we review the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body in different tissues and cultured cells of Drosophila melanogaster , highlighting their contributions to different aspects of development and cell division. Copyright © 2017 Lattao et al.

  11. Will the next generation of basal insulins offer clinical advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, A J

    2014-06-01

    The 21st century has seen the arrival of several insulin analogue products and the refinement of insulin regimens, with widespread advocacy of continuous titration algorithms and earlier initiation of supplementary insulin therapy (predominantly using basal insulins) in type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, many insulin-treated diabetes patients remain in poor glycaemic control. This might reflect insufficient titration effort or lax adherence, but these issues could in some cases result from concerns about hypoglycaemia. Certainly there is scope for improving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of basal insulin, and three new products offer this prospect. Insulin degludec, now in clinical use, and PEGylated insulin lispro, in development, have greatly extended action profiles that result from two very different, but unique, mechanisms. With once-daily dosing, these insulins produce stable PK/PD profiles at steady state, associated with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia. The feasibility of varied daily dose timing has also been confirmed with insulin degludec. High strength formulations of insulin glargine and insulin degludec offer the prospect of a reduced injection number/volume in high dose users, and in the case of glargine, the PK/PD profile might also be favourably modified. This review considers critically the clinical evidence and expectations we should have for these new basal insulins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Hemodynamics in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Shinya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Jun

    1991-01-01

    We examined ten healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to elucidate regional changes and correlations in the cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. We also studied eight lacunar stroke patients so as to disclose the influences of vascular risk factors and aging on the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. We can conclude from our result as follows: (1) Cerebral blood volume (CBV) was minimum in the basal ganglia and cerebral blood flow (CBF)/CBV ratio was higher than that of cerebral cortex in healthy volunteers; (2) CBF of gray matter in healthy volunteers correlated with CBV and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen where oxygen extraction fraction inversely correlated with CBF, CBV, and CBF/CBV; and (3) the basal ganglia CBF/CBV ratio in lacunar stroke patients was lower than that of healthy volunteers. These findings suggested that the perfusion pressure in the basal ganglia was so high in the normal condition than the angionecrosis or occlusion in the perforating arteries would be induced, especially in the aged and hypertensive patients. (author)

  14. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  15. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  16. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14 C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14 CO 2 . Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14 C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14 C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  18. Strengthening health system to improve immunization for migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.

  19. Development of the strengthened safeguards system and the Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidaurre-Henry, Jaime

    2001-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the IAEA's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. The paper summarizes the evolution of the safeguards system, describes strengthened safeguards, reports on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outlines plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)

  20. Strengthening quitter self-identity: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Laar, Colette; van den Putte, Bas; Evers, Andrea W M

    2018-06-10

    Smoking-related self-identity processes are important for smoking cessation. We examined whether quitter self-identity (i.e. identification with quitting smoking) could be strengthened through a writing exercise, and whether expected social support for quitting, manipulated through vignettes, could facilitate identification with quitting. Participants (N = 339 daily smokers) were randomly assigned to a 2 (identity: strengthened quitter self-identity vs. control) × 3 (social support: present vs. absent vs. neutral control) between-participants design. The main outcome was post-test quitter self-identity. Post-test quitter self-identity was not strengthened successfully. Only a small and marginally significant intervention effect was found on quitter self-identity, which did not generalise to positively influence quit-intention or behaviour. The social support manipulation did not facilitate quitter self-identity. Secondary content analyses showed that quitter self-identity was strengthened among participants who linked quitting smoking to their lifestyle, wanted to become quitters for health reasons, and whose reasons for becoming quitters included approach of positive aspects of quitting, but not among participants who linked quitter self-identity to their self-perceptions. Results provide insight into the content of smokers' self-conceptualizations as quitters. Writing exercises should be improved and tested to eventually successfully strengthen quitter identities.

  1. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  2. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  4. Primary Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma of the Basal Cell Subtype Should Be Treated as a High-Risk Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Emilie; Alain, Jimmy; Gagné, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare primary tumor of the skin, characterized by biphasic epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Due to the limited number of cases reported, there is no consensus regarding treatment and prognosis. Some authors suggest that cutaneous carcinosarcomas should be viewed as aggressive tumors, with ancillary imaging used to evaluate potential metastatic disease. Other reports demonstrate an indolent disease course, especially with epidermal-type cutaneous carcinosarcomas. We report a case of cutaneous carcinosarcoma, which we treated with electrodessication and curettage following a shave biopsy. The tumor had an epithelial component resembling a basal cell carcinoma and a fibrosarcomatous stroma. At 1-year follow-up, our patient did not show evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Our case suggests that a cutaneous carcinosarcoma with an epithelial component composed of basal cell carcinoma can be regarded as a high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Strengthening masonry walls made of brick blocks with FRCM composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of testing more types of masonry walls made of brick blocks with the aim to define their mechanical characteristics and possibilities of external strengthening of walls with FRCM composites are presented in this paper. The characteristic compressive strengths, elasticity modulus and shear strengths of the various types of the walls were obtained on the basis of these testing results. Comparison between experimental results and values obtained by analytical approach in accordance with the current standard, European standards EN 1996 and the American standard ACI 530 is presented in this paper. After testing walls with application of compressive forces on the walls diagonal the cracked walls samples have been strengthened with selected types of FRCM composites. It was determined that the shear resistance of the walls after strengthening has increased significantly.

  6. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented

  7. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordié, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-07-01

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.

  8. Electron-microscopic investigations of dispersion-strengthened superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Arzt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys possess a high creep strength up to temperatures above 1000 0 C. This is due to a fine dispersion of incoherent Y 2 O 3 particles in connection with a highly elongated grain structure. To investigate the production and properties of ODS alloys, the grain structure was studied and the shape and distribution of dispersoids were characterized after each of the various production steps. Because the interactions between lattice dislocations and dispersoids control the deformation behaviour at high temperatures, the dislocation-dispersoid configurations in crept specimens have been studied by a TEM stereo technique and under weak-beam conditions. It was possible to detect strain fields around the dispersoids using TEM. The results lead to an improved understanding of dispersion strengthening at high temperatures and provide guidelines for the optimum use of this strengthening mechanism. (orig.) [de

  9. IgA class switch occurs in the organized nasopharynx- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, but not in the diffuse lamina propria of airways and gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikina, Takashi; Hiroi, Takachika; Iwatani, Kohichi; Jang, Myoung Ho; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tamura, Manabu; Kubo, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2004-05-15

    Secretory IgA plays a crucial role in the host immune response as a first line of defense. A recent demonstration of in situ IgA class switching in intestinal lamina propria provided an opportunity to reconsider the model for the homing of IgA-committed B cells characterized by distinctive trafficking patterns to effector sites. Those effector sites depend on the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as their site of induction. In this report we show the preferential presence of IgM(+)B220(+) and IgA(+)B220(+) cells belonging to pre- and post-IgA isotype class-switched cells in the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, such as nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles, and Peyer's patches, and the defect of those populations in the diffuse effector tissues, such as the nasal passage and intestinal lamina propria. Consistent with these findings, the expressions of a series of IgA isotype class switch recombination-related molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, Ialpha-C micro circle transcripts, and Ialpha-C micro circle transcripts, were selectively detected in these organized mucosa-associated lymphoid structures, but not in the diffuse mucosal effector sites. Taken together, these findings suggest that IgA isotype class switching occurs only in the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid organs (e.g., nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles, and Peyer's patches), but not in the diffuse effector tissues of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

  10. Microstructure characterization and strengthening mechanisms of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-9%Cr and Fe-14%Cr extruded bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A.; Bergner, F.; Etienne, A.; Aktaa, J.; de Carlan, Y.; Heintze, C.; Litvinov, D.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Oñorbe, E.; Radiguet, B.; Ulbricht, A.

    2017-11-01

    The collaborative study is focused on the relationship between microstructure and yield stress for an ODS Fe-9%Cr-based transformable alloy and an ODS Fe-14%Cr-based ferritic alloy. The contributions to the total room temperature yield stress arising from various strengthening mechanisms are addressed on the basis of a comprehensive description of the microstructures uncovered by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atom probe tomography (APT). While these methods provide a high degree of complementarity, a reasonable agreement was found in cases of overlap of information. The derived set of microstructure parameters along with reported strengthening equations was used to calculate the room temperature yield stress. The estimates were critically compared with the measured yield stress for an extended set of alloys including data reported for Fe-Cr model alloys and steels thus covering one order of magnitude or more in grain size, dislocation density, particle density and yield stress. The comparison shows that particle strengthening, dislocation forest strengthening, and Hall-Petch strengthening are the major contributions and that a mixed superposition rule reproduces the measured yield stress within experimental scatter for the whole extended set of alloys. The wide variation of microstructures additionally underpins the conclusions and goes beyond previous work, in which one or few ODS steels and narrow microstructure variations were typically covered.

  11. Basal insulin analogues in the treatment of diabetes mellitus: What progress have we made?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, continuous progress has been made in the development of insulin therapy. Basal insulins were developed around 60 years ago. However, existing basal insulins were found to have limitations. An ideal basal insulin should have the following properties viz. longer duration of action, a flat time-action profile, low day-to-day glycaemic variability, and the potential for flexible dosing. Basal insulins have advanced over the years, from lectin and neutral protamine Haged...

  12. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was als...

  13. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. RUBEN

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  14. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.

    1988-01-01

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  15. Training in Values to Strengthen Social and Civic Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present significantly values training to strengthen social and citizen considering that the coexistence of human beings has not been entirely easy, but so far they have managed to relate many of their problems with how to relate and interact with the environment, especially with the social environment. This study was conducted with a literature review which is the basis for targeted strengthening coexistence and citizenship therefore falls from a descriptive research training documentary. In conclusion, the importance of the subject since doors for values, dialogues, reflections, quality of life, among others that reflect the actions of teachers based on principles axiological open.

  16. ESTIMATION OF SUBGRADE STRENGTHENING INFLUENCE USING SOILCEMENT ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is to identify dependencies and options to strengthen the roadbed and a weak base by grouting piles. Analysis of software package SCAD to assess the effect of the selected option of strengthening the construction of spatial subgrade models. Methodology. In this paper the method of calculation of the soil mass in the software package SCAD is considered, which is a universal accounting system of finite-element analysis of structures and is focused on solving problems of designing buildings and structures rather complex structure. The finite element method is among the most modern and effective methods for the calculation of structures for various purposes. In the simulation, we get a complete picture of the stress-strain state of the study area, as well as the value of the limit load, rainfall, and so on. The spatial model based on the finite element volume, to better address the real characteristics of the soil mass, meets all the geometric characteristics of size and natural subgrade and the top structure the path that has been adopted in Ukraine. Findings. It was found that the most effective option to strengthen the roadbed, when applying grouting piles at the base of the subgrade and body, is to strengthen the five piles. At the same time there is even strengthen the soil mass at the level of 25 … 30% of the entire depth. However, even with the strengthening of the only two piles at the base of the effect of the strengthening of 14.1%. Established equation is linear and describes the decrease in strain. Taking into account the results of the research can be concluded that the consolidation is proportional to the depth with any number of piles. The dependence of the strain on the number of piles adheres to a polynomial function. Strengthening the bases of the subgrade and body depth also occurs in proportion with any number of piles. Originality. Design scheme generation algorithm for the calculation of the

  17. Partial strengthening of R.C square columns using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay

    2014-12-01

    An experimental program was undertaken testing ten square columns 200 × 200 × 2000 mm. One of them was a control specimen and the other nine specimens were strengthened with CFRP. The main parameters studied in this research were the compressive strength of the upper part, the height of the upper poor concrete part, and the height of CFRP wrapped part of column. The experimental results including mode of failure, ultimate load, concrete strain, and fiber strains were analyzed. The main conclusion of this research was, partial strengthening of square column using CFRP can be permitted and gives good results of the column carrying capacity.

  18. High temperature mechanical properties of unirradiated dispersion strengthened copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzbittel, J.M.; Rigollet, C.; Robert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) copper material, due to its excellent thermal conductivity associated with a high temperature strength is a candidate material for structural applications as divertor plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Tensile and creep results of oxide dispersion strengthened copper are presented. The most important features of ODS copper high temperature behaviour are the high strength corresponding to low creep rates, high stress creep rate dependence, a poor ductility and a brittleness which result in a premature creep fracture at high applied stress. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  19. Impact Evaluation Study for Institution Strengthening of Social Food Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman Notoatmojo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the implementation of activities for strengthening LDPM could achieve the expected goals, to evaluate whether the LDPM strengthening activities had a positive impact. The study analysis used was descriptive, comparison, and financial analysis. The results of this study have shown that LDPM farmers’ income have increased significantly, and the Gapoktan as LPDM farmers’ institution has been significantly developing as a Bulog function in procuring grain paddy from farmers during peak harvest and distributing rice to stabilize the price of rice during the limited rice in the market.

  20. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  1. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid: a case history | Fetohi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid: a case history. ... Abstract. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer and rare, aggressive forms of basal cell ... She died 09 months after the end of irradiation in Intensive care unit due to septic shock.

  2. Complex Dynamics in the Basal Ganglia: Health and Disease Beyond the Motor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela S; Darbin, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The rate and oscillatory hypotheses are the two main current frameworks of basal ganglia pathophysiology. Both hypotheses have emerged from research on movement disorders sharing similar conceptualizations. These pathological conditions are classified either as hypokinetic or hyperkinetic, and the electrophysiological hallmarks of basal ganglia dysfunction are categorized as prokinetic or antikinetic. Although nonmotor symptoms, including neurobehavioral symptoms, are a key manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction, they are uncommonly accounted for in these models. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the broad spectrum of motor symptoms and neurobehavioral symptoms challenges the concept that basal ganglia disorders can be classified into two categories. The profile of symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction is best characterized by a breakdown of information processing, accompanied at an electrophysiological level by complex alterations of spiking activity from basal ganglia neurons. The authors argue that the dynamics of the basal ganglia circuit cannot be fully characterized by linear properties such as the firing rate or oscillatory activity. In fact, the neuronal spiking stream of the basal ganglia circuit is irregular but has temporal structure. In this context, entropy was introduced as a measure of probabilistic irregularity in the temporal organization of neuronal activity of the basal ganglia, giving place to the entropy hypothesis of basal ganglia pathology. Obtaining a quantitative characterization of irregularity of spike trains from basal ganglia neurons is key to elaborating a new framework of basal ganglia pathophysiology.

  3. Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Ozgur, Omar; Esmaeli, Bita; Yeatts, R Patrick

    To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region. Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis. The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors. Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

  4. Sensitivity of grounding line dynamics to basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Chauveau, G.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, the dynamical contribution of Antarctica to future sea level rise is still tainted by high uncertainties. Among the processes entering these uncertainties is the link between basal hydrology, friction and grounding line dynamics. Recent works have shown how sensitive is the response of the grounding line retreat to the choice of the form of the friction law. Indeed, starting from the same initial state, grounding line retreat rates can range over almost two orders of magnitude depending on the friction law formulation.Here, we use a phenomenological law that depends on the water pressure and allows a continuous transition from a Weertman-type friction at low water pressure to a Coulomb-type friction at high water pressure. This friction law depends on two main parameters that control the Weertman and Coulomb regimes. The range of values for these two parameters is only weakly physically constrained, and it can be shown that, for a given basal shear stress, different couples of parameters can conduct to the same sliding velocity. In addition, we show that close to the grounding line where basal water pressure is high, determining these two parameters might conduct to an ill-posed inverse problem with no solution.The aim of this presentation is to discuss a methodology to guide the choice of the two friction parameters and explore the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to this initial choice. We present results obtained both on a synthetic configuration used by the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison exercise and for the Amundsen sea sector using the experiments proposed by InitMIP-Antarctica, the first exercise in a series of ISMIP6 ice-sheet model intercomparison activities.

  5. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinotoh, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [ 18 F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([ 18 F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [ 18 F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [ 18 F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [ 18 F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [ 18 F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [ 18 F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake overlap. D 1 and D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [ 18 F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D 2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D 2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D 2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [ 18 F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  6. [Immunohistochemical characteristics of triple negative/basal-like breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Ümit; Cumurcu, Süheyla; Keskın, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers. We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytokeratine 5/6, p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 expression profiles, HER2 and Chromosome 17 centromere gene status by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. Histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma in 90.2% of the tumors. p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 mean positivity rates were 55.6%, 51.7%, and 3.2%, respectively. GCDFP-15 positivity was noted in 8 cases of which 6 were Cytokeratine 5/6 negative. The cut-off value for Cytokeratine 5/6 positivity was 5%. EGFR immunoreactivity was grouped into 0, 1+ as negative; 2+, 3+ as positive categories. Cytokeratine 5/6 was positive in 56,1%, EGFR was positive in 51.2% of the patients. The relation between Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expression was statistically significant (p < 0.01). None of the cases showed HER2 amplification by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. GCDFP-15 alone is not a useful marker to detect the metastasis of basaloid type breast cancers. Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expressions showed correlation so these markers are reliable to diagnose basaloid type tumors with a 5% cut-off value.

  7. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  8. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  9. From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational and Marketing Skills (Middle East and North Africa). RUAF (Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security) was established in 1999 in response to an expressed need on the part of organizations and local governments in the South for a ...

  10. Strengthening political co-operation through multilateral disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden discussed how the multilateral disarmament concept has contributed and still can contribute to strengthen political co-operation. This approach is the opposite to the usual question on how to achieve multilateral disarmament through political co-operation

  11. Notch-strengthening in two-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, P.R.

    Metallic foams show notch-strengthening behavior when analyzing double-edge notched specimen in compression and tension. A discrete microstructural model has been used to simulate the effect of notch depth and specimen size on the net-section-strength. The non-uniform deformation behavior is

  12. Strengthening Rural Livelihoods : The Impact of Information and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 sept. 2011 ... Strengthening Rural Livelihoods dresse un bilan utile et équilibré de l'influence que les téléphones mobiles et Internet peuvent avoir sur le soutien des moyens de subsistance des populations rurales, et notamment des agriculteurs en Asie. Tim Unwin, titulaire de la chaire UNESCO en TIC pour le ...

  13. Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia (CIFSRF) ... for their families' consumption in the same ponds as large fish, which can be sold for income. ... The project also studies opportunities to scale up the model for broader use ... Assessing improvements in nutrition outcomes following agricultural ...

  14. Development oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Froes, F.H.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Uniaxial tension creep response is reported for an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in weight percent) manufactured using the mechanical alloying process. Acceptable creep response is obtained at 900{degrees}C.

  15. Squeeze strengthening of magnetorheological fluids using mixed mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, A. C.; Sherman, S. G.; Hu, W.; Wereley, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    This research details a novel method of increasing the shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluids by combining shear and squeeze modes of operation to manipulate particle chain structures, so-called squeeze strengthening. Using a custom built Searle cell magnetorheometer, which is a model device emulating a rotary magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA), the contribution of squeeze strengthening to the total controllable yield force is experimentally investigated. Using an eccentric rotating inner cylinder, characterization data from large (1 mm) and small (0.25 mm) nominal gap geometries are compared to investigate the squeeze strengthening effect. Details of the experimental setup and method are presented, and a hybrid model is used to explain experimental trends. This study demonstrates that it is feasible, utilizing squeeze strengthening to increase yield stress, to either (1) design a rotary MREA of a given volume to achieve higher energy absorption density (energy absorbed normalized by active fluid volume), or (2) reduce the volume of a given rotary MREA to achieve the same energy absorption density.

  16. Strengthening CRTD-A's Organizational and Program Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... solid history of collaboration with IDRC at the project level. This grant will help CRTD-A further its strategic research agenda within a Women's Rights and Citizenship framework; to strengthen and rationalize its institutional capacity; and to engage more substantively and advantageously with northern research institutions.

  17. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  18. Strengthening Research by Designing for Coherence and Connections to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerst, Timothy; Confrey, Jere; Heck, Daniel; Knuth, Eric; Lambdin, Diana V.; White, Dorothy; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Quander, Judith Reed

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is committed to strengthening relations between research and practice and to the development of a coherent knowledge base that is usable in practice. The need to work toward connection and coherence is not unique to the field of mathematics education. Fields such as medicine, software…

  19. "Strengthening" Ontario Universities: A Neoliberal Reconstruction of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Bob; Kuchapski, Renée

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews neoliberalism as an ideology that has influenced higher education generally and Ontario higher education in particular. It includes a discourse analysis of "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge" (Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, 2012), a government discussion…

  20. Small Grants Program : Strengthening ICTD Research Capacity in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On the one hand, ICTs can provide access to tools and content to improve economic conditions, strengthen social networks, democratize the flow of information, and reduce risk to citizens from pandemics and natural disasters. On the other hand, ICTs can be used to engage in exclusionary or criminal practices, or contribute ...

  1. Strengthening the Role of Civil Society in Water Governance in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening the Role of Civil Society in Water Governance in African Cities - Durban, Maputo, Nairobi. Achieving water security in Africa remains a major challenge for policymakers. Moreover, there is evidence linking climate variability to deteriorating water security in the region, particularly its cities. This project aims to ...

  2. Strengthening ethical political leadership for sustainable peace and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening ethical political leadership: Uganda as a case study meaningful .... needed are short and long-term strategies for inculcating ethical leadership .... Ethics comprises principles and concepts that guide humans between right ... Virtues of kindness, generosity, hospitality, honesty, compassion, forgiveness, and.

  3. Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...

  4. IDRC-GDN: A Strengthened Partnership for Research Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-GDN: A Strengthened Partnership for Research Capacity Building. This project provides core funding to the Global Development Network (GDN) over three years. GDN supports social science researchers in developing and transition countries. Its core mission is to enhance policy-relevant research capacity by ...

  5. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  6. Interfacial stresses in strengthened beam with shear cohesive zone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of parametric study are compared with those of Smith and Teng. They confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach in predicting both interfacial shear and normal stresses. Keywords. Strengthened beam; interfacial stresses; cohesive zone; shear deformation. 1. Introduction. The FRP plates can be either ...

  7. ONE OF THE POSSIBLE WAYS TO STRENGTHENING THE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman URBAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to point out at the relation between security and its key vehicle that is humans themselves. It presents an option to strengthen security through purposeful education of peiple and their comprehensive training in peaceful settlement of conflicts.

  8. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  9. A review on strengthening steel beams using FRP under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohamed; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Sulong, N H Ramli; Islam, A B M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  10. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  11. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  12. Responsible and Sustainable Tourism : Strengthening Small-Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Responsible and Sustainable Tourism : Strengthening Small-Scale ... to work with the Costa Rican association of small and medium tourism enterprises of the ... as the hub of a network of small service providers operating within the model. ... marketing and outreach, distance learning, and the integration of services that are ...

  13. Strengthening Health Information Systems to Support Post-Disaster ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Health Information Systems to Support Post-Disaster Healthcare in Haiti. The occurrence of a natural disaster may seem to carry repercussions that are indiscriminate in nature; however, it is the vulnerable populations that suffer most during such events, and in the days, months and years that follow. In Haiti ...

  14. FRP Composites Strengthening of Concrete Columns under Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of some of the progress in the area of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-strengthening of columns for several loading scenarios including impact load. The addition of FRP materials to upgrade deficiencies or to strengthen structural components can save lives by preventing collapse, reduce the damage to infrastructure, and the need for their costly replacement. The retrofit with FRP materials with desirable properties provides an excellent replacement for traditional materials, such as steel jacket, to strengthen the reinforced concrete structural members. Existing studies have shown that the use of FRP materials restore or improve the column original design strength for possible axial, shear, or flexure and in some cases allow the structure to carry more load than it was designed for. The paper further concludes that there is a need for additional research for the columns under impact loading senarios. The compiled information prepares the ground work for further evaluation of FRP-strengthening of columns that are deficient in design or are in serious need for repair due to additional load or deterioration.

  15. Fatigue behaviour analysis for the durability prequalification of strengthening mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, P; Grazzini, A; Masera, D

    2011-01-01

    An innovative laboratory procedure used as a preliminary design stage for the pre-qualification of strengthening mortars applied to historical masonry buildings is described. In the analysis of the behaviour of masonry structures and their constituent materials, increasing importance has been assumed by the study of the long-term evolution of deformation and mechanical characteristics, which may be affected by both loading and environmental conditions. Through static and fatigue tests on mixed specimens historical brick-reinforced mortar it has been possible to investigate the durability of strengthening materials, in order to select, from a range of alternatives, the most suitable for the historical masonry. Cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of the historical brick-strengthening mortar system under static long-time loading. This methodology has proved useful in avoiding the errors associated with materials that are not mechanically compatible and guarantees the durability of strengthening work. The experimental procedure has been used effectively in the biggest restoration building site in Europe, the Royal Palace of Venaria, and it is in progress of carrying out at the Special Natural Reserve of the Sacro Monte di Varallo, in Piedmont (Italy).

  16. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  17. Strengthening Africa's science granting councils as champions of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The capacity strengthening approach will be a participatory one involving customized regional training courses, on-site coaching for individual councils, peer-to-peer learning among councils, and knowledge exchange during annual learning forums. Implementation of this project is expected to contribute to the goals of the ...

  18. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  19. Strengthening Parents and Families during the Early Childhood Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    This book provides early childhood educators with perspectives and tools that will enable them to strengthen parents and families during the child's earliest year of development. The 25 chapters are divided into 6 parts or themes. Part one focuses on understanding families as learners from an ecological and empathetic perspective, with the premise…

  20. Strengthening linkages of the financial services and real sectors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening linkages of the financial services and real sectors of the ... policy, financial sector credit and capital market activities have impacted on the real sector growth. ... sector as a result such financial crimes like misappropriation of funds. ... better results; more investment instruments such as derivatives, convertibles, ...