WorldWideScience

Sample records for basal area increment

  1. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  2. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  3. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  4. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  5. Growth Analysis of Individual Tree Basal Area of Western Yellow Pine Introduced in Kostelec Region%KOSTELEC地区西黄松林木个体胸高断面积生长分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖超英; PODRAZSKY; Vilem

    2001-01-01

    Four theoretical growth functions,the Mitscherlich,Logistic,Gompertz and Korf functions were applied to the basal area growth data of individual Western Yellow Pine(Pinus ponderosa)trees to model the basal area growth.The current increment,mean increment and growth intensity of basal area as functions of age were given by derivation from the best fit growth function.The growth process of basalarea was divided into three periods by the two inflexion points of the current increment curve of basal area. The results indicated that the Korf function fitted the basal area growth best,followed by the Gompertz, Logistic and Mitscherlich functions.The maximum values of the current increment and the mean increment appeared at age 7 years and age 15 years respectively.The average growth intensity of basal area was 0.3243.During the rapid growth period(3 to 11 years) the average increment of basal area per year was 0.001 474 m2.%用Mitscherlich、Logistic、Gompertz和Korf 4个理论生长方程分别对引种到捷克Kostelec地区的西黄松林木个体胸高断面积生长过程进行了拟合,由最佳生长方程分别得出了胸高断面连年生长量、平均生长量和相对生长率随时间变化的函数,并对生长过程进行了分析.结果表明:Korf方程具有最高的拟合精度,能很好地描述西黄松胸高断面积生长过程;西黄松胸高断面积连年生长量和平均生长量最大值分别出现在第7 a和第15 a(胸高年龄);1~26 a的平均相对生长率为0.243;速生期(3~¨a)内胸高断面积平均生长量为0.001 474 m2.

  6. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  7. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  8. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Bell; Thomas A. Spies; Robert Pabst

    2017-01-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of...

  9. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different form

  10. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; Lovett, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different form

  11. Annual Rainfall and Seasonality Predict Pan-tropical Patterns of Liana Density and Basal Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWalt, S.J.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Chave, J.; Bongers, F.; Cai, Z.Q.; Ewango, C.E.N.; Parren, M.P.E.

    2010-01-01

    We test the hypotheses proposed by Gentry and Schnitzer that liana density and basal area in tropical forests vary negatively with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and positively with seasonality. Previous studies correlating liana abundance with these climatic variables have produced conflicting res

  12. Effects of Pine and Hardwood Basal Areas After Uneven-Aged Silvicultural Treatments on Wildlife Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren A. Miller; Bruce D. Leopold; L. Mike Conner; Michael G. Shelton

    1999-01-01

    Uneven-aged management (UEAM) is becoming increasingly popular in the southeastern United States. However, effects of UEAM on wildlife habitat have not been adequately documented. We examined response of habitat within stands of varying levels of pine and hardwood basal area under an uneven-aged managegement regime in southern Mississippi. Summer and winter trends in...

  13. Influence of weather and climate variables on the basal area growth of individual shortleaf pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Duncan S. Wilson; John Stewart; James M. Guldin; Bob Heinemann; Randy Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson

    2015-01-01

    An individual-tree basal area growth model previously developed for even-aged naturally occurring shortleaf pine trees (Pinus echinata Mill.) in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma did not include weather variables. Individual-tree growth and yield modeling of shortleaf pine has been carried out using the remeasurements of over 200 plots...

  14. Optimizing any-aged management of mixed boreal forest under residual basal area constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Pukkala; Erkki Lähde; Olavi Laiho

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of forest management in many countries is reduced use of clear-felling and planting, and increased use of continuous cover management. In Finland, the new forest act of 2014 made all types of cuttings equally allowable on the condition that if the post-cutting residual stand basal area is too low, the stand must be regenerated within certain time frame. Forest landowner can freely choose between even-and uneven-aged management. This study developed a method for opti-mizing the timing and type of cuttings without the need to categorize the management system as either even-aged or uneven-aged. A management system that does not set any requirements on the sequence of post-cutting diameter distributions is called any-aged management. Planting or sow-ing was used when stand basal area fell below the required minimum basal area and the amount of advance regeneration was less than required in the regulations. When the cuttings of 200 stands managed earlier with even-aged silviculture were optimized with the developed system, final felling followed by artificial regeneration was selected for almost 50%of stands. Reduction of the minimum basal area limit greatly decreased the use of artificial regeneration but improved profitability, suggesting that the truly optimal management would be to use natural regeneration in financially mature stands. The optimal type of thinning was high thinning in 97-99%of cases. It was calculated that the minimum basal area re-quirement reduced the mean net present value of the stands by 12-16%when discount rate was 3-5%.

  15. Generalized nonlinear models applied to the prediction of basal area and volume of Eucalyptus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Pádua Chaves e Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose the use of generalized nonlinear models for prediction of basal area growth and yield of total volume of the hybrid Eucalyptus urocamaldulensis, in a stand situation in a central region in state of Minas Gerais. The used methodology allows to work with data in its original form without the necessity of transformation of variables, and generate highly accurate models. To evaluate the fitting quality, it was proposed the Bayesian information criterion, of the Akaike, and test the maximum likelihood, beyond the standard error of estimate, and residual graphics. The models were used with a good performance, highly accurate and parsimonious estimates of the variables proposed, with errors reduced to 12% for basal area and 4% for prediction of the volume.

  16. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvar Rosa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21, each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm, reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm, although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H-one (DIMBOA, a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and

  17. Availability of streamflow for recharge of the basal aquifer in the Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, George Tokusuke

    1971-01-01

    The Pearl Harbor area is underlain by an extensive basal aquifer that contains large supplies of fresh water. Because of the presence of a cap rock composed of sedimentary material that is less permeable than the basaltic lava of the basal aquifer, seaward movement of ground water is retarded. The cap rock causes the basal water to stand at a high level; thus, the lens of fresh water that floats on sea water is thick. Discharge from the basal ground-water body, which includes pumpage from wells and shafts, averaged 250 million gallons per day during 1931-65. Because the water level in the basal aquifer did not decline progressively, recharge to the ground-water body must have been approximately equal to discharge. Although pumping for agricultural use has decreased since 1931, net ground-water discharge has increased because of a large increase in pumping for urban use. Substitution of ground water for surface water in the irrigation of sugarcane has also contributed to a net increase in ground-water discharge. The development of Mililani Town will further increase discharge. The increase in ground-water discharge may cause an increase in chloride content of the water pumped from wells near the shore of Pearl Harbor unless the increased discharge is balanced by increased recharge to the local aquifer. The aquifer is recharged by direct infiltration and deep percolation of rain, principally in the high forested area, by infiltration and percolation of irrigation water applied in excess of plant requirements, by seepage of water through streambeds, and possibly by ground-water inflow from outside the area. Recharge is greatest in the uplands, where rainfall is heavy and where much infiltration takes place before rainwater collects in the middle and lower reaches of stream channels. Once water collects in and saturates the alluvium of stream channels, additional inflow to the streams will flow out to sea, only slightly decreased by seepage. Average annual direct

  18. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  19. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  20. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-08-14

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  1. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Selene; Malizia, Agustina; Carilla, Julieta; Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Duque, Álvaro; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Homeier, Jürgen; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Phillips, Oliver L; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  2. Tradeoffs in basal area growth and reproduction shift over the lifetime of a long-lived tropical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudhammer, Christina L; Wadt, Lúcia H O; Kainer, Karen A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding of the extent to which reproductive costs drive growth largely derives from reproductively mature temperate trees in masting and non-masting years. We modeled basal area increment (BAI) and explored current growth-reproduction tradeoffs and changes in such allocation over the life span of a long-lived, non-masting tropical tree. We integrated rainfall and soil variables with data from 190 Bertholletia excelsa trees of different diameter at breast height (DBH) sizes, crown characteristics, and liana loads, quantifying BAI and reproductive output over 4 and 6 years, respectively. While rainfall explains BAI in all models, regardless of DBH class or ontogenic stage, light (based on canopy position and crown form) is most critical in the juvenile (5 cm ≤ DBH trees are only present as juveniles and grow ten times slower (1.45 ± 2.73 m(2) year(-1)) than trees in dominant and co-dominant positions (13.25 ± 0.82 and 12.90 ± 1.35 m(2) year(-1), respectively). Additionally, few juvenile trees are reproductive, and those that are, demonstrate reduced growth, as do reproductive trees in the next 50 to 100 cm DBH class, suggesting growth-reproduction tradeoffs. Upon reaching the canopy, however, and attaining a sizeable girth, this pattern gradually shifts to one where BAI and reproduction are influenced independently by variables such as liana load, crown size and soil properties. At this stage, BAI is largely unaffected by fruit production levels. Thus, while growth-reproduction tradeoffs clearly exist during early life stages, effects of reproductive allocation diminish as B. excelsa increases in size and maturity.

  3. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered.

  4. A window of opportunity for climate-change adaptation: Easing tree mortality by reducing forest basal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Bell, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing aridity as a result of climate change is expected to exacerbate tree mortality. Reducing forest basal area – the cross-sectional area of tree stems within a given ground area – can decrease tree competition, which may reduce drought-induced tree mortality. However, neither the magnitude of expected mortality increases, nor the potential effectiveness of basal area reduction, has been quantified in dryland forests such as those of the drought-prone Southwest US. We used thousands of repeatedly measured forest plots to show that unusually warm and dry conditions are related to high tree mortality rates and that mortality is positively related to basal area. Those relationships suggest that while increasing high temperature extremes forecasted by climate models may lead to elevated tree mortality during the 21st century, future tree mortality might be partly ameliorated by reducing stand basal area. This adaptive forest management strategy may provide a window of opportunity for forest managers and policy makers to guide forest transitions to species and/or genotypes more suited to future climates.

  5. Using Tree Detection Algorithms to Predict Stand Sapwood Area, Basal Area and Stocking Density in Eucalyptus regnans Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Jaskierniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers of forested water supply catchments require efficient and accurate methods to quantify changes in forest water use due to changes in forest structure and density after disturbance. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data with as few as 0.9 pulses m−2, we applied a local maximum filtering (LMF method and normalised cut (NCut algorithm to predict stocking density (SDen of a 69-year-old Eucalyptus regnans forest comprising 251 plots with resolution of the order of 0.04 ha. Using the NCut method we predicted basal area (BAHa per hectare and sapwood area (SAHa per hectare, a well-established proxy for transpiration. Sapwood area was also indirectly estimated with allometric relationships dependent on LiDAR derived SDen and BAHa using a computationally efficient procedure. The individual tree detection (ITD rates for the LMF and NCut methods respectively had 72% and 68% of stems correctly identified, 25% and 20% of stems missed, and 2% and 12% of stems over-segmented. The significantly higher computational requirement of the NCut algorithm makes the LMF method more suitable for predicting SDen across large forested areas. Using NCut derived ITD segments, observed versus predicted stand BAHa had R2 ranging from 0.70 to 0.98 across six catchments, whereas a generalised parsimonious model applied to all sites used the portion of hits greater than 37 m in height (PH37 to explain 68% of BAHa. For extrapolating one ha resolution SAHa estimates across large forested catchments, we found that directly relating SAHa to NCut derived LiDAR indices (R2 = 0.56 was slightly more accurate but computationally more demanding than indirect estimates of SAHa using allometric relationships consisting of BAHa (R2 = 0.50 or a sapwood perimeter index, defined as (BAHaSDen½ (R2 = 0.48.

  6. Development of a basal area growth system for maritime pine in northwestern Spain using the generalized algebraic difference approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Barrio Anta; Fernando Castedo Dorado; Ulises Dieguez-Aranda; Juan G. Alvarez Gonzalez; Bernard R. Parresol; Roque Rodriguez Soalleiro

    2006-01-01

    A basal area growth system for single-species, even-aged maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Galicia (northwestern Spain) was developed from data of 212 plots measured between one and four times. Six dynamic equations were considered for analysis, and both numerical and graphical methods were used to compare alternative models. The double...

  7. Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar Rosa; Revilla Pedro; Butrón Ana; Santiago Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety....

  8. Higher incremental insulin area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test predicts less food intake and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Votruba, S; Venti, C; Krakoff, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the correlation of peripheral insulin concentrations with food intake and body weight. Cross sectional and longitudinal clinical study: we investigated the association of peripheral insulin concentrations in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with subsequent measures of ad libitum food intake and body weight change. Food intake analysis: Pima Indians (n=67, 63% male; body mass index (mean ± s.d.) 34.2 ± 9.4 kg m(-2)) with normal glucose regulation (NGR; fasting glucose libitum food intake measured over 3 days by an automated vending machine system. Weight change analysis: Pima Indians with NGR (n=339) who also participated in a longitudinal study of risks for type 2 diabetes and had follow-up weights. Food intake analysis: incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin during the OGTT was negatively associated with mean daily ad libitum energy intake (DEI) (r=-0.26, P=0.04), calories consumed as percent weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN) (r=-0.38, P=0.002) and carbohydrate intake (gram per day) (r=-0.35, P=0.005). Adjustment for age and sex attenuated the association of iAUC with DEI (P=0.06) not with %WMEN and carbohydrate intake (P=0.005, P=0.008). Weight change analysis: after adjustment for age, sex, follow-up time and initial body weight, higher insulin iAUC predicted less absolute and percent weight change (β=-6.9, P=0.02; β=-0.08, P=0.008, respectively). In healthy Pima Indians with NGR, higher plasma iAUC during an OGTT predicted lower food intake and carbohydrate consumption and less weight gain. These data indicated a role for peripheral insulin as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy intake and body weight.

  9. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W. (Genentech, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF.

  10. The Beagle Rupes area - evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, David; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Beagle Rupes lobate scarp was particularly clearly imaged during the outbound leg of MESSENGER's first flyby, thanks to its location at low latitude and proximity to the terminator. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard them as surface expressions of thrusts whose fault planes dip uniformly and die out at depth, and that lack lateral ramps or any extensive detachment horizon. However, we interpret Beagle Rupes as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these features is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. Displacement at the Beagle Rupes frontal scarp is no more than about 3 km. However, the decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. One such candidate horizon could be the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-bearing lower crust as predicted by some models of Mercury's early differentiation history (Brown and Elkins-Tanton, 2009). Further analysis of the terrain north and south of Beagle Rupes reveals ridges (10s of km wide and 100s of km long) that we interpret as pop-up structures probably associated with blind thrusts and very likely providing additional evidence of a decollement of regional extent. Brown, S. M., Elkins-Tanton, L. T., 2009, Compositions of Mercury's earliest crust from magma ocean models. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 446-455.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Pubic Area: Report of a Case and Review of 19 Korean Cases of BCC from Non-sun-exposed Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Cho, Yong-Sun; Song, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jong-Sun; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2011-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant skin tumors and develops characteristically on sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. Ultraviolet light exposure is an important etiologic factor in BCCs, and BCCs arising from non-sun- exposed areas are, therefore, very rare. In particular, the axilla, nipple, the genital and perianal areas are not likely to be exposed to ultraviolet light; thus, if BCC develops in these areas, other predisposing factors should be considered. Herein, we report a case of BCC arising on the pubic area in a 70-year-old man. We also performed a survey of the literature and discussed the 19 cases of BCC from non-sun-exposed areas reported to date in Korea.

  12. Quantitative analysis of basal dendritic tree of layer III pyramidal neurons in different areas of adult human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeba, Martina; Jovanov-Milosević, Natasa; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Large long projecting (cortico-cortical) layer IIIc pyramidal neurons were recently disclosed to be in the basis of cognitive processing in primates. Therefore, we quantitatively examined the basal dendritic morphology of these neurons by using rapid Golgi and Golgi Cox impregnation methods among three distinct Brodmann areas (BA) of an adult human frontal cortex: the primary motor BA4 and the associative magnopyramidal BA9 from left hemisphere and the Broca's speech BA45 from both hemispheres. There was no statistically significant difference in basal dendritic length or complexity, as dendritic spine number or their density between analyzed BA's. In addition, we analyzed each of these BA's immunocytochemically for distribution of SMI-32, a marker of largest long distance projecting neurons. Within layer IIIc, the highest density of SMI-32 immunopositive pyramidal neurons was observed in associative BA9, while in primary BA4 they were sparse. Taken together, these data suggest that an increase in the complexity of cortico-cortical network within human frontal areas of different functional order may be principally based on the increase in density of large, SMI-32 immunopositive layer IIIc neurons, rather than by further increase in complexity of their dendritic tree and synaptic network.

  13. Incomplete and inaccurate vocal imitation after knockdown of FoxP2 in songbird basal ganglia nucleus Area X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haesler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the forkhead box transcription factor, FOXP2, is essential for developing the full articulatory power of human language. Mutations of FOXP2 cause developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD, a speech and language disorder that compromises the fluent production of words and the correct use and comprehension of grammar. FOXP2 patients have structural and functional abnormalities in the striatum of the basal ganglia, which also express high levels of FOXP2. Since human speech and learned vocalizations in songbirds bear behavioral and neural parallels, songbirds provide a genuine model for investigating the basic principles of speech and its pathologies. In zebra finch Area X, a basal ganglia structure necessary for song learning, FoxP2 expression increases during the time when song learning occurs. Here, we used lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi to reduce FoxP2 levels in Area X during song development. Knockdown of FoxP2 resulted in an incomplete and inaccurate imitation of tutor song. Inaccurate vocal imitation was already evident early during song ontogeny and persisted into adulthood. The acoustic structure and the duration of adult song syllables were abnormally variable, similar to word production in children with DVD. Our findings provide the first example of a functional gene analysis in songbirds and suggest that normal auditory-guided vocal motor learning requires FoxP2.

  14. The radial increment and stemwood element concentrations of Scots pine in the area influenced by the Narva power plants in Northeast Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Katri; Reisner, Vaike

    2007-07-01

    In the northeastern part of Estonia, near the town of Narva, there are two large oil shale fueled power plants, Baltic PP and Estonian PP. On burning oil shale the main atmospheric pollutants are fly ash, sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides. The radial increment was measured and concentrations of Ca and Cu were estimated in the stemwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from four sites in the influence area of the Narva power plants. Increment cores were taken also from two sites in an unpolluted area located 112 and 120 km northwest from the Estonian PP. The stands selected for investigation were similar as to their edaphic conditions and forest survey indicators (75- to 80-year-old (Oxalis-) Myrtillus-type pine stands of 0.7-0.8 density and of quality class II). The strongest effect of air pollution on radial increment was observed on the sampling site in the direction of dominating winds at a distance of 22 km to northeast from the Estonian PP. Using the annual rings, the core samples were divided into five-year sections (1945-1949; 1950-1954 etc.). The concentration of Ca increased and that of Cu decreased from the youngest, outermost annual rings towards the centre of the stem. High concentrations of Ca and Cu in stemwood in 1970-1974 may be due to the launching of the Estonian PP in 1969 in addition to the Baltic PP, which has operated since 1959.

  15. Critical evaluation of the mechanical properties log (MPL) on a basal quartz well in the Caroline area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, J.D.; Elbel, J.; Mattheis, E.; Lindstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    There is a need to quantify the in situ properties of barriers and pay zones in order to assess the potential for fracture containment and to optimize stimulation treatment design. A major testing program has been conducted jointly by Dome Petroleum Ltd., Dowell, and Schlumberger to compare laboratory-measured mechanical properties with those determined by well logging. The testing program was confined to the Basal Quartz Formation at a depth of ca 3,000 m, as it occurs in a Dome well in the Caroline area of Alberta. Laboratory testing included the determination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at in situ temperature and stress conditions. The mechanical properties log was derived from the open-hole sonic log, and the in situ stresses were measured in the field. An attempt is made to explain the discrepancies on the basis of other known well data.

  16. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of large nodular basal cell carcinoma at the medial canthal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Gamze Ozturk; Kaynak, Pelin; Ozturker, Can; Fazil, Korhan; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Taskapılı, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Context (Background): Imiquimod (IMQ) 5% cream is an immunomodulatory and antitumorigenic agent, which was used as a topical treatment regimen, who had periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Aim: This study aims to present three cases with large BCC at the medial canthal area treated with IMQ 5% cream. Materials and Methods: IMQ 5% cream was used in three patients with ages 45, 49, and 73 who preferred medical treatment over surgery. Following incisional biopsy IMQ cream was used once a day, 5 times a week and the patients were followed up weekly during 12 week treatment period and monthly after the clearance of the lesion. Results: Erythema and erosion on the surface of the lesion, injection of conjunctiva, burning and itching sensation, epiphora and punctate keratitis were seen in all patients during the treatment period. The ophthalmic side effects could be managed by topical lubricating eye drops and the inflammatory reactions resolved within 1 month after cessation of therapy. The patients were followed up for at least 3 years without tumor recurrence and the biopsies taken from the suspected area were found to be tumor free. Conclusion: Surgical excision of carcinoma of the eyelid at medial canthal area can be difficult without causing damage to the lacrimal system and reconstruction of the defect may need grafts or flaps. IMQ may provide an alternative therapy to surgery in certain cases. PMID:28300740

  17. Effect of Flow Rate and Disc Area Increment on the Efficiency of Rotating Biological Contactor for Treating Greywater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of greywater treatment through RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is related to many factors including rotational speed of disc, surface area of the media, thickness of biological film; quality and flow rate of influent. The plastic media provides surface for biological slime. The slime is rotated alternatively into the settled wastewater and then into atmosphere to provide aerobic conditions for the microorganisms. In this study the performance of RBC is investigated at different flow rates and disk areas of media by introducing additional discs on the shaft of RBC. Initially efficiency of the RBC was observed on six flow rates at the disc area of 9.78m2. Furthermore optimized three flow rates were used to augment the disk area. The efficiency of RBC system was improved significantly at disk area of 11.76m2 and flow rate of 20 L/h. Under these conditions the removal of BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and TSS (Total Suspended Solid was observed 83, 57 and 90% respectively

  18. Pastagens em alguns municípios paulistas e estudo da área basal e sombreamento Pastures in some São Paulo counties and study of basal area and green coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vicente Chiarini

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Em levantamento do uso do solo por fotointerpretação, em cinco municípios do Estado de São Paulo, foram determinadas as porcentagens de floresta, cerrado, pastagem, campo, terra de cultura e área urbana. Complementarmente foram realizadas amostragens de campo em áreas de pasto sorteadas nos mosaicos, com determinação da área basal e sombreamento. As áreas com pastagem variaram de 55 a 78%. Os municípios de Lagoinha e Rancharia, tipicamente pastoris, apresentaram-se com 3 a 8% de agricultura e 78 a 57% de pasto. O município de Pinhal apresentou equilíbrio entre pastagem e agricultura quando tomadas as normas conservacionistas. Nos estudos de sombreamento, áreas basal e colonizada, encontraram-se variações dentro da mesma espécie de gramíneas, entre municípios, e entre as referidas espécies no mesmo município. A baixa densidade de plantas forrageiras nos pastos revela técnicas de manejo diferentes.Five counties in the State of São Paulo were studied by photo interpretation for land use. Forests, "cerrado" (savanna, grassland, pastures, crop fields and urban areas were determined and located in maps. Field samples, selected by statistical methods, were collected in four counties in order to study the vertical projection of green cover ("sombreamento", the "basal area", i. e. the soil surface occupied by vegetation, and the "colonized area", that is the area occupied by plant species. The extent of pastures in these counties oscillates between 55 and 78%. Lagoinha and Rancharia counties are typical pasture regions with 78 to 57% of the area occupied by this land use, with 3 to 8% by field crops. Pinhal county presents a balanced use of pastures and crops, according to the land capability. Variations were found in the green covered, in the basal and occupied areas for the same species among counties and among species in the same county. The low density of forage plants in all pastures suggest that a better management is

  19. Chronic Stress Decreases Basal Levels of Memory-Related Signaling Molecules in Area CA1 of At-Risk (Subclinical) Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2015-08-01

    An important factor that may affect the severity and time of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is chronic stress. Epidemiological studies report that chronically stressed individuals are at an increased risk for developing AD. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether chronic psychosocial stress could hasten the appearance of AD symptoms including changes in basal levels of cognition-related signaling molecules in subjects who are at risk for the disease. We investigated the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of subclinical rat model of AD. The subclinical symptomless rat model of AD was induced by osmotic pump continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of 160 pmol/day Aβ1-42 for 14 days. Rats were chronically stressed using the psychosocial stress intruder model. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of important signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed no significant difference between the subclinical AD rat model and control rat. Following six weeks of psychosocial stress, molecular analysis showed that subclinical animals subjected to stress have significantly reduced basal levels of p-CaMKII and decreased p-CaMKII/t-CaMKII ratio as well as decreased basal levels of p-CREB, total CREB, and BDNF. The present results suggest that these changes in basal levels of signaling molecules may be responsible for impaired learning, memory, and LTP in this rat model, which support the proposition that chronic stress may accelerate the emergence of AD in susceptible individuals.

  20. The prefrontal cortex regulates the basal release of dopamine in the limbic striatum : An effect mediated by ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, M; Moghaddam, B

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined whether the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exerts a tonic control over the basal release of dopamine in the limbic striatum and whether this control is mediated by glutamatergic afferents to the dopamine cell body or terminal regions. Using intracerebral microdialysis in freely m

  1. Pullback incremental attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloeden Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pullback incremental attraction, a nonautonomous version of incremental stability, is introduced for nonautonomous systems that may have unbounded limiting solutions. Its characterisation by a Lyapunov function is indicated

  2. Incremental Distance Transforms (IDT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon; Erçil, A.; Çetin, M.; Boyer, K.; Lee, S.-W.

    2010-01-01

    A new generic scheme for incremental implementations of distance transforms (DT) is presented: Incremental Distance Transforms (IDT). This scheme is applied on the cityblock, Chamfer, and three recent exact Euclidean DT (E2DT). A benchmark shows that for all five DT, the incremental implementation r

  3. A remotely-sensed disturbance history and decrease in basal area of coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurcak, D. E.; Ross, M. S.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change and ensuing sea level rise are predicted to have serious impacts on the severity of disturbance from tropical storms experienced by coastal forest communities worldwide, resulting in changes in terrestrial carbon dynamics. In the lower Florida Keys, with elevations averaging 1 meter and where an increase in sea level rise of 23 cm has been documented over the past century (Key West, NOAA 2001), these impacts are already evident. While freshwater requiring coastal forests of the Florida Keys, specifically hardwood hammock and pine rockland communities, have co-existed with hurricanes and fires over the past several thousand years, recent decades have seen the extent of these forests seriously diminished. Using an approach that combines remote sensing techniques and ground-based measurements of tree basal area, this study quantifies changes to coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys over the last three decades (1983-2012) in reference to known disturbances and looks at recovery from Hurricane Wilma (2005), which flooded the islands with up to 8 feet of salt water. Yearly vegetation indices were derived from a 30-year catalog of Landsat TM 4-5 satellite imagery, with cloud-free images available for most years. Images were acquired mostly in the months of January through March (mid-dry season). Whenever possible, cloud-free images acquired in other months were used to track how indices changed seasonally. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) was used to document changes in vegetation drought stress and TM band 5 was used to approximate changes in tree basal area. Areas of hardwood hammock and pine rockland occurring on eight islands were extracted for the analysis from a landcover map digitized from a combination of elevation, canopy height, and high resolution aerial imagery. Additionally, seven 60 m by 10 m permanent plots, established and first sampled in 1990 on 2 of the islands, were resampled for tree basal area and shrub

  4. Microbial biomass and basal respiration in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abakumov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the unique place for pedological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century. Antarctic logistic provides the possibility to scientists access the terrestrial landscapes mainly in the places of polar stations. That is why the main and most detailed pedological investigations were conducted in Mc Murdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis. Investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions on the base of soil pits and samples collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Soils of diverse Antarctic landscapes were studied with aim to assess the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. The investigation conducted shows that soils of Antarctic are quite different in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod organo-mineral horizons as well as the upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King-George Island, where its thickness reach even 80 cm. These soils as well as soils under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC 7.22–33.70%. Coastal and continental soils of Antarctic are presented by less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol with TOC levels about 0.37–4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones which can be interpreted as result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants in organic and organo-mineral horizons. Also the soils of King-George island have higher portion of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g−1 than coastal (max 0.26 mg g−1 and continental (max 0.22 mg g−1 Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils mainly differ from Antarctic ones in increased organic layers thickness and total

  5. Incremental algorithms on lists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Incremental computations can improve the performance of interactive programs such as spreadsheet programs, program development environments, text editors, etc. Incremental algorithms describe how to compute a required value depending on the input, after the input has been edited. By considering the

  6. VT Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts is established by a municipality around an area that requires public infrastructure to encourage public and private real...

  7. Distribution and network of basal temporal language areas: a study of the combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ookawa, Satoshi; Ochi, Satoko; Ishiai, Sumio; Nagamine, Takashi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-21

    The basal temporal language area (BTLA) is considered to have several functions in language processing; however, its brain network is still unknown. This study investigated the distribution and networks of the BTLA using a combination of electric cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Ten patients with intractable focal epilepsy who underwent presurgical evaluation with subdural electrodes were enrolled in this study (language dominant side: six patients, language non-dominant side: four patients). Electric stimulation at 50 Hz was applied to the electrodes during Japanese sentence reading, morphograms (kanji) reading, and syllabograms (kana) reading tasks to identify the BTLA. DTI was used to identify the subcortical fibers originating from the BTLA found by electrical stimulation. The BTLA was found in six patients who underwent implantation of the subdural electrodes in the dominant hemisphere. The BTLA was located anywhere between 20-56 mm posterior to temporal tips. In three patients, electrical stimulation of some or all areas within the BTLA induced disturbance in reading of kanji words only. DTI detected the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in all patients and the uncinate fasciculus (UF) in one patient, originating from the BTLA. ILF was detected from both kanji-specific areas and kanji-nonspecific areas. This study indicates that the network of the BTLA is a part of a ventral stream, and is mainly composed of the ILF, which acts as a critical structure for lexical retrieval. ILF is also associated with the specific process of kanji words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incremental Alignment Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Han; De-Yu Meng; Zong-Sen Xu; Nan-Nan Gu

    2011-01-01

    A new manifold learning method, called incremental alignment method (IAM), is proposed for nonlinear dimensionality reduction of high dimensional data with intrinsic low dimensionality. The main idea is to incrementally align low-dimensional coordinates of input data patch-by-patch to iteratively generate the representation of the entire dataset. The method consists of two major steps, the incremental step and the alignment step. The incremental step incrementally searches neighborhood patch to be aligned in the next step, and the alignment step iteratively aligns the low-dimensional coordinates of the neighborhood patch searched to generate the embeddings of the entire dataset. Compared with the existing manifold learning methods, the proposed method dominates in several aspects: high efficiency, easy out-of-sample extension, well metric-preserving, and averting of the local minima issue. All these properties are supported by a series of experiments performed on the synthetic and real-life datasets. In addition, the computational complexity of the proposed method is analyzed, and its efficiency is theoretically argued and experimentally demonstrated.

  9. Modulation of specific sensory cortical areas by segregated basal forebrain cholinergic neurons demonstrated by neuronal tracing and optogenetic stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eChaves-Coira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-gold and Fast Blue fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1 and primary auditory (A1 cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT. Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  10. Modulation of Specific Sensory Cortical Areas by Segregated Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Demonstrated by Neuronal Tracing and Optogenetic Stimulation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Coira, Irene; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita; Núñez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Neocortical cholinergic activity plays a fundamental role in sensory processing and cognitive functions. Previous results have suggested a refined anatomical and functional topographical organization of basal forebrain (BF) projections that may control cortical sensory processing in a specific manner. We have used retrograde anatomical procedures to demonstrate the existence of specific neuronal groups in the BF involved in the control of specific sensory cortices. Fluoro-Gold (FlGo) and Fast Blue (FB) fluorescent retrograde tracers were deposited into the primary somatosensory (S1) and primary auditory (A1) cortices in mice. Our results revealed that the BF is a heterogeneous area in which neurons projecting to different cortical areas are segregated into different neuronal groups. Most of the neurons located in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) projected to the S1 cortex, indicating that this area is specialized in the sensory processing of tactile stimuli. However, the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (B) nucleus shows a similar number of cells projecting to the S1 as to the A1 cortices. In addition, we analyzed the cholinergic effects on the S1 and A1 cortical sensory responses by optogenetic stimulation of the BF neurons in urethane-anesthetized transgenic mice. We used transgenic mice expressing the light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, tagged with a fluorescent protein (ChR2-YFP) under the control of the choline-acetyl transferase promoter (ChAT). Cortical evoked potentials were induced by whisker deflections or by auditory clicks. According to the anatomical results, optogenetic HDB stimulation induced more extensive facilitation of tactile evoked potentials in S1 than auditory evoked potentials in A1, while optogenetic stimulation of the B nucleus facilitated either tactile or auditory evoked potentials equally. Consequently, our results suggest that cholinergic projections to the cortex are organized into segregated

  11. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  12. Incremental Bisimulation Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Jens Christian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    an abstraction refinement approach for the probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL), which is based on incrementally computing a sequence of may- and must-quotient automata. These are induced by depth-bounded bisimulation equivalences of increasing depth. The approach is both sound and complete, since...

  13. Lightweight incremental application upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractI present a lightweight approach to incremental application upgrade in the context of component-based software development. The approach can be used to efficiently implement an automated update feature in a platform and programming language agnostic way. A formal release model is present

  14. Incremental Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiñonero-Candela, Joaquin; Winther, Ole

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Tipping's relevance vector machine (RVM) and formalize an incremental training strategy as a variant of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm that we call subspace EM. Working with a subset of active basis functions, the sparsity of the RVM solution will ensure th...

  15. Approximal caries increment in adolescents in a low caries prevalence area in Sweden after a 3.5-year school-based fluoride varnish programme with Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Eva-Karin; Birkhed, Dowen; Granlund, Christina; Sköld, Ulla Moberg

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate approximal caries increment among 12- to 16-year-olds in a low caries prevalence area in Sweden after a 3.5-year school-based fluoride (F) varnish programme with Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat. The design was a RCT study with 1365 adolescents, divided into following four groups: Group 1 Bifluorid 12 two applications/year; Group 2 Duraphat two applications/year; Group 3 Bifluorid 12 four applications/year and Group 4 no F varnish at school. 1143 children (84%) completed the study. Approximal caries was registered on bitewing radiographs. There were no statistically significant differences in caries prevalence among the groups either at baseline or after 3.5 years . The caries increment for Group 1 was 1.34 ± 2.99 (mean ± SD), 1.24 ± 2.84 for Group 2, 1.07 ± 2.66 for Group 3 and 1.25 ± 2.75 for Group 4, with no statically significant differences either between Bifluorid 12 and Duraphat with the same frequency of F varnish applications or between the F groups and the control group. In an area with low caries prevalence in Sweden, the supplementary caries-preventive effect of school-based F varnish applications, to regular use of F toothpaste at home and to regular caries prevention given at the Public Dental Clinics, appears to be nonsignificant regarding approximal caries increment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  17. Precursors of extreme increments

    CERN Document Server

    Hallerberg, S; Holstein, D; Kantz, H; Hallerberg, Sarah; Altmann, Eduardo G.; Holstein, Detlef; Kantz, Holger

    2006-01-01

    We investigate precursors and predictability of extreme events in time series, which consist in large increments within successive time steps. In order to understand the predictability of this class of extreme events, we study analytically the prediction of extreme increments in AR(1)-processes. The resulting strategies are then applied to predict sudden increases in wind speed recordings. In both cases we evaluate the success of predictions via creating receiver operator characteristics (ROC-plots). Surprisingly, we obtain better ROC-plots for completely uncorrelated Gaussian random numbers than for AR(1)-correlated data. Furthermore, we observe an increase of predictability with increasing event size. Both effects can be understood by using the likelihood ratio as a summary index for smooth ROC-curves.

  18. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Shellsort with three increments

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Svante

    2008-01-01

    A perturbation technique can be used to simplify and sharpen A. C. Yao's theorems about the behavior of shellsort with increments $(h,g,1)$. In particular, when $h=\\Theta(n^{7/15})$ and $g=\\Theta(h^{1/5})$, the average running time is $O(n^{23/15})$. The proof involves interesting properties of the inversions in random permutations that have been $h$-sorted and $g$-sorted.

  20. Teledetección satelital cuantitativa para estimar el área basal del bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae: El rol del índice de área foliar como información auxiliar Quantitative remote sensing to estimate basal area in Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae forest: The role of leaf area index as ancillary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GASTÓN M DÍAZ

    2011-12-01

    is to relate satellite data to the forest characteristics. Nevertheless, which is the most efficient estimation methodology? Leaf area index (LAI is related to the canopy reflectance through radiative transfer model PROSAIL, allowing the development of LAI physical based estimation techniques, instead of statistical models. Therefore, the empirical-biological relationship between LAI and the forest structure can be used to estimate structural parameters, as basal area. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three different approaches to estimate basal area using SPOT-5 data. The approaches compared were: direct statistics (ED, two steps statistics (E2P, and two steps physics-statistics (FE2P. Accuracy assessment was done with 24 independent field measurements. The difference in accuracy was not statistically significant, i.e., the physical-statistical model was not more accurate than the purely statistical model. However, based on analysis of other authors evidence and the results of this study, the conclusion was that the advantage of using physical model, lies on the greater robustness, and not on the better accuracy.

  1. Incremental POP Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ben-yong

    2004-01-01

    In recently proposed partial oblique projection (POP) learning, a function space is decomposed into two complementary subspaces, so that functions belonging to one of which can be optimally estimated. This paper shows that when the decomposition is specially performed so that the above subspace becomes the largest, a special learning called SPOP learning is obtained and correspondingly an incremental learning is implemented, result of which equals exactly to that of batch learning including novel data. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by experimental results.

  2. Freezing increment in keratophakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

    In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result.

  3. [Incremental peritoneal dialysis - yes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Loris

    2012-01-01

    The incremental modality at the start of peritoneal dialysis (Incr-DP) is implicit in the definition of adequacy, which is expressed as the sum of dialysis clearance and renal clearance.Theoretically, it is possible to demonstrate that with a glomerular filtration rate at the start of dialysis of 6 mL/min, the minimum Kt/V target of 1.70 indicated by the current guidelines is easily exceeded with both 2-exchange of CAPD (incremental CAPD) and APD of 3 or 4 weekly sessions (Incr-APD), with a daytime icodextrin dwell. The GSDP (Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group) census data suggest that Incr-DP favors the choice of peritoneal dialysis. Although limited to a few studies with a relatively small number of patients, data show that Incr- CAPD is associated with a better quality of life, the achievement of Kt/V targets, and satisfactory ultrafiltration. The clearance of medium molecules is equivalent in Incr-DP and full-dose PD as it depends on the duration of the dwell and not on the number of exchanges. The maintenance of body weight, protein intake and peritoneal permeability may be explained by the lower glucose load with Incr-DP. The preservation of residual renal function is similar to that recorded with full-dose PD, while the peritonitis rate seems to be lower. The favorable results reported in the literature and the indications of the most recent guidelines about the importance of reducing the exposure to glucose to a minimum and safeguarding the patient's quality of life in our opinion further justify the use of Incr-DP.

  4. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  5. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... visibility ranges and show that considering visibility ranges is crucial when considering incremental visible object extraction....

  6. Incremental Contingency Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  7. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  8. Backstepping design for incremental stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamani, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Stability is arguably one of the core concepts upon which our understanding of dynamical and control systems has been built. The related notion of incremental stability, however, has received much less attention until recently, when it was successfully used as a tool for the analysis and design of intrinsic observers, output regulation of nonlinear systems, frequency estimators, synchronization of coupled identical dynamical systems, symbolic models for nonlinear control systems, and bio-molecular systems. However, most of the existing controller design techniques provide controllers enforcing stability rather than incremental stability. Hence, there is a growing need to extend existing methods or develop new ones for the purpose of designing incrementally stabilizing controllers. In this paper, we develop a backstepping design approach for incremental stability. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated by synthesizing a controller rendering a synchronous generator incrementally stable.

  9. Discriminação de incrementos de desflorestamento na Amazônia com dados SAR R99B em banda L Discriminating deforestation increment areas in the Amazon rainforest with L band SAR R99B data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Bandeira Guerra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de dados de sensoriamento remoto óptico em projetos de monitoramento de extensas áreas de floresta tropical é limitado devido à intensa cobertura por nuvens. Os dados SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar podem ser uma alternativa interessante para detectar desflorestamento nas regiões de floresta tropical onde a cobertura por nuvens é permanente. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o potencial do dado SAR adquirido em banda L pelo sistema aerotransportado R99B da Força Aérea Brasileira (FAB para discriminar incremento de desflorestamento na Amazônia. Para tanto, foram realizadas classificações MAXVER-ICM com dados SAR multipolarizados de uma área teste localizada na região Sudeste do Estado do Acre. As classificações realizadas com a combinação dos canais HH, HV e VV e com o par de polarizações HH+HV obtiveram boa concordância com o mapa produzido no projeto PRODES (k = 0,68, onde k é o índice Kappa, o qual foi adotado como dado de referência. Este resultado indica que o dado SAR multipolarizado em banda L possui bom potencial para discriminar incremento de desflorestamento na Amazônia.The use of optical remote sensing data in large tropical forest regions has an important limitation due to cloud cover. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be a viable alternative in areas where cloud cover is permanent, because the data acquisition is independent on atmospheric conditions. In this context, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of L band SAR data acquired by R99B Brazilian Air Force (FAB airborne system to discriminate deforestation increments in the Amazon rainforest. In order to achieve this purpose, we performed Maximum Likelihood classifications with multipolarized SAR data of a test site located in the state of Acre. The classifications performed with the combination of three channels (HH+HV+VV and with the polarization pair HH+HV obtained good agreement with PRODES reference

  10. Microbial biomass and basal respiration of selected Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.; Mukhametova, N.

    2014-07-01

    Antarctica is a unique place for soil, biological, and ecological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century, when different national Antarctic expeditions visited the sixth continent with the aim of investigating nature and the environment. Antarctic investigations are comprised of field surveys mainly in the terrestrial landscapes, where the polar stations of different countries are situated. That is why the main and most detailed soil surveys were conducted in the McMurdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann Hills and the Schirmacher Oasis. Our investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions in the base of soil pits, and samples were collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Sub-Antarctic or maritime landscapes are considered to be very different from Antarctic landscapes due to differing climatic and geogenic conditions. Soils of diverse zonal landscapes were studied with the aim of assessing the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. This investigation shows that Antarctic soils are quite diverse in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons as well as by an upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King George Island, where its thickness reach, in some cases, was 80 cm. These soils as well as soils formed under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC), between 7.22 and 33.70%. Coastal and continental Antarctic soils exhibit less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol, with TOC levels between 0.37 and 4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones, which can be interpreted as a result of higher amounts of fresh organic

  11. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal

  12. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  13. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  14. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  15. 77 FR 9653 - Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Comment Sought on Potential Data for Connect America Fund Phase One Incremental Support AGENCY... incremental support. DATES: Comments are due on or before March 19, 2012. ADDRESSES: Interested parties may... incremental support is designed to provide an immediate boost to broadband deployment in areas that are...

  16. Application of an assessment protocol to extensive species and total basal area per acre datasets for the eastern coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Riemann; Ty Wilson; Andrew Lister

    2012-01-01

    We recently developed an assessment protocol that provides information on the magnitude, location, frequency and type of error in geospatial datasets of continuous variables (Riemann et al. 2010). The protocol consists of a suite of assessment metrics which include an examination of data distributions and areas estimates, at several scales, examining each in the form...

  17. Múltiplos carcinomas basocelulares na região pubiana em uma paciente fototipo IV: relato de caso Multiple basal cell carcinomas in the pubic area in a patient with skin type IV: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Banhos Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna cutânea mais comum em humanos, localizando-se, frequentemente, em áreas expostas e em indivíduos de pele clara. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 62 anos, faiodérmica, com múltiplas lesões de bordas discretamente elevadas, eritemato-acastanhadas na região pubiana, cujo diagnóstico clínico foi carcinoma basocelular pigmentado, confirmado através do estudo histopatológico. A imunoistoquímica das lesões foi negativa para a pesquisa de papiloma vírusBasal cell carcinoma is the most common type of malignant cutaneous neoplasm in humans, being more frequently located in exposed areas and in fair-skinned individuals. It is reported the case of a 62-yearold female patient, brown-skinned ,with multiple lesions with edges slightly raised, reddish-brown in the pubic region, whose clinical diagnosis was pigmented basal cell carcinoma, confirmed by histopathology. Immunohistochemistry of the lesions was negative for the detection of papilloma virus

  18. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... incremental facilities to be rolled-in to the pipeline's rates. For every expansion that has an at-risk...

  19. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  20. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  1. Application of Incremental Sheet Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some manufacturing aspects and an example of application of the Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF technology which was used for production of the craniofacial prosthesis. The brief description of prosthesis designing was presented as well. The main topic of the paper is comparison of milling and ISF technologies for preparing the tools for prosthesis thermoforming.

  2. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...

  3. VOLUME INCREMENT OF Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. MEZ ON A MIXED RAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique da Silva Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is studied the growth of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez species through a sampler compounded by eleven dominant trees selected from a rainforest in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul. The mathematical model which better represents the growth trend in percentage volume was described as iv%=(b0+b1.ln d2, fitting individually per tree, being possible to describe the variations of slope (b1 and intercept (b0 coefficients between trees with the relation height – diameter (h/d, diameter increment measured on the last 5 cm on bore increment (id5 sampled on diameter breast height (d, exposition (EXPOS, corrected Basal Area Large (BALcor and crown length exposed to sunlight (Lc, considering the following expressions: b1= 0,41739 + 4,16179.id5 - 6,29332.h/d + 0,37823.EXPOS - 0,11519Ir + 5,80419.BALcor – 0,06858.Lc, with determination coefficient equal to 0,9979 and standard error in percentage of the mean of –1,73%, and b0= 2,62466 –13,37024.id5 + 22,08329.h/d – 1,33161.EXPOS + 0,34689.Ir –23,88899.BALcor + 0,25692.L, with determination coefficient fitting on 0,9907 and standard error in percentage of the mean of 2,71%.

  4. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel Angel; Iñigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jesús Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations.

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  6. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  7. Instream flow incremental methodology: microhabitat utilization criteria for Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeGraaf, D.A; Chaput, G.J

    1984-01-01

    ... with the PHABSIM computer model of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Potential study areas were identified through discussions among LGL, the Scientific Authority and DFO researchers...

  8. Incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Guan, Sheng-Uei

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents a new genetic algorithm approach to multiobjective optimization problems--incremental multiple objective genetic algorithms (IMOGA). Different from conventional MOGA methods, it takes each objective into consideration incrementally. The whole evolution is divided into as many phases as the number of objectives, and one more objective is considered in each phase. Each phase is composed of two stages. First, an independent population is evolved to optimize one specific objective. Second, the better-performing individuals from the single-objecive population evolved in the above stage and the multiobjective population evolved in the last phase are joined together by the operation of integration. The resulting population then becomes an initial multiobjective population, to which a multiobjective evolution based on the incremented objective set is applied. The experiment results show that, in most problems, the performance of IMOGA is better than that of three other MOGAs, NSGA-II, SPEA, and PAES. IMOGA can find more solutions during the same time span, and the quality of solutions is better.

  9. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  10. 基于SPOT5影像的杉木胸高断面积估测探讨%Study on Basal Area Estimation of Chinese Fir Based on SPOT5 Imaaes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏海; 林辉; 孙华

    2012-01-01

    采用角规实地调查黄丰桥林场90个杉木人工纯林样地胸高断面积,利用样地SPOT5遥感信息与地理信息,建立了杉木胸高断面积多元线性回归估测模型。首先对样地采用GIS软件进行缓冲处理,缓冲后每个样地的面积为1hm2^;然后提取样地遥感光谱信息与纹理信息等21个因子和4个GIS因子,采用逐步回归分析法筛选出6个因子作为模型自变量;最后分别采用普通最小二乘法(OLS)和偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立了杉木胸高断面积多元回归模型。研究结果表明:OLS回归模型的预测精度为82.2%,均方根误差(RMSE)为5.12m^3/hm^2;PLS回规模型的预测精度为83.9%,均方根误差(RMSE)为4.2m^2/hm^2,PLS和0LS回归模型在杉木胸高断面积估测中均取得了较好的效果,用中高分辨率遥感影像在估测森林结构参数上是可行的。%The surveying of Chinese fir basal area by fielding 90 sample plots witn angle gauges liau tied out in Huangfengqiao forest farm,the multiple linear regression estimation model of basal area was set up based on remote sensing and geographic information. First, each sample plot was buffered by GIS software to 1 hectare;Then from which 2l RS index factors such as spectral and texture information and 4 GIS index factors were extracted ,in which 6 index factors were screened out as independent model variables through stepwise re- gression analysis;Last the multiple regression model was built by using OLS and PLS respectively. The results showed that: the model predicted accuracy was 82.2% and RMSE was 5.12 m^2/hm^2 by using OLS; the model predicted accuracy was 83.9% and RMSE was 4.21 m^2/hm^2 by using PLS ;The adoption of OLS and PLS serv- ices well in basal area estimation, to estimate forest structural parameters can achieve good effects by using high resolution remote sensing images.

  11. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... Agreement, as required, until it is fully funded. Any work beyond the funding limit will be at the...

  12. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000...

  13. Nuevos enfoques en aprendizaje incremental

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo-Ávila, José

    2007-01-01

    Actualmente el volumen de datos que se genera en diferentes ámbitos es muy elevado, llegando incluso a ser difícil de almacenar. Realizar tareas de aprendizaje automático ante tal cantidad de información está provocando que sean necesarios nuevos algoritmos. En esta tesis se presentan distintas aportaciones en el ámbito del aprendizaje incremental, las cuales, fundamentalmente, están dirigidas a mejorarlo usando algoritmos basados en cotas de concentración y sistemas multiclasificadores.

  14. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  15. Incremental deformation: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasulea Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the customer requirements are in permanent changing and according with them the tendencies in the modern industry is to implement flexible manufacturing processes. In the last decades, metal forming gained attention of the researchers and considerable changes has occurred. Because for a small number of parts, the conventional metal forming processes are expensive and time-consuming in terms of designing and manufacturing preparation, the manufacturers and researchers became interested in flexible processes. One of the most investigated flexible processes in metal forming is incremental sheet forming (ISF. ISF is an advanced flexible manufacturing process which allows to manufacture complex 3D products without expensive dedicated tools. In most of the cases it is needed for an ISF process the following: a simple tool, a fixing device for sheet metal blank and a universal CNC machine. Using this process it can be manufactured axis-symmetric parts, usually using a CNC lathe but also complex asymmetrical parts using CNC milling machines, robots or dedicated equipment. This paper aim to present the current status of incremental sheet forming technologies in terms of process parameters and their influences, wall thickness distribution, springback effect, formability, surface quality and the current main research directions.

  16. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  17. A New Incremental Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine is a popular method in machine learning. Incremental support vector machine algorithm is ideal selection in the face of large learning data set. In this paper a new incremental support vector machine learning algorithm is proposed to improve efficiency of large scale data processing. The model of this incremental learning algorithm is similar to the standard support vector machine. The goal concept is updated by incremental learning. Each training procedure only includes new training data. The time complexity is independent of whole training set. Compared with the other incremental version, the training speed of this approach is improved and the change of hyperplane is reduced.

  18. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  19. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  20. 儿童前牙区牙槽骨和基骨骨密度的锥形束CT测量%Density of the anterior area of alveolar and basal bones on the children measured by cone beam computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 任卫萍; 龙飞; 栗震亚

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate density value on anterior of the alveolar and basal bones on children. Methods 138 cases cone beam computed tomography images were selected. The densities of these bones were measured in Hounsfield units(Hu) for the incisor, canine of the anterior area of alveolar and basal bones on the children. Results There is no significant difference on the same position of the maxillary bilateral(right and left) incisors of the density value(P>0.05). To compare with the incisors of the density value on the same position of the mandibule on left and right, there is significant difference on the base bone on cortical bone density of lingual, P=0.012. There is no significant difference on the same position of the maxillary bilateral(right and left) canine of the density value. To compare with the canine of the density value on the same position of the mandibule on left and right, there is significant difference on the alveolar bone and basal bone cancellous density, P=0.046 and 0.002, respectively. Conclusion These might provide determinate data for anterior teeth zone when selecting sites and placement methods for microscrew implants in the dental arch.%目的 评估儿童前牙区上下颌牙槽骨和基骨的骨密度.方法 选择138例患者的锥形束CT扫描图像,以亨斯菲尔德单位(X线衰减单位Hu)来测定其上下颌切牙区、尖牙区牙槽嵴和基骨骨密质及骨松质的骨密度.结果 上颌切牙区左右两侧相同部位间的骨密度值相比较,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05);下颌切牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,基骨区舌侧骨密质的骨密度值差异有统计学意义(P=0.012);上颌尖牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05):下颌尖牙区左右两侧相同部位的骨密度值相比较,牙槽骨和基骨区骨松质的骨密度值差异有统计学意义,P值分别为0.046和0.002.结

  1. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  2. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    or a Panorama, where an observer is data space this approach is far from optimal. A more scalable approach is to make the observer-aware database system and to restrict the communication between the database and visualization systems to the relevant data. In this paper VR-tree, an extension of the R......The visual exploration of large databases calls for a tight coupling of database and visualization systems. Current visualization systems typically fetch all the data and organize it in a scene tree that is then used to render the visible data. For immersive data explorations in a Cave......-tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  3. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  4. Evolving Classifiers: Methods for Incremental Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hulley, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a classifier to take on new information and classes by evolving the classifier without it having to be fully retrained is known as incremental learning. Incremental learning has been successfully applied to many classification problems, where the data is changing and is not all available at once. In this paper there is a comparison between Learn++, which is one of the most recent incremental learning algorithms, and the new proposed method of Incremental Learning Using Genetic Algorithm (ILUGA). Learn++ has shown good incremental learning capabilities on benchmark datasets on which the new ILUGA method has been tested. ILUGA has also shown good incremental learning ability using only a few classifiers and does not suffer from catastrophic forgetting. The results obtained for ILUGA on the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Wine datasets are good, with an overall accuracy of 93% and 94% respectively showing a 4% improvement over Learn++.MT for the difficult multi-class OCR dataset.

  5. Coordinate-invariant incremental Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Zamani, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The notion of incremental stability was proposed by several researchers as a strong property of dynamical and control systems. In this type of stability, the focus is on the convergence of trajectories with respect to themselves, rather than with respect to an equilibrium point or a particular trajectory. Similarly to stability, Lyapunov functions play an important role in the study of incremental stability. In this paper, we propose coordinate-invariant notions of incremental Lyapunov function and provide the description of incremental stability in terms of existence of the proposed Lyapunov functions. Moreover, we develop a backstepping design approach providing a recursive way of constructing controllers as well as incremental Lyapunov functions. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated by synthesizing a controller rendering a single-machine infinite-bus electrical power system incrementally stable.

  6. Minimal Change and Bounded Incremental Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Wiren, M

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, the time that an incremental algorithm uses to process a change should be a function of the size of the change rather than, say, the size of the entire current input. Based on a formalization of ``the set of things changed'' by an incremental modification, this paper investigates how and to what extent it is possible to give such a guarantee for a chart-based parsing framework and discusses the general utility of a minimality notion in incremental processing.

  7. Incremental Supervised Subspace Learning for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Subspace learning algorithms have been well studied in face recognition. Among them, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most widely used supervised subspace learning method. Due to the difficulty of designing an incremental solution of the eigen decomposition on the product of matrices, there is little work for computing LDA incrementally. To avoid this limitation, an incremental supervised subspace learning (ISSL) algorithm was proposed, which incrementally learns an adaptive subspace by optimizing the maximum margin criterion (MMC). With the dynamically added face images, ISSL can effectively constrain the computational cost. Feasibility of the new algorithm has been successfully tested on different face data sets.

  8. Disrupting incrementalism in health care innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farzad; Zenios, Stefanos

    2011-08-01

    To build enabling innovation frameworks for health care entrepreneurs to better identify, evaluate, and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Powerful frameworks have been developed to enable entrepreneurs and investors identify which opportunity areas are worth pursuing and which start-up ideas have the potential to succeed. These frameworks, however, have not been clearly defined and interpreted for innovations in health care. Having a better understanding of the process of innovation in health care allows physician entrepreneurs to innovate more successfully. A review of academic literature was conducted. Concepts and frameworks related to technology innovation were analyzed. A new set of health care specific frameworks was developed. These frameworks were then applied to innovations in various health care subsectors. Health care entrepreneurs would greatly benefit from distinguishing between incremental and disruptive innovations. The US regulatory and reimbursement systems favor incrementalism with a greater chance of success for established players. Small companies and individual groups, however, are more likely to thrive if they adopt a disruptive strategy. Disruption in health care occurs through various mechanisms as detailed in this article. While the main mechanism of disruption might vary across different health care subsectors, it is shown that disruptive innovations consistently require a component of contrarian interpretation to guarantee considerable payoff. If health care entrepreneurs choose to adopt an incrementalist approach, they need to build the risk of disruption into their models and also ascertain that they have a very strong intellectual property (IP) position to weather competition from established players. On the contrary, if they choose to pursue disruption in the market, albeit the competition will be less severe, they need to recognize that the regulatory and reimbursement hurdles are going to be very high. Thus, they would benefit

  9. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  10. ON THE INCREMENTS DISTRIBUTION OF STOCK PRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the models of increment distributions of stock price are constructed with two approaches. The first approach is based on limit theorems of random summation. The second approach is based on the statistical analysis of the increment distribution of the logarithms of stock prices.

  11. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  12. Turns and Increments: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Kang-kwong; Thompson, Sandra A.; Ono, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in "increments" among students of conversational interaction. This article first outlines "incrementing" as an analytical problem (i.e., as turn constructional unit [TCU] extensions) by tracing its origins back to Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson's (1974) famous turn-taking article. Then, the article…

  13. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...explore and understand the issues involved in the DOD’s acquisition process for Unmanned Maritime Systems (UMS) in order to recommend a new acquisition

  14. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to

  15. Efficient Incremental Maintenance of Frequent Patterns with FP-Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Li Ma; Yun-Hai Tong; Shi-Wei Tang; Dong-Qing Yang

    2004-01-01

    Mining frequent patterns has been studied popularly in data mining area. However, little work has been done on mining patterns when the database has an influx of fresh data constantly. In these dynamic scenarios, efficient maintenance of the discovered patterns is crucial. Most existing methods need to scan the entire database repeatedly, which is an obvious disadvantage. In this paper, an efficient incremental mining algorithm, Incremental-Mining (IM), is proposed for maintenance of the frequent patterns when new incremental data come. Based on the frequent pattern tree (FP-tree) structure, IM gives a way to make the most of the things from the previous mining process, and requires scanning the original data once at most. Furthermore, IM can identify directly the differential set of frequent patterns, which may be more informative to users. Moreover, IM can deal with changing thresholds as well as changing data, thus provide a full maintenance scheme. IM has been implemented and the performance study shows it outperforms three other incremental algorithms: FUP, DB-tree and re-running frequent pattern growth (FP-growth).

  16. Incremental Discriminant Analysis in Tensor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liu; Weidong, Zhao; Tao, Yan; Qiang, Pu; Xiaodan, Du

    2015-01-01

    To study incremental machine learning in tensor space, this paper proposes incremental tensor discriminant analysis. The algorithm employs tensor representation to carry on discriminant analysis and combine incremental learning to alleviate the computational cost. This paper proves that the algorithm can be unified into the graph framework theoretically and analyzes the time and space complexity in detail. The experiments on facial image detection have shown that the algorithm not only achieves sound performance compared with other algorithms, but also reduces the computational issues apparently. PMID:26339229

  17. Increment-borer methods for determining fire history in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Barrett; Stephen F. Arno

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of increment borers for interpreting fire history in coniferous forests. These methods are intended for use in wildernesses, parks, and other natural areas where sawing cross-sections from fire-scarred trees is prohibited.

  18. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  19. The Incremental Cost Analysis of Green Building Technology of a Residential Area%某住宅小区绿色建筑技术增量成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静; 郭朝辉

    2015-01-01

    Through the cost savings analysis of green building project of a residential area, this paper analyzes the reasonableness and economical efficiency of the implementation of green building project, and takes its economic benefits as the key elements for the technical and economic evaluation of green building project, to provide scientific reference for investment decision-makers for the program selection.%本文通过对某住宅小区绿色建筑项目的造价、成本节约的分析,分析绿色建筑项目实施的合理性和经济性,并将其所带来的经济效益作为绿色建筑项目技术经济评价的关键内容,为投资决策者在方案选择上提供科学的参考依据。

  20. Prognostic utility of blood pressure-adjusted global and basal systolic longitudinal strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac B Rhea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and longitudinal systolic strain of the basal segments (BLS has shown prognostic value in cardiac disorders. However, strain is reduced with increased afterload. We assessed the prognostic value of GLS and BLS adjusted for afterload. GLS and BLS were determined in 272 subjects with normal ejection fraction and no known coronary disease, or significant valve disease. Systolic blood pressure (SP and diastolic blood pressure (DP obtained at the time of echocardiography were used to adjust GLS and BLS as follows: strain × SP (mmHg/120 mmHg and strain × DP (mmHg/80 mmHg. Patients were followed for cardiac events and mortality. The mean age was 53 ± 15 years and 53% had hypertension. There were 19 cardiac events and 70 deaths over a mean follow-up of 26 ± 14 months. Cox analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (P = 0.001, BLS (P < 0.001, and DP-adjusted BLS (P < 0.001 were independent predictors of cardiac events. DP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P < 0.001 to the other two predictors and had an area under the curve of 0.838 for events. DP (P = 0.001, age (P = 0.001, ACE inhibitor use (P = 0.017, and SP-adjusted BLS (P = 0.012 were independent predictors of mortality. SP-adjusted BLS added incremental value (P = 0.014 to the other independent predictors. In conclusion, DP-adjusted BLS and SP-adjusted BLS were independent predictors of cardiac events and mortality, respectively. Blood pressure-adjusted strain added incremental prognostic value to other predictors of outcome. Introduction Assessment of global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and basal longitudinal systolic strain (BLS have shown utility for prediction of prognosis in various cardiac disorders (1, 2, 3, 4. In some studies, longitudinal strain has been shown to be a more sensitive indicator of left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction than traditional measures of function (5, 6. The detection of early

  1. Separate and combined effects of gabapentin and [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans discriminating [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Wesley, Michael J; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a potential mechanism of action of gabapentin to manage cannabis-use disorders by determining the interoceptive effects of gabapentin in cannabis users discriminating [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol ([INCREMENT]-THC) using a pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedure. Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral [INCREMENT]-THC from placebo and then received gabapentin (600 and 1200 mg), [INCREMENT]-THC (5, 15, and 30 mg), and placebo alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance, and physiological measures were also collected. [INCREMENT]-THC served as a discriminative stimulus, produced positive subjective effects, elevated heart rate, and impaired psychomotor performance. Both doses of gabapentin substituted for the [INCREMENT]-THC discriminative stimulus and engendered subjective and performance-impairing effects that overlapped with those of [INCREMENT]-THC when administered alone. When administered concurrently, gabapentin shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of [INCREMENT]-THC leftward/upward, and combinations of [INCREMENT]-THC and gabapentin generally produced larger effects on cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes relative to [INCREMENT]-THC alone. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids.

  2. Large Deviations for Processes with Independent Increments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    generating function of the increments exists and thus the sample paths of such stochastic processes lie in the space of functions of bounded variation . The...BV[O,1], the space of functions of bounded variation and the topology is that of weak*-convergence. Varadhan (1966) studied the LDP for similar...increments and no Gaussian component which are considered as elements of BV[0,1], the space of functions of bounded variation . The final section

  3. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  4. Increments to life and mortality tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffith Feeney

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and develops the idea of "increments to life." Increments to life are roughly analogous to forces of mortality: they are quantities specified for each age and time by a mathematical function of two variables that may be used to describe, analyze and model changing length of life in populations. The rationale is three-fold. First, I wanted a general mathematical representation of Bongaart's "life extension" pill (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 allowing for continuous variation in age and time. This is accomplished in sections 3-5, to which sections 1-2 are preliminaries. It turned out to be a good deal more difficult than I expected, partly on account of the mathematics, but mostly because it requires thinking in very unaccustomed ways. Second, I wanted a means of assessing the robustness of the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment formula (Bongaarts and Feeney 2003 against variations in increments to life by age. Section 6 shows how the increments to life mathematics accomplishes this with an application to the Swedish data used in Bongaarts and Feeney (2003. In this application, at least, the Bongaarts-Feeney adjustment is robust. Third, I hoped by formulating age-variable increments to life to avoid the slight awkwardness of working with conditional rather than unconditional survival functions. This third aim has not been accomplished, but this appears to be because it was unreasonable to begin with. While it is possible to conceptualize length of life as completely described by an age-varying increments to life function, this is not consistent with the Bongaarts-Feeney mortality tempo adjustment. What seems to be needed, rather, is a model that incorporates two fundamentally different kinds of changes in mortality and length of life, one based on the familiar force of mortality function, the other based on the increments to life function. Section 7 considers heuristically what such models might look like.

  5. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  6. Incremental Support Vector Learning for Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    Support vector ordinal regression (SVOR) is a popular method to tackle ordinal regression problems. However, until now there were no effective algorithms proposed to address incremental SVOR learning due to the complicated formulations of SVOR. Recently, an interesting accurate on-line algorithm was proposed for training ν -support vector classification (ν-SVC), which can handle a quadratic formulation with a pair of equality constraints. In this paper, we first present a modified SVOR formulation based on a sum-of-margins strategy. The formulation has multiple constraints, and each constraint includes a mixture of an equality and an inequality. Then, we extend the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm to the modified formulation, and propose an effective incremental SVOR algorithm. The algorithm can handle a quadratic formulation with multiple constraints, where each constraint is constituted of an equality and an inequality. More importantly, it tackles the conflicts between the equality and inequality constraints. We also provide the finite convergence analysis for the algorithm. Numerical experiments on the several benchmark and real-world data sets show that the incremental algorithm can converge to the optimal solution in a finite number of steps, and is faster than the existing batch and incremental SVOR algorithms. Meanwhile, the modified formulation has better accuracy than the existing incremental SVOR algorithm, and is as accurate as the sum-of-margins based formulation of Shashua and Levin.

  7. The Effect of the Different Proportion of Basal Fertilizer, Tiller Fertilizer and Panicle Fertilizer on Yield in Cold Area%寒地水稻不同基蘖穗肥比例对产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世伟; 聂守军; 刘晴

    2012-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen fertilisers on yield were studied by researching the effect of the different proportion of basal fertilizer,tiller fertilizer,panicle fertilizer and nitrogen rate.The result indicated that the high yield of 8589.0 kg/ hm2 can be achieved under the condition of nitrogen amount was 120 kg/hm2 and the ratio of basal fertilizer to panicle fertilizer is 6:4,it explained the fertilizer amount and fertilization ratio were suitably.%通过对水稻不同基蘖穗肥比例及施氮量的研究,探讨了施用氮肥对水稻产量的影响。试验结果表明:在施氮量为120 kg/hm2,基蘖穗肥比例为6∶4时,产量高达8 589.0 kg/hm2,说明在该施肥量和施肥比例下比较合理。

  8. Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francis Thackeray

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth increments circa 0.02 mm in width have been observed in sectioned tusks of Diictodon from the Late Permian lower Beaufort succession of the South African Karoo, dated between about 260 and 245 million years ago. Mean growth increments show a decline from relatively high values in the Tropidostoma/Endothiodon Assemblage Zone, to lower values in the Aulacephalodon/Cistecephaluszone, declining still further in the Dicynodon lacerficeps/Whaitsia zone at the end of the Permian. These changes coincide with gradual changes in carbon isotope ratios measured from Diictodon tooth apatite. It is suggested that the decline in growth increments is related to environmental changes associated with a decline in primary production which contributed to the decline in abundance and ultimate extinction of Diictodon.

  9. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  10. Incremental Passivity and Incremental Passivity-Based Output Regulation for Switched Discrete-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Li; Jun Zhao

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates incremental passivity and output regulation for switched discrete-time systems. We develop the results in two parts. First of all, a concept of incremental passivity is proposed to describe the overall incremental passivity property of a switched discrete-time system in the absence of the classic incremental passivity property of the subsystems. A condition for incremental passivity is given. A certain negative output feedback is designed to produce asymptotic stability. Incremental passivity is shown to be preserved under feedback interconnection. The second part of this paper is concerned with an application of the incremental passivity theory to the output regulation problem for switched discrete-time systems. The key idea is to construct a switched internal model with incremental passivity, which closely links the solvability of the output regulation problem. A characteristic of the switched internal model is that it does not necessarily switch synchronously with the controlled plant, which greatly increases the freedom of design. Once such a switched internal model is established, the output regulation problem is then solved by construction of the feedback interconnection between the controlled plant and the switched internal model. The main usefulness of the strategy is to get rid of the solvability of the output regulation problem for the subsystems.

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  12. Basal Organelles of Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Bazire, Germaine; London, Jack

    1967-01-01

    Liberated by enzymatic lysis of the cells, the flagella of Rhodospirillum rubrum, R. molischianum, and R. fulvum all have a similar structure. The hook at the base of the flagellum is connected by a short, narrow collar to a paired disc in the basal organelle. This paired disc is in turn connected to a second paired disc. The disposition of flagella to which fragments of the cell membrane still adhere suggests that the narrow collar at the base of the hook traverses both the wall and the membrane, and that the upper pair of discs in the basal organelle lies just beneath the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6039362

  13. Teraflop-scale Incremental Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Özkural, Eray

    2011-01-01

    We propose a long-term memory design for artificial general intelligence based on Solomonoff's incremental machine learning methods. We use R5RS Scheme and its standard library with a few omissions as the reference machine. We introduce a Levin Search variant based on Stochastic Context Free Grammar together with four synergistic update algorithms that use the same grammar as a guiding probability distribution of programs. The update algorithms include adjusting production probabilities, re-using previous solutions, learning programming idioms and discovery of frequent subprograms. Experiments with two training sequences demonstrate that our approach to incremental learning is effective.

  14. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in......-plane contact friction and is focused on the extreme modes of deformation that are likely to be found in single point incremental forming processes. The overall investigation is supported by experimental work performed by the authors and data retrieved from the literature....

  15. Concepts of incremental updating and versioning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available . BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM OF INCREMENTAL UPDATING AND VERSIONING As well as a number of Commissions, the International Cartographic Association (ICA) had one Working Group, on Incremental Updating and Versioning, and this presentation describes some... of the work undertaken recently by the Working Group (WG). The WG was voted for a Commission by the General Assembly held at the 21st ICC in Durban, South Africa. The basic problem being addressed by the Commission is that a user compiles their data base...

  16. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  17. Incremental Mining for Regular Frequent Patterns in Vertical Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the real world database updates continuously in several online applications like super market, network monitoring, web administration, stock market etc. Frequent pattern mining is afundamental and essential area in data mining research. Not only occurrence frequency of a pattern but also occurrence behaviour of a pattern may be treated as important criteria to measure the interestingness of a pattern. A frequent pattern is said to be regular frequent if the occurrence behaviour is less than or equal to the user given regularity threshold. In incremental transactional databases the occurrence frequency and the occurrence behaviour of a pattern changes whenever a small set of new transactions are added to the database. It is undesirable to mine regular frequent patterns from the scratch. Thus proposes a new algorithm called RFPID (Regular Frequent Pattern Mining in Incremental Databases to mine regular frequent patterns in incremental transactional databases using vertical data format which requires only one database scan. The experimental results show our algorithm is efficient in both memory utilization and execution.

  18. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  19. Carcinoma basocelular metastásico en la región parotídea: un nuevo caso Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to the parotid area: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pérez de la Fuente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma basocelular es la tumoración cutánea maligna más frecuente. Junto con el carcinoma espinocelular su localización habitual es a nivel de cabeza y cuello y a diferencia de éste la tasa de metástasis regionales es mucho más baja. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 85 años con un carcinoma basocelular a nivel del pabellón auricular derecho, que inicialmente se trató mediante extirpación y cierre. A los 2 años presentó recidiva local en la zona inferior del pabellón auricular y en la exploración física se apreció una tumoración dura a nivel submandibular derecho. Se realizó punción aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF que fue positiva para metástasis de carcinoma basocelular. La Tomografía Axial Computerizada (TAC mostraba una masa única en la región submandibular no adherida a la mandíbula. El tratamiento consistió en extirpación de la recidiva local y parotidectomía superficial más vaciamiento cervical funcional del lado derecho. La paciente se negó a realizar tratamiento con radioterapia complementaria. En la actualidad la paciente está viva y realiza revisiones periódicas.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy. As the scamous cell carcinoma its first location is in head and neck, but the rate of regional metastases is much lower. We present the case of an 85-year-old woman with a basal cell carcinoma located on the ear. She was first treated by local excision and direct suture. Two years later presented a local recurrence in the lower part of the ear. At this time a physical neck exam revealed a submandibular node. Fine needle aspiration was positive for basal cell carcinoma metastases, and a Computed Tomography (CT showed a single mass in the submandibular region not in contact with bone. Treatment consisted on a wide local excision, superficial parotidectomy and ipsilateral functional neck dissection. The patient refused postoperative radiotherapy treatment. At this moment the

  20. Rapid Assessment for basal cavities on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge: Implications for Present and Future Bat Conservation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of mature forested areas on the refuge was done to examine trees with basal cavities for bats. Though the refuge supports many large diameter trees with basal...

  1. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  2. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  3. Incremental Evaluation of Higher Order Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; Dijkstra, Atze; Swierstra, Doaitse

    2015-01-01

    Compilers, amongst other programs, often work with data that (slowly) changes over time. When the changes between subsequent runs of the compiler are small, one would hope the compiler to incrementally update its results, resulting in much lower running times. However, the manual construction of an

  4. Robust Background Subtraction with Incremental Eigen Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritti, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we first describe a background subtraction algorithm based on the use of eigen space decomposition. We then present a method to achive incremental modelling, which allows for faster computation and saving in memory requirements. We discuss the performanceof the algorithm and the issu

  5. The Cognitive Underpinnings of Incremental Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; Schleisman, Katrina B.

    2014-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has been developed and evaluated by school psychologists. We discuss potential learning and memory effects from cognitive psychology that may explain the observed superiority of IR over other flashcard techniques. First, we propose that IR is a form of "spaced practice" that…

  6. Phylogeny Constructed by Using Dsing Diversity Increment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Feng; Li Na-na; Li Yuan-xiang; Zhou Huai-bei

    2003-01-01

    A new approach based on the concept of the diversity increment is applied to reconstruct a phylogeny. The phylogeny of the Eutherian orders use concatenated H-stranded amino acid sequences, and the result is consistent with the commonly accepted one for the Eutherians.

  7. Value-Driven Incremental Development (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    rework during development. Multi-dimensional Analysis What is the design implication of a release decision? Architecting for Incremental Assurance...measures are needed to make good release decisions? Selected FY14 Results • Improved rework analysis by making architectural dependency information...studies and surveys with organizations revealed architectural rework occurs in such context and can be managed by better quantification of technical

  8. Incremental pattern matching for regular expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalali, Arash; Ghamarian, Amir Hossein; Rensink, Arend; Fish, Andrew; Lambers, Leen

    2012-01-01

    Graph pattern matching lies at the heart of any graph transformation-based system. Incremental pattern matching is one approach proposed for reducingthe overall cost of pattern matching over successive transformations by preserving the matches that stay relevant after a rule application. An importan

  9. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Classical reinforcement learning techniques become impractical in domains with large complex state spaces. The size of a domain’s state space is...require all the provided features. In this paper we present a feature selection algorithm for reinforcement learning called Incremental Feature

  10. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  11. Incremental Costs of Green Building Design for Affordable Housing:Case of Xiamen Yangtang Residential Area Construction%保障房绿色建筑设计中的增量成本构成*--以厦门洋塘居住区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚强; 朱丽

    2014-01-01

    以厦门洋塘居住区建设实例,结合厦门当地气候条件,分析了所使用绿色建筑技术的增量成本构成,从节地与室外环境、节能与能源管理、节水与水资源利用、节材与材料资源和室内环境方面阐述了如何针对保障房进行绿色建筑设计,为在夏热冬暖地区进行保障房建设提供参考。%Combining with local climate condition, Xiamen Yangtang Residential Area construction is analyzed to elaborate incremental costs of green building technologies for affordable housing from section and outdoor environment, energy conservation and energy management, water saving and water resource u-tilization, material saving and material resources, and indoor environmental, providing a reference for pro-tecting housing construction in the subtropical region.

  12. Contribution to growth and increment analysis on the Italian CONECOFOR Level II Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio AMORINI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the "Estimation of growth and yield" included in the National Programme on Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems CONECOFOR Aims of the paper are: i to outline the composition and design of Level II PMPs network, also examining the structural characteristics of forest stands; ii to describe the contents of mensurational surveys carried out in winter 1996/97 and 1999/00; iii to analyse the growth rates in progress at each PMP using selected descriptors. Stand origin (11 high forests and 13 stored coppices and transitory crops and the number of forest types tested are focused as the main discriminants of the PMPs network. This composition, together with irregular forestry practice, results in a number of consequences (prevailing age classes, tree densities and related stand structures, growth patterns which cause a high in-and-between variability of all growth parameters. For the purposes of this analysis, the network of the plots was divided into three main sets: broadleaved high forest (i.e. beech stands, 6 PMPs; coniferous forest (i.e. Norway spruce stands, 5 PMPs; coppice forest (i.e. deciduous and evergreen oaks, beech and hardbeam stands, 13 PMPs. The measurement of basic growth variables (dbh and tree height was used to describe the tree populations in each PMP; the calculation of basal area, mean and top dbh, mean and top height, provided the reference dataset at each inventory. The assessment of social class according to Kraft gave information on vertical stand structure and made it possible to analyse growth according to tree layers. Data comparison provided increments in the interval 1997-2000. The occurrence of natural mortality and ingrowth was also assessed to take into account their combined effect on tree population dynamics. No trend was found, due to limited data availability, but it was possible to have a detailed overview of the stand situation and growth rates in PMPs.

  13. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  14. Incrementally Exploiting Sentential Association for Email Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qu; He Yu; Feng Jianlin; Feng Yucai

    2006-01-01

    A novel association-based algorithm EmailInClass is proposed for incremental Email classification. In view of the fact that the basic semantic unit in an Email is actually a sentence, and the words within the same sentence are typically more semantically related than the words that just appear in the same Email, EmailInClass views a sentence rather than an Email as a transaction. Extensive experiments conducted on benchmark corpora Enron reveal that the effectiveness of EmailInClass is superior to the non-incremental alternatives such as NaiveBayes and SAT-MOD. In addition, the classification rules generated by EmailInClass are human readable and revisable.

  15. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-09-01

    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  16. Incremental Centrality Algorithms for Dynamic Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    the incremental betweenness centrality algorithm. The total upper bound for the space these data structures consume is 111 ((3*|AffectedSinks...when p = 0.4. In [153], the author examines the ethnocentrism phenomenon which refers to the tendency to behave differently towards strangers based...amount of memory consumed , but, among these two factors, what makes the real difference in how much memory is needed is the number of nodes in a

  17. Laboratory setup for incremental forming at IPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Dave; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    In late 2003 the department enjoyed a visit from Professor Jack Jeswiet from Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Jack as one of the pioneers in Single_Point_Incremental_Forming convinced us to start activities in this field at IPL, joining knowledge and facilities of the forming...... for generating tool paths using available CAD/CAM facilties 3. Handing over knowledge from Queen’s to the laboratory staff of IPL....

  18. PROFITABILITY OF INCREMENTAL EXPENDITURE ON FIBRE PROMOTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Debbie J.; Piggott, Roley R.; Griffith, Garry R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the impact of changes in wool promotion expenditure and changes in expenditure on the promotion of competing fibres are examined using an equilibrium displacement model. The emphasis is on examining impacts on producer profits net of promotion expenditure and on benefit-cost ratios measuring changes in producer surplus relative to changes in promotion expenditure. It was found, for example, that incremental expenditure on apparel wool promotion on the domestic market is unprofit...

  19. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  20. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  1. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Horoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common type of skin cancer and has a direct relationship with chronic sun exposure. Other risk factors include fair skin and eyes, freckling, family history, genetic disorders, immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, arsenic, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. BCC usually progresses slowly. Lesions are usually seen over sun-exposed areas, which are most commonly on the face and neck. Local invasion may occur, but it rarely metastasizes. The incidence of BCC peaks in the seventh decade of life. BCC is an uncommon lesion during childhood, youth, and pregnancy. It has rarely been reported during childhood. BCC seen during childhood can be inherited with diseases such as xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, Bazex syndrome, and basal cell nevus syndrome or after high-dose radiotherapy. In this study, we present the cases of a 14-year-old girl with BCC on the right popliteal region and a 23-year-old pregnant woman with BCC on the nasal tip. Both patients underwent total excision, and there were neither recurrence nor any complication during the follow-up

  3. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  4. Systematic Luby Transform codes as incremental redundancy scheme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, TL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Luby Transform (fountain) codes are investigated as a possible incremental redundancy scheme for EDGE. The convolutional incremental redundancy scheme currently used by EDGE is replaced by the fountain approach. The results...

  5. Evaluation of Flood Routing Techniques for Incremental Damage Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jayyousi, Enan Fakhri

    1994-01-01

    Incremental damage assessment is a tool used to assess the justification for expensive modifications of inadequate dams. The input data to incremental damage assessment are the output from the breach analysis and flood routing. For this reason, flood routing should be conducted carefully. Distorted results from the flood routing technique or unstable modeling of the problem will distort the results of an incremental damage assessment, because an error in the estimated incremental stage will c...

  6. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452... 3452.232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3452.771, insert the following provision in solicitations: Incremental Funding (AUG 1987) (a) Sufficient funds are not presently available to cover...

  7. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  8. Optimal Curiosity-Driven Modular Incremental Slow Feature Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompella, Varun Raj; Luciw, Matthew; Stollenga, Marijn Frederik; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2016-08-01

    Consider a self-motivated artificial agent who is exploring a complex environment. Part of the complexity is due to the raw high-dimensional sensory input streams, which the agent needs to make sense of. Such inputs can be compactly encoded through a variety of means; one of these is slow feature analysis (SFA). Slow features encode spatiotemporal regularities, which are information-rich explanatory factors (latent variables) underlying the high-dimensional input streams. In our previous work, we have shown how slow features can be learned incrementally, while the agent explores its world, and modularly, such that different sets of features are learned for different parts of the environment (since a single set of regularities does not explain everything). In what order should the agent explore the different parts of the environment? Following Schmidhuber's theory of artificial curiosity, the agent should always concentrate on the area where it can learn the easiest-to-learn set of features that it has not already learned. We formalize this learning problem and theoretically show that, using our model, called curiosity-driven modular incremental slow feature analysis, the agent on average will learn slow feature representations in order of increasing learning difficulty, under certain mild conditions. We provide experimental results to support the theoretical analysis.

  9. Compressive tracking with incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Wen, Gongjian; Zhu, Gao; Zeng, Qiaoling

    2016-09-01

    Various approaches have been proposed for robust visual tracking, among which compressive tracking (CT) yields promising performance. In CT, Haar-like features are efficiently extracted with a very sparse measurement matrix and modeled as an online updated naïve Bayes classifier to account for target appearance change. The naïve Bayes classifier ignores overlap between Haar-like features and assumes that Haar-like features are independently distributed, which leads to drift in complex scenario. To address this problem, we present an extended CT algorithm, which assumes that all Haar-like features are correlated with each other and have multivariate Gaussian distribution. The mean vector and covariance matrix of multivariate normal distribution are incrementally updated with constant computational complexity to adapt to target appearance change. Each frame is associated with a temporal weight to expend less modeling power on old observation. Based on temporal weight, an update scheme with changing but convergent learning rate is derived with strict mathematic proof. Compared with CT, our extended algorithm achieves a richer representation of target appearance. The incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution is integrated into the particle filter framework to achieve better tracking performance. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate that our proposed tracker achieves superior performance both qualitatively and quantitatively over several state-of-the-art trackers.

  10. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  11. Nonparametric regression with martingale increment errors

    CERN Document Server

    Delattre, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of adaptive estimation of the regression function in a framework where we replace ergodicity assumptions (such as independence or mixing) by another structural assumption on the model. Namely, we propose adaptive upper bounds for kernel estimators with data-driven bandwidth (Lepski's selection rule) in a regression model where the noise is an increment of martingale. It includes, as very particular cases, the usual i.i.d. regression and auto-regressive models. The cornerstone tool for this study is a new result for self-normalized martingales, called ``stability'', which is of independent interest. In a first part, we only use the martingale increment structure of the noise. We give an adaptive upper bound using a random rate, that involves the occupation time near the estimation point. Thanks to this approach, the theoretical study of the statistical procedure is disconnected from usual ergodicity properties like mixing. Then, in a second part, we make a link with the usual minimax th...

  12. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings” (Technical Approach Document). Also available for public review and comment are two supplementary documents: the detailed appendices for the Technical Approach Document and a supplementary report entitled “Developing a Concentration-Response Function for Pb Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality.” Together, these documents describes an analysis for estimating exposures and incremental health effects created by renovations of public and commercial buildings (P&CBs). This analysis could be used to identify and evaluate hazards from renovation, repair, and painting activities in P&CBs. A general overview of how this analysis can be used to inform EPA’s hazard finding is described in the Framework document that was previously made available for public comment (79 FR 31072; FRL9910-44). The analysis can be used in any proposed rulemaking to estimate the reduction in deleterious health effects that would result from any proposed regulatory requirements to mitigate exposure from P&CB renovation activities. The Technical Approach Document describes in detail how the analyses under this approach have been performed and presents the results – expected changes in blood lead levels and health effects due to lead exposure from renovation activities.

  13. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G.; Loo, Boon Thau

    2017-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations. PMID:28659658

  14. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  15. Incremental Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a promising approach for local feature extraction in face recognition tasks. However, there are two major drawbacks in almost all existing NMF-based methods. One shortcoming is that the computational cost is expensive for large matrix decomposition. The other is that it must conduct repetitive learning, when the training samples or classes are updated. To overcome these two limitations, this paper proposes a novel incremental nonnegative matrix factorization (INMF for face representation and recognition. The proposed INMF approach is based on a novel constraint criterion and our previous block strategy. It thus has some good properties, such as low computational complexity, sparse coefficient matrix. Also, the coefficient column vectors between different classes are orthogonal. In particular, it can be applied to incremental learning. Two face databases, namely FERET and CMU PIE face databases, are selected for evaluation. Compared with PCA and some state-of-the-art NMF-based methods, our INMF approach gives the best performance.

  16. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  17. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain can be applied and resolve such cases. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cryotherapy

  18. A Bayesian framework for estimating the incremental value of a diagnostic test in the absence of a gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daphne I; Pai, Madhukar; Schiller, Ian; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-05-15

    The absence of a gold standard, i.e., a diagnostic reference standard having perfect sensitivity and specificity, is a common problem in clinical practice and in diagnostic research studies. There is a need for methods to estimate the incremental value of a new, imperfect test in this context. We use a Bayesian approach to estimate the probability of the unknown disease status via a latent class model and extend two commonly-used measures of incremental value based on predictive values [difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI)] to the context where no gold standard exists. The methods are illustrated using simulated data and applied to the problem of estimating the incremental value of a novel interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) over the tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis (TB) screening. We also show how to estimate the incremental value of IGRAs when decisions are based on observed test results rather than predictive values. We showed that the incremental value is greatest when both sensitivity and specificity of the new test are better and that conditional dependence between the tests reduces the incremental value. The incremental value of the IGRA depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the TST, as well as the prevalence of latent TB, and may thus vary in different populations. Even in the absence of a gold standard, incremental value statistics may be estimated and can aid decisions about the practical value of a new diagnostic test.

  19. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  20. A comparison of different methods to estimate species proportions by area in mixed stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Dirnberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper presents the most appropriate ways to estimate the species proportions by area in mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. by comparing stand level and individual tree level approaches. It also investigates whether different ways of describing species proportions by area can result in different judgments on the over- or under-yielding of species in mixtures.Area of the study: Three triplets of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce and European beech in three locations in the northeast of Austria are investigated. The three locations differ considerably in slope, bedrock and soil type as well as in site index.Material and Methods: In all 9 plots the coordinates of all trees, their dbh, height, height to the crown base and five year increment were measured. The potentially available areas of individual trees are calculated by Voronoi- diagrams and potential densities are estimated from the comparable pure stands, yield tables, and published equations for maximum basal area and Reineke’s maximum density line.Main results: The species proportions estimated by the individual tree approach with leaf area as growth characteristic gave the best fit with the stand approach with the most appropriate, regional maximum basal area equations. By using various definitions of species proportions, in the worst case the mixing effects on individual species can be seriously over- or underestimated while the mixing effects on the total increment is only negligibly affected.Research highlightsMeasures of species proportions by area are needed for comparing growth per hectare of a species in a mixed stand with that of the same species in a pure standSpecies proportions at the stand level are based on estimates of the species’ potential densities, either in terms of maximum basal area or of maximum stand density indexSpecies proportions at the tree level are derived from the area

  1. Incremental Collaborative Filtering Considering Temporal Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yongji; Wu, Hu; Wu, Jingzheng

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems require their recommendation algorithms to be accurate, scalable and should handle very sparse training data which keep changing over time. Inspired by ant colony optimization, we propose a novel collaborative filtering scheme: Ant Collaborative Filtering that enjoys those favorable characteristics above mentioned. With the mechanism of pheromone transmission between users and items, our method can pinpoint most relative users and items even in face of the sparsity problem. By virtue of the evaporation of existing pheromone, we capture the evolution of user preference over time. Meanwhile, the computation complexity is comparatively small and the incremental update can be done online. We design three experiments on three typical recommender systems, namely movie recommendation, book recommendation and music recommendation, which cover both explicit and implicit rating data. The results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-world recommendation scenarios which have a high...

  2. Generalization of Brownian Motion with Autoregressive Increments

    CERN Document Server

    Fendick, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a generalization of Brownian motion with continuous sample paths and stationary, autoregressive increments. This process, which we call a Brownian ray with drift, is characterized by three parameters quantifying distinct effects of drift, volatility, and autoregressiveness. A Brownian ray with drift, conditioned on its state at the beginning of an interval, is another Brownian ray with drift over the interval, and its expected path over the interval is a ray with a slope that depends on the conditioned state. This paper shows how Brownian rays can be applied in finance for the analysis of queues or inventories and the valuation of options. We model a queue's net input process as a superposition of Brownian rays with drift and derive the transient distribution of the queue length conditional on past queue lengths and on past states of the individual Brownian rays comprising the superposition. The transient distributions of Regulated Brownian Motion and of the Regulated Brownian Bridge are...

  3. Evaluation of CSRA CESA Project for Incremental Improvement in Career Education, 1976-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Robert B.; Smith, Lyle R.

    Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSRA CESA) implemented a career education project for grades K-12 in the Columbia County School System to develop a replicable model for incremental improvements. The major emphasis was the infusion of career education activities into the teaching of basic skills. Program…

  4. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  5. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  6. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  7. 随机截距效应在模拟杉木人工林单木胸径生长量中的应用%Using random intercept effects in DBH increment model of individual trees for firplantation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春明

    2011-01-01

    以江西省杉木人工林4次调查数据为例,建立单木胸径生长量随机截距效应混合模型,分别考虑样地层次、区域层次及多层次的随机截距效应,并在考虑多层次效应时考虑了存在的异方差和自相关问题,最后利用独立的抽样验证数据对模拟结果进行验证。结果表明:林分断面积、对象木胸径、林分内大于对象木的断面积之和与对象木胸径的比值以及海拔对单木胸径生长量有显著影响;与林业中常用的传统最小二乘法相比,采用混合效应模型方法后模型的模拟效果和验证精度均有提高;选择适合的异方差和白相关函数后,模拟结果比只考虑随机截距效应有更好的适应性;实际%In the paper, we developed a mixed model of random intercept effects for individual DBH increment, taking the example of four survey data of fir plantations in Jiangxi Province, eastern China. The model was defined as a linear mixed model with intercept effects of plot, area or plot and area simultaneous. The heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation matrix were added to the model when taking into account multilevel effects. In the end, mixed model calibration of DBH increment was carried out using the independent sampling. The results showed that total stand basal area, DBH of target tree, the ratio of basal area of larger trees to target tree DBH, and altitude were found to be significant effect on DBH increment. Both the simulation results and verified accuracy of the model indicated a substantial improvement compared with the conventional approach widely used in forest management. After adding to a reasonable variance function of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation, the model showed better goodness of fit than taking into account random intercept effects only. The goodness of multilevel effects was better than that of individual-level effect in forest actual applied process.

  8. NC INCREMENTAL SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS AND VERTICAL WALL SQUARE BOX FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Liuru; Mo Jianhua; Xiao Xiangzhi

    2004-01-01

    The forming principle and deformation analysis of NC incremental sheet metal forming process as well as the process planning, experiment and key process parameters of vertical wall square box forming are presented. Because the deformation of sheet metal only occurs around the tool head and the deformed region is subjected to stretch deformation, the deformed region of sheet metal thins, and surface area increases. Sheet metal forming stepwise is to lead to the whole sheet metal deformation. The forming half-apex angle θ and corner radius R are the main process parameters in NC incremental forming of vertical wall square box. According to sine law, a vertical wall square box can't be formed by NC incremental sheet metal forming process in a single process, rather, it must be formed in multi processes. Thus, the parallel line type tool path process method is presented to form the vertical wall square box, and the experiment and analysis are made to verify it.

  9. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  10. Relation between incremental lines and tensile strength of coronal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Toshiko; Saito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masato; Nishimura, Fumio; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In one aspect, this study examined the tensile strength of coronal dentin, as a function of the location of incremental lines, in two types of teeth: human molar versus bovine incisor. In another aspect, tensile strength in coronal dentin was examined with tensile loading in two different orientations to the incremental lines: parallel versus perpendicular. There were four experimental groups in this study: HPa, human molar dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; HPe, human molar dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines; BPa, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; BPe, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines. Tensile strengths of the parallel group (HPa and BPa) were significantly higher (pincremental lines, was thus confirmed in coronal dentin. However, there were no differences in anisotropy effect between the two tooth types.

  11. Impact of Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C TR -1 6- 4 Impact of Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) on Metals Bioavailability Jay Clausen, Laura Levitt, Timothy Cary, Nancy Parker, and Sam Beal U.S. Army Engineer...Bioavailability Assessment” ERDC TR-16-4 ii Abstract This study assessed the impact of the incremental sampling methodology (ISM) on metals bioavailability

  12. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  13. Review of Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbalkar D.H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Incremental sheet forming has demonstrated its great potential to form complex three dimensional parts without using a component specific tooling. The die-less nature in incremental forming provides competitive alternative for economically and effectively fabricating low volume functional sheet products. The process locally deforms sheet metal using a moving tool head achieving higher forming limit than those conventional sheet metal stamping process. Incremental sheet metal forming has the potential to revolutionize sheet metal forming, making it accessible to all level of manufacturing. This paper describes the current state of the art of Incremental sheet metal forming.

  14. iBOA: The Incremental Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pelikan, Martin; Goldberg, David E

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes the incremental Bayesian optimization algorithm (iBOA), which modifies standard BOA by removing the population of solutions and using incremental updates of the Bayesian network. iBOA is shown to be able to learn and exploit unrestricted Bayesian networks using incremental techniques for updating both the structure as well as the parameters of the probabilistic model. This represents an important step toward the design of competent incremental estimation of distribution algorithms that can solve difficult nearly decomposable problems scalably and reliably.

  15. Incremental Training for SVM-Based Classification with Keyword Adjusting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-wen; YANG Jian-wu; LU Bin; XIAO Jian-guo

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzed the theory of incremental learning of SVM (support vector machine) and pointed out it is a shortage that the support vector optimization is only considered in present research of SVM incremental learning.According to the significance of keyword in training, a new incremental training method considering keyword adjusting was proposed, which eliminates the difference between incremental learning and batch learning through the keyword adjusting.The experimental results show that the improved method outperforms the method without the keyword adjusting and achieve the same precision as the batch method.

  16. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  17. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  18. Functional tolerance theory in incremental growth design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; YANG Tao; ZE Xiangbo

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary tolerance design strategy and its characteristics are studied on the basis of automation technology in the product structure design.To guarantee a successful transformation from the functional requirement to geometry constraints between parts,and finally to dimension constraints,a functional tolerance design theory in the process of product growth design is put forward.A mathematical model with a correlated sensitivity function between cost and the tolerance is created,in which the design cost,the manufacturing cost,the usage cost,and the depreciation cost of the product are regarded as control constraints of the tolerance allocation.Considering these costs,a multifactor-cost function to express quality loss of the product is applied into the model.In the mathematical model,the minimum cost is used as the objective function; a reasonable process capability index,the assembly function,and assembly quality are taken as the constraints; and depreciation cost in the objective function is expressed as the discount rate-terminology in economics.Thus,allocation of the dimension tolerance as the function and cost over the whole lifetime of the product is realized.Finally,a design example is used to demonstrate the successful application of the proposed functional tolerance theory in the incremental growth design of the product.

  19. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals the amount determined under...

  20. Efficient simulation and process mechanics of incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, Ashraf Moh’d Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a displacement controlled process performed on a CNC machine. A clamped blank is incrementally deformed by the movement of a small-sized tool that follows a prescribed lengthy tool path. The strain achieved by the SPIF process is higher than the strain achi

  1. Efficient simulation and process mechanics of incremental sheet forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadoush, A.

    2010-01-01

    Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) is a displacement controlled process performed on a CNC machine. A clamped blank is incrementally deformed by the movement of a small-sized tool that follows a prescribed lengthy tool path. The strain achieved by the SPIF process is higher than the strain

  2. Model Reduction for Nonlinear Systems by Incremental Balanced Truncation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Bart; van de Wouw, Nathan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the method of incremental balanced truncation is introduced as a tool for model reduction of nonlinear systems. Incremental balanced truncation provides an extension of balanced truncation for linear systems towards the nonlinear case and differs from existing nonlinear balancing tech

  3. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung transpla

  4. Model Reduction for Nonlinear Systems by Incremental Balanced Truncation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Bart; van de Wouw, Nathan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the method of incremental balanced truncation is introduced as a tool for model reduction of nonlinear systems. Incremental balanced truncation provides an extension of balanced truncation for linear systems towards the nonlinear case and differs from existing nonlinear balancing tech

  5. Creating Helical Tool Paths for Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Hancock, Michael H.; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is a relatively new sheet forming process. A sheet is clamped in a rig and formed incrementally using a rotating single point tool in the form of a rod with a spherical end. The process is often performed on a CNC milling machine and the tool movement...

  6. Lifetime costs of lung transplantation : Estimation of incremental costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanEnckevort, PJ; Koopmanschap, MA; Tenvergert, EM; VanderBij, W; Rutten, FFH

    1997-01-01

    Despite an expanding number of centres which provide lung transplantation, information about the incremental costs of lung transplantation is scarce. From 1991 until 1995, in The Netherlands a technology assessment was performed which provided information about the incremental costs of lung transpla

  7. Incrementality in naming and reading complex numerals : Evidence from eyetracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals speak incrementally when they interleave planning and articulation. Eyetracking, along with the measurement of speech onset latencies, can be used to gain more insight into the degree of incrementality adopted by speakers. In the current article, two eyetracking experiments are reported

  8. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  9. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  10. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  11. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  12. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  13. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  14. Bed Conditions Inferred from Basal Earthquakes Beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Boucher, C.; Schwartz, S. Y.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismicity near the bed of fast-moving ice streams informs our understanding of basal controls on fast ice flow and the nature of small scale sources of basal resistance to sliding (sticky spots). Small basal earthquakes (BEQs) occurring at or near the base of ice streams express the current dominant basal stress state and allow observation of bed heterogeneities on spatial scales of 10s to 100s m that are difficult to observe otherwise. Temporal changes in the source mechanisms of these BEQs indicate changing basal conditions, and comparison of basal seismicity with GPS-determined ice velocity allows insight into the interplay between seismically active small basal sticky spots and fast ice motion. We present unique highly local observations of BEQs occurring beneath the Whillans Ice Plain, in West Antarctica, from a network of 13 surface and borehole seismometers overlying the WIP stick-slip cycle high tide initiation area. We record seismicity only 100s-1000s of m from basal seismic sources. We compare the occurrence of these BEQs with co-located GPS observations of ice surface velocity. We detect BEQs by cross correlation, using a catalog of hand-picked events with seismic wave arrivals at multiple sites. We then locate each BEQ and determine source parameters by fitting the S wave spectra: moment magnitude, stress drop, and rupture area. The basal earthquakes occur in families of remarkably repeatable events. The time interval between subsequent events within a BEQ family typically depends on ice velocity, but there is a complex interplay between ice velocity and source parameters. We also search for temporal changes in BEQ source parameters and seek to relate these changes to ice velocity measurements, thereby inferring changing bed conditions. Our preferred interpretation is that BEQs are rupture at or near the surface of an over-consolidated till package, suggesting that changes in basal seismicity may directly indicate changing subglacial till conditions.

  15. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  16. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-01-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy...

  17. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  18. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  19. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  20. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.

  1. Left ventricular twist mechanics during incremental cycling and knee extension exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Alexander; Hough, John; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Richards, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises. Twenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (W max) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% W max (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p  0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s(-1) to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s(-1), p  0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [-98.44 (43.54)° s(-1) to -138.42 (73.29)° s(-1), p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01). Cycling increased LV twist to 30% W max which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.

  2. Incremental Interpretation Applications, Theory and Relationship to Dynamic Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Milward, D; Milward, David; Cooper, Robin

    1995-01-01

    Why should computers interpret language incrementally? In recent years psycholinguistic evidence for incremental interpretation has become more and more compelling, suggesting that humans perform semantic interpretation before constituent boundaries, possibly word by word. However, possible computational applications have received less attention. In this paper we consider various potential applications, in particular graphical interaction and dialogue. We then review the theoretical and computational tools available for mapping from fragments of sentences to fully scoped semantic representations. Finally, we tease apart the relationship between dynamic semantics and incremental interpretation.

  3. Incremental Tensor Principal Component Analysis for Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the shortcomings of traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms, incremental tensor principal component analysis (ITPCA based on updated-SVD technique algorithm is proposed in this paper. This paper proves the relationship between PCA, 2DPCA, MPCA, and the graph embedding framework theoretically and derives the incremental learning procedure to add single sample and multiple samples in detail. The experiments on handwritten digit recognition have demonstrated that ITPCA has achieved better recognition performance than that of vector-based principal component analysis (PCA, incremental principal component analysis (IPCA, and multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA algorithms. At the same time, ITPCA also has lower time and space complexity.

  4. Single point incremental forming of shape memory polymer foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Amirahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study single point incremental forming of shape memory foam is investigated. The shape memory effect makes the foam an attractive material for the fabrication of recoverable components such as reusable dies for low pressure forming processes. The mechanical properties of the polymer have been investigated by means of tensile testing at elevated temperature. The maximum achievable formability for this material for single point incremental forming has been characterized both at room and elevated temperature. After an explorative study on simple benchmark cases, heat assisted single point incremental forming has been used to study the possibility of manufacturing a recoverable die for custom-made orthopaedic shoe insoles.

  5. Comparative Study between Programming Systems for Incremental Sheet Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayedfar Majid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF is a method developed to form a desired surface feature on sheet metals in batch production series. Due to a lack of dedicated programming system to execute, control and monitor the whole ISF, researchers tried to utilize programming systems designed for chip making process to suits for ISF. In this work, experiments were conducted to find suitability and quality of ISF parts produced by using manual CNC part programming. Therefore, ISF was carried out on stainless steel sheets using Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machines. Prior to running the experiments, a ball-point shaped tool made of bronze alloy was fabricated due to its superior ability to reduce the amount of friction and improve the surface quality of the stainless steel sheet metal. The experiments also employed the method of forming in negative direction with a blank mould and the tool which helped to shape the desired part quickly. The programming was generated using the MasterCAM software for the CNC milling machine and edited before transferring to the machine. However, the programming for the machine was written manually to show the differences of output date between software programming and manual programming. From the results, best method of programming was found and minimum amount of contact area between tool and sheet metal achieved.

  6. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  7. Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.

    1989-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.

  8. Incremental Sampling Algorithms for Robust Propulsion Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to develop a system for robust engine control based on incremental sampling, specifically Rapidly-Expanding Random Tree (RRT)...

  9. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funding. 3432.771 Section 3432.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.771 Provision for incremental funding. The contracting officer shall insert the provision in...

  10. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy...

  11. An incremental clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Choon, Tan Wee

    2014-12-01

    Classical fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is insufficient to cluster non-spherical or elliptical distributed datasets. The paper replaces classical fuzzy c-means clustering euclidean distance with Mahalanobis distance. It applies Mahalanobis distance to incremental learning for its merits. A Mahalanobis distance based fuzzy incremental clustering learning algorithm is proposed. Experimental results show the algorithm is an effective remedy for the defect in fuzzy c-means algorithm but also increase training accuracy.

  12. Kinetic Modeling of Incremental Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Steven; Leypoldt, John K; Cassin, Michelle; Schreiber, Martin

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD), the gradual introduction of dialysate exchanges at less than full-dose therapy, has been infrequently described in clinical reports. One concern with less than full-dose dialysis is whether urea clearance targets are achievable with an incremental regimen. In this report, we used a large database of PD patients, across all membrane transport types, and performed urea kinetic modeling determinations of possible incremental regimens for an individual membrane type. ♦ METHODS: Using a modified 3-pore model of peritoneal transport, various incremental manual continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) exchanges employing glucose and/or icodextrin were evaluated. Peritoneal urea clearances from those simulations were added to residual kidney urea clearance for patients with various glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), and the total weekly urea clearance was then compared to the total weekly urea Kt/V target of 1.7. All 4 peritoneal membrane types were modeled. For each simulated prescription, net ultrafiltration and carbohydrate absorption were also calculated. ♦ RESULTS: Incremental CAPD regimens of 2 exchanges a day met adequacy targets if the GFR was 6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in all membrane types. For regimens employing 3 exchanges a day, Kt/V targets were achieved at GFR levels of 4 to 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in high transporters to low transporters but higher tonicity 2.5% glucose solutions or icodextrin were required in some regimens. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that with incremental CAPD regimens, urea kinetic targets are achievable in most new starts to PD with residual kidney function. Incremental PD may be a less intrusive, better accepted initial treatment regime and a cost-effective way to initiate chronic dialysis in the incident patient. The key role of intrinsic kidney function in incremental regimens is highlighted in this analysis and would warrant conscientious monitoring. Copyright © 2017 International

  13. Incremental dementia-related expenditures in a medicaid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, Murtuza F; Dedhiya, Seema; Craig, Bruce A; Weiner, Michael; Rosenman, Marc; Sands, Laura P; Modi, Ankita; Doebbeling, Caroline; Thomas, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults, understanding expenditures associated with treating medical conditions that are more prevalent among older adults is increasingly important. The objectives of this research were to estimate incremental medical encounters and incremental Medicaid expenditures associated with dementia among Indiana Medicaid recipients 40 years or older in 2004. A retrospective cohort design analyzing Indiana Medicaid administrative claims files was used. Individuals at least 40 years of age with Indiana Medicaid eligibility during 2004 were included. Patients with dementia were identified via diagnosis codes in claims files between July 2001 and December 2004. Adjusted annual incremental medical encounters and expenditures associated with dementia in 2004 were estimated using negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. A total of 18,950 individuals (13%) with dementia were identified from 145,684 who were 40 years or older. The unadjusted mean total annualized Medicaid expenditures for the cohort with dementia ($28,758) were significantly higher than the mean expenditures for the cohort without dementia ($14,609). After adjusting for covariates, Indiana Medicaid incurred annualized incremental expenditures of $9,829 per recipient with dementia. Much of the annual incremental expenditure associated with dementia was driven by the higher number of days in nursing homes and resulting nursing-home expenditures. Drug expenditures accounted for the second largest component of the incremental expenditures. On the basis of disease prevalence and per recipient annualized incremental expenditures, projected incremental annualized Indiana Medicaid spending associated with dementia for persons 40 or more years of age was $186 million. Dementia is associated with significant expenditures among Medicaid recipients. Disease management initiatives designed to reduce nursing-home use among recipients with dementia may

  14. Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics LMP Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED...Phone: DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 17, 2014 Program Information Program Name Logistics Modernization Program Increment 2 (LMP Inc 2) DoD Component

  15. Incremental Code Clone Detection and Elimination for Erlang Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiqing; Thompson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A well-known bad code smell in refactoring and software maintenance is the existence of code clones, which are code fragments that are identical or similar to one another. This paper describes an approach to incrementally detecting 'similar' code based on the notion of least-general common abstraction, or anti-unification, as well as a framework for user-controlled incremental elimination of code clones within the context of Erlang programs. The clone detection algorithm proposed in this pape...

  16. Towards an incremental maintenance of cyclic association rules

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eya ben

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the cyclic association rules have been introduced in order to discover rules from items characterized by their regular variation over time. In real life situations, temporal databases are often appended or updated. Rescanning the whole database every time is highly expensive while existing incremental mining techniques can efficiently solve such a problem. In this paper, we propose an incremental algorithm for cyclic association rules maintenance. The carried out experiments of our proposal stress on its efficiency and performance.

  17. Evaluation of the Incremental Prognostic Utility of Increasingly Complex Testing in Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; O'Brien, Emily C; Schulte, Phillip J; Stevens, Susanna R; Fiuzat, Mona; Kitzman, Dalane W; Adams, Kirkwood F; Kraus, William E; Piña, Ileana L; Donahue, Mark P; Zannad, Faiez; Whellan, David J; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael

    2015-07-01

    Current heart failure (HF) risk prediction models do not consider how individual patient assessments occur in incremental steps; furthermore, each additional diagnostic evaluation may add cost, complexity, and potential morbidity. Using a cohort of well-treated ambulatory HF patients with reduced ejection fraction who had complete clinical, laboratory, health-related quality of life, imaging, and exercise testing data, we estimated incremental prognostic information provided by 5 assessment categories, performing an additional analysis on those with available N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. We compared the incremental value of each additional assessment (quality of life screen, laboratory testing, echocardiography, and exercise testing) to baseline clinical assessment for predicting clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, all-cause mortality/hospitalization, and cardiovascular death/HF hospitalizations), gauging incremental improvements in prognostic ability with more information using area under the curve and reclassification improvement (net reclassification index), with and without NT-proBNP availability. Of 2331 participants, 1631 patients had complete clinical data; of these, 1023 had baseline NT-proBNP. For prediction of all-cause mortality, models with incremental assessments sans NT-proBNP showed improvements in C-indices (0.72 [clinical model alone]-0.77 [complete model]). Compared with baseline clinical assessment alone, net reclassification index improved from 0.035 (w/laboratory data) to 0.085 (complete model). These improvements were significantly attenuated for models in the subset with measured NT-proBNP data (c-indices: 0.80 [w/laboratory data]-0.81 [full model]); net reclassification index improvements were similarly marginal (0.091→0.096); prediction of other clinical outcomes had similar findings. In chronic HF patients with reduced ejection fraction, the marginal benefit of complex prognostic evaluations should be

  18. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  19. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  2. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  3. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required.

  4. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  5. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  6. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Mihaila D.; Foia L; Solovan C

    2013-01-01

    Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in ...

  7. Multiethnic Literature; Supplements for Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Tighe, Viola; And Others

    Children's literature can be used effectively to enrich the reading content of basal reading materials with stories and information by and about ethnic minorities. Developing an ethnic cultural web for a literary selection can stimulate language and enhance the thought processes of students. Using the webbing process, elementary school students…

  8. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    lokaliseres. Skadesmekanismen er omdiskuteret. Karrupturen kan opstå i forbindelse med brud af processus transversus atlantis eller subluksationer i halscolumna og kan indtræffe i både normale og abnorme kar. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidalblødning kan tilsyneladende opstå ved ret lette traumer, hvilket...

  9. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  10. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  12. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  13. Carbon dioxide laser surgery of basal meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, A D; Heilbronn, Y D; Avram, J; Razon, N

    1982-02-01

    This preliminary report summarizes our results with laser surgery in patients with basal meningiomas (8 basilar and 1 intraventricular extending also into the third ventricle). Illustrative preoperative and postoperative CT scans are included. The advantages and limitations of this surgical technique are discussed briefly.

  14. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  15. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  16. Errors in estimating volume increments of forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnani F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Errors in estimating volume increments of forest trees. Periodic tree and stand increments are often estimated retrospectively from measurements of diameter and height growth of standing trees, through the application of various simplifications of the general formula for volume increment rates. In particular, the Hellrigl method and its various formulations have been often suggested in Italy. Like other retrospective approaches, the Hellrigl method is affected by a systematic error, resulting from the assumption as a reference term of conditions at one of the extremes of the period considered. The magnitude of the error introduced by different formulations has been assessed in the present study through their application to mensurational and increment measurements from the detailed growth analysis of 107 Picea abies trees. Results are compared with those obtained with a new equation, which makes reference to the interval mid-point. The newly proposed method makes it possible to drastically reduce the error in the estimate of periodic tree increments, and especially its systematic component. This appears of particular relevance for stand- and national level applications.

  17. CSRA CESA Project for Incremental Improvement in Career Education. Final Report, October 1, 1978, to September 30, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Margaret T.

    This document contains the final and evaluation reports of a Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSRA CESA) career education project to effect incremental improvements in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools in the Columbia County School System. The final report describes these major activities:…

  18. Criterion and Incremental Validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannidis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research on emotion regulation (ER is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003, which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality traits. It also extended the evidence for the measure’s criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203 completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  19. Event-based incremental updating of spatio-temporal database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓光; 陈军; 蒋捷; 朱建军; 李志林

    2004-01-01

    Based on the relationship among the geographic events, spatial changes and the database operations, a new automatic (semi-automatic) incremental updating approach of spatio-temporal database (STDB) named as event-based incremental updating (E-BIU) is proposed in this paper. At first, the relationship among the events, spatial changes and the database operations is analyzed, then a total architecture of E-BIU implementation is designed, which includes an event queue, three managers and two sets of rules, each component is presented in detail. The process of the E-BIU of master STDB is described successively. An example of building's incremental updating is given to illustrate this approach at the end. The result shows that E-BIU is an efficient automatic updating approach for master STDB.

  20. Incremental Web Usage Mining Based on Active Ant Colony Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; LIN Ying; CHEN Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    To alleviate the scalability problem caused by the increasing Web using and changing users' interests, this paper presents a novel Web Usage Mining algorithm-Incremental Web Usage Mining algorithm based on Active Ant Colony Clustering. Firstly, an active movement strategy about direction selection and speed, different with the positive strategy employed by other Ant Colony Clustering algorithms, is proposed to construct an Active Ant Colony Clustering algorithm, which avoid the idle and "flying over the plane" moving phenomenon, effectively improve the quality and speed of clustering on large dataset. Then a mechanism of decomposing clusters based on above methods is introduced to form new clusters when users' interests change. Empirical studies on a real Web dataset show the active ant colony clustering algorithm has better performance than the previous algorithms, and the incremental approach based on the proposed mechanism can efficiently implement incremental Web usage mining.

  1. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  2. Making context explicit for explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezillon, P. [Univ. Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Intelligent systems may be improved by making context explicit in problem solving. This is a lesson drawn from a study of the reasons why a number of knowledge-based systems (KBSs) failed. We discuss the interest to make context explicit in explanation generation and incremental knowledge acquisition, two important aspects of intelligent systems that aim to cooperate with users. We show how context can be used to better explain and incrementally acquire knowledge. The advantages of using context in explanation and incremental knowledge acquisition are discussed through SEPIT, an expert system for supporting diagnosis and explanation through simulation of power plants. We point out how the limitations of such systems may be overcome by making context explicit.

  3. Transient global amnesia: a complication of incremental exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R S; Leek, B T; Wagner, P D; Kritchevsky, M

    1998-10-01

    Incremental exercise testing is routinely used for diagnosis, rehabilitation, health screening, and research. We report the case of a 71-yr-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia (TGA) several minutes after successfully completing an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. TGA, which is known to be precipitated by physical or emotional stress in about one-third of cases, is a transient neurological disorder in which memory impairment is the prominent deficit. TGA has a benign course and requires no treatment although 24-h observation is recommended. Recognition of TGA as a potential complication of incremental graded exercise testing is important to both aid diagnosis of the amnesia and to spare a patient unnecessary evaluation.

  4. Single-point incremental forming and formability-failure diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.B.; Skjødt, Martin; Atkins, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent work [1], the authors constructed a closed-form analytical model that is capable of dealing with the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results published in the literature over the past couple of years. The model is based...... of deformation that are commonly found in general single point incremental forming processes; and (ii) to investigate the formability limits of SPIF in terms of ductile damage mechanics and the question of whether necking does, or does not, precede fracture. Experimentation by the authors together with data...... retrieved from the literature confirms that the proposed theoretical framework is capable of successfully addressing the influence of the major parameters of the single point incremental forming process. It is demonstrated that neck formation is suppressed in SPIF, so that traditional forming limit diagrams...

  5. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  6. INCREMENTAL MICRO-MECHANICAL MODEL OF PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYitong; HaoYongjiang; LiCuiyu

    2004-01-01

    Warp yarns and weft yarns of plain woven fabric are the principal axes of material of fabric. They are orthogonal in their original configuration, but are obliquely crisscross in deformed configuration in general. In this paper the expressions of incremental components of strain tensor are derived, the non-linear model of woven fabric is linearized physically and its geometric non-linearity survives. The convenience of determining the total deformation is shown by the choice of the coordinate system of the principal axes of the material, with the convergence of the incremental methods illustrated by examples. This incremental model furnishes a basis for numerical simulations of fabric draping and wrinkling based oll the micro-mechanical model of fabric.

  7. Increment entropy as a measure of complexity for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Ning; Xue, Jianru

    2015-01-01

    Entropy has been a common index to quantify the complexity of time series in a variety of fields. Here, we introduce increment entropy to measure the complexity of time series in which each increment is mapped into a word of two letters, one letter corresponding to direction and the other corresponding to magnitude. The Shannon entropy of the words is termed as increment entropy (IncrEn). Simulations on synthetic data and tests on epileptic EEG signals have demonstrated its ability of detecting the abrupt change, regardless of energetic (e.g. spikes or bursts) or structural changes. The computation of IncrEn does not make any assumption on time series and it can be applicable to arbitrary real-world data.

  8. Increment Entropy as a Measure of Complexity for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entropy has been a common index to quantify the complexity of time series in a variety of fields. Here, we introduce an increment entropy to measure the complexity of time series in which each increment is mapped onto a word of two letters, one corresponding to the sign and the other corresponding to the magnitude. Increment entropy (IncrEn is defined as the Shannon entropy of the words. Simulations on synthetic data and tests on epileptic electroencephalogram (EEG signals demonstrate its ability of detecting abrupt changes, regardless of the energetic (e.g., spikes or bursts or structural changes. The computation of IncrEn does not make any assumption on time series, and it can be applicable to arbitrary real-world data.

  9. Incremental Hemodialysis: The University of California Irvine Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani-Ghajar, Mehrdad; Rojas-Bautista, Vanessa; Lau, Wei-Ling; Pahl, Madeleine; Hernandez, Miguel; Jin, Anna; Reddy, Uttam; Chou, Jason; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rhee, Connie M

    2017-05-01

    Incremental hemodialysis has been examined as a viable hemodialysis regimen for selected end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preservation of residual kidney function (RKF) has been the driving impetus for this approach given its benefits upon the survival and quality of life of dialysis patients. While clinical practice guidelines recommend an incremental start of dialysis in peritoneal dialysis patients with substantial RKF, there remains little guidance with respect to incremental hemodialysis as an initial renal replacement therapy regimen. Indeed, several large population-based studies suggest that incremental twice-weekly vs. conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis has favorable impact upon RKF trajectory and survival among patients with adequate renal urea clearance and/or urine output. In this report, we describe a case series of 13 ambulatory incident ESRD patients enrolled in a university-based center's Incremental Hemodialysis Program over the period of January 2015 to August 2016 and followed through December 2016. Among five patients who maintained a twice-weekly hemodialysis schedule vs. eight patients who transitioned to thrice-weekly hemodialysis, we describe and compare patients' longitudinal case-mix, laboratory, and dialysis treatment characteristics over time. The University of California Irvine Experience is the first systemically examined twice-weekly hemodialysis practice in North America. While future studies are needed to refine the optimal approaches and the ideal patient population for implementation of incremental hemodialysis, our case-series serves as a first report of this innovative management strategy among incident ESRD patients with substantial RKF, and a template for implementation of this regimen. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Estimating incremental costs with skew: a cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Brooks, John M

    2012-09-01

    Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus, researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when modelling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. We simulated cost data using a linear model with a 'treatment', a covariate and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Although specification checks are always needed, the potential for misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness it is vital that researchers and policymakers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean.

  11. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  12. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  13. Lines of Evidence–Incremental Markings in Molar Enamel of Soay Sheep as Revealed by a Fluorochrome Labeling and Backscattered Electron Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of

  14. Lines of evidence-incremental markings in molar enamel of Soay sheep as revealed by a fluorochrome labeling and backscattered electron imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Horst; Kierdorf, Uwe; Frölich, Kai; Witzel, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structural characteristics and periodicities of regular incremental markings in sheep enamel using fluorochrome injections for vital labeling of forming enamel and backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic analysis of mandibular first molars revealed the presence of incremental markings with a daily periodicity (laminations) that indicated successive positions of the forming front of interprismatic enamel. In addition to the laminations, incremental markings with a sub-daily periodicity were discernible both in interprismatic enamel and in enamel prisms. Five sub-daily increments were present between two consecutive laminations. Backscattered electron imaging revealed that each sub-daily growth increment consisted of a broader and more highly mineralized band and a narrower and less mineralized band (line). The sub-daily markings in the prisms of sheep enamel morphologically resembled the (daily) prisms cross striations seen in primate enamel. Incremental markings with a supra-daily periodicity were not observed in sheep enamel. Based on the periodicity of the incremental markings, maximum mean daily apposition rates of 17.0 µm in buccal enamel and of 13.4 µm in lingual enamel were recorded. Enamel extension rates were also high, with maximum means of 180 µm/day and 217 µm/day in upper crown areas of buccal and lingual enamel, respectively. Values in more cervical crown portions were markedly lower. Our results are in accordance with previous findings in other ungulate species. Using the incremental markings present in primate enamel as a reference could result in a misinterpretation of the incremental markings in ungulate enamel. Thus, the sub-daily growth increments in the prisms of ungulate enamel might be mistaken as prism cross striations with a daily periodicity, and the laminations misidentified as striae of Retzius with a supra-daily periodicity. This would lead to a considerable overestimation of

  15. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  16. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  17. A Parsimonious and Universal Description of Turbulent Velocity Increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Blæsild, P.; Schmiegel, J.

    This paper proposes a reformulation and extension of the concept of Extended Self-Similarity. In support of this new hypothesis, we discuss an analysis of the probability density function (pdf) of turbulent velocity increments based on the class of normal inverse Gaussian distributions. It allows...... for a parsimonious description of velocity increments that covers the whole range of amplitudes and all accessible scales from the finest resolution up to the integral scale. The analysis is performed for three different data sets obtained from a wind tunnel experiment, a free-jet experiment and an atmospheric...

  18. Unsupervised incremental online learning and prediction of musical audio signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marxer, Richard; Purwins, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the idea that musical human-computer interaction may become more effective, intuitive, and creative when basing its computer part on cognitively more plausible learning principles, we employ unsupervised incremental online learning (i.e. clustering) to build a system that predicts...... the next event in a musical sequence, given as audio input. The flow of the system is as follows: 1) segmentation by onset detection, 2) timbre representation of each segment by Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients, 3) discretization by incremental clustering, yielding a tree of different sound classes (e...

  19. The Relevance of an Incremental Approach to Ideational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin Bæk

    2012-01-01

    This rejoinder takes issue with two criticisms of my Political Studies article on incremental ideational change presented in a recent reply by Liam Stanley. It argues that by presenting my critique of historical and discursive institutionalism as focused on the lack of ‘realism’ in their standard...... of the financial crisis, I try to show the relevance of an ontology conducive to theories that capture and explain incremental ideational change. I also defend an eclectic approach to theory building that is focused less on policing the boundaries of different approaches and more on building consistent theoretical...

  20. An Incremental Rule Acquisition Algorithm Based on Rough Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong; YANG Da-chun

    2005-01-01

    Rough Set is a valid mathematical theory developed in recent years,which has the ability to deal with imprecise,uncertain,and vague information.This paper presents a new incremental rule acquisition algorithm based on rough set theory.First,the relation of the new instances with the original rule set is discussed.Then the change law of attribute reduction and value reduction are studied when a new instance is added.Follow,a new incremental learning algorithm for decision tables is presented within the framework of rough set.Finally,the new algorithm and the classical algorithm are analyzed and compared by theory and experiments.

  1. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  2. Incremental road discovery from aerial imagery using curvilinear spanning tree (CST) search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guozhi; Huang, Yuchun; Xie, Rongchang; Zhang, Hongchang

    2016-10-01

    Robust detection of road network in aerial imagery is a challenging task since roads have different pavement texture, road-side surroundings, as well as grades. Roads of different grade have different curvilinear saliency in the aerial imagery. This paper is motivated to incrementally extract roads and construct the topology of the road network of aerial imagery from the higher-grade-first perspective. Inspired by the spanning tree technique, the proposed method starts from the robust extraction of the most salient road segment(s) of the road network, and incrementally connects segments of less saliency of curvilinear structure until all road segments in the network are extracted. The proposed algorithm includes: curvilinear path-based road morphological enhancement, extraction of road segments, and spanning tree search for the incremental road discovery. It is tested on a diverse set of aerial imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas. Experimental results show that the proposed curvilinear spanning tree (CST) can detect roads efficiently and construct the topology of the road network effectively. It is promising for the change detection of the road network.

  3. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  4. Neurochemical oscillations in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid Reza; Jäger, Willi

    2010-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to elucidate the neurochemical processes in the basal ganglia by mathematical modelling. The correlation between neurochemistry and electrophysiology has been used to construct a dynamical system based on the basal ganglia's network structure. Mathematical models were constructed for different physical scales to reformulate the neurochemical and electrophysiological behaviour from synapses up to multi-compartment systems. Transformation functions have been developed to transit between the different scales. We show through numerical simulations that this network produces oscillations in the electrical potentials as well as in neurotransmitter concentrations. In agreement with pharmacological experiments, a parameter sensitivity analysis reveals temporary changes in the neurochemical and electrophysiological systems after single exposure to antipsychotic drugs. This behaviour states the structural stability of the system. The correlation between the neurochemical dynamics and drug-induced behaviour provides the perspective for novel neurobiological hypotheses.

  5. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  6. Evidence for a basal temporal visual language center: cortical stimulation producing pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, J; Diehl, B; Piao, Z; Schuele, S S; Lapresto, E; Liu, P; Nair, D R; Dinner, D S; Lüders, H O

    2008-11-11

    Dejerine and Benson and Geschwind postulated disconnection of the dominant angular gyrus from both visual association cortices as the basis for pure alexia, emphasizing disruption of white matter tracts in the dominant temporooccipital region. Recently functional imaging studies provide evidence for direct participation of basal temporal and occipital cortices in the cognitive process of reading. The exact location and function of these areas remain a matter of debate. To confirm the participation of the basal temporal region in reading. Extraoperative electrical stimulation of the dominant hemisphere was performed in three subjects using subdural electrodes, as part of presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. Pure alexia was reproduced during cortical stimulation of the dominant posterior fusiform and inferior temporal gyri in all three patients. Stimulation resulted in selective reading difficulty with intact auditory comprehension and writing. Reading difficulty involved sentences and words with intact letter by letter reading. Picture naming difficulties were also noted at some electrodes. This region is located posterior to and contiguous with the basal temporal language area (BTLA) where stimulation resulted in global language dysfunction in visual and auditory realms. The location corresponded with the visual word form area described on functional MRI. These observations support the existence of a visual language area in the dominant fusiform and occipitotemporal gyri, contiguous with basal temporal language area. A portion of visual language area was exclusively involved in lexical processing while the other part of this region processed both lexical and nonlexical symbols.

  7. **-Postprandial pancreatic [{sup 11}C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Miholic, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Divisional Head PET-PET/CT (Nuclear Medicine), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    [S-methyl-{sup 11}C]-L-methionine ([{sup 11}C]MET) uptake in the pancreas might be a central indicator of beta cell function. Since gastric emptying was recently shown to influence glycemic control in subjects after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, the surgical treatment of neoplasms of the pancreas head), we looked for imaginable relationships between gastric emptying, pre- and postprandial insulin concentrations, and [{sup 11}C]MET uptake. Nineteen tumor-free survivors after PD (age mean ± SD: 61 ± 8.7 yrs.; 10 male, 9 female) and 10 healthy controls (age: 27 ± 8.7 yrs.; 7 male, 3 female) were given a mixed test meal. One gram of paracetamol was ingested with the meal to evaluate the speed of gastric emptying. Insulin, glucose, and paracetamol plasma concentrations were measured before and over 180 minutes after ingestion. Beta cell function was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. Simultaneously, 800 MBq of [{sup 11}C]MET were administered and the activity (maximum tissue standardized uptake values [SUVmax]) over the pancreas was measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Total integrated SUVmax (area under the curve [AUC]) and incremental SUVmax were calculated. The uptake of [{sup 11}C]MET in the pancreas was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in controls compared to the PD group. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in controls compared to pancreatectomy subjects (p < 0.0001). Paracetamol AUC{sub 30} correlated with the SUVmax increment between 15 and 30 minutes (R{sup 2} = 0.27, p = 0.0263), suggesting a relationship between gastric emptying and the uptake of [{sup 11}C]MET. Total integrated SUVmax correlated with insulin AUC{sub 60} (R{sup 2} = 0.66,p < 0.0001) in patients after PD. Multivariate regression analysis revealed insulin AUC{sub 60} and beta cell function, calculated from the fasting insulin to glucose ratio, as independent predictors of {sup 11}C-methionine uptake, i.e. total integrated SUVmax, in

  8. 48 CFR 52.237-6 - Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental Payment by... Provisions and Clauses 52.237-6 Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government. As prescribed in 37.304(c... to the contractor for increments of property, only upon receipt of those payments: Incremental...

  9. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  10. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  11. Otolith development in larval and juvenile Schizothorax davidi: ontogeny and growth increment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Taiming; Hu, Jiaxiang; Cai, Yueping; Xiong, Sen; Yang, Shiyong; Wang, Xiongyan; He, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory-reared Schizothorax davidi larvae and juveniles were examined to assess the formation and characteristics of David's schizothoracin otoliths. Otolith development was observed and their formation period was verified by monitoring larvae and juveniles of known age. The results revealed that lapilli and sagittae developed before hatching, and the first otolith increment was identified at 2 days post hatching in both. The shape of lapilli was relatively stable during development compared with that of sagittae; however, growth of four sagittae and lapilli areas was consistent, but the posterior area grew faster than the anterior area and the ventral surface grew faster than the dorsal surface. Similarly, the sum length of the radius of the anterior and posterior areas on sagittae and lapilli were linearly and binomially related to total fish length, respectively. Moreover, daily deposition rates were validated by monitoring known-age larvae and juveniles. The increase in lapilli width was 1.88±0.080 0 μm at the ninth increment, which reached a maximum and the decreased gradually toward the otolith edge, whereas that of sagittae increased more slowly. These results illustrate the developmental biology of S. davidi, which will aid in population conservation and fish stock management.

  12. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A.; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Catania, Ginny A.; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Paden, John D.; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state. PMID:28163988

  13. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  14. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  15. Predicting Robust Vocabulary Growth from Measures of Incremental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of incremental learning of new word meanings over multiple episodes. A new method called MESA (Markov Estimation of Semantic Association) tracked this learning through the automated assessment of learner-generated definitions. The multiple word learning episodes varied in the strength of contextual constraint provided by…

  16. Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Maria B.; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The last years saw the development of two different views on how failure develops in single-point incremental forming (SPIF). Today, researchers are split between those claiming that fracture is always preceded by necking and those considering that fracture occurs with suppression of necking. Each...

  17. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  18. Increment Cores How to Collect, Handle, and Use Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    and the first is off center, a pith locator has been designed by Applequist (1958) for estimating the number C--V of rings to pith. 3. Grano (1963) has...Sci. Tech. 7(1):34-44. Goodchild, R. 1963. An instrument for sharpening Swedish-type increment bores. Comm. For. Rev. 42(1):16-18. Grano , C. X. 1963

  19. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ..., 207, 208, 211, 212, 213a, 244; 245, 324; 335 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final... to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to transform its business processes....

  20. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 103 and 208 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... final rule to amend DHS regulations to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)...

  1. Average-case analysis of incremental topological ordering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Friedrich, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications like pointer analysis and incremental compilation require maintaining a topological ordering of the nodes of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) under dynamic updates. All known algorithms for this problem are either only analyzed for worst-case insertion sequences or only evaluated ...

  2. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  3. Respiratory ammonia output and blood ammonia concentration during incremental exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Kort, E; van der Mark, TW; Grevink, RG; Verkerke, GJ

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the increase of ammonia concentration and lactate concentration in blood was accompanied by an increased expiration of ammonia during graded exercise. Eleven healthy subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test. Blood ammonia, blood lactate

  4. Incremental Mining of the Schema of Semistructured Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Aoying; JIN Wen; ZHOU Shuigeng; QIAN Weining; TIAN Zenping

    2000-01-01

    Semistructured data are specified in lack of any fixed and rigid schema, even though typically some implicit structure appears in the data. The huge amounts of on-line applications make it important and imperative to mine the schema of semistructured data, both for the users (e.g., to gather useful information and facilitate querying) and for the systems (e.g., to optimize access). The critical problem is to discover the hidden structure in the semistructured data. Current methods in extracting Web data structure are either in a general way independent of application background, or bound in some concrete environment such as HTML, XML etc. But both face the burden of expensive cost and difficulty in keeping along with the frequent and complicated variances of Web data. In this paper, the problem of incremental mining of schema for semistructured data after the update of the raw data is discussed. An algorithm for incrementally mining the schema of semistructured data is provided, and some experimental results are also given, which show that incremental mining for semistructured data is more efficient than non-incremental mining.

  5. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...

  6. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  7. The Incremental Validity of Positive Emotions in Predicting School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ashley D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Reschly, Amy L.; Valois, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental…

  8. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. We...

  9. Effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal When Implemented by a Paraprofessional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Panahon, Carlos J.; Schreiber, Cassandra M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has established incremental rehearsal (IR) as an effective intervention for teaching basic skills in various student populations. However, there have been no published studies to date in which interventionists have been school-based personnel rather than researchers. In this study, a paraprofessional implemented IR with…

  10. Against the Odds: Academic Underdogs Benefit from Incremental Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jody L.; Burnette, Jeni L.; Allison, Scott T.; Stone, Heather

    2011-01-01

    An implicit theory of ability approach to motivation argues that students who believe traits to be malleable (incremental theorists), relative to those who believe traits to be fixed (entity theorists), cope more effectively when academic challenges arise. In the current work, we integrated the implicit theory literature with research on top dog…

  11. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  12. Peaks beyond Phonology: Adolescence, Incrementation, and Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    What is the mechanism by which a linguistic change advances across successive generations of speakers? We explore this question by using the model of incrementation provided in Labov 2001 and analyzing six current changes in English. Extending Labov's focus on recent and vigorous phonological changes, we target ongoing morphosyntactic(-semantic)…

  13. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible

  14. Bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Corcuera, José Manuel; Podolskij, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Convergence in probability and central limit laws of bipower variation for Gaussian processes with stationary increments and for integrals with respect to such processes are derived. The main tools of the proofs are some recent powerful techniques of Wiener/Itô/Malliavin calculus for establishing...

  15. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately, cl...

  16. Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Beatriz; Skjødt, Martin; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the physics behind the fracture of material at the transition between the inclined wall and the corner radius of the sheet is of great importance for understanding the fundamentals of single point incremental forming (SPIF). How the material fractures, what is the state of strain...

  17. Domestic Plant Productivity and Incremental Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Altomonte (Carlo); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a simple test to assess whether horizontal spillover effects from multinational to domestic firms are endogenous to the market structure generated by the incremental entry of the same multinationals. In particular, we analyze the performance of a panel of 10,650 firms operatin

  18. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schutte, K.; Azzopardi, G.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible w

  19. Incremental validity of a measure of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hayslip, Bert

    2005-10-01

    After the Schutte Self-Report Inventory of Emotional Intelligence (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was found to predict college grade point average, subsequent emotional intelligence (EI)-college adjustment research has used inconsistent measures and widely varying criteria, resulting in confusion about the construct's predictive validity. In this study, we assessed the SSRI's incremental validity for a wide range of adjustment criteria, pitting it against a competing trait measure, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), and tests of fluid and crystallized intelligence. At a broad bandwidth, the SSRI total score significantly and uniquely predicted variance beyond NEO-FFI domain scores in the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Revised (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrono, 1980) scores. Higher fidelity analyses using previously identified SSRI factors and NEO-FFI item clusters revealed that the SSRI's Optimism/Mood Regulation and Emotion Appraisal factors contributed unique variance to self-reported study habits and social stress, respectively. The potential moderation of incremental validity by gender did not reach significance due to loss of power from splitting the sample, and mediational analyses revealed the SSRI Optimism/Mood Regulation factor was both directly and indirectly related to various criteria. We discuss the small magnitude of incremental validity coefficients and the differential incremental validity of SSRI factor and total scores.

  20. Minimizing System Modification in an Incremental Design Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian;

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to mapping and scheduling of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications, aiming at minimizing the system modification cost. We consider an incremental design process that starts from an already existing sys-tem running a set of applications. ...

  1. Retroactive Operations: On "Increments" in Mandarin Chinese Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ni Eng

    2014-01-01

    Conversation Analysis (CA) has established repair (Schegloff, Jefferson & Sacks 1977; Schegloff 1979; Kitzinger 2013) as a conversational mechanism for managing contingencies of talk-in-interaction. In this dissertation, I look at a particular sort of "repair" termed TCU-continuations (or otherwise known increments in other…

  2. Incorporating "Unconscious Reanalysis" into an Incremental, Monotonic Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Sturt, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation based on a recent model in the psycholinguistic literature. We define a parsing operation which allows the reanalysis of dependencies within an incremental and monotonic processing architecture, and discuss search strategies for its application in a head-initial language (English) and a head-final language (Japanese).

  3. a model for incremental grounding in spoken dialogue systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Thomas; Traum, David; DeVault, David; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in incremental language processing for dialogue systems promise to enable more natural conversation between humans and computers. By analyzing the user's utterance while it is still in progress, systems can provide more human-like overlapping and backchannel responses to convey their

  4. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  5. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  6. Comparison of the ability to flourish and the increment of native species of the cerrado region in different soils, aiming at recuperating the degraded soils in the Abadia de Goias State Park; Comparacao de pegamentos e incrementos de especies nativas do cerrado em diferentes solos para recuperacao de areas degradadas no Parque Estadual de Abadia de Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Max Lima e; Antunes, Erides Campos; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi [CONFLORA, Consultoria, Planejamento e Assessoria Florestal, GO (Brazil); Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-12-31

    The project of botanical recuperation was carried out in order to re vegetate the degraded soils of the areas which surround the radioactive deposit of Cesium 137, within the State Park of Abadia de Goias. An analysis of the park area reveals different stages of degradation, from an absolute stage of degradation, with the C horizon exposed, to other areas of well-preserved forest. On the occasion of the installation of the deposit of radioactive waste, the EIA-RIMA Report determined that the areas should be recuperated in order to re-establish the previous existing forests and cerrado vegetation. A plan for planting 199,366 native trees was then carried out. The present long term project, aims to monitoring the growth of the several species, in different substrates, with the general objective of determining which would better adapt to such substrates. The objective is to provide subsidies for developing appropriate methodology for recuperating degraded areas. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: conflora at netgo.com.br

  7. Application of a pattern of incremental haemodialysis, based on residual renal function, when starting renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, José L; Domínguez, Patricia; Bueno, Blanca; Amézquita, Yésika; Espejo, Beatriz; Paraíso, Vicente

    The interest in the preservation of residual kidney function on starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) is very common in techniques such as peritoneal dialysis but less so in haemodialysis (HD). In our centre the pattern of incremental dialysis (2 HD/week) has been an option for a group of patients. Here we share our experience with this regimen from March 2008. We included incident patients with residual diuresis >1,000ml/24h, clinical stability, absence of oedema, absence of hyperkalaemia >6.5 mEq/l and phosphoremia >6mg/dl, with acceptable comprehension of dietetic care. Exclusion criteria were: Clinical instability, no dietary or medical compliance and the afore mentioned laboratory abnormalities. A total of 24patients were included in incremental technique. The mean age at start of RRT was 60 (15 years. The average time on incremental technique was 19 (18 months (range: 7-80), with a mean time on dialysis of 31 (23 months (range: 12-86). The reasons for transfer to thrice-weekly HD were: in 6patients due to laboratory tests, in 2patients for heart failure events, one for poor compliance and 3for receiving a kidney graft. The residual diuresis decreased in the first year from 2,106 (606ml/day to 1,545 (558 (P=.17) with the urea clearance and calculated residual renal function, basal 5.7 (1.5vs. 3.8 (1.9ml/min per year (P=.01) and basal 8.9 (2.4vs. 6.9 (4.3 per year (P=.28), respectively. Incremental HD treatment, with twice-weekly HD, may be an alternative in selected patients. This approach can largely preserve residual renal function at least for the first year. Although this pattern probably is not applicable to all patients starting RRT, it can and should be an initial alternative to consider. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  9. Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica B Ericson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marica B Ericson1,2, Ann-Marie Wennberg1, Olle Larkö11Department of Dermatology; 2Department of Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenAbstract: The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide, and so also the demand for effective treatment modalities. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization. The cure rates are usually good, and the cosmetic outcomes excellent. The only major side effect reported is the pain experienced by the patients during treatment. This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Both potentials and limitations will be reviewed, as well as some recent development within the field.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma

  10. **-Postprandial pancreatic [(11)C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit; Karanikas, Georgios; Miholic, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    [S-methyl-(11)C]-L-methionine ([(11)C]MET) uptake in the pancreas might be a central indicator of beta cell function. Since gastric emptying was recently shown to influence glycemic control in subjects after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, the surgical treatment of neoplasms of the pancreas head), we looked for imaginable relationships between gastric emptying, pre- and postprandial insulin concentrations, and [(11)C]MET uptake. Nineteen tumor-free survivors after PD (age mean ± SD: 61 ± 8.7 yrs.; 10 male, 9 female) and 10 healthy controls (age: 27 ± 8.7 yrs.; 7 male, 3 female) were given a mixed test meal. One gram of paracetamol was ingested with the meal to evaluate the speed of gastric emptying. Insulin, glucose, and paracetamol plasma concentrations were measured before and over 180 minutes after ingestion. Beta cell function was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. Simultaneously, 800 MBq of [(11)C]MET were administered and the activity (maximum tissue standardized uptake values [SUVmax]) over the pancreas was measured at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Total integrated SUVmax (area under the curve [AUC]) and incremental SUVmax were calculated. The uptake of [(11)C]MET in the pancreas was significantly higher (p insulin AUC60 (R(2) = 0.66,p insulin AUC60 and beta cell function, calculated from the fasting insulin to glucose ratio, as independent predictors of (11)C-methionine uptake, i.e. total integrated SUVmax, in patients after PD (R(2) = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Postprandial [(11)C]MET uptake may represent basal and postprandial beta cell function. The findings suggest a possible usefulness of this imaging procedure for further studying beta cell function.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  12. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  13. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  14. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  15. BRCA1 dysfunction in sporadic basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N C; Reis-Filho, J S; Russell, A M; Springall, R J; Ryder, K; Steele, D; Savage, K; Gillett, C E; Schmitt, F C; Ashworth, A; Tutt, A N

    2007-03-29

    Basal-like breast cancers form a distinct subtype of breast cancer characterized by the expression of markers expressed in normal basal/myoepithelial cells. Breast cancers arising in carriers of germline BRCA1 mutations are predominately of basal-like type, suggesting that BRCA1 dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic basal-like cancers. We analysed 37 sporadic breast cancers expressing the basal marker cytokeratin 5/6, and age- and grade-matched controls, for downregulation of BRCA1. Although BRCA1 promoter methylation was no more common in basal-like cancers (basal 14% vs controls 11%, P=0.72), BRCA1 messenger RNA expression was twofold lower in basal-like breast cancers compared to matched controls (P=0.008). ID4, a negative regulator of BRCA1, was expressed at 9.1-fold higher levels in basal-like breast cancer (Prevealing heterogeneity in the basal-like phenotype. Finally, we found that 63% of metaplastic breast cancers, a rare type of basal-like cancers, had BRCA1 methylation, in comparison to 12% of controls (P<0.0001). The high prevalence of BRCA1 dysfunction identified in this study could be exploited in the development of novel approaches to targeted treatment of basal-like breast cancer.

  16. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  17. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  18. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  19. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  20. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  1. A functional and structural investigation of the human fronto-basal volitional saccade network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, S.F.W.; Diepen, R.M. van; Zandbelt, B.B.; Vink, M.; Mandl, R.C.W.; Gutteling, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all cortical areas are connected to the subcortical basal ganglia (BG) through parallel recurrent inhibitory and excitatory loops, exerting volitional control over automatic behavior. As this model is largely based on non-human primate research, we used high resolution functional MRI and diff

  2. [A Role of the Basal Ganglia in Processing of Complex Sounds and Auditory Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkis, I G

    2015-01-01

    A hypothetical mechanism is suggested for processing of complex sounds and auditory attention in parallel neuronal loops including various auditory cortical areas connected with parts of the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus and basal ganglia. Release of dopamine in the striatum promotes bidirectional modulation of strong and weak inputs from the neocortex to striatal neurons giving rise to direct and indirect pathways through the basal ganglia. Subsequent synergistic disinhibition of one and inhibition of other groups of thalamic neurons by the basal ganglia result in the creation of contrasted neuronal representations of properties of auditory stimuli in related cortical areas. Contrasting is strengthened due to a simultaneous disinhibition of pedunculopontine nucleus and action at muscarine receptors on neurons in the medial geniculate body. It follows from this mechanism that involuntary attention to sound tone can enhance an early component of the responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortical area (50 msec) in the absence of dopamine due to a disinhibition of thalamic neurons via the direct pathway through the basal ganglia, whereas voluntary attention to complex sounds can enhance only those components of responses of neurones in secondary auditory cortical areas which latencies exceeds latencies of dopaminergic cells (i.e. after 100 msec). Various consequences of proposed mechanism are in agreement with known experimental data.

  3. Basal-cell carcinoma resulting from radiation therapy for hypertrophic tonsils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, C.W.; O' Brian, J.J.; Shidnia, H.; Becker, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Benign dermatologic conditions are no longer treated with therapeutic radiation because of the late complications that can result. One of the most serious complications that may occur is the development of skin cancer of various types. In this report, a patient received radiation for hypertrophic tonsils and later developed basal-cell carcinomas in the irradiated areas.

  4. Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Building 332, Increment III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N.; Toy, Jr., A. J.

    1977-08-31

    This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), dated January 18, 1974, for Building 332, Increment III of the Plutonium Materials Engineering Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). The FSAR, in conjunction with the PSAR, shows that the completed increment provides facilities for safely conducting the operations as described. These documents satisfy the requirements of ERDA Manual Appendix 6101, Annex C, dated April 8, 1971. The format and content of this FSAR complies with the basic requirements of the letter of request from ERDA San to LLL, dated March 10, 1972. Included as appendices in support of th FSAR are the Building 332 Operational Safety Procedure and the LLL Disaster Control Plan.

  5. Ground Fault Line Selection with Improved Residual Flow Incremental Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the shortcoming of single-phase ground fault line selection method in the resonant grounded system such as the uncertainty of its device by fast compensation with the automatic compensation equipment, an arc suppression and residual flow incremental method is proposed to effectively choose the earth fault line. Firstly, when the single-phase ground fault occurs, the arc suppression coil parameters are adjusted to realize compensation and arc suppression. Then the arc suppression coil inductance values are modulated to make the zero-sequence current of fault line changed, at the same time, the zero-sequence current value is detected and its change will be captured to select the fault line. The simulation experiments prove that the arc grounding over voltage damage can be effectively reduced by arc suppression coil full compensation and fault line can be effectively selected by arc suppression and residual flow increment method.

  6. Electrical-assisted double side incremental forming and processes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2014-06-03

    A process for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component is provided. The process can include providing a double side incremental forming machine, the machine operable to perform a plurality of double side incremental deformations on the sheet metal component and also apply an electric direct current to the sheet metal component during at least part of the forming. The direct current can be applied before or after the forming has started and/or be terminated before or after the forming has stopped. The direct current can be applied to any portion of the sheet metal. The electrical assistance can reduce the magnitude of force required to produce a given amount of deformation, increase the amount of deformation exhibited before failure and/or reduce any springback typically exhibited by the sheet metal component.

  7. A new incremental updating algorithm for association rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-cheng; XUE Li-xia

    2007-01-01

    Incremental data mining is an attractive goal for many kinds of mining in large databases or data warehouses. A new incremental updating algorithm rule growing algorithm (RGA) is presented for efficient maintenance discovered association rules when new transaction data is added to a transaction database. The algorithm RGA makes use of previous association rules as seed rules. By RGA, the seed rules whether are strong or not can be confirmed without scanning all the transaction DB in most cases. If the distributing of item of transaction DB is not uniform, the inflexion of robustness curve comes very quickly, and RGA gets great efficiency, saving lots of time for I/O. Experiments validate the algorithm and the test results showed that this algorithm is efficient.

  8. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  9. A Comparative Study of Failure with Incremental Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. H.; Song, N. N.; Pires, F. M. Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Incremental forming (ISF) is an innovative flexible sheet metal forming process which can be used to manufacture complex shapes from various materials. Due to its flexibility, it has attracted more and more attention over recent decades. Localized deformation and shear through the thickness are essential characteristics of ISF. These lead to specific failure modes and formability of ISF that are different from the conventional stamping process. In this contribution, three continuum damage models (Lemaitre, Gurson, extended GTN models) are formulated and fully coupled with the finite element simulation in a commercial software ABAQUS to predict failure in incremental forming. A comparative investigation of these three damage models has been carried out to analyze both the deformation behavior and failure mechanisms.

  10. Parameter Estimation for Generalized Brownian Motion with Autoregressive Increments

    CERN Document Server

    Fendick, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops methods for estimating parameters for a generalization of Brownian motion with autoregressive increments called a Brownian ray with drift. We show that a superposition of Brownian rays with drift depends on three types of parameters - a drift coefficient, autoregressive coefficients, and volatility matrix elements, and we introduce methods for estimating each of these types of parameters using multidimensional times series data. We also cover parameter estimation in the contexts of two applications of Brownian rays in the financial sphere: queuing analysis and option valuation. For queuing analysis, we show how samples of queue lengths can be used to estimate the conditional expectation functions for the length of the queue and for increments in its net input and lost potential output. For option valuation, we show how the Black-Scholes-Merton formula depends on the price of the security on which the option is written through estimates not only of its volatility, but also of a coefficient ...

  11. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  12. Incremental learning by message passing in hierarchical temporal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Erik M; Maltoni, Davide

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) is a biologically inspired framework that can be used to learn invariant representations of patterns in a wide range of applications. Classical HTM learning is mainly unsupervised, and once training is completed, the network structure is frozen, thus making further training (i.e., incremental learning) quite critical. In this letter, we develop a novel technique for HTM (incremental) supervised learning based on gradient descent error minimization. We prove that error backpropagation can be naturally and elegantly implemented through native HTM message passing based on belief propagation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a two-stage training approach composed of unsupervised pretraining and supervised refinement is very effective (both accurate and efficient). This is in line with recent findings on other deep architectures.

  13. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  14. Reynolds number scaling of velocity increments in isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Kartik P.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Using the largest database of isotropic turbulence available to date, generated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations on an 81923 periodic box, we show that the longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale identically in the inertial range. By examining the DNS data at several Reynolds numbers, we infer that the contradictory results of the past on the inertial-range universality are artifacts of low Reynolds number and residual anisotropy. We further show that both longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale on locally averaged dissipation rate, just as postulated by Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypothesis, and that, in isotropic turbulence, a single independent scaling adequately describes fluid turbulence in the inertial range.

  15. Mission Planning System Increment 5 (MPS Inc 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Mission Planning System Increment 5 ( MPS Inc 5) Defense Acquisition Management Information...Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs 3...U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics MPS Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Col

  16. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  17. Research on homogeneous deformation of electromagnetic incremental tube bulging

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Xiaohui; Mo, Jianhua; Li, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic incremental forming (EMIF) method is used for tube forming process. Suitable 2D FE models are designed to predict the forming process with a moving coil. In comparison with experimental values, simulation method can obtain accurate results. Then, effect factors named overlapping ration of adjacent discharge positions, discharge voltage, forming sequence and die dimension on tube homogeneous deformation are discussed. The result demonstrates that it is feasib...

  18. AN INCREMENTAL UPDATING ALGORITHM FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun; Chen Zhenqiang

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, on the basis of Frequent Pattern(FP) tree, the support function to update FP-tree is introduced, then an Incremental FP (IFP) algorithm for mining association rules is proposed. IFP algorithm considers not only adding new data into the database but also reducing old data from the database. Furthermore, it can predigest five cases to three cases.The algorithm proposed in this letter can avoid generating lots of candidate items, and it is high efficient.

  19. Amphibious Combat Vehicle Acquisition: Marine Corps Adopts an Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    program progress towards achieving the balance—that is sought in accordance with best practices—between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...adoption of an incremental approach has helped the program progress towards achieving the balance between customer needs and resources (e.g., technologies...USMC plans to acquire 204 ACV 1.1s and anticipates achieving initial operational capability in fiscal year 2020 . According to program officials

  20. An Incremental Algorithm of Text Clustering Based on Semantic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhonghui; SHEN Junyi; BAO Junpeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed an incremental textclustering algorithm based on semantic sequence.Using similarity relation of semantic sequences and calculating the cover of similarity semantic sequences set, the candidate cluster with minimum entropy overlap value was selected as a result cluster every time in this algorithm.The comparison of experimental results shows that the precision of the algorithm is higher than other algorithms under same conditions and this is obvious especially on long documents set.

  1. INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorival J. Carminatti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  2. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  3. Firms' skills as drivers of radical and incremental innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Justin; Ryan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Using firm level data from the Irish Community Innovation Survey 2008–2010 we analyse the importance of eight skill sets for the innovation performance of firms. We distinguish between radical and incremental innovation. Our results suggest that there is substantial heterogeneity in the importance of skills for different types of innovation and that some skills are best sourced from outside the firm while others are best developed in-house.

  4. Incremental Learning with SVM for Multimodal Classification of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernando García Molina; Lei Zheng; Metin Sertdemir; Dietmar J Dinter; Stefan Schönberg; Matthias Rädle

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correcti...

  5. Color Transformations for the 2MASS Second Incremental Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, J M

    2001-01-01

    Transformation equations are presented to convert colors and magnitudes measured in the AAO, ARNICA, CIT, DENIS, ESO, LCO (Persson standards), MSSSO, SAAO, and UKIRT photometric systems to the photometric system inherent to the 2MASS Second Incremental Data Release. The transformations have been derived by comparing 2MASS photometry with published magnitudes and colors for stars observed in these systems. Transformation equations have also been derived indirectly for the Bessell & Brett (1988) and Koornneef (1983) homogenized photometric systems.

  6. Persistent and Pervasive Basal Freeze-on: Implications for the Preservation of the Oldest Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Corr, H. F.; Creyts, T. T.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Jordan, T. A.; Studinger, M.; Wolovick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records from ice cores are based on the assumption that the stratigraphy is relatively simple and that the ice at the bottom of the ice sheet is undisturbed. The search for the oldest ice has targeted low accumulation areas such as Dome A and deep basins such as the Aurora Basin. The preservation of old ice will be significantly altered if there is widespread freeze-on at the base of the ice sheet. Previous evidence for basal freeze-on from the interior of major ice sheets has been limited to the thin layers of sediment-laden ice at the base of deep ice cores and the accretion ice from Lake Vostok. Here we present the first evidence for widespread freeze-on to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet from data collected by a seven nation International Polar Year Expedition to Dome A. In the extensive radar data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, we have identified distinct near-bed reflectors in the generally homogenous basal ice. The near-bed reflectors originate at the ice sheet bed coincident with flat, bright reflectors, sites associated with basal water. We interpret these near-bed reflectors as the interface between meteoric ice and ice frozen onto the base of the ice sheet. These frozen-on reflectors can be traced up to 100 km along flow. The thickness of the frozen-on basal ice reaches a maximum of 1100m that, in this case, represents 10-20% of the ice thickness along flowlines. In some sites, the frozen-on ice deflects the overlying meteoric ice upward 100's of meters indicating the ice accretion process influences the entire overlying ice sheet. The process of basal freeze-on beneath large ice sheets is likely persistent and pervasive. We infer that a significant fraction of the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet contains frozen-on ice and the process of widespread accretion must be considered in the search for the oldest ice. For example, the upper 70m thick accretion ice (accretion ice 1) from the Vostok ice core may be the result

  7. Incremental Support Vector Machine Framework for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Motai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the emerging requirements of surveillance networks, we present in this paper an incremental multiclassification support vector machine (SVM technique as a new framework for action classification based on real-time multivideo collected by homogeneous sites. The technique is based on an adaptation of least square SVM (LS-SVM formulation but extends beyond the static image-based learning of current SVM methodologies. In applying the technique, an initial supervised offline learning phase is followed by a visual behavior data acquisition and an online learning phase during which the cluster head performs an ensemble of model aggregations based on the sensor nodes inputs. The cluster head then selectively switches on designated sensor nodes for future incremental learning. Combining sensor data offers an improvement over single camera sensing especially when the latter has an occluded view of the target object. The optimization involved alleviates the burdens of power consumption and communication bandwidth requirements. The resulting misclassification error rate, the iterative error reduction rate of the proposed incremental learning, and the decision fusion technique prove its validity when applied to visual sensor networks. Furthermore, the enabled online learning allows an adaptive domain knowledge insertion and offers the advantage of reducing both the model training time and the information storage requirements of the overall system which makes it even more attractive for distributed sensor networks communication.

  8. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed.

  9. Early ventilation-heart rate breakpoint during incremental cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravier, G; Delliaux, S; Ba, A; Delpierre, S; Guieu, R; Jammes, Y

    2014-03-01

    Previous observations having reported a transient hypoxia at the onset of incremental exercise, we investigated the existence of concomitant ventilatory and heart rate (HR) breakpoints.33 subjects executed a maximal cycling exercise with averaging for successive 5-s periods of HR, ventilation, tidal volume (VT), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/Ti), and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 (PETO2) and CO2. In 10 subjects, the transcutaneous partial pressure of O2 (PtcO2) was recorded and the venous blood lactic acid (LA) concentration measured.At the beginning of exercise, PETO2 decreased, reaching a nadir, then progressively increased until the exercise ended. PtcO2 varied in parallel. Whether or not a 0-W cycling period preceded the incremental exercise, the rate of changes in VE, VT, VT/Ti and HR significantly increased when the nadir PO2 was reached. The ventilatory/ HR breakpoint was measured at 33±4% of VO2max, whereas the ventilatory threshold (VTh) was detected at 67±4% of VO2max and LA began to increase at 45 to 50% of VO2max.During incremental cycling exercise, we identified the existence of HR and ventilatory breakpoints in advance of both lactate and ventilatory thresholds which coincided with modest hypoxia and hypercapnia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Incremental learning for ν-Support Vector Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Wang, Zhijie; Ho, Derek; Osman, Said; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    The ν-Support Vector Regression (ν-SVR) is an effective regression learning algorithm, which has the advantage of using a parameter ν on controlling the number of support vectors and adjusting the width of the tube automatically. However, compared to ν-Support Vector Classification (ν-SVC) (Schölkopf et al., 2000), ν-SVR introduces an additional linear term into its objective function. Thus, directly applying the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm (AONSVM) to ν-SVR will not generate an effective initial solution. It is the main challenge to design an incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm. To overcome this challenge, we propose a special procedure called initial adjustments in this paper. This procedure adjusts the weights of ν-SVC based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to prepare an initial solution for the incremental learning. Combining the initial adjustments with the two steps of AONSVM produces an exact and effective incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm (INSVR). Theoretical analysis has proven the existence of the three key inverse matrices, which are the cornerstones of the three steps of INSVR (including the initial adjustments), respectively. The experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that INSVR can avoid the infeasible updating paths as far as possible, and successfully converges to the optimal solution. The results also show that INSVR is faster than batch ν-SVR algorithms with both cold and warm starts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Enhanced Visualization Process Model for Incremental Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Jorg; Angelini, Marco; Santucci, Giuseppe; Schumann, Heidrun

    2016-07-01

    With today's technical possibilities, a stable visualization scenario can no longer be assumed as a matter of course, as underlying data and targeted display setup are much more in flux than in traditional scenarios. Incremental visualization approaches are a means to address this challenge, as they permit the user to interact with, steer, and change the visualization at intermediate time points and not just after it has been completed. In this paper, we put forward a model for incremental visualizations that is based on the established Data State Reference Model, but extends it in ways to also represent partitioned data and visualization operators to facilitate intermediate visualization updates. In combination, partitioned data and operators can be used independently and in combination to strike tailored compromises between output quality, shown data quantity, and responsiveness-i.e., frame rates. We showcase the new expressive power of this model by discussing the opportunities and challenges of incremental visualization in general and its usage in a real world scenario in particular.

  12. Design and Performance Analysis of Incremental Networked Predictive Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Donghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance analysis of networked control systems with network-induced delay, packet disorder, and packet dropout. Based on the incremental form of the plant input-output model and an incremental error feedback control strategy, an incremental networked predictive control (INPC) scheme is proposed to actively compensate for the round-trip time delay resulting from the above communication constraints. The output tracking performance and closed-loop stability of the resulting INPC system are considered for two cases: 1) plant-model match case and 2) plant-model mismatch case. For the former case, the INPC system can achieve the same output tracking performance and closed-loop stability as those of the corresponding local control system. For the latter case, a sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop INPC system is derived using the switched system theory. Furthermore, for both cases, the INPC system can achieve a zero steady-state output tracking error for step commands. Finally, both numerical simulations and practical experiments on an Internet-based servo motor system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Exploiting Homogeneity of Density in Incremental Hierarchical Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi H. Widiyantoro

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical clustering is an important tool in many applications. As it involves a large data set that proliferates over time, reclustering the data set periodically is not an efficient process. Therefore, the ability to incorporate a new data set incrementally into an existing hierarchy becomes increasingly demanding. This article describes Homogen, a system that employs a new algorithm for generating a hierarchy of concepts and clusters incrementally from a stream of observations. The system aims to construct a hierarchy that satisfies the homogeneity and the monotonicity properties. Working in a bottom-up fashion, a new observation is placed in the hierarchy and a sequence of hierarchy restructuring processes is performed only in regions that have been affected by the presence of the new observation. Additionally, it combines multiple restructuring techniques that address different restructuring objectives to get a synergistic effect. The system has been tested on a variety of domains including structured and unstructured data sets. The experimental results reveal that the system is able to construct a concept hierarchy that is consistent regardless of the input data order and whose quality is comparable to the quality of those produced by non incremental clustering algorithms.

  14. A New Evolutionary-Incremental Framework for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an NP-hard problem from the viewpoint of algorithm design and it is one of the main open problems in pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new evolutionary-incremental framework for feature selection. The proposed framework can be applied on an ordinary evolutionary algorithm (EA such as genetic algorithm (GA or invasive weed optimization (IWO. This framework proposes some generic modifications on ordinary EAs to be compatible with the variable length of solutions. In this framework, the solutions related to the primary generations have short length. Then, the length of solutions may be increased through generations gradually. In addition, our evolutionary-incremental framework deploys two new operators called addition and deletion operators which change the length of solutions randomly. For evaluation of the proposed framework, we use that for feature selection in the application of face recognition. In this regard, we applied our feature selection method on a robust face recognition algorithm which is based on the extraction of Gabor coefficients. Experimental results show that our proposed evolutionary-incremental framework can select a few number of features from existing thousands features efficiently. Comparison result of the proposed methods with the previous methods shows that our framework is comprehensive, robust, and well-defined to apply on many EAs for feature selection.

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  16. Reelin signaling in the basal ganglia: comparative neuroanatomy and implications for vocal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fraley, Elizabeth Ross

    2017-01-01

    Vocal learning is a complex motor activity that relies on the coordination of different brain regions including the basal ganglia. By studying the vocal learning zebra finch, this work has uncovered a novel pathway that is regulated by singing behavior. The Reelin-signaling pathway like the human language transcription factor, FoxP2, is regulated in a basal ganglia region, Area X. The pathway was found to be regulated during the sensorimotor phase of song learning in finches as well as in adu...

  17. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  18. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  19. The Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Federica; Siegling, A B; Aloe, Ariel M; Baldaro, Bruno; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    A criticism leveled against the conceptualization of emotional intelligence (EI) as a personality trait is that it overlaps considerably with the higher order personality dimensions and, therefore, has weak utility. To investigate this criticism, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize the literature examining the incremental validity of the 2 adult self-report forms of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Twenty-four articles reporting 114 incremental validity analyses of the TEIQue were reviewed according to the studies' methodological features. Additionally, data from 18 studies (providing 105 effect sizes) were pooled in a meta-analysis. Results suggest that the TEIQue consistently explains incremental variance in criteria pertaining to different areas of functioning, beyond higher order personality dimensions and other emotion-related variables. The pooled effect size was relatively small, but statistically and practically significant (ΔR(2) = .06, SE = .0116; 95% CI [.03, .08]). The number of covariates controlled for, the form of the TEIQue, and the focus on higher order personality dimensions versus other individual-difference constructs as baseline predictors did not affect the effect size. Analyses conducted at the factor level indicated that the incremental contribution is mainly due to the well-being and self-control factors of trait EI. Methodological issues and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  1. Cholinergic modulation differs between basal and apical dendritic excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Stan; Péloquin, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesize that endogenous cholinergic modulation of dendritic processing of hippocampal CA1 is layer specific, and it specifically enhances spike output resulting from basal as compared with the apical dendritic excitation. Laminar profiles of evoked field potentials were recorded in the CA1 area of urethane-anesthetized rats using multichannel silicon probes and analyzed as current source density. High-frequency stimulation of the pontis oralis (PnO) attenuated the midapical more than the basal or distal apical dendritic excitatory sink. Population spike (PS) and excitatory sink-PS potentiation resulting from basal dendritic excitation were facilitated, while the PS evoked by apical dendritic stimulation was attenuated by PnO stimulation. Perfusion of cholinergic agonist carbachol onto hippocampal slices in vitro also attenuated the apical more than the basal dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Excitatory sink attenuation and PS changes after PnO stimulation were blocked by systemic or local scopolamine and by intracerebroventricular (icv) M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by icv M2 receptor antagonist AFDX-116 or nicotinic antagonists. However, a hippocampal theta rhythm activated by PnO stimulation was blocked by systemic but not by local scopolamine. We conclude that endogenous acetylcholine mediates a stronger presynaptic inhibition of the midapical than basal and distal apical excitation mainly through M1 receptors.

  2. Multiple metastatic basal cell carcinoma with concurrent metastatic pleomorphic sarcoma in chronic lymphedema area: case report Carcinoma basocelular múltiplo e metastático concomitante a sarcoma pleomórfico e metástatico em área de linfedema crônico: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano da Paz Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphedema presents as interstitial fluid retention due to a failure in the lymphatic system drainage. The affected region becomes more vulnerable immunologically and predisposed to the onset of neoplasms. Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common sort of neoplasm, nevertheless it rarely metastisizes. Sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal neoplasms, locally aggressive, which can spread. Here is reported an infrequent case of multiple basal cell carcinoma, synchronous to a poorly differentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, both spreading to lymph nodes and arising from tissue compromised by chronic lymphedema.Linfedema crônico se manifesta pelo acúmulo de líquido intersticial por falha da drenagem linfática. A região afetada torna-se imunologicamente vulnerável e predisposta ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias. Carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum, entretanto raramente metastatiza. Sarcomas são neoplasias mesenquimais malignas, localmente agressivas e capazes de metastatizar. Apresentamos um caso raro de múltiplos carcinomas basocelulares concomitantes a sarcoma pleomórfico pouco diferenciado, metastáticos para linfonodos, originando-se em área de linfedema crônico.

  3. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  4. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  5. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Vermeulen (Patrick); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation.

  6. Incremental Innovation and Competitive Pressure in the Presence of Discrete Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghosh, Arghya; Kato, Takao; Morita, Hodaka

    2017-01-01

    Technical progress consists of improvements made upon the existing technology (incremental innovation) and innovative activities aiming at entirely new technology (discrete innovation). Incremental innovation is often of limited relevance to the new technology invented by successful discrete...... innovation. Previous theoretical studies have indicated that higher competitive pressure measured by product substitutability increases incremental innovation. In contrast, we find that intensified competition can decrease incremental innovation. A firm's market share upon its failure in discrete innovation...

  7. Thickness control in a new flexible hybrid incremental sheet forming process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; LU, B; Chen,J.; Feng,S.; Li, Z; Long, H.

    2017-01-01

    Incremental sheet forming is a cost-effective process for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal products. However, incremental sheet forming also has some limitations such as severe sheet thinning and long processing time. These limitations hamper the forming part quality and production efficiency, thus restricting the incremental sheet forming application in industrial practice. To overcome the problem of sheet thinning, a variety of processes, such as multi-step incremental sheet forming, have...

  8. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  9. A sequential tree approach for incremental sequential pattern mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJESH KUMAR BOGHEY; SHAILENDRA SINGH

    2016-12-01

    ‘‘Sequential pattern mining’’ is a prominent and significant method to explore the knowledge and innovation from the large database. Common sequential pattern mining algorithms handle static databases.Pragmatically, looking into the functional and actual execution, the database grows exponentially thereby leading to the necessity and requirement of such innovation, research, and development culminating into the designing of mining algorithm. Once the database is updated, the previous mining result will be incorrect, and we need to restart and trigger the entire mining process for the new updated sequential database. To overcome and avoid the process of rescanning of the entire database, this unique system of incremental mining of sequential pattern is available. The previous approaches, system, and techniques are a priori-based frameworks but mine patterns is an advanced and sophisticated technique giving the desired solution. We propose and incorporate an algorithm called STISPM for incremental mining of sequential patterns using the sequence treespace structure. STISPM uses the depth-first approach along with backward tracking and the dynamic lookahead pruning strategy that removes infrequent and irregular patterns. The process and approach from the root node to any leaf node depict a sequential pattern in the database. The structural characteristic of the sequence tree makes it convenient and appropriate for incremental sequential pattern mining. The sequence tree also stores all the sequential patterns with its count and statistics, so whenever the support system is withdrawn or changed, our algorithm using frequent sequence tree as the storage structure can find and detect all the sequential patternswithout mining the database once again.

  10. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network “connectome” which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain. PMID:28111563

  11. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network "connectome" which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain.

  12. Thermal structure and basal sliding parametrisation at Pine Island Glacier – a 3-D full-Stokes model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wilkens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier is one of the fastest changing glaciers in the Antarctic Ice Sheet and therefore in scientific focus. The glacier holds enough ice to raise global sea level significantly (∼0.5 m, when fully melted. The question addressed by numerous modelling studies of the glacier focuses on whether the observed changes are a start for an uncontrolled and accelerating retreat. The movement of the glacier is, in the fast flowing areas, dominated by basal motion. In modelling studies the parametrisation of the basal motion is therefore crucial. Inversion methods are commonly applied to reproduce the complex surface flow structure at Pine Island Glacier, which use information of the observed surface velocity field, to constrain basal sliding. We introduce two different approaches of combining a physical parameter, the basal roughness, with basal sliding parametrisations. This way basal sliding is connected again to its original formulation. We show that the basal roughness is an important and helpful parameter to consider and that many features of the flow structure could be reproduced with these approaches.

  13. The associated random walk and martingales in random walks with stationary increments

    CERN Document Server

    Grey, D R

    2010-01-01

    We extend the notion of the associated random walk and the Wald martingale in random walks where the increments are independent and identically distributed to the more general case of stationary ergodic increments. Examples are given where the increments are Markovian or Gaussian, and an application in queueing is considered.

  14. Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Product Lifecycle Management Plus. The two components are managed as a single program. GCSS-A is being developed incrementally . Increment 1 provides...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Global Combat Support System - Army Increment 2 (GCSS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...Base Year CAE - Component Acquisition Executive CDD - Capability Development Document CPD - Capability Production Document DAE - Defense

  15. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Incremental Dental Positioning Adjustment Appliances and Methods of Producing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain incremental dental positioning... importing, offering for sale, and selling for importation in the United States incremental dental...

  16. How big are the increments of 1~p-valued Gaussian processes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林正炎

    1997-01-01

    be a sequence of independent Gaussian processes with σk2 (h)The large increments for Y(·) with boundedσ (p, h ) are investigated. As an example the large increments of infinite-dimensional fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process in 1p are given. The method can also be applied to certain processes with stationary increments.

  17. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  18. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  19. Incremental Entropy Relation as an Alternative to MaxEnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Casas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that, to generate the statistical operator appropriate for a given system, and as an alternative to Jaynes’ MaxEnt approach, that refers to the entropy S, one can use instead the increments ±S in S. To such an effect, one uses the macroscopic thermodynamic relation that links ±S to changes in i the internal energy E and ii the remaining M relevant extensive quantities Ai, i = 1; : : : ;M; that characterize the context one is working with.

  20. Numerical prediction of the incremental melting and solidification process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Chengchang Jia; Sheng Yin

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is applied to represent the phenomena in the incremental melting and solidification process (IMSP), and the temperature and electromagnetic fields and the depth of steel liquid phase are calculated by a finite difference technique using the control volume method. The result shows that the predicted values are in good agreement with the observations. In accordance with the calculated values for different kinds of materials and different size of molds, the technological parameter of the IMS process such as the power supply and the descending speed rate can be determined.

  1. Fast Discovering Frequent Patterns for Incremental XML Queries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dun-lu; QIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    It is nontrivial to maintain such discovered frequent query patterns in real XML-DBMS because the transaction database of queries may allow frequent updates and such updates may not only invalidate some existing frequent query patterns but also generate some new frequent query patterns.In this paper, two incremental updating algorithms, FUXQMiner and FUFXQMiner, are proposed for efficient maintenance of discovered frequent query patterns and generation the new frequent query patterns when new XML queries are added into the database.Experimental results from our implementation show that the proposed algorithms have good performance.

  2. AN INCREMENTAL UPDATING ALGORITHM FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; YiTong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this letter,on the basis of Frequent Pattern(FP) tree,the support function to update FP-tree is introduced,then an incremental FP(IFP) algorithm for mining association rules is proposed.IFP algorithm considers not only adding new data into the database but also reducing old data from the database.Furthermore,it can predigest five cases to three case .The algorithm proposed in this letter can avoid generating lots of candidate items,and it is high efficient.

  3. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...... show that for this class of processes the optimal endowment and strategy can be expressed more explicitly. The corresponding formulas involve the moment resp. cumulant generating function of the underlying process and a Laplace- or Fourier-type representation of the contingent claim. An example...

  4. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  5. TRANSITIONAL SHELTER FOR DISASTER VICTIMS: BAMBOO CORE AND INCREMENTAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULISTIONO Eunike Kristi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has experienced many catastrophic disasters since 2004. Tsunami, earthqukes, floods and volcanic eruptions have caused devastated destruction towards houses, land, belongings, and wellfare. In post-disaster recovery process, it is essential to provide a transitional shelter especially for low-income community while preparing the reconstruction of their permanent housing. This paper presents bamboo incremental house as disaster victims’ transitional shelter in Jember. An empathic approach was taken in developing the house design, taking into consideration the disaster victims’ need, perception, and their economic condition, as well as the local materials, technology and the financial support available.

  6. Incremental stress-strain law for graphite under multiaxial loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzung, F.

    1979-11-01

    An incremental stress-strain law for describing the nonlinear, compressible and asymmetric behavior of graphite under tension and compression as well as complex loadings is derived based on a dry friction model in the theory of plasticity. Stress-strain relations are defined by longitudinal-lateral strain measurements for specimens under uniaxial tension-compression. Agreements with experimentally determined curves from biaxial loading experiments are shown. Agreements in finite element computations using the present model with strain measurements for diametral compression and 4-point bend tests of graphite are also obtained.

  7. Incremental View Computation Model for Object-Oriented Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hai-ying; Zhong Ting-xiu

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a model to implement incremental update of views. The principle is that unless a view is accessed, the modification related to the view is not computed. This modification information is used only when views are updated.Modification information is embodied in the classes (including inheritance classes and nesting classes) that derive the view.We establish a modify list consisted of tuples (one tuple for each view which is related to the class) to implement view update. A method is used to keep views from re-update.

  8. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range...... constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben et al. put it, “the evolution of things, rather than just...

  9. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  10. Comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for crystalline neon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, S J; Bygrave, P J; Allan, N L; Manby, F R

    2010-02-24

    We present a critical comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for the evaluation of the static cohesive energy of crystalline neon. Both of these schemes make it possible to apply the methods of molecular electronic structure theory to crystalline solids, offering a systematically improvable alternative to density functional theory. Results from both methods are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies of solid neon and potential sources of error are discussed. We explore the similarities of the two methods and demonstrate how they may be used in tandem to study crystalline solids.

  11. An Approach to Incremental Design of Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Pop, Traian;

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to incremental design of distributed embedded systems for hard real-time applications. We start from an already existing system running a set of applications and the design problem is to implement new functionality on this system. Thus, we propose mapping...... strategies of functionality so that the already running functionality is not disturbed and there is a good chance that, later, new functionality can easily be mapped on the resulted system. The mapping and scheduling for hard real-time embedded systems are considered the context of a realistic communication...

  12. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  13. Motor control in basal ganglia circuits using fMRI and brain atlas approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bardinet, Eric; Tremblay, Leon; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Dormont, Didier; Kim, Dae-Shik; Yelnik, Jerome; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined how the motor, premotor and associative basal ganglia territories process movement parameters such as the complexity and the frequency of movement. Twelve right-handed volunteers were studied using EPI BOLD contrast (3 T) while performing audio-paced finger tapping tasks designed to differentiate basal ganglia territories. Tasks varied movement complexity (repetitive index tapping, simple sequence of finger movements and complex sequence of 10 moves) and frequency (from 0.5 to 3 Hz). Activation maps were coregistered onto a 3-D brain atlas derived from post-mortem brains. Three main patterns of activation were observed. In the posterior putamen and the sensorimotor cortex, signal increased with movement frequency but not with movement complexity. In premotor areas, the anterior putamen and the ventral posterolateral thalamus, signal increased regularly with increasing movement frequency and complexity. In rostral frontal areas, the caudate nucleus, the subthalamic nucleus and the ventral anterior/ventrolateral thalamus, signal increased mainly during the complex task and the high frequency task (3 Hz). These data show the different roles of motor, premotor and associative basal ganglia circuits in the processing of motor-related operations and suggest that activation can be precisely located within the entire circuitry of the basal ganglia.

  14. Mapping the basal ganglia alterations in children chronically exposed to manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yi; Dion, Laurie-Anne; Gilbert, Guillaume; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Rocha, Gabriel; Wang, Yalin; Leporé, Natasha; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with neuromotor and neurocognitive deficits, but the exact mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity is still unclear. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in-vivo analysis of brain structures has become possible. Among different sub-cortical structures, the basal ganglia (BG) has been investigated as a putative anatomical biomarker in MR-based studies of Mn toxicity. However, previous investigations have yielded inconsistent results in terms of regional MR signal intensity changes. These discrepancies may be due to the subtlety of brain alterations caused by Mn toxicity, coupled to analysis techniques that lack the requisite detection power. Here, based on brain MRI, we apply a 3D surface-based morphometry method on 3 bilateral basal ganglia structures in school-age children chronically exposed to Mn through drinking water to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on brain anatomy. Our method successfully pinpointed significant enlargement of many areas of the basal ganglia structures, preferentially affecting the putamen. Moreover, these areas showed significant correlations with fine motor performance, indicating a possible link between altered basal ganglia neurodevelopment and declined motor performance in high Mn exposed children. PMID:28155922

  15. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  16. Potential formula for the calculation of starting and incremental insulin glargine doses: ALOHA subanalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kadowaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pragmatic methods for dose optimization are required for the successful basal management in daily clinical practice. To derive a useful formula for calculating recommended glargine doses, we analyzed data from the Add-on Lantus® to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (ALOHA study, a 24-week observation of Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The patients who initiated insulin glargine in basal-supported oral therapy (BOT regimen (n = 3506 were analyzed. The correlations between average changes in glargine dose and HbA1c were calculated, and its regression formula was estimated from grouped data categorized by baseline HbA1c levels. Starting doses of the background-subgroup achieving the HbA1c target with a last-observed dose above the average were compared to an assumed optimal starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day. The difference in regression lines between background-subgroups was examined. A formula for determining the optimal starting and titration doses was thereby derived. The correlation coefficient between changes in dose and HbA1c was -0.9043. The estimated regression line formula was -0.964 × change in HbA1c+2.000. A starting dose of 0.15 U/kg/day was applicable to all background-subgroups except for patients with retinopathy (0.120 U/kg/day and/or with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 (0.114 U/kg/day. Additionally, women (0.135 U/kg/day and patients with sulfonylureas (0.132 U/kg/day received a slightly decreased starting dose. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest a simplified and pragmatic dose calculation formula for type 2 diabetes patients starting glargine BOT optimal daily dose at 24 weeks  =  starting dose (0.15×weight + incremental dose (baseline HbA1c - target HbA1c+2. This formula should be further validated using other samples in a prospective follow-up, especially since several patient groups required lower starting doses.

  17. Characterization of the hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis during development. II. The basal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Laura; González, Agustín; Moreno, Nerea

    2014-04-01

    The expression patterns of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the basal hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development by means of combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The connectivity of the main subdivisions was investigated by in vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines. The basal hypothalamic region is topologically rostral to the basal diencephalon and is composed of the tuberal (rostral) and mammillary (caudal) subdivisions, according to the prosomeric model. It is dorsally bounded by the optic chiasm and the alar hypothalamus, and caudally by the diencephalic prosomere p3. The tuberal hypothalamus is defined by the expression of Nkx2.1, xShh, and Isl1, and rostral and caudal portions can be distinguished by the distinct expression of Otp rostrally and Nkx2.2 caudally. In the mammillary region the xShh/Nkx2.1 combination defined the rostral mammillary area, expressing Nkx2.1, and the caudal retromammillary area, expressing xShh. The expression of xLhx1, xDll4, and Otp in the mammillary area and Isl1 in the tuberal region highlights the boundary between the two basal hypothalamic territories. Both regions are strongly connected with subpallial regions, especially those conveying olfactory/vomeronasal information, and also possess abundant intrahypothalamic connections. They show reciprocal connections with the diencephalon (mainly the thalamus), project to the midbrain tectum, and are bidirectionally related to the rhombencephalon. These results illustrate that the basal hypothalamus of anurans shares many features of specification, regionalization, and hodology with amniotes, reinforcing the idea of a basic bauplan in the organization of this prosencephalic region in all tetrapods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  19. Numerical simulation of high speed incremental forming of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppina, Ambrogio; Teresa, Citrea; Luigino, Filice; Francesco, Gagliardi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an innovative process is analyzed with the aim to satisfy the industrial requirements, such as process flexibility, differentiation and customizing of products, cost reduction, minimization of execution time, sustainable production, etc. The attention is focused on incremental forming process, nowadays used in different fields such as: rapid prototyping, medical sector, architectural industry, aerospace and marine, in the production of molds and dies. Incremental forming consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. SPIF is the considered variant of the process, in which the punch gives local deformation without dies and molds; consequently, the final product geometry can be changed by the control of an actuator without requiring a set of different tools. The drawback of this process is its slowness. The aim of this study is to assess the IF feasibility at high speeds. An experimental campaign will be performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility and the influence on materials formability mainly on aluminum alloys. The first results show how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed IF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature field. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process substantially confirming experimental evidence.

  20. A fast flexible docking method using an incremental construction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, M; Kramer, B; Lengauer, T; Klebe, G

    1996-08-23

    We present an automatic method for docking organic ligands into protein binding sites. The method can be used in the design process of specific protein ligands. It combines an appropriate model of the physico-chemical properties of the docked molecules with efficient methods for sampling the conformational space of the ligand. If the ligand is flexible, it can adopt a large variety of different conformations. Each such minimum in conformational space presents a potential candidate for the conformation of the ligand in the complexed state. Our docking method samples the conformation space of the ligand on the basis of a discrete model and uses a tree-search technique for placing the ligand incrementally into the active site. For placing the first fragment of the ligand into the protein, we use hashing techniques adapted from computer vision. The incremental construction algorithm is based on a greedy strategy combined with efficient methods for overlap detection and for the search of new interactions. We present results on 19 complexes of which the binding geometry has been crystallographically determined. All considered ligands are docked in at most three minutes on a current workstation. The experimentally observed binding mode of the ligand is reproduced with 0.5 to 1.2 A rms deviation. It is almost always found among the highest-ranking conformations computed.

  1. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2012-05-08

    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  2. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  3. On exceedance times for some processes with dependent increments

    CERN Document Server

    Asmussen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Let ${Z_n}_{n\\ge 0}$ be a random walk with a negative drift and i.i.d. increments with heavy-tailed distribution and let $M=\\sup_{n\\ge 0}Z_n$ be its supremum. Asmussen & Kl{\\"u}ppelberg (1996) considered the behavior of the random walk given that $M>x$, for $x$ large, and obtained a limit theorem, as $x\\to\\infty$, for the distribution of the quadruple that includes the time $\\rtreg=\\rtreg(x)$ to exceed level $x$, position $Z_{\\rtreg}$ at this time, position $Z_{\\rtreg-1}$ at the prior time, and the trajectory up to it (similar results were obtained for the Cram\\'er-Lundberg insurance risk process). We obtain here several extensions of this result to various regenerative-type models and, in particular, to the case of a random walk with dependent increments. Particular attention is given to describing the limiting conditional behavior of $\\tau$. The class of models include Markov-modulated models as particular cases. We also study fluid models, the Bj{\\"o}rk-Grandell risk process, give examples where the or...

  4. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  5. Incremental Knowledge Base Construction Using DeepDive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeho; Wu, Sen; Wang, Feiran; De Sa, Christopher; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Populating a database with unstructured information is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of extraction, cleaning, and integration. Recent names used for this problem include dealing with dark data and knowledge base construction (KBC). In this work, we describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems, and we present techniques to make the KBC process more efficient. We observe that the KBC process is iterative, and we develop techniques to incrementally produce inference results for KBC systems. We propose two methods for incremental inference, based respectively on sampling and variational techniques. We also study the tradeoff space of these methods and develop a simple rule-based optimizer. DeepDive includes all of these contributions, and we evaluate Deep-Dive on five KBC systems, showing that it can speed up KBC inference tasks by up to two orders of magnitude with negligible impact on quality. PMID:27144081

  6. Acute Hematological Responses to a Maximal Incremental Treadmill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dinato de Lima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study acute hematologic responses in individuals undergoing a  cardiopulmonary maximum incremental treadmill test without inclination. Were analyzed 23 individuals, 12 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (± 8.4 years, mean weight of 68.1 (± 18.1 kg, mean height of 170.2 (± 9.8 cm, and mean BMI of 23.2 (±3.7 kg/m², physically active, with a minimum practice of 3.5 hours per week of exercise for at least 6 months. The subjects were submitted to a maximal incremental treadmill test, with venous blood collection for analysis before and immediately after completion of the test. Was used Wilcoxon test for analysis of pre and post test variables. Was adopted p < 0.05 as significance level. There was a significant increase in leukocyte count (69.23%; p = 0.005, lymphocytes (17.56%; p = 0.043, monocytes (85.41%; p = 0.012 and granulocytes (28.21%; p = 0.011. It was also observed a significant increase in erythrocytes (3,42%; p = 0,042, hematocrit (5.39%; p = 0.038 and hemoglobin (5.58%; p = 0.013. With this study, was concluded that performing a maximal test of treadmill running can significantly raise blood levels of leukocytes and respective sub-populations, as well as red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  7. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  8. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2015-10-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible with only a few training samples. Secondly, we show that novel objects can be added incrementally without retraining existing objects, which is important for fast interaction. Thirdly, we show that an unbalanced number of positive training samples leads to biased classifier scores that can be corrected by modifying weights. Fourthly, we show that the detector performance can deteriorate due to hard-negative mining for similar or closely related classes (e.g., for Barbie and dress, because the doll is wearing a dress). This can be solved by our hierarchical classification. We introduce a new dataset, which we call TOSO, and use it to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the localization and recognition of multiple objects in images.

  9. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper.

  10. Better Bounds for Incremental Frequency Allocation in Bipartite Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Chrobak, Marek; Sgall, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    We study frequency allocation in wireless networks. A wireless network is modeled by an undirected graph, with vertices corresponding to cells. In each vertex we have a certain number of requests, and each of those requests must be assigned a different frequency. Edges represent conflicts between cells, meaning that frequencies in adjacent vertices must be different as well. The objective is to minimize the total number of used frequencies. The offline version of the problem is known to be NP-hard. In the incremental version, requests for frequencies arrive over time and the algorithm is required to assign a frequency to a request as soon as it arrives. Competitive incremental algorithms have been studied for several classes of graphs. For paths, the optimal (asymptotic) ratio is known to be 4/3, while for hexagonal-cell graphs it is between 1.5 and 1.9126. For k-colorable graphs, the ratio of (k+1)/2 can be achieved. In this paper, we prove nearly tight bounds on the asymptotic competitive ratio for bipartit...

  11. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  12. Incremental support vector machines for fast reliable image recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makili, L., E-mail: makili_le@yahoo.com [Instituto Superior Politécnico da Universidade Katyavala Bwila, Benguela (Angola); Vega, J. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S. [Dpto. Informática y Automática – UNED, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A conformal predictor using SVM as the underlying algorithm was implemented. ► It was applied to image recognition in the TJ–II's Thomson Scattering Diagnostic. ► To improve time efficiency an approach to incremental SVM training has been used. ► Accuracy is similar to the one reached when standard SVM is used. ► Computational time saving is significant for large training sets. -- Abstract: This paper addresses the reliable classification of images in a 5-class problem. To this end, an automatic recognition system, based on conformal predictors and using Support Vector Machines (SVM) as the underlying algorithm has been developed and applied to the recognition of images in the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic of the TJ–II fusion device. Using such conformal predictor based classifier is a computationally intensive task since it implies to train several SVM models to classify a single example and to perform this training from scratch takes a significant amount of time. In order to improve the classification time efficiency, an approach to the incremental training of SVM has been used as the underlying algorithm. Experimental results show that the overall performance of the new classifier is high, comparable to the one corresponding to the use of standard SVM as the underlying algorithm and there is a significant improvement in time efficiency.

  13. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  14. Efficient incremental relaying for packet transmission over fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel relaying scheme for packet transmission over fading channels, which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from the destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying (EIR) scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. We compare the performance of the EIR scheme with the threshold-based incremental relaying (TIR) scheme. It is shown that the efficiency of the TIR scheme is better for lower values of the threshold. However, the efficiency of the TIR scheme for higher values of threshold is outperformed by the EIR. In addition, three new threshold-based adaptive EIR are devised to further improve the efficiency of the EIR scheme. We calculate the packet error rate and the efficiency of these new schemes to provide the analytical insight. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. Demonstration/Validation of Incremental Sampling at Two Diverse Military Ranges and Development of an Incremental Sampling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    characterize ten decision units $62,725 $39,500 $18,900 E2S2 - June 20102 2 –40National Defense Center for Energy and Environment Validation of EVC Soil...Stick • EVC Soil Stick used in Fort Lewis to collect eight replicate samples (0-2.5 cm depth) of 100 increments each • Same decision unit as...Energy and Environment Fort Lewis Live-Fire Laboratory Replicates NG Results Using EVC Tool (mg/kg) Sample Type Replicates Mean Std Dev % RSD 1 2 3

  16. High Resolution Ice Surface of the Ross Ice Shelf: Accuracy and Links to Basal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We use airborne laser altimetry data from IcePod and IceBridge to map the surface across the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. Laser altimetry and radar data is analyzed from the IcePod 2014 and 2015 field campaigns as well as IceBridge 2013. Icepod is a multi sensor suite that includes ice penetrating radars, a swath scanning laser, visible and IR cameras as well as GPS mounted on a LC-130. Using shallow ice radar data from both IcePod and IceBridge we identify the base of the ice shelf. Across the shelf we observe distinct areas of high reflectivity in the radar data suggesting basal crevassing. In some regions, the basal reflector is not well defined. Laser altimetry profiles correlate surface morphology with features at the base including basal crevasses and marine ice formed by freezing on to the base of the ice shelf. Building Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) from the laser altimetry data, we investigate the relationship between the surface expressions of these ice shelf dynamics including thickness changes, potential sites of marine ice at the base and basal morphology in regions where a well defined basal reflector does not exist in the radar profiles. We present accuracy of the IcePod laser altimetry dataset using ground control points and GPS grids from Greenland and Antarctica as well as Photogrammetric DEMs. Our laser altimetry analysis resolves sub-meter surface features which, combined with coincident radar, provides a link between basal processes and their surface expressions.

  17. 39 CFR 3050.23 - Documentation supporting incremental cost estimates in the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation supporting incremental cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.23 Documentation supporting incremental cost... incremental cost model shall be reported. ...

  18. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  19. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  20. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  1. The contribution of synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia to the processing of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil'kis, I G

    2007-10-01

    A mechanism for the involvement of the basal ganglia in the processing of visual information, based on dopamine-dependent modulation of the efficiency of synaptic transmission in interconnected parallel associative and limbic cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuits, is proposed. Each circuit consists of a visual or prefrontal area of the cortex connected with the thalamic nucleus and the corresponding areas in different nuclei of the basal ganglia. The circulation of activity in these circuits is supported by the recurrent arrival of information in the thalamus and cortex. Dopamine released in response to a visual stimulus modulates the efficiencies of "strong" and "weak" corticostriatal inputs in different directions, and the subsequent reorganization of activity in the circuit leads to disinhibition (inhibition) of the activity of those cortical neurons which are "strongly" ("weakly") excited by the visual stimulus simultaneously with dopaminergic cells. The pattern in each cortical area is the neuronal reflection of the properties of the visual stimulus processed by this area. Excitation of dopaminergic cells by the visual stimulus via the superior colliculi requires parallel activation of the disinhibitory input to the superior colliculi via the thalamus and the "direct" pathway" in the basal ganglia. The prefrontal cortex, excited by the visual stimulus via the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, mediates the descending influence on the activity of dopaminergic cells, simultaneously controlling dopamine release in different areas of the striatum and thus facilitating the mutual selection of neural reflections of the individual properties of the visual stimulus and their binding into an integral image.

  2. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  3. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  4. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  5. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  6. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  7. Basal Dendritic Morphology of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons in Williams Syndrome: Prefrontal Cortex and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Hrvoj-Mihic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific behavioral and cognitive profile, which includes hyperaffiliative behavior, poor social judgment, and lack of social inhibition. Here we examined the morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons in the cortex of two rare adult subjects with WS. Specifically, we examined two areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC—the frontal pole (Brodmann area 10 and the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11—and three areas in the motor, sensory, and visual cortex (BA 4, BA 3-1-2, BA 18. The findings suggest that the morphology of basal dendrites on the pyramidal neurons is altered in the cortex of WS, with differences that were layer-specific, more prominent in PFC areas, and displayed an overall pattern of dendritic organization that differentiates WS from other disorders. In particular, and unlike what was expected based on typically developing brains, basal dendrites in the two PFC areas did not display longer and more branched dendrites compared to motor, sensory and visual areas. Moreover, dendritic branching, dendritic length, and the number of dendritic spines differed little within PFC and between the central executive region (BA 10 and BA 11 that is part of the orbitofrontal region involved into emotional processing. In contrast, the relationship between the degree of neuronal branching in supra- versus infra-granular layers was spared in WS. Although this study utilized tissue held in formalin for a prolonged period of time and the number of neurons available for analysis was limited, our findings indicate that WS cortex, similar to that in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, Fragile X, and idiopathic autism, has altered morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons, which appears more prominent in selected areas of the PFC. Results were examined from developmental perspectives and discussed in the context of other

  8. Basal Dendritic Morphology of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons in Williams Syndrome: Prefrontal Cortex and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvoj-Mihic, Branka; Hanson, Kari L; Lew, Caroline H; Stefanacci, Lisa; Jacobs, Bob; Bellugi, Ursula; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder with a specific behavioral and cognitive profile, which includes hyperaffiliative behavior, poor social judgment, and lack of social inhibition. Here we examined the morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons in the cortex of two rare adult subjects with WS. Specifically, we examined two areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-the frontal pole (Brodmann area 10) and the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11)-and three areas in the motor, sensory, and visual cortex (BA 4, BA 3-1-2, BA 18). The findings suggest that the morphology of basal dendrites on the pyramidal neurons is altered in the cortex of WS, with differences that were layer-specific, more prominent in PFC areas, and displayed an overall pattern of dendritic organization that differentiates WS from other disorders. In particular, and unlike what was expected based on typically developing brains, basal dendrites in the two PFC areas did not display longer and more branched dendrites compared to motor, sensory and visual areas. Moreover, dendritic branching, dendritic length, and the number of dendritic spines differed little within PFC and between the central executive region (BA 10) and BA 11 that is part of the orbitofrontal region involved into emotional processing. In contrast, the relationship between the degree of neuronal branching in supra- versus infra-granular layers was spared in WS. Although this study utilized tissue held in formalin for a prolonged period of time and the number of neurons available for analysis was limited, our findings indicate that WS cortex, similar to that in other neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down syndrome, Rett syndrome, Fragile X, and idiopathic autism, has altered morphology of basal dendrites on pyramidal neurons, which appears more prominent in selected areas of the PFC. Results were examined from developmental perspectives and discussed in the context of other neurodevelopmental disorders

  9. An investigation into the mechanics of double-sided incremental forming using finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Newell; Zhang, Zixuan; Ren, Huaqing; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF) is a developing sheet metal manufacturing process that has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to its inherent flexibility, low-overhead cost, and die-less nature. However, it can be challenging to define the tool gap so as to achieve a desired pressure through the sheet thickness since one must first predict sheet thinning. In this investigation, a novel part design is proposed which varies in-plane curvature as a function of depth. A finite element model for DSIF is developed and the strain histories in various regions are extracted. It was concluded that if the supporting tool loses contact with the sheet, localized necking can occur prior to part failure. Additionally, part geometry can have significant effects on the tool contact area which, consequently, affects the evolution of strain.

  10. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; Rugina, R; McKee, S A

    2008-01-21

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, reduces checkpoint sizes by as much as 80% and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  11. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  12. Incremental Commute Time Distance and Applications in Anomaly Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2011-01-01

    Commute Time Distance (CTD) is a random walk based metric on graphs. CTD has found widespread applications in many domains including personalized search, collaborative filtering and making search engines robust against manipulation. Our interest is inspired by the use of CTD as a metric for anomaly detection. It has been shown that CTD can be used to simultaneously identify both global and local anomalies. Here we propose an accurate and efficient approximation for computing the CTD in an incremental fashion in order to facilitate real-time applications. An online anomaly detection algorithm is designed where the CTD of each new arriving data point to any point in the current graph can be estimated in constant time ensuring a real-time response. Moreover, the proposed approach can also be applied in many other applications that utilize commute time distance.

  13. Analisis Incremental Kelayakan Penambahan Lini Perakitan Engine Motor Pt Abc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing motorcycle unit in Plant 1 of PT ABC requires engine supply from Plant 2. This has some burden on the operating cost of Plant 1 and the opportunity loss as well due to delay of motor engine delivery. Based on the problem, team proposes additional engine line in Plant 1 to cut engine supply from Plant 2. Therefore, team analyzes this proposal using incremental analysis to determine whether the proposal is feasible or not by comparing before and after condition with result NPV about IDR 967 Billion and Payback Period under 1 year. By this result, team determines that this proposal is recommended to be approved by management. 

  14. Incremental forming of aluminium alloys in cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Hans; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming processes suffer from stringent forming limits, restricting the range of producible geometries. Through in-process cooling of the sheet to cryogenic level, this paper explores the potential of altering material properties benefiting the formability and residual hardness of different aluminium alloys. Global cooling of aluminium sheets with liquid nitrogen and dry ice allows to reach temperatures of 78K and 193K respectively. Extended with experiments at room temperature (293K), these tests form a base for comparison of surface quality, formability and residual hardness. As an aluminium alloy commonly used for its high strength to weight ratio, but suffering from limited formability compared to draw-quality steels, AA5083-H111 is of interest for cryogenic treatment. AA1050-H24 is included in the test campaign as a base for commercially pure aluminium.

  15. Energy increment criteria for evaluation of train derailment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; ZENG Qing-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The criteria for evaluation of train derailment were studied. The worldwide commonly used evaluation criteria for wheel derailment were summarized and their main problems were pointed out. The mechanism of train derailment was expounded on the basis of system dynamics stability concept. And the energy increment criteria were proposed to evaluate train derailment. By applying the criteria, the calculated results concerning 6 cases of freight train derailment on tangent railway line and 6 cases of freight train derailment on bridge were obtained, which are all in agreement with the practical situation. The safety, comfort and stability results concerning 3 cases of freight train running on bridge were analyzed. In addition, the running speed limits of freight train on the Yanconggou and Donggou bridge in the Beijing-Tonghua railway line of 50 km/h and 60 km/h, respectively, were proposed. And the running speed of freight train on the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge can reach 70 km/h.

  16. An incremental design of radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Reiner, Philip D; Xie, Tiantian; Bartczak, Tomasz; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes an offline algorithm for incrementally constructing and training radial basis function (RBF) networks. In each iteration of the error correction (ErrCor) algorithm, one RBF unit is added to fit and then eliminate the highest peak (or lowest valley) in the error surface. This process is repeated until a desired error level is reached. Experimental results on real world data sets show that the ErrCor algorithm designs very compact RBF networks compared with the other investigated algorithms. Several benchmark tests such as the duplicate patterns test and the two spiral problem were applied to show the robustness of the ErrCor algorithm. The proposed ErrCor algorithm generates very compact networks. This compactness leads to greatly reduced computation times of trained networks.

  17. A new insertion sequence for incremental Delaunay triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Fei Liu; Jin-Hui Yan; S.H.Lo

    2013-01-01

    Incremental algorithm is one of the most popular procedures for constructing Delaunay triangulations (DTs).However,the point insertion sequence has a great impact on the amount of work needed for the construction of DTs.It affects the time for both point location and structure update,and hence the overall computational time of the triangulation algorithm.In this paper,a simple deterministic insertion sequence is proposed based on the breadth-first-search on a Kd-tree with some minor modifications for better performance.Using parent nodes as search-hints,the proposed insertion sequence proves to be faster and more stable than the Hilbert curve order and biased randomized insertion order (BRIO),especially for non-uniform point distributions over a wide range of benchmark examples.

  18. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  19. Incremental dimension reduction of tensors with random index

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, Fredrik; Sahlgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    We present an incremental, scalable and efficient dimension reduction technique for tensors that is based on sparse random linear coding. Data is stored in a compactified representation with fixed size, which makes memory requirements low and predictable. Component encoding and decoding are performed on-line without computationally expensive re-analysis of the data set. The range of tensor indices can be extended dynamically without modifying the component representation. This idea originates from a mathematical model of semantic memory and a method known as random indexing in natural language processing. We generalize the random-indexing algorithm to tensors and present signal-to-noise-ratio simulations for representations of vectors and matrices. We present also a mathematical analysis of the approximate orthogonality of high-dimensional ternary vectors, which is a property that underpins this and other similar random-coding approaches to dimension reduction. To further demonstrate the properties of random ...

  20. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-PingLi; Kum-HoeTung; ShanWang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes axe made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  1. Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for incrementally stable switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Antoine; Tabuada, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Switched systems constitute an important modeling paradigm faithfully describing many engineering systems in which software interacts with the physical world. Despite considerable progress on stability and stabilization of switched systems, the constant evolution of technology demands that we make similar progress with respect to different, and perhaps more complex, objectives. This paper describes one particular approach to address these different objectives based on the construction of approximately equivalent (bisimilar) symbolic models for switched systems. The main contribution of this paper consists in showing that under standard assumptions ensuring incremental stability of a switched system (i.e. existence of a common Lyapunov function, or multiple Lyapunov functions with dwell time), it is possible to construct a finite symbolic model that is approximately bisimilar to the original switched system with a precision that can be chosen a priori. To support the computational merits of the proposed approa...

  2. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Ping Li; Kum-Hoe Tung; Shan Wang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes are made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  3. Single Point Incremental Forming using a Dummy Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Martin; Silva, Beatriz; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A new version of single point incremental forming (SPIF) is presented. This version includes a dummy sheet on top of the work piece, thus forming two sheets instead of one. The dummy sheet, which is in contact with the rotating tool pin, is discarded after forming. The new set-up influences...... the process and furthermore offers a number of new possibilities for solving some of the problems appearing in SPIF. Investigations of the influence of dummy sheet on: formability, wear, surface quality and bulging of planar sides is done by forming to test shapes: a hyperboloid and a truncated pyramid....... The possible influence of friction between the two sheets is furthermore investigated. The results show that the use of a dummy sheet reduces wear of the work piece to almost zero, but also causes a decrease in formability. Bulging of the planar sides of the pyramid is reduced and surface roughness...

  4. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  5. Incremental learning with SVM for multimodal classification of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molina, José Fernando; Zheng, Lei; Sertdemir, Metin; Dinter, Dietmar J; Schönberg, Stefan; Rädle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ) were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844 ± 0.068 and a specificity of 0.780 ± 0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and delineate structures in

  6. Multi-DOF Incremental Optical Encoder with Laser Wavelength Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha'o-Kuang Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used a reflective diffraction grating as the medium to develop a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder for motion stage. The optical encoder can measure three angular displacements, roll, yaw and pitch of the motion stage simultaneously, as well as the horizontal straightness and linear displacement, summed to five DOF errors of motion stage by only using the positive and negative first-order diffracted light. The grating diffraction theory, Doppler effect, and optical interference technique were used. Two quadrant photodetectors were used to measure the changes in three-dimensional space of diffraction direction of diffracted light, in order to construct a multi-DOF incremental optical encoder. Considering the working stability of a laser diode and preventing the influence of the zeroth-order diffracted light returning to the laser diode, an additional optical isolation system was designed and a wavelength variation monitoring module was created. The compensation for the light source wavelength variation could be 0.001 nm. The multi-DOF verification results showed that the roll error is ±0.7/60 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.025 arcsec; the yaw error is ±0.7/30 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.05 arcsec; the pitch error is ±0.8/90 arcsec, the standard deviation is 0.18 arcsec, the horizontal straightness error is ±0.5/250 μm, the standard deviation is 0.05 μm and the linear displacement error is ±1/20000 μm, the standard deviation is 12 nm.

  7. PROCESS SIMULATION AND QUALITY EVALUATION IN INCREMENTAL SHEET FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah Hrairi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a promising sheet-metal-forming process that permits the manufacturing of small to medium-sized batches of complex parts at low cost. It allows metal forming to work in the critical ‘necking-to-tearing' zone which results in a strong thinning before failure if the process is well designed. Moreover, the process is complex due to the number of variables involved. Thus, it is not possible to consider that the process has been well assessed; several remaining aspects need to be clarified. The objective of the present paper is to study some of these aspects, namely, the phenomenon of the wall thickness overstretch along depth and the effect of the tool path on the distribution of the wall thickness using finite element simulations.Abstrak: Pembentukan Tokokan Mata Tunggal (Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF merupakan satu proses pembentukan kepingan logam yang membolehkan pembuatan dalam jumlah yang kecil hingga sederhana, bahagian-bahagian yang kompleks pada kos yang rendah. Jika proses ini direka dengan baik, kaedah ini membolehkan pembentukan logam yang baik terhasil. Jika tidak, semasa peringkat zon kritikal ‘perleheran-ke-pengoyakan' menyebabkan penipisan keterlaluan yang boleh menyebabkan logam tersebut rosak. Tambahan pula, proses ini agak kompleks, kerana ia melibatkan beberapa pemboleh ubah. Maka, walaupun proses ini telah dinilaikan seeloknya; masih terdapat beberapa aspek lain yang perlu diperjelaskan. Objektif kertas ini dibentangkan adalah untuk mengkaji beberapa aspek tertentu, seperti, ketebalan dinding regangan berlebihan di sepanjang kedalaman dan kesan tool path (beberapa siri posisi koordinat untuk menentukan pergerakan alatan memotong ketika operasi memesin terhadap pengagihan ketebalan dinding menggunakan simulasi unsur terhingga.

  8. Incremental learning with SVM for multimodal classification of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando García Molina

    Full Text Available Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844 ± 0.068 and a specificity of 0.780 ± 0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and

  9. Incremental Hospital Cost and Length-of-Stay Associated With Treating Adverse Events Among Medicare Beneficiaries Undergoing Lumbar Spinal Fusion During Fiscal Year 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Steven D; Jevsevar, David S; Shea, Kevin G; McGuire, Kevin J; Schlosser, Michael; Wright, Kimberly K; Simon, April W

    2016-10-15

    A retrospective study. To report the incremental hospital resource consumption associated with treating selected adverse events experienced by Medicare beneficiaries undergoing a two- or three-level lumbar spinal fusion. Hospitals are increasingly at financial risk for the incremental resources consumed in treating patients experiencing adverse events because of public and private third-party payers' efforts to base hospital reimbursement on "pay for performance" measures. However, little is known about average incremental resources consumed in treating patients experiencing adverse events following lumbar spinal fusions. The 2013 fiscal year Medicare Provider Analysis and Review file was used to identify 83,658 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent two- or three vertebrae-level lumbar spinal fusion. International Classification of Diseases-9th-Clinical Modification diagnostic and procedure codes were used to identify the frequencies of nine adverse events. This study estimated both the observed and risk-adjusted incremental hospital resources consumed (cost and length of stay [LOS]) in treating Medicare beneficiaries experiencing each adverse event. Overall, 17.7% of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing lumbar spinal fusion experienced at least one of the study's adverse events. Medicare beneficiaries experiencing any complication consumed significantly more hospital resources (incremental cost of $8911) and had longer LOS (incremental stays of 5.7 days). After adjusting for patient demographics and comorbid conditions, incremental cost of treating adverse events ranged from a high of $32,049 (infection) to a low of $9976 (transfusion). Adverse events frequently occur and add substantially to the hospital resource costs of patients undergoing spinal fusion. Shared decision-making instruments should clearly provide these risk estimates to the patient before surgical consideration. Investment in activities that have been shown to reduce specific adverse events is

  10. Impacts of warm water on Antarctic ice shelf stability through basal channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Karen E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves provide resistance to the flow of grounded ice towards the ocean. If this resistance is decreased as a result of ice shelf thinning or disintegration, acceleration of grounded ice can occur, increasing rates of sea-level rise. Loss of ice shelf mass is accelerating, especially in West Antarctica, where warm seawater is reaching ocean cavities beneath ice shelves. Here we use satellite imagery, airborne ice-penetrating radar and satellite laser altimetry spanning the period from 2002 to 2014 to map extensive basal channels in the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica. The highest density of basal channels is found in West Antarctic ice shelves. Within the channels, warm water flows northwards, eroding the ice shelf base and driving channel evolution on annual to decadal timescales. Our observations show that basal channels are associated with the development of new zones of crevassing, suggesting that these channels may cause ice fracture. We conclude that basal channels can form and grow quickly as a result of warm ocean water intrusion, and that they can structurally weaken ice shelves, potentially leading to rapid ice shelf loss in some areas.

  11. Analysis of effectiveness of a surgical treatment algorithm for basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Ferron, Camila; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for basal cell carcinoma and micrographic surgery considered the gold standard, however not yet used routinely worldwide available, as in Brazil. Considering this, a previously developed treatment guideline, which the majority of tumors were treated by conventional technique (not micrographic) was tested. OBJECTIVE To establish the recurrence rate of basal cell carcinomas treated according to this guideline. METHOD Between May 2001 and July 2012, 919 basal cell carcinoma lesions in 410 patients were treated according to the proposed guideline. Patients were followed-up and reviewed between September 2013 and February 2014 for clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathologic detection of possible recurrences. RESULTS After application of exclusion criteria, 520 lesions were studied, with 88.3% primary and 11.7% recurrent tumors. Histological pattern was indolent in 85.5%, 48.6% were located in high risk areas and 70% small tumors. Only 7.3% were treated by Mohs micrographic surgery. The recurrence rate, in an average follow-up period of 4.37 years, was 1.3% for primary and 1.63% for recurrent tumors. Study limitations: unicenter study, with all patients operated on by the same surgeon. CONCLUSION The treatment guideline utilized seems a helpful guide for surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma, especially if micrographic surgery is not available. PMID:28099591

  12. Basal melting and Eemian ice along the main ice ridge in northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Susanne Lilja

    The variation of the basal melt rate and the location of the Eemian layer in the ice column are investigated along the ice divide between the NorthGRIP and NEEM ice core drill sites in northern Greenland. At NorthGRIP an ice core was drilled in the period 1996-2004, and the stable isotope record (d...... the line. A Dansgaard-Johnsen model is then used to simulate the ice flow along the flow line from NorthGRIP to NEEM. One- as well as two-dimensional approaches are taken. The basal melt rates and other unknown flow parameters are determined using a Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo solution...... is constrained by isochrones revealed in radio-echo sounding images of the ice. The obtained results indicate a high spatial variability in the basal melt rate in the area, and values between zero and 25 mm/yr are found. The results indicate that there is little or no basal melting at NEEM. The location...

  13. Integrating Climate Change Resilience Features into the Incremental Refinement of an Existing Marine Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Lynnath E.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Lombard, Amanda T.; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Marine protected area (MPA) designs are likely to require iterative refinement as new knowledge is gained. In particular, there is an increasing need to consider the effects of climate change, especially the ability of ecosystems to resist and/or recover from climate-related disturbances, within the MPA planning process. However, there has been limited research addressing the incorporation of climate change resilience into MPA design. This study used Marxan conservation planning software with fine-scale shallow water (<20 m) bathymetry and habitat maps, models of major benthic communities for deeper water, and comprehensive human use information from Ningaloo Marine Park in Western Australia to identify climate change resilience features to integrate into the incremental refinement of the marine park. The study assessed the representation of benthic habitats within the current marine park zones, identified priority areas of high resilience for inclusion within no-take zones and examined if any iterative refinements to the current no-take zones are necessary. Of the 65 habitat classes, 16 did not meet representation targets within the current no-take zones, most of which were in deeper offshore waters. These deeper areas also demonstrated the highest resilience values and, as such, Marxan outputs suggested minor increases to the current no-take zones in the deeper offshore areas. This work demonstrates that inclusion of fine-scale climate change resilience features within the design process for MPAs is feasible, and can be applied to future marine spatial planning practices globally. PMID:27529820

  14. Klimatska pogojenost debelinskega prirastka dreves ob slovenskih visokogorskih alpskih jezerih = Climatic conditioning or radial increments of trees near Slovenian high-mountainous Alpine lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Ogrin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysed by means of standard dendrochronological and dendroclimatological processes were about 100 spruce and larch samples from the lake areas of Jezera on Planina pri Jezeru, Jezera v Ledvicah and Krnsko Jezero, all in the Julian Alps. Local chronologies mainly include the period from 1920 onwards. Correlation between radial increments and climatic data confirmed certain general anticipations about the relation between climate and increments in the upper forest-line zone, and concurrently exposed the specific influence of local, including non-climatic factors on the growth which can not be satisfactory comprised in dendroclimatological analysis.

  15. Dermatoscopy-guided therapy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma with imiquimod*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein; Fernandez-Pugnaire, Maria Antonia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool used to examine skin lesions with an optical magnification. It has been suggested as a useful tool for monitoring therapeutic response in lentigo maligna patients treated with imiquimod. OBJECTIVE To examine the accuracy of dermatoscopy as a tool to monitor the therapeutic response of pigmented basal cell carcinoma treated with imiquimod. METHOD The authors designed a prospective study. Patients with pigmented basal cell carcinoma were included and data regarding the dermatoscopy features were collected following the Menzies criteria, prior to initiating the imiquimod treatment. Subsequent dermatoscopic evaluations were performed at weeks 4 and 8, following imiquimod discontinuation. RESULTS Twenty lesions were included. The most common pigmented dermatoscopy features were large blue-grey ovoid nests (80%), followed by blue-grey globules (50%) and leaf-like areas (30%). No spoke wheel areas were observed. In 17 out of 20 patients, a response was noted during the first evaluation at 4 weeks, while the clearance was noted at the second check-up after 8 weeks. In two patients, the clearance was found at the initial evaluation at 4 weeks, while in one patient, the response remained unchanged. Blue-grey globules were the fastest to exhibit clearance (50% at week 4), followed by leaf-like areas (15%) and large blue-grey ovoid nests (6.25%). CONCLUSION According to our results, dermatoscopic evaluation enhances the accuracy in the assessment of the clinical response to imiquimod in pigmented basal cell carcinoma. PMID:28099598

  16. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodal, Hans P; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music.

  17. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  18. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  19. SERUM IGF-I AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO INCREMENTAL EXERCISE IN ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zebrowska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the response of insulin-like growth factor (IGF- I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and some hormones, i.e., testosterone (T, growth hormone (GH, cortisol (C, and insulin (I, to maximal exercise in road cyclists with and without diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. M-mode and two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography was performed in 30 professional male endurance athletes and a group of 14 healthy untrained subjects using a Hewlett-Packard Image Point HX ultrasound system with standard imaging transducers. Echocardiography and an incremental physical exercise test were performed during the competitive season. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after the maximal cycling exercise test for determination of somatomedin and hormonal concentrations. The basal concentration of IGF-I was statistically higher (p < 0.05 in athletes with left ventricular muscle hypertrophy (LVH when compared to athletes with a normal upper limit of the left ventricular wall (LVN (p < 0.05 and to the control group (CG (p < 0.01. The IGF-I level increased significantly at maximal intensity of incremental exercise in CG (p < 0.01, LVN (p < 0.05 and LVH (p < 0.05 compared to respective values at rest. Long-term endurance training induced an increase in resting (p < 0.01 and post-exercise (p < 0.05 IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in athletes with LVH compared to LVN. The testosterone (T level was lower in LVH at rest compared to LVN and CG groups (p < 0.05. These results indicate that resting serum IGF-I concentration were higher in trained subjects with LVH compared to athletes without LVH. Serum IGF- I/IGFBP-3 elevation at rest and after exercise might suggest that IGF-I act as a potent stimulant of left ventricular hypertrophy in chronically trained endurance athletes

  20. A Plausible Comprehensive Web Intelligent System for Investigation of Web User Behaviour Adaptable to Incremental Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.R. Maheswara Rao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continued increase in the usage of the World Wide Web (WWW Web mining has beenestablished as an important area of research. The WWW is a vast repository of unstructured information,in the form of interrelated files, distributed on numerous web servers over wide geographical regions.Web mining deals with the discovering and analyzing of useful information from the WWW. Web usagemining focuses on investigating the potential knowledge from the browsing patterns of users and to findthe correlation between the pages on analysis. To proceed towards web intelligence, obviating the needfor human interaction, need to incorporate and embed artificial intelligence into web tools. Beforeapplying mining techniques, the data in the web log has to be pre-processed, integrated and transformed.The data pre-processing stage is the most important phase in the process of web mining and is criticaland complex in successful extraction of useful data. The web log is non scalable, impractical anddistributed in nature thus conventional data pre-processing techniques are proved to be not suitable asthey assume that the data is static. Hence intelligent system is required for capable of pre processingweblog efficiently. Due to the incremental nature of the web log, it is necessary for web miners to useincremental mining techniques to extract the usage patterns and study the visiting characteristics of user,hence one can require a comprehensive algorithm which reduces the computing cost significantly.This paper introduces an Intelligent System IPS for pre-processing of web log, in addition a learningalgorithm IFP-tree model is proposed for pattern recognition. The Intelligent Pre-processing System(IPS can differentiate human user and web search engine accesses intelligently in less time, and discardssearch engine accesses. The present system reduces the error rate and improves significant learningperformance of the algorithm. The Incremental Frequent Pattern Tree

  1. Estimates for the Tail Probability of the Supremum of a Random Walk with Independent Increments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Kaiyong WANG

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate the tail probability of the supremum of a random walk with independent increments and obtain some equivalent assertions in the case that the increments are independent and identically distributed random variables with Osubexponential integrated distributions.A uniform upper bound is derived for the distribution of the supremum of a random walk with independent but non-identically distributed increments,whose tail distributions are dominated by a common tail distribution with an O-subexponential integrated distribution.

  2. Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Patrick; Bosch, Frans; Volberda, Henk

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMany product innovation studies have described key determinants that should lead to successful incremental product innovation. Despite numerous studies suggesting how incremental product innovation should be successfully undertaken, many firms still struggle with this type of innovation. In this paper, we use an institutional perspective to investigate why established firms in the financial services industry struggle with their complex incremental product innovation efforts. We ar...

  3. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION HISTOGRAMS FOR INCREMENT OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  4. Shape of the basal ganglia in preadolescent children is associated with cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-10-01

    Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that "bigger is better" may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen was significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures was performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive measure

  5. Attenuated defense response and low basal blood pressure in orexin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaba, Yuji; Nakamura, Akira; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi; Ohuchi, Takashi; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Komuro, Issei; Fukuda, Yasuichiro; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2003-09-01

    The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or "fight or flight" response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory frequency (Rf). We examined whether orexin, a recently identified hypothalamic neuropeptide, contributes to the defense response and basal cardiovascular regulation using orexin knockout mice. Microinjection of a GABA-A receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (0.1-1 mM in 20 nl), to the perifornical area in urethane-anesthetized wild-type mice elicited dose-dependent increases in AP, HR, and Rf. Although similar changes were observed in orexin knockout mice, intensities were smaller and duration was shorter than those in wild-type mice. Moreover, in an awake and freely moving condition, telemeter-indwelling orexin knockout mice showed diminished cardiovascular and behavioral responses to emotional stress in the resident-intruder test. We also found that basal AP in orexin knockout mice was significantly lower in both anesthetized (117 +/- 8 mmHg in wild type and 92 +/- 3 in knockout) and conscious (125 +/- 6 mmHg in wild type and 109 +/- 2 in knockout) conditions. alpha-Adrenergic blockade with prazosin or ganglion blockade with hexamethonium canceled the difference in basal AP. HR and cardiac contractile parameters by echocardiography did not differ between the two strains of mice. These results indicate lower sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in knockout mice. The present study suggests that orexin-containing neurons in the perifornical area play a role as one of the efferent pathways of defense response and also operate as a regulator of AP at basal condition by activating sympathetic outflow.

  6. Basal ice flow regime influenced by glacial lake formation in Rhonegletscher, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Sugiyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    After the retreat of glacier terminus over a bedrock bump, a glacial lake has formed in front of Rhonegletscher, Switzerland. It is suspected that ice flow regime is now significantly influenced by the lake water. To investigate the impact of lake formation on glacier dynamics, we carried out surface and borehole observations in the terminus region of Rhonegletscher. In 2008 and 2009 summer seasons, we drilled more than 20 boreholes to measure borehole deformation by repeated inclinometry. Ice surface speed was measured by surveying stakes installed nearby the boreholes. We used a borehole televiewer to measure basal sliding speed by tracking stones and markers at the bottom of the boreholes. We also measured basal sediment layer thickness by hammering a penetrometer at the bottom of the boreholes. Our measurements showed clear decrease in the ice deformation rate near the lake (Fig. 1). Ice deformation accounted for 60-80% in the upper part of our study site (e.g. boreholes 1 and 5), whereas it is less than 10% near the lake (e.g. boreholes 7, 10 and 11). This result suggests that the basal ice flow near the lake is enhanced by the lake water. According to the basal sliding speed measurement in borehole 2, sliding accounted for less than 10% of basal flow speed from 2 to 31 August 2009. Deformation of a subglacial sediment layer is thus important in this region. The penetrometer measurement confirmed that the study site is underlain by a subglacial sediment layer whose thickness was in a range of 0-70 m. Fig.1 Terminus of Rhonegletscher and proglacial lakes indicated by the shaded areas. The columns show ice surface and deformation speeds measured at each borehole site from 9 July to 5 September in 2009. Ice deformation speed was negligibly small at boreholes 7, 10, and 11. Surface contour spacing is 20 m.

  7. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Passalacqua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF, which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice–bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km  ×  130 km area, with a N–S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m−2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  8. Geothermal flux and basal melt rate in the Dome C region inferred from radar reflectivity and heat modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Parrenin, Frédéric; Urbini, Stefano; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Basal melt rate is the most important physical quantity to be evaluated when looking for an old-ice drilling site, and it depends to a great extent on the geothermal flux (GF), which is poorly known under the East Antarctic ice sheet. Given that wet bedrock has higher reflectivity than dry bedrock, the wetness of the ice-bed interface can be assessed using radar echoes from the bedrock. But, since basal conditions depend on heat transfer forced by climate but lagged by the thick ice, the basal ice may currently be frozen whereas in the past it was generally melting. For that reason, the risk of bias between present and past conditions has to be evaluated. The objective of this study is to assess which locations in the Dome C area could have been protected from basal melting at any time in the past, which requires evaluating GF. We used an inverse approach to retrieve GF from radar-inferred distribution of wet and dry beds. A 1-D heat model is run over the last 800 ka to constrain the value of GF by assessing a critical ice thickness, i.e. the minimum ice thickness that would allow the present local distribution of basal melting. A regional map of the GF was then inferred over a 80 km × 130 km area, with a N-S gradient and with values ranging from 48 to 60 mW m-2. The forward model was then emulated by a polynomial function to compute a time-averaged value of the spatially variable basal melt rate over the region. Three main subregions appear to be free of basal melting, two because of a thin overlying ice and one, north of Dome C, because of a low GF.

  9. Incremental peritoneal dialysis: a 10 year single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Massimo; Vizzardi, Valerio; Valerio, Francesca; Ravera, Sara; Manili, Luigi; Zubani, Roberto; Lucca, Bernardo J A; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Incremental dialysis consists in prescribing a dialysis dose aimed towards maintaining total solute clearance (renal + dialysis) near the targets set by guidelines. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incrPD) is defined as one or two dwell-times per day on CAPD, whereas standard peritoneal dialysis (stPD) consists in three-four dwell-times per day. Single-centre cohort study. Enrollement period: January 2002-December 2007; end of follow up (FU): December 2012. incident patients with FU ≥6 months, initial residual renal function (RRF) 3-10 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA, renal indication for PD. Median incrPD duration was 17 months (I-III Q: 10; 30). There were no statistically significant differences between 29 patients on incrPD and 76 on stPD regarding: clinical, demographic and anthropometric characteristics at the beginning of treatment, adequacy indices, peritonitis-free survival (peritonitis incidence: 1/135 months-patients in incrPD vs. 1/52 months-patients in stPD) and patient survival. During the first 6 months, RRF remained stable in incrPD (6.20 ± 2.02 vs. 6.08 ± 1.47 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA; p = 0.792) whereas it decreased in stPD (4.48 ± 2.12 vs. 5.61 ± 1.49; p < 0.001). Patient survival was affected negatively by ischemic cardiopathy (HR: 4.269; p < 0.001), peripheral and cerebral vascular disease (H2.842; p = 0.006) and cirrhosis (2.982; p = 0.032) and positively by urine output (0.392; p = 0.034). Hospitalization rates were significantly lower in incrPD (p = 0.021). Eight of 29 incrPD patients were transplanted before reaching full dose treatment. IncrPD is a safe modality to start PD; compared to stPD, it shows similar survival rates, significantly less hospitalization, a trend towards lower peritonitis incidence and slower reduction of renal function.

  10. Incremental triangulation by way of edge swapping and local optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, N. Lyn

    1994-01-01

    This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional triangulation software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental triangulation algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of triangulations can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax triangulation) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay triangulation). It should be noted that the MinMax triangulation is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin triangulation, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner triangulations can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: triangulate a cloud of prespecified points (sites), triangulate a set of prespecified interior points constrained by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner triangulate the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve

  11. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  12. Basal lamella relaxing incision improves endoscopic middle meatal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H

    2013-03-01

    Lateralization of the middle turbinate is a commonly cited factor leading to failure of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Inadequate medialization during FESS may require repeat intraoperative attempts, and may lead to destabilization and mucosal trauma. A novel technique is described that increases middle meatal area and provides more definitive medialization at the outset of FESS. Twenty-nine middle turbinate medializations were prospectively evaluated in 18 consecutive patients undergoing primary ESS. Three intraoperative images of the middle meatus were obtained in the native position, after Freer medialization, and after basal lamella relaxing incision (BLRI). Measurements of middle meatal area were then calculated in a blinded and randomized fashion. Distances measured from the middle turbinate to the lateral nasal wall for each position ranged from 0 to 8 mm (median = 3.00 mm) for the native position, 0.5 to 10 mm (median = 5.00 mm) for standard Freer medialization, and 3 to 21 mm (median = 10.00 mm) for BLRI. Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was significant difference between the 3 measurements, and the post hoc Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed that BLRI distance (median = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-11.2) was significantly larger than both standard Freer (median = 5; 95% CI, 4-6.2) and native (median = 3; 95% CI, 2-3) and that standard Freer was significantly larger than native (all p values BLRI is a safe, controlled technique that provides significantly greater medialization of the middle turbinate compared to standard medialization techniques. BLRI significantly enhances the operative space within the middle meatus. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. On critical cases in limit theory for stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas; Podolskij, Mark

    averages. The limit theory heavily depends on the interplay between the given order of the increments, the considered power, the Blumenthal-Getoor index of the driving pure jump Lévy process L and the behavior of the kernel function g at 0. In this work we will study the critical cases, which were......In this paper we present some limit theorems for power variation of stationary increments Lévy driven moving averages in the setting of critical regimes. In [5] the authors derived first and second order asymptotic results for k-th order increments of stationary increments Lévy driven moving...

  14. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. Methods: 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. Results: CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was <50%. Conclusion: CMR was frequently able to inform and influence decision-making in routine clinical practice, even with analyses that accepted only incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. Advances in knowledge: These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service. PMID:26493468

  15. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwani, Adil; Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service.

  16. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  17. Incremental value of hormonal therapy for deep vein thrombosis prediction: an adjusted Wells score for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Márcio Vinícius Lins de; Arancibia, Ana Elisa Loyola; Costa, Ana Paula; Bueno, Fernando Brito; Martins, Marcela Aparecida Corrêa; Magalhães, Maria Cláudia; Silva, José Luiz Padilha; Bastos, Marcos de

    2016-04-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) management includes prediction rule evaluation to define standard pretest DVT probabilities in symptomatic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy to the Wells prediction rules for DVT in women. We studied women undertaking compressive ultrasound scanning for suspected DVT. We adjusted the Wells score for DVT, taking into account the β-coefficients of the logistic regression model. Data discrimination was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The adjusted score calibration was assessed graphically and by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Reclassification tables and the net reclassification index were used for the adjusted score comparison with the Wells score for DVT. We observed 461 women including 103 DVT events. The mean age was 56 years (±21 years). The adjusted logistic regression model included hormonal therapy and six Wells prediction rules for DVT. The adjusted score weights ranged from -4 to 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a nonsignificant P value (0.69) and the calibration graph showed no differences between the expected and the observed values. The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-0.95] for the adjusted model and 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.91) for the Wells score for DVT (Delong test, P value < 0.01). Net reclassification index for the adjusted score was 0.22 (95% CI 0.11-0.33, P value < 0.01). Our results suggest an incremental usefulness of hormonal therapy as an independent DVT prediction rule in women compared with the Wells score for DVT. The adjusted score must be evaluated in different populations before clinical use.

  18. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  19. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN AN UNUSUAL SITE - VULVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumangala G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignancy of the skin, but BCC of the vulva is a rare entity. BCC of vulva accounts for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma has a low propensity for metastatic spread but has a high chance of local recurrence after simple excision. We report a 50- year-old woman presenting with pruritus vulva. Physical examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.5 cm hyperpigmented plaque on the left labium majus. The histopathology was consistent with superficially invasive basal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radical local excision including the clitoris and remained disease free at postsurgical follow-up after eight months.

  20. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.