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Sample records for barva costa rica

  1. Reproducción de Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae en Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Calvo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A group of Annona cherimolia (Mill:Annonaceae trees was studied in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica (June 1991-August 1992 to record egg-laying sites of the butterfly Oenomaus ortignus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. Used fruits often dehydrated and fell before maturity. Eggs are laid in fruits independently of fruit ontologic state and of height above ground. Tree parts less frequently used to lay eggs are flower primordia, leaves and stems, but the larvae move to fruits when food reserves are depleted. Pupation occurs outside the fruit. Pupae emit sound, possible for defence.

  2. Geomorphology and petrography of the Angeles lava flow and the Monte de la Cruz cinder cone, Barva Volcano, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Vanessa; Barahona, Dione; Alvarado, Guillermo E

    2017-01-01

    A geomorphological and pretrographic study was carried out at the lava flow Angeles and the Monte de la Cruz cone in the foothills of the Volcan Barva in Costa Rica. The 1967 aerial photographs at scale 1: 17,000 and 1: 13,000, 1992 at scale 1: 60,000 and TERRA 1997 at scale 1: 40,000 were used for the photogeological study, supplemented with the analysis of the eastern sector of the Hoja Topografica Barva (1: 50 000) of the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and other topographic maps at different scales (1: 25 000 and 1: 10 000), in addition to the digital elevation models developed through Sistemas de Informacion Geografica (SIG). The information extracted from the wells of the Sistema Nacional de Aguas Subterraneas, Riego y Avenamiento (SENARA) for underground control was reinterpreted. In the field work thicknesses were measured and an estimation of the volumes, dimensions of the cast and other associated geoforms was made. Likewise, 9 samples of rock were selected for the elaboration of thin sections and for their respective petrographic analysis, which allowed to define the main lava flow units and their possible flows. As a result of the volcanic activity of the cone, two flow units of the Angeles wash were identified, the Lower Angels unit and the Superior Angels unit. Petrographically, Angeles Inferior was reciprocated with an andesitic vesical basaltic lava with a porphyritic to slightly glomeroporphyric hypocrystalline texture, with plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine and opaque phenocrysts. On the other hand, Superior Angeles has been vesicular andesitic with a hypocrystalline texture, glomeroporfiritica to serial glomeroporfiritica, with plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine and opaque phenocrysts. Morphologically, kipukas and levees were observed. Regionally, it was observed that the Monte de la Cruz cone, along with other smaller satellite cones, are aligned N19 O W along 8.5 km, evidencing an origin associated with a

  3. Seed dissemination by frugivorous birds from forest fragments to adjacent pastures on the western slope of Volcán Barva, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Pereira, Ana

    2002-06-01

    Logging, cattle raising, and agricultural activities have caused the destruction of most forested areas in Costa Rica. In some middle and highlands the abrupt topography delayed the complete destruction of montane forest. Consequently, some fragments of almost pristine forest remain along streams that run in deep canyons. Frequently, these remnants serve as corridors between larger forested areas and as routes for movement of frugivorous birds. Eighteen bird species, e.g., Turdus plebejus, Elaenia frantzii and Ptilogonys caudatus are common dwellers of forest patches throughout the Pacific slope of the Volcán Barva. These species fly frequently from forest fragments to adjacent pastures. They defected and regurgitated seeds of 28 plant species on stumps scattered on pasture areas. Isolated trees and specially the stumps are suitable microhabitats for germination of seeds and establishment of seedings.

  4. Seed dissemination by frugivorous birds from forest fragments to adjacent pastures on the western slope of Volcán Barva, Costa Rica

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    Gilbert Barrantes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Logging, cattle raising, and agricultural activities have caused the destruction of most forested areas in Costa Rica. In some middle and highlands the abrupt topography delayed the complete destruction of montane forest. Consequently, some fragments of almost pristine forest remain along streams that run in deep canyons. Frequently, these remnants serve as corridors between larger forested areas and as routes for movement of frugivorous birds. Eighteen bird species, e.g., Turdus plebejus, Elaenia frantzii and Ptilogonys caudatus are common dwellers of forest patches throughout the Pacific slope of the Volcán Barva. These species fly frequently from forest fragments to adjacent pastures. They defecated and regurgitated seeds of 28 plant species on stumps scattered on pasture areas. Isolated trees and specially the stumps are suitable microhabitats for germination of seeds and establishment of seedlingsLa deforestación, la ganadería y las actividades agrícolas han causado la destrucción de la mayoría de los bosques en Costa Rica. Sin embargo, la abrupta topografía de las zonas medias y altas del país ha retardado este proceso de deforestación en el bosque montano. Es así como aún algunos fragmentos de bosques poco alterados estan todavía en pie a lo largo de riachuelos que corren en cañones profundos. Estos fragmentos sirven como corredores entre áreas más grandes de bosque y como rutas para el movimiento altitudinal de aves frugívoras. Dieciocho aves, e.g., Turdus plebejus, Elaenia frantzii y Ptilogonys caudatus son habitantes comunes de los parches de bosque presentes en la vertiente Pacífica del Volcán Barva. Estas especies vuelan frecuentemente entre los fragmentos de bosque y potreros adyacentes. Estas aves defecaron y regurgitaron semillas de 28 especies de plantas en troncos distribuidos en los potreros. Los árboles aislados y troncos son micro-hábitats adecuados para la germinación de semillas y el establecimiento de

  5. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  6. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent.

  7. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Costa Rica is a country of 51,032 sq. km with 3 million inhabitants, of whom 93% are literate. Independence was gained on September 15, 1821. The terrain consists of eastern and western coastal plains separated by a rugged, central massif, with a climate ranging from tropical to subtropical. Spanish and a Jamaican dialect of English are spoken by European, black, and indigenous ethnic groups who are overwhelmingly of Roman Catholic faith. Life expectancy is approximately 70 years. The gross domestic product is $5.6 billion, growing at a rate of 1%. Per capita income is $1810. Hydroelectric power is a natural resource of the country. Food processing, textiles, construction materials, and fertilizer, as well as banana, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain agriculture are areas of economic production. Manufactured goods, machinery, transportation equipment, chemicals, fuel, food, and fertilizer are imported, and bananas, coffee, beef, sugarcane, and grain are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of principal US officials in the country.

  8. Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  9. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  10. IVF in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Carlos; Vargas, Karen; Raventós, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    For 16 years, Costa Rica was the only country in the world that banned IVF, after it had been successfully conducted from 1995 to 2000. It also has been the only country that banned IVF based on the argument that it protects the embryo. After years of conflict, the prohibition has finally been lifted and the first baby girl was born in March 2017. This paper recounts the judicial and legal struggles Costa Rica faced in order to reestablished its IVF program. PMID:28985042

  11. IDRC in Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Duration: 2007–2010. Grantee: Universidad de Costa Rica. Women migrants risk discrimination, sexual exploitation, and the violation of their labour rights. Research partners in six countries are studying the reasons why women migrate, their situation in each host country, and the role that civil society organizations can play.

  12. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  13. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  14. Le CRDI au Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de Ciencias Sociales, Costa Rica. En Amérique centrale, des collectivités urbaines où la pauvreté est semblable font face à des situations qui peuvent être fort différentes en matière de violence. Des recherches sont en cours dans six villes du Costa Rica et du Salvador afin de mieux comprendre comment les collecti-.

  15. Activity of volcanoes of Costa Rica during the period 2012-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpizar, Yemerit; Mora, Mauricio M.; Mora Amador, Raul; Gonzalez, Gino; Ramirez, Carlos J.; Taylor, Waldo

    2014-01-01

    A synthesis of results and observations of two years of surveillance is presented of the active volcanoes of Costa Rica (Volcan Rincon de la Vieja, Arenal, Poas, Barva, Irazu, Turrialba). The results have enriched the database of the National Seismologic Network, which has four decades of experience in the area and the implementation of technologies. The volcanic activity presented in 2012 is relatively normal with slight signs of seismic activity and phreatic. An increase is presented after the earthquake Samara (Mw = 7.6). The temperature rise manifested mainly in the fumaroles, some changes in crater lake, phreatic activity and volcanic seismicity. The conditions were maintained throughout the period of this study [es

  16. de Costa Rica

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    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  17. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

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    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  18. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  19. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  20. First report of two Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae species in mulberry trees in Costa Rica

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    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of mulberry (Morus alba L. trees, in a 1,000 m2 plot, at the Experimental Farm Santa Lucia, in Barva, Heredia, Costa Rica, in August 2013. The plants showed symptoms of yellowing, declining and poor development. Specimens of two ring nematode were collected from the soil and identified as Mesocriconema sphaerocephalum (Taylor 1936 Loof 1989 and M. anastomoides (Maqbool & Shahina 1985 Loof & De Grisse 1989, based on the morphological and morphometrical analysis of females. Both nematodes have been previously found in Costa Rica. However, this is the first report of nematodes from the Criconematidae family associated to mulberry trees and it provides additional information on the distribution of this phytoparasite.

  1. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

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    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  2. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prevenir los desastres. Financiamiento para Costa Rica: CA$50 540. Duración: 2008–2009. Beneficiario: Departamento de Desarrollo. Sostenible, OEA, Estados Unidos. Los sistemas de comunicación son fundamentales para alertar a la población de un inminente desastre natural y ayudar a las víctimas en sus secuelas.

  3. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  4. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  5. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  6. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de 1980 a través de programas del gobierno. También ayudamos a identificar políticas agrícolas que promueven el empleo en las zonas rurales. Liderazgo regional. El IDRC apoyó durante años la investi- gación del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) de Costa Rica para probar el cultivo ...

  7. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de políticas a gestionar mejor los recursos naturales. Crecimiento económico para todos. Desde la década de 2000, la Escuela de. Economía de la Universidad de Costa Rica ha coordinado el nodo centroamericano de una red latinoamericana apoyada por el IDRC que reúne a negociadores comer- ciales y académicos.

  8. Nitrogen balance in a goat farm producing milk in the county of Barva, Costa Rica

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    José P. Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify the use of N in a goat milk producer farm located in the province of Heredia. Data such as feed purchases, milk sales, pur¬chase and removal of animals was compiled and analyzed between January and December 2012. In order to evaluate the use of N, three indicators that allowed analyzing farm efficiency were used. Total number of animals was 102. Annual milk production was 22.417,5 kg. The farm imported 729,8 kg of nitrogen, of which 71% came from feed and only 29% from fertilizers. Farm exported 113,3 kg of nitrogen, of which 85,3% was exported as milk and only 14,7% as animals. The farm imported 38,7 g of N per kg of milk produced. In general, N balance was positive for all farms, indicating that more N entered the farm that came out in the form of product, showing that up to 84,5% of all imported N remained in the farms. Our results suggests that strategies to reduce N excretion should be developed, including improvements in the diet, since the largest N input is through imported feed.

  9. TC4 COSTA RICA LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) mission TC4 field experiment was completed during July and August 2007 based out of San Jose, Costa Rica....

  10. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  11. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  12. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineri-Hidalgo, Jose Alberto; Putvinsky, Vladimir; Mainieri-Breedy, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author) [es

  13. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  14. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  15. The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Robert R; Salinas, Zenia M

    2002-06-01

    Many nations promote nature-based tourism in order to promote the dual goals of nature conservation and income generation. To be most effective in providing services that facilitate achievement of these goals, decision makers will need to understand and incorporate tourist preferences for nature appreciation, infrastructure, use restrictions, and other attributes of national parks and protected areas. This paper presents the use of choice experiments as a mechanism to analyze preferences of national and international tourists in relation to the development of Barva Volcano Area in Costa Rica. In this section of the Braulio Carrillo National Park, managers are faced with an immediate need to plan for greatly increased visitation rates due to a new road, which will greatly improve access. Choice sets were developed in collaboration with park managers. A survey was conducted of 171 Costa Rican and 271 foreign tourists who visited Poás Volcano, a well-visited alternative site to Barva Volcano. Survey data was analyzed using conditional multinomial logit models. Results of the study demonstrate, that both sets of tourists preferred: (i) improved infrastructure; (ii) aerial trams with observation towers and picnic areas; (iii) more information; and (iv) low entrance fees. Foreign tourists demonstrated strong preferences for the inclusion of restrictions in the access to some trails, whereas Costa Ricans did not show any significant preference for restrictions. Marginal willingness-to-pay for greater information was estimated to be $1.54 for foreign tourists and $1.01 for Costa Rican visitors. The study concludes that choice experiments are a useful tool in the analyses of tourist preferences for the development of protected areas in developing countries.

  16. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation in lake's phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas's crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m) and low surface temperature (11 to 19 degrees C), the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum), a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp.) and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical lakes in

  17. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  18. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa Gutierrez, Floria

    2006-01-01

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment [es

  19. CRISIS HOSPITALARIA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fernández Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación interpersonal, muchas veces es dejada de lado por los comunicólogos, sin embargo tiene suma gravitación en las relaciones cotidianas entre las personas y en los procesos comunicacionales, toca el lenguaje de los gestos, la (in comunicación política, ceremonial y protocolo, intermediación en la comunicación, los jóvenes se incomunican. Respecto al Periodismo Investigativo señala que a pesar de los riesgos que implica el periodismo investigativo, muchos profesionales de América Latina no dudan en practicarlo, escudriñando muchas veces en temas que de no ser por ellos permanecerían ocultos. En otro artículo se habla de la importante repercusión que tuvo en América Latina el concurso CHASQUI, el que contó con la participación de profesionales de todo el continente. Incluye la entrega de entrevistas a destacados comunicadores de América Latina. Una sección está dedicada a las nuevas tecnologías: red de noticias y transmisiones vía satélite.

  20. Costa Rica turns to the world for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Costa Rica's current financial crisis threatens to jeopardize recent gains in health indicators, especially among the low-income population. The increasing costs of developing health services and of providing social security coverage for marginal social groups can no longer be fully met by the Costa Rican government, which has steadily allocated a high percentage of the national budget to health. Given this situation, Costa Rica has appealed for international cooperation to help meet the most urgent health needs in the country. In 1985, Costa Rica's population stood at slightly under 2.6 million, with 36% aged 16 years and older. The country remains primarily rural; only 46% of the population is centered in urban areas. Costa Rica has been described as a country that maintains a strong tradition of peace and democracy. Given its political stability, Costa Rica has been the recipient of large waves of immigrants from other Central American countries in states of social political turmoil.

  1. Insects that feed on Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Hanson; K. Nishida; P. Allen; E Chacón; B. Reichert; A. Castillo; M. Alfaro; L. Madrigal; E. Rojas; F. Badenes-Perez; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Research at the University of Costa Rica on potential biological control agents of Miconia calvescens was initiated in 2000. Although M. calvescens can be fairly common at certain sites, it is generally uncommon in Costa Rica and appears to be incapable of becoming established in forests with a closed canopy. Over fifty insect...

  2. Costa Rica 1986. Una democracia amenazada

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rojas Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983)La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986)Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985) Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983) Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986) Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984)Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984) Estados Unidos. Estrategi...

  3. 7. Refugio tropical. Tensoestructuras en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Flor - Proyecto arquitectónico, Jan-Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El artículo relata la experiencia de un ejercicio estudiantil, para el que se construyó una tensoestructura en el marco de una actividad académica. El texto introduce los orígenes históricos y el desarrollo moderno de las estructuras de membrana en la arquitectura global. En comparación, se traza el proceso de desarrollo que ha tenido la tecnología en Costa Rica y se citan varios ejemplos de proyectos recientes. De modo introductorio a la descripción del proyecto, se presentan princip...

  4. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rita; Cortés, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts). Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast) and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific). The range often species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species.

  5. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  6. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  7. [Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Monika; Ramirez, Alonso; Hanson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    This is the first in a series of three volumes on the freshwater macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica. The present volume includes an introductory chapter summarizing the major types of freshwater environments, the biology of freshwater macroinvertebrates (habitats, food, respiration, osmoregulation, etc.), ecological and economic importance, conservation and a synopis of the major groups, followed by a simplified key. The next two chapters discuss collecting methods and biomonitoring. These are followed by chapters on mayflies (Ephemeroptera: 10 families), dragonflies (Odonata: 13 families), stoneflies (Plecoptera: 1 family) and caddisflies (Trichoptera: 15 families). Both in this volume and in those to follow, the chapters treating individual taxa include a summary of the natural history, importance, taxonomy, collecting methods, morphology and an illustrated key to the families; each family is discussed separately and an illustrated key to genera is provided; each chapter ends with a bibliography and a table listing all the genera with information on number of species, distribution, habitat and tolerance to water pollution. While the emphasis is on families and genera known from Costa Rica, additional taxa occurring elsewhere in Central America are mentioned. The present volume also includes numerous color plates of aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  8. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  9. Study of solar potential in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A evaluation on the research of solar radiation in Costa Rica is performed to determine the potential as an energy source and learn how it is distributed spatially and temporally. The calculation and mapping of contours of the global solar radiation in the country are focused. Experimental values and predicted global solar radiation has been used in the contouring. The highest values were observed in the northern section of the Pacific slope and west of the Valle Central; the north and along the Caribbean coast have the lowest values. Quantitative data are not limited to the direct use of solar energy for power generation, also for other activities such as meteorological sciences, agriculture, irrigation and forest architecture. This information is important for specialists, teachers and professionals interested in harnessing solar energy. (author) [es

  10. Seismicity in Costa Rica during 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, Juan L.; Linkimer, Lepolt; Araya, Maria C.; Rojas, Wilfredo; Taylor, Magda; Barquero, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    6989 earthquakes and reported 168 felt events were located by the Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE) during 2015. There were 13 significant earthquakes with magnitude Mw > 5.0. The majority (86%) of shallow earthquakes (< 30 km) were felted and 81% has had magnitudes (Mw) between 3.0 and 4.9. Local and regional faulting was caused 61% of the felt earthquakes and the subduction of the Cocos Plate was caused 37%. The Guanacaste and Central volcanic cordilleras, Los Santos region, and an area offshore the Nicoya peninsula has been the geographic areas with the highest seismicity during 2015. The intensity V+ (Modified Mercalli) was the highest observed in Costa Rica in 2015. (author) [es

  11. Costa Rica 1986. Una democracia amenazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rojas Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985 Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 Estados Unidos. Estrategia de Comunicación:la elección presidencial. En la sección NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS se habla de los flujos de datos transfrontera (FDT y cuestiones afines.

  12. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  13. Los insectos invasores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta una recopilación preliminar de los insectos introducidos en Costa Rica. Se estima que existen al menos 300 especies exóticas. Los medios más comunes de introducción son: suelo y hojarasca, desechos, madera, granos almacenados, plantas, vertebrados y otros insectos. Se nota la escasez de especies exóticas entre los insectos acuáticos y ciertos grupos de insectos fitófagos (Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera, Chrysomelidae). Los insectos introducidos pueden tener un impacto negativo o pos...

  14. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  15. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L; Dasch, Gregory A; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal(2) in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis.

  16. Ten new species of Daidalotarsonemus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on native plants in Costa Rica are described herein: Daidalotarsonemus alas sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus azofeifai sp. n. Ochoa, Rezende & Lofego; Daidalotarsonemus bauchani sp. n. Rezende, Ochoa & Lofego; Daidalota...

  17. Pago por los servicios ambientales: La experiencia de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zúñiga, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo discute el programa de pago de servicios ambientales de Costa Rica. Describe el marco legal, el marco institucional, y la financiación del programa. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  18. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  19. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  20. Manual of Inorganic Accustomed to Fertilizers of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Cabezas, E.; Murillo Soto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The manual of inorganic solid fertilizers of Costa Rica presents as first the description of some nutritious characteristics of the main ones, such as functions, content, forms, symptoms of deficiency among others. Some of the chemical physical characteristics of the included materials were used as prime materials. There is also in the Manual a listing of the main sources fertilizers used in Costa Rica, as well as the main processes of production of fertilizers, while they are considered several listings with the products that the different commercial houses have to disposition of the publish. Finally a summary of the imports of fertilizers is made in Costa Rica during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, to finish with the general listing of all the products fertilizers registered in Costa Rica, under the order N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O. (Author) [es

  1. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  2. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  3. [USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos O

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.

  4. Escuela Normal de Costa Rica: Historia y legado

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Jiménez, Vivian; Ruiz-Badilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training. It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institu...

  5. Checklist of the helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortíz, Beatriz; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2004-06-01

    Helminth parasites of vertebrates have been studied in Costa Rica for more than 50 years. Survey work on this group of parasites is far from complete. We assembled a database with all the records of helminth parasites of wild and domestic vertebrates in Costa Rica. Information was obtained from different sources such as literature search (all published accounts) and parasite collections. Here we present a checklist with a parasite-host list as well as a host-parasite list. Up to now, 303 species have been recorded, including 81 species of digeneans, 23 monogeneans, 63 cestodes, 12 acanthocephalans, and 124 nematodes. In total, 108 species of vertebrates have been studied for helminths in Costa Rica (31 species of fishes, 7 amphibians, 14 reptiles, 20 birds, and 36 mammals). This represents only 3.8% of the vertebrate fauna of Costa Rica since about 2,855 species of vertebrates occur in the country. Interestingly, 58 species (19.1 %) were recorded as new species from Costa Rica and most of them are endemic to particular regions. Considering the valuable information that parasites provide because it is synergistic with all the information about the natural history of the hosts, helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica should be considered within any initiatives to accomplish the national inventory of biological resources. Starting with this compilation work, the Colección de Helmintos de Costa Rica (CHCR), hosted at the Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, has re-emerged and it is our hope that it will have the standards of quality to assure that it will become the national depository of helminths in the country.

  6. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    28, 2010. 15 “ Pobreza y el desempleo siguen agobiando en Costa Rica (sondeo oficial),” Agence France Presse, October 29, 2009. . Costa Rica...Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck and CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues...successful social protection programs that have been implemented elsewhere in Latin America, such as Oportunidades in Mexico and Bolsa Familia in Brazil, and

  7. Contributions to tropical ecology research in Costa Rica; Beitraege zur tropenoekologischen Forschung in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattenberg, I. [ed.; Breckle, S.W. [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The present edition of `Bielefelder Oekologische Beitraege` presents some results of the preceding six years of intensive ecological research in the Biological Reserve `Reserva Biologica Alberto Manuel Brenes` in Costa Rica. The study area was supposed to be a species rich ecosystem and this led us to select this area as our study site. We wish to thank the Director of the Reserve for his logistical support, the scientific cooperation and, above all, for his friendship all over the years, that has grown during the research work in Costa Rica. We also wish to thank Victor Mora and Hugo Perez Z. vicariously for all contributers who have enabled us to do our research work under frequently difficult conditions of a recently established Biological Station in a real wet climate. Further more we wish to thank the University of Costa Rice (UCR) for the permission of using their facilities and all persons for their support to feel at home in a foreign country. We do hope that this volume may enhance more cooperative research between both partners and may also be a mean for students to decide to do research in fascinating primary forest to understand at least a small portion of the complex structure and the manyfold functions of such a forest in order to help to preserve these areas for future generations. (orig./AJ)

  8. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  9. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Caribbean coastal plain of Costa Rica, with the Cordillera Central rising in the background and the Pacific Ocean in the distance. The prominent river in the center of the image is the Rio Sucio, which merges with the Rio Sarapiqui at the bottom of the image and eventually joins with Rio San Juan on the Nicaragua border.Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices

  10. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  11. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  12. WEEE Resource Management System in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica followed different steps in order to organise and implement a waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE management system. This paper summarises the challenges, successes, and limitations of its implementation. Two phases were needed to set up the system. The first phase created a baseline followed by the designing of a strategy. The second phase promoted a Decree for WEEE management that prohibits discarding WEEE together with household waste, as well as the creation of a National Executive Committee with representatives of importers, consumers, and government, which will establish the quotes and treatment fees, and so on. Another outcome was the development of a strategy for the implementation of WEEE management for the country, the promotion of population awareness about their responsibility for WEEE management, and an example set up for other Latin American countries. This paper draws conclusions from the regulation and notes the required consistency with the existing national waste legislation in order to reduce approval times. Additionally, the importance of the participation of stakeholders representing different electric and electronic equipment (EEE sectors with the purpose of obtaining consensus on agreements is highlighted.

  13. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  14. Epidemiology and control of hypertension and diabetes in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Costa Rica is one of the countries that make up Central America, neighboring Nicaragua and Panama. Costa Rica shares with its neighbors the social and economic problems characteristic of developing countries; however, one difference is that Costa Rica can derive a great part of its budget and expense to health and education, as it had abolished the army in 1948. It is for this reason that Costa Rica shares diseases characteristic of their region like the Dengue, yet at the same time have a true explosion in the fields of hypertension (HTA), diabetes (DM), and cardiovascular disease. The health system of Costa Rica has nearly universal coverage, reaching 98% of the population with primary and secondary diverse levels of attention that give appropriate and satisfactory treatment to all hypertensive and diabetic patients. The HTA and the DM are true public health problems; however, before 2004, there weren't appropriate data on their prevalence and management. Small studies showed an increase in the prevalence of HTA from 9 to 24%, though no data on the prevalence of DM were available. In 2004, the Multinational Survey of Diabetes and Hypertension and Other Factors of Risk carried out in San José, Costa Rica, determined a prevalence of HTA of 25% and of DM of 8%. Likewise, the methodology of the survey allowed an evaluation of the quality of the attention of the HTA (Tracer of Arterial Hypertension) and, consequently, appropriate control of hypertensive patients in Costa Rica; through it, it was determined that greater effort was required for earlier detection and resource optimization to better handle hypertensive and diabetic patients and thus reduce cardiovascular morbidity-mortality and chronic renal disease.

  15. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  16. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author) [es

  17. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  18. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  19. Some intertidal and shallow water polychaetes of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K

    2017-03-01

    The polychaete fauna of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica has been inadequately characterized with only nine species previously reported. Collections of polychaetes from intertidal coralline rocks and several shallow sub-tidal sites on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been examined and 68 species were identified. Of these, 66 are new records for Costa Rica.

  20. Agrotourism and Agro-Ecotourism in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Morales, Félix

    2010-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2010 Agrotourism is a form of tourism that encourages visitors to experience rural culture as a tourist attraction. The term “agro-ecotourism” was used for the first time in Costa Rica in 1994, and it is generally used as synonym of agrotourism. Nonetheless, not all cases of agrotourism display sufficient concern for the environment to be considered agro-ecotourism. The aim of the ...

  1. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  2. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. Buddleja filibracteolata se diferencia por sus hojas sesiles, láminas foliares amplexicaules y por sus inflorescencias espiciformes con numerosas y conspicuas brácteas filiformes.

  3. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in lake’s phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas’s crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m and low surface temperature (11 to 19°C, the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum, a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp. and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical

  4. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  5. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  6. Empowering Women through Photovoice: Women of La Carpio, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mary Y.; Vardell, Rosemarie; Lower, Joanna K.; Kinter-Duffy, Ibarra, Laura C.; Victoria L.; Cecil-Dyrkacz, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to allow participants to document, critique, and change their family and community conditions through photographs and stories of their everyday lives. This study used photovoice, a participatory action research methodology, with 7 women from La Carpio, Costa Rica. The women were given cameras and asked to photograph…

  7. Sustainable Banana Production and Pesticides in Costa Rica | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Producing bananas for export is an important economic activity in Costa Rica. Large multinational producers employ thousands of workers, who live near plantations, and smallholders grow banana as a cash crop. But, pesticide use in the banana industry is high and constitutes a health hazard for the farm workers, farmers ...

  8. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  9. Education in Costa Rica. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    As Costa Rica's economy has developed in recent decades, the education system that helped propel the country to upper middle-income status now needs reform to respond to rising expectations and changing demands for skills. New challenges are emerging: economic growth has recently slowed, inequality is widening and productivity growth is weak. How…

  10. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  11. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  12. Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Juan José; De La O-Selva, Mario; Cortés-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the current situation that Costa Rica faces around fiscal issues and high evasion rates. Using actors and multidimensional analysis, it proposes the electronic invoice as an e-government strategic solution that will close the gap around tax evasion and the government incomes. The success achieved by Brazil in this area…

  13. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  14. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    inci- dent had occurred but blamed the inexperience of the soldiers in- volved. Subsequent talks between Carazo and Sergio Ramirez Mercado , head of...San Jose: Instituto de Estudios Politicos, 1962. Ratliff, William E. "Costa Rica." Pages 76-78 in Richard F. Staar (ed.), Yearbook on International

  15. International politics and primary health care in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L M

    1990-01-01

    Costa Rica's internationally-renowned rural health program exemplifies the principles put forth by the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care with one exception: the government has not succeeded in achieving active community participation in health. This paper uses a historical and political-economic perspective to explain why the Costa Rican government failed in its efforts to enhance community participation after Alma Ata. International agencies have been closely involved in the design and implementation of rural health services in Costa Rica since the early 1900s, yet community participation did not figure in these programs until the mid-1970s. The demise of community participation in the early 1980s is attributed to a combination of factors including partisan conflicts, social class conflicts, interest group politics and, particularly, to the shifting priorities of international health and development agencies.

  16. Sismicidad histórica e instrumental del Caribe de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Ileana M.; Montero, Walter

    2011-01-01

    La Región Caribe de Costa Rica, usualmente, fue considerada por geólogos y sismólogos y en el Código Sísmico de Costa Rica como una zona de bajo potencial sísmico, especialmente para eventos con magnitudes mayores que 7,0. El terremoto del 22 de abril de 1991 ha demostrado lo contrario. Una revisión de la sismicidad histórica e instrumental de la región Caribe de Costa Rica y Panamá, muestra que esta región fue el marco de importantes eventos sísmicos durante los siglos XIX y XX. En particula...

  17. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m² y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m² en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglares dentro del Programa CARICOMP, mientras que la productividad encontrada para julio en Costa Rica (4 g/m²/día es intermedia, similar a lo que se encontró en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP.Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m² and density (9 trees/10 m² in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m²/day was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 23-31. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  18. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  19. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  20. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  1. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in lake’s phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas’s crater lake was followed for more than three years, first with monthly and later with weekly samplings, that covered almost two years. Additional information on temperature and oxygen vertical profiles was obtained on a monthly basis, and surface temperature was measured during weekly samplings around noon. Results showed that in spite of its shallow condition (max. depth: 7m and low surface temperature (11 to 19°C, the lake stratifies at least for brief periods. The phytoplankton showed both, rapid change periods, and prolonged ones of relative stasis. The plankton composition fluctuated between three main phases, one characterized by the abundance of small sized desmids (Staurastrum paradoxum, Cosmarium asphaerosporum, a second phase dominated by equally small cryptomonads (Chryptochrysis minor, Chroomonas sp. and a third phase dominated by the green alga Eutetramorus tetrasporus. Although data evidenced that monthly sampling could miss short term events, the temporal variation did not follow the typical dry and rainy seasons of the region, or any particular annual pattern. Year to year variation was high. As this small lake is located at the summit of Barva Volcano and receives the influence from both the Caribbean and the Pacific weather, seasonality at the lake is not clearly defined as in the rest of the country and short term variations in the local weather might have a stronger effect than broad seasonal trends. The occurrence of this short term changes in the phytoplankton of small tropical

  2. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  3. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  4. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mary C Setzer; Debra M Moriarity; Robert O Lawton; William N Setzer; Glenn A Gentry; William A Haber

    2003-01-01

    A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showe...

  5. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Setzer, Mary C; Moriarity, Debra M; Lawton, Robert O; Setzer, William N.; Gentry, Glenn A; Haber, William A

    2014-01-01

    A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showe...

  6. Situation in the radiation protection field in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the radiation protection infrastructure in Costa Rica and makes reference to the existing legal framework. The national inventory of significant radiation sources and structure of the Ministry of Health as the national regulatory authority for radiation safety is illustrated; information is also provided on the radiation monitoring equipment available, on programme activities related to the control of radiation sources by authorization and inspection, and on technical support services. (author)

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity: screening and treatment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarez-Carvajal, Ana Catalina; Montes-Cantillo, Milagro; Unkrich, Kelly H; Trivedi, Rupal H; Peterseim, Mae Millicent Winfrey

    2017-12-01

    To determine the recent demographic data, risk factors and results of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and treatment in Costa Rica. The medical records of all preterm infants meeting ROP screening criteria (≤34 weeks' gestational age (GA) or birth weight (BW) ≤1750g, and those determined at risk by neonatologists) in the national healthcare system, Costa Rica, January 2010-December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The numbers and percentages of infants with ROP, risk factors, percentage of patients treated and treatment outcomes were determined. Comparison is made with screening criteria and literature reports of ROP incidence in other countries. The study population included 3018 preterm infants. Overall, 585 patients (585/3018, 19.4%) were found to have ROP. Of these, 15.4% (90 patients) required laser treatment, and 53% of those requiring treatment had BW Costa Rica allowing assessment and comparison of screening criteria and protocol. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Walter; Lewis, Jonathan C; Araya, Maria Cristina

    2017-05-11

    Recent studies have shown that the Nicoya Peninsula of northwestern Costa Rica is moving northwestward ~11 mm a -1 as part of a tectonic sliver. Toward the northwest in El Salvador the northern sliver boundary is marked by a dextral strike-slip fault system active since Late Pleistocene time. To the southeast there is no consensus on what constitutes the northern boundary of the sliver, although a system of active crustal faults has been described in central Costa Rica. Here we propose that the Haciendas-Chiripa fault system serves as the northeastern boundary for the sliver and that the sliver includes most of the Guanacaste volcanic arc, herein the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver. In this paper we provide constraints on the geometry and kinematics of the boundary of the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver that are timely and essential to any models aimed at resolving the driving mechanism for sliver motion. Our results are also critical for assessing geological hazards in northwestern Costa Rica.

  9. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  10. Socioeconomic development, health interventions and mortality decline in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1991-01-01

    Costa Rica, whose life expectancy was 74 years by 1985, has reached a health level comparable to a developed country. The health achievements of this country are product of political and socioeconomic circumstances as well as of right public health policies. Until about 1970 the features of Costa Rica mortality, although somewhat better than the Latin American average, evolved in a similar way to the rest of the region. In particular, the decades of 1940s and 1950s saw dramatic improvements in life expectancy, thanks mainly to the import of low-cost, high-effectiveness health technologies. In the 1970s, however, Costa Rica departed from a regional pattern of stagnation and managed to close the gap with developed countries in terms of mortality levels. A dramatic decline in the infant mortality rate from 60 to 19 per 1,000 took place in this decade. The main determinants of this breakthrough were health interventions, notably a primary health care program, even though favorable socioeconomic conditions and a reduced fertility also played a role. Ecological data and other evidence suggest that up to three fourths of the mortality decline was accounted for contemporary improvements in public health services, with about 40 percent attributable to primary health care interventions. Furthermore, by targeting interventions on the less privileged population, these interventions had the merit of reducing geographic and socioeconomic differentials in child mortality.

  11. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  12. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  13. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  14. Assessment of mammography in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation of national mammographic equipment was conducted, due to the increasing incidence of breast cancer in Costa Rican women. From June 2002 to October 2003, 2 of the 3 global indicators of image quality were evaluated, (mean glandular dose and phantom image) in 26 mammography machines facilitated by radiologists in charge of the same. The mean glandular dose found was 1.75 ± 0.60 mGy with a range of 0.8 a 2.56. Regarding quality image, 73% of the evaluated equipment was able to see 4 or more fibers, 53% saw 3 or more groups of microcalcifications and 82% saw 3 or more mass groups. All mean glandular doses were below the international reference dose value of 3 mGy. However, the analysis of phantom images showed that only 54% of all the equipment had a total score (sum of mass groups, fibers and microcalcifications) superior or equal to 10, as expected. A correct diagnosis that could eventually save the patient's life is the main objective of a mammogram; the factors that are degrading the images must be found and it might be necessary to increase the doses to achieve this. This study demonstrates the urgent necessity to introduce permanent quality control programs that will provide excellent images with the lowest internationally recommended doses.(author) [es

  15. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs and by El Niño warming events (both coasts. Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980’s, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 33-50. Epub 2010 May 01.Costa Rica tiene comunidades coralinas y arrecifes en la costa Caribe y del lado Pacífico a lo largo de la costa y en islas mar afuera. Arrecifes de franja y de parche, bancos carbonatados y una cresta de algas coralinas incipiente están presentes en la sección sur de la costa Caribe. Comunidades coralinas, arrecifes y colonias de coral aisladas se encuentran a lo largo de todo el Pacífico de Costa Rica. Los arrecifes coralinos han sido impactados seriamente en los últimos 30 años, principalmente por sedimentos en el Caribe y algunos arrecifes del Pacífico, y por el calentamiento durante el Fenómeno de El Niño-Oscilación Sureña en el Pacífico. Tres sitios en el Caribe y otros tres en el Pacífico están siendo monitoreados. Después de reducciones significativas en la cobertura de coral vivo en la década de 1980, tanto en el Caribe como en el Pacífico, la mayoría de los

  16. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  17. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  18. Teacher Expectations and Students from Low Socioeconomic Background: A Perspective from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' academic expectations of students from low socioeconomic status (SES) in Costa Rica for the purpose of cross-cultural comparison. A group of 17 teachers from two different elementary schools located in a small town in Costa Rica were questioned about their expectations of low SES students enrolled in their classes.…

  19. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  20. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... (DFARS) to implement the Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive...

  1. Inversión en Bitcoins Modelo para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Vásquez, Marinelly

    2016-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Administración de Empresas) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Administración de Empresas, 2016. Descentralizado, transparente, de uso voluntario, digital, abierto, infalsificable, universal, libre de intermediarios, blindado contra la inflación; Bitcoin, desafía hoy el monopolio sobre la emisión de la moneda. Bitcoin es al mismo tiempo una moneda y un sistema monetario cuyo excelente comportamiento desde el 2009 no depende de una autorid...

  2. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, Mary C; Moriarity, Debra M; Lawton, Robert O; Setzer, William N; Gentry, Glenn A; Haber, William A

    2003-01-01

    A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forests.

  3. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  4. La nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Céspedes Montealegre, Carlos

    1991-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1991 El nuevo Hospital Nacional de Niños se había inaugurado cinco años atrás; sus flamantes instalaciones contrastaban con la incómoda construcción de madera del Hospital San Juan de Dios, nuestro Hospital General. No obstante las mayores comodidades para los pacientes y el personal, los arraigados problemas de desnutrición severos y de parasitosis intestinal persistían en forma preocupante entre quie...

  5. El arrecife coralino de Punta Cocles, costa Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cindy Fernández

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe al arrecife de Punta Cocles (Limón, Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen por medio de un muestreo con nueve transectos, paralelos a la costa y por observaciones directas durante buceos a pulmón entre los meses de setiembre y noviembre del 2002. Este arrecife consta aproximadamente de 10.5 hectáreas, en las que se identifican 13 especies de corales, 39 de macroalgas, dos de pastos marinos, dos de zoántidos, una anémona, un coralimorfario y una esponja. Se observa un incremento en la cobertura de corales vivos (16% con respecto a otros años (5% en 1985, y 13.2% en 1995, y una baja cobertura de coral muerto (0.2%. Las macroalgas presentan la cobertura más alta (59%, particularmente las algas pardas con una distribución en parches de Sargassum y Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta constituye una nueva adición para la flora ficológica de Costa Rica. El arrecife de Punta Cocles, funciona como un refugio para los organismos, debido a la ausencia de centros de población y desembocaduras de los ríos, además, del tipo de formación costera, lo que se ve favorecido por la conciencia ambiental que viven cerca del arrecifeThis paper describes the Punta Cocles reef (Limón, Costa Rica. Data were obtained by sampling nine transects along the coast and observations done by skin diving between September and November of 2002. This reef consist of 10.5 hectares, where 13 species of corals, 39 of macroalgae, two of seagrasses, two of zoantids, one anemone, one corallimorpharian, and one sponge were identified. Life coral coverage (16%, was higher than in other years (5% for 1985, and 13.2% for 1995, and death coral coverage was very low (0.2%. Macroalgae have the highest coverage (59%, particularly brown algae with a patchy distribution of Sargassum and Padina. Laurencia brongniartii (Rhodophyta is added to the list of marine flora of Costa Rica. The Punta Cocles reef works as a refuge for organisms, because there are no towns

  6. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

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    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  7. New species of Edessa Fabricius, 1803 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin; Silva, Valeria Juliete Da; Correia, Andre Oliveira; Nunes, Benedito Mendes

    2015-08-12

    The edessines from Costa Rica are little known; only 18 species have been registered or described from this country so far. Mainly based in a large sample from Instituto Nacional de Biodiverdidad (INBio), Costa Rica, we decided to update the information concerning Edessinae from Costa Rica. We present a list of species from Costa Rica raising the number of known species from Costa Rica to 65. We are also describing nine new species: Edessa bella Fernandes & Silva, E. bruneolineata Fernandes & Correia, E. curvata Fernandes & Nunes, E. lewisi Fernandes & Silva, E. nigroangulata Fernandes & Silva, E. osae Fernandes & Nunes, E. oxcarti Fernandes & Correia, E. pallidoangulata Fernandes & Nunes and E. puravida Fernandes & Correia. Species were described, illustrated and photographed. Distribution maps for the species are also provided.

  8. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  9. Life history of Manataria maculata (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae from Costa Rica

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    L. Ricardo Murillo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The life history and early stages of the satyrine butterfly Manataria maculata are described and illustrated from Costa Rica. Eggs are laid on Lasiacis sp. (Panicoideae, a new non-bamboo host plant for the genus Manataria. The larval stage varied from 23 to 28 days, and the pupal duration was approximately 12 days when reared on Bambusa vulgaris and Guadua angustifolia in captivity at 23-24°C.Se describe e ilustran los estadios tempranos y la historia natura de Manataria maculata (Hopffer, 1874 de Costa Rica. Los huevos fueron encontrados en Lasiacis sp. (Panicoideae, una nueva planta hospedera para el género Manataria, y que no es un bambú. El estadio larval varió desde 23 a 28 días y el estadio pupal, aproximadamente 12 días cuando es criado con Bambusa vulgaris y Guadua angustifolia bajo condiciones de cautiverio a 23-24°C.

  10. Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Jorge; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Leal, Alejandro; Gerlovin, Hanna; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a "longevity island," particularly for males. We estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity. Older Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25). To our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

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    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  12. Costa Rica Rainfall in Future Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rodriguez, R. A., Sr.; Amador, J. A.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of intraseasonal and annual cycles of meteorological variables, using projections of climate change, are nowadays extremely important to improve regional socio-economic planning for countries. This is particularly true in Costa Rica, as Central America has been identified as a climate change hot spot. Today many of the economic activities in the region, especially those related to agriculture, tourism and hydroelectric power generation are linked to the seasonal cycle of precipitation. Changes in rainfall (mm/day) and in the diurnal temperature range (°C) for the periods 1950-2005 and 2006-2100 were investigated using the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) constructed using the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5) data. Differences between the multi-model ensembles of the two prospective scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and the retrospective baseline scenario were computed. This study highlights Costa Rica as an inflexion point of the climate change in the region and also suggests future drying conditions.

  13. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

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    Mary C Setzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forestsSe realizó un análisis farmacológico de plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica, que incluye 165 especies representantes de 61 familias. Se probó in-vitro la actividad bactericida y fungicida, así como la actividad citotóxica y anti-herpes de extractos crudos de plantas. De estos, 123 extractos exhibieron una notable citotoxicidad, 62 mostraron actividad antibacterial, 4 presentaron actividad antihongos, y 8 mostraron una promisoria actividad antiviral. Así, de las 101 especies de plantas examinadas en este trabajo, 62% presentaron una marcada actividad biológica en uno o más de los bioensayos. Estos resultados subrayan el potencial fitomédico de los bosques nubosos Neotropicales

  14. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

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    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entre medicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  15. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

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    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  16. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: "Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable" La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entremedicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  17. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

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    Gabriela Hernández-Mora

    Full Text Available Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29 of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba. A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  18. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  19. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  20. Chondrichthyan Diversity, Conservation Status, and Management Challenges in Costa Rica

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    Mario Espinoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding key aspects of the biology and ecology of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimeras, as well as the range of threats affecting their populations is crucial given the rapid rate at which some species are declining. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP, the lack of knowledge, unreliable (or non-existent landing statistics, and limited enforcement of existing fisheries regulations has hindered management and conservation efforts for chondrichthyan species. This review evaluated our current understanding of Costa Rican chondrichthyans and their conservation status. Specifically, we (1 provide an updated checklist on the species richness, habitat use, and distribution patterns, (2 summarize the most relevant chondrichthyan studies (scientific publications, theses, and official technical reports, (3 identify knowledge gaps, (4 discuss fisheries-related threats, and (5 highlight the management challenges and research needs to effectively protect their populations. A total of 99 chondrichthyan species are formally recorded in Costa Rican waters, from which 15% are threatened with extinction and 41% are “Data Deficient” based on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. A total of 121 studies were published between 1891 and 2017; 82% in the Pacific (24% from Isla del Coco and only 18% from the Caribbean Sea. These results highlight the need to redirect research efforts on specific taxonomic groups and geographic regions (i.e., Caribbean. Based on our review, improving the quality and quantity of fisheries landing statistics, as well as determining the degree of overlap between chondrichthyans and Costa Rican fisheries remains a priority. We proposed an adaptive management framework for chondrichthyan fisheries in data-poor countries where management goals/targets are clearly defined. This framework could strengthen the conservation of chondrichthyan populations in Costa Rica and the region.

  1. Addendum to the checklist of the helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortíz, Beatriz; García-Prieto, Luis; Herrera-Vázquez, Jonathan; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2004-06-01

    In this work, we present an addendum to the "Checklist of the helminth parasites of vertebrates in Costa Rica" with a parasite-host list as well as a host-parasite list. This addendum updates the available information on this group of parasites in Costa Rica, since very recently a new input has been made to describe the helminth fauna of vertebrates, particularly at the Area de Conservación de Guanacaste. In this paper, we add 33 records, representing 23 species. This raises the number of helminth species described in vertebrates from Costa Rica to 325, represented by 89 species of digeneans, 23 of monogeneans. 63 of cestodes, 13 of acanthocephalans, and 137 of nematodes. In total, 133 species of vertebrates have been studied for helminths in Costa Rica (31 species of fishes. 7 amphibians, 18 reptiles, 40 birds, and 37 mammals). Currently, 67 species (20.6 %) have been recorded as new species from Costa Rica and most of them are endemic to particular regions. The Colecci6n de Helmintos de Costa Rica, housed at the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), San José, is the depositary of only 23% of the species recorded so far; however this situation is changing and people recognizes.

  2. Contaminación atmosférica en la meseta central de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos Llosa, Zaidett

    2016-01-01

    La Meseta Central de Costa Rica cubre tan solo 3,8% del territorio nacional, pero alberga 70% de la flota vehicular, 60% de la población y 85% de la industria. Además, posee características topográficas y climáticas que afectan los procesos de contaminación atmosférica, uno es el hecho de que los vientos entren por el norte en El Paso de la Palma y salgan por el noroeste. De la contaminación atmosférica, 75% se debe al uso de combustibles, pero hay aspectos poco comprendidos, por ejemplo la p...

  3. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  4. Is Geriatric Medicine Possible in a Middle-Income Country? The Case of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Martínez, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the current and future-projected demographic data, organization, networks for the care of older people, and perspectives in Costa Rica in relation to the challenges resulting from exponential growth of the older adult population, most notably those aged 80 and older. It includes consideration of the Norms of Integrated Care of the Older Adult of Costa Rica's national social security system and contributions from other public and private institutions. It also makes note of commentaries on the need for ever-increasing efforts to manage the care of Costa Rica's burgeoning older adult population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Mujeres esclavas en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII: Estrategias frente a la esclavitud.

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    María de los Angeles Acuña León

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La esclavitud formaba parte de la vida cotidiana en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII. De ahí nuestro interés en visibilizar a la mujer esclava en dicha sociedad. Por tanto en este trabajo se indicará porqué razones y por cuales rutas llegaron estas mujeres a la provincia de Costa Rica y se analizaran los mecanismos de acción y negociación utilizados por estas mujeres esclavas para enfrentar y sobrevivir la maquinaria esclavista. Esto significa el examinar y analizar sus experiencias, sus respuestas y actitudes ante la esclavitud, en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII.

  6. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.; Beatriz Avendaño

    2011-01-01

    La industria del turismo de Costa Rica representa 7,5% de PNB, 21% de las exportaciones totales y de esa contribución el subsector de alimento y bebidas representa 28%. El propósito de esta investigación fue el de identifi car, elementos y obstáculos potenciales en jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias de universidades en Costa Rica. El estudio fue realizado entre estudiantes de artes culinarias en de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, las entrevistas realizadas fueron 237 todos l...

  7. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  8. Enseñanza del Derecho Electoral en Costa Rica

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    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia pretende revisar cuál ha sido el tratamiento académico que los estudios electorales (en general y el derecho electoral (en particular han recibido en Costa Rica, así como profundizar en la importancia de la enseñanza del derecho electoral en nuestro país. Mediante un repaso a la reconocida autonomía del derecho electoral, así como los abordajes que su estudio ha tenido en los contextos universitario y profesional, la ponencia concluye que el plan de estudios de la carrera de licenciatura en Derecho debe contemplar al menos un curso de Derecho Electoral, sea mediante uno específico en la materia (preferiblemente, o bien, mediante el reconocimiento expreso de la enseñanza del derecho electoral como parte medular e integral del curso de Derecho Constitucional (en su defecto.

  9. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis, Federico; Valdez, Juan; Leon, Sandra; Coto, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg -1 ), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg -1 ), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg -1 ). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author) [es

  10. Transformación productiva y desigualdad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica termina la primera década del siglo XXI sin haber sido capaz de superar las limitaciones estructurales e institucionales que le impiden transitar con paso firme hacia mayores y crecientes niveles de desarrollo económico y bienestar social. Las últimas tres décadas se han caracterizado por un proceso en el cual el modelo de desarrollo ha puesto particular énfasis en la estabilización macroeconómica y en una estrategia de crecimiento económico basada en el sector externo de la economía. Los resultados de la reforma económica y la estrategia de desarrollo, impulsadas desde la década de los 1980s, han sido insuficientes para retomar el camino de la transformación productiva con equidad.

  11. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  12. Bryophytes of Cocos Island, Costa Rica: diversity, biogeography and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Dauphin

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 98 liverwort species (43 genera, 10 families, 54 moss species (33 genera, 17 families and one species of hornwort have been reported for Cocos Island (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Over 60% of the bryophytes have a Neotropical or Pantropical distribution, about 10% are Caribbean, and less than 5% are endemic or subendemic. In comparison to the Galapagos Archipelago, Cocos Island harbors a more typical tropical bryoflora with foliose hepatics (e. g. Lejeuneaceae, Lepidoziaceae constituting the bulk of diversity; fewer thallose liverworts and moss taxa as in the Archipelago were found. A richer habitat variety including wet and dry habitats, as well as its bigger area, seem to account for the higher number of bryophyte species in Galapagos Archipelago. Most bryophytes in Cocos Island are corticolous (46%, the remaining are epiphyllous (25%, saxicolous (23% or terrestrial (12%. Bryophyte occurrence in eight plots (10 x 10 m with 20 quadrates (30 x 30 cm were recorded at different habitats and altitudes (0-600 m. Bryophyte distribution within the island coincides with lowland forest (0-100 m, secondary lowland forest (0-200 m and montane forest (to 600 m. Physantholejeunea portoricensis (Hampe & Gott. Schust. is reported as new to Costa Rica.Se comunica la presencia de 153 especies de briófitas y antocerotófitas en la Isla de Cocos (5°32’N, 87°04’W, Costa Rica. Estas son 98 especies de hepáticas en 43 géneros y 10 familias; 54 especies de musgos en 33 géneros y 17 familias y una especie de antocerotófita. Más del 60% de las briófitas tiene amplia distribución en el Neotrópico, 10.4% distribución pantropical, 9.7% pertenecen al elemento Caribe, 1.3% al elemento Centroamericano, 4.5% al Nor-sudamericano, 3.2% son endémicos, 1.3% subendémicos y 1.3% subcosmopolitas. En comparación con Galápagos, la Isla de Cocos muestra una brioflora más tropical, en su mayor parte compuesta por hepáticas foliosas (e. g

  13. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  14. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  15. Weather and rice yield relationships in tropical Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomas, J.; Herrera, H.

    1985-01-01

    The national yield of rice in Costa Rica has increased from 1 tons ha/sup /minus/1/ at the end of 1960 to 3 tons ha/sup /minus/1/ at the beginning of 1980, establishing a highly significant time trend. The mean annual rate of yield increase is some 6--9%. The region of Guanacaste, accounting for nearly 50% of the rice growing area of Costa Rica, has the lowest rice yields (2.2 tons ha/sup /minus/1/) and the highest yield variability (C.V. 40%). The mean growing season rainfall of 1250 mm is some 550 mm short of optimum rainfall conditions, so that the rice yields respond nearly linearly to increased rainfall, especially during the month of August, when the rice crop enters the reproductive stage. The results obtained suggest that in this region a considerable amount of rainfall (/approximately/440 mm) may be lost to the rice crop due to runoff. The relationship examined shows a nonlinear response of rice yields to increasing amount of growing season and monthly rainfall. In the Guanacaste region rainfall during August (r = 0.814) could be used as an independent variable to assess rice yields and to predict production. (Mean yield x area planted.) A production forecast at the beginning of September would give some 4--6 weeks of lead time before the harvest of the rice crop. It was somewhat surprising to find that soil moisture budgeting and the calculation of stress days, weighted for phenological development stages, which provided the best results in a weather and maize study in the region (Lomas and Herrera, 1984) did not improve on the relationship between rainfall and rice yields.

  16. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  17. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  18. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  19. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  20. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki; Amorim, Dalton de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The following five species are described as new: Manota clava sp. n. (Colombia), Manota multilobata sp. n. (Colombia), Manota perplexa sp. n. (Costa Rica), Manota setilobata sp. n. (Colombia) and Manota subaristata sp. n. (Colombia). In addition, new records for the following 11 species are presented: Manota acuminata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota arenalensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota corcovado Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota costaricensis Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, Costa Rica), Manota minutula Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota multisetosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica), Manota parva Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia, Costa Rica), Manota pisinna Hippa & Kurina, 2013 (Brazilian Amazonia), Manota spinosa Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Colombia) and Manota squamulata Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005 (Costa Rica). Distribution patterns include (1) species known only locally in Costa Rica or Colombia, (2) distributions connecting Central America to west Andes lowlands, and (3) north-west Neotropical components, extending from Central America to Brazilian Amazonia. The possible biogeographical and taxonomical context of Manota species with a widespread distribution is considered.

  1. Questions of Procedure in the cases Costa Rica c. Nicaragua and Nicaragua c. Costa Rica before the International Court of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Quintana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with several questions of the procedure followed when litigation is conducted before the International Court of Justice, in the light of the judgment of the Court rendered on 16 December 2015, in two cases between the same parties that were joined, i. e. “Certain activities carried out by Nicaragua in the border area”, filed by Costa Rica against Nicaragua, and “Construction of a road in Costa Rica along the San Juan river”, filed by Nicaragua against Costa Rica. In this judgment important decisions by the ICJ can be found related to technical aspects of procedure such as joinder, counterclaims, provisional measures, remedies, evidence and proof of facts and costs. In several cases this decision introduces significant innovations into the Court’s previous case-law regarding litigation before it.

  2. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  3. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  4. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Diaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author) [es

  5. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, María E.; Rocha, Oscar; Glander, Kenneth E.; Aguilar, Gabriel; Huertas, Ana S; Sánchez, Ronald; Wong, Grace

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecolog...

  6. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    María E Zaldívar; Oscar Rocha; Kenneth E Glander; Gabriel Aguilar; Ana S Huertas; Ronald Sánchez; Grace Wong

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecolog...

  7. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, J. Francisco; González, José

    2007-01-01

    Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. B...

  8. [Six new species and two new records of (Pteridophyta) from Costa Rica ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Alvarado, A F

    2001-06-01

    Six new species of Pteridophyta from Costa Rica are described: Dryopteris flaccisquama A. Rojas, Hypolepis lellingeri A. Rojas, H. moraniana A. Rojas, Melpomene alan-smithii A. Rojas, Selaginella osaënsis A. Rojas and Terpsichore esquiveliana A. Rojas. Blechnum stoloniferum (Mett. ex E. Fourn.) C. Chr. and Trichomanes micayense Hieron. are new records for the country. Only D. flaccisquama and M. alan-smithii are present outside Costa Rica.

  9. THE DETERMINATION OF THE COSTA RICA COLON/USD EXCHANGE RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare four major exchange rate models for the Costa Rica Colon. We examine exchange rate data for the Costa Rica/U.S. dollar relationship from 1981-2007 and find that monetary models have a higher explanatory ability whereas the Mundell-Fleming model performs better in forecasting exchange rates than other models. The coefficient of the interest rate differential in the uncovered interest parity model has a wrong sign.

  10. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  11. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  12. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  13. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  14. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.

  15. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems.

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  17. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarria, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  18. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter, Sabine E.; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; Gonz?lez, Roc?o; Aguilar, Olga; Le?n, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle ...

  19. Costa Rica Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:: A bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country’s scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with “Costa Rica” in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications. Articles (79% were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%. Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%, followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%. The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484 with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican

  20. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10m depth at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park, increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m2/d and biomass (822.8±391.84 g/m2 compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge, surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14kg/m2 and density (9.0±0.58 trees/100m2 in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4g/m2/d was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 1-22. Epub 2010 October 01.Los arrecifes coralinos, pastos marinos y manglares de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica han sido monitoreados desde 1999 siguiendo el protocolo de CARICOMP. La cobertura de coral vivo en el arrecife de Meager Shoal (7 a 10m de

  1. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  2. Seasonal variation of tropical precipitation chemistry: La Selva, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Tamara J.; McDowell, William H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    The chemistry of wet precipitation was measured from February 1992 to February 1995 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Sea salt aerosols were the primary contributors to Na +, Cl -, and Mg 2+; however, K +, Ca 2+, and SO 42- were derived primarily from non-sea-salt sources. Seasonal patterns, with concentrations inversely proportional to rainfall, were found for marine salts and aerosols (Na +, Cl -, and Mg 2+) and inorganic nitrogenous compounds (NO 3- and NH 4+). DON accounted for a significant fraction (30%) of total dissolved nitrogen deposition. Terrigenous dust from local agricultural or natural aeolian processes appeared to be the primary influence on concentrations of non-sea-salt cations. High concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfate (SO 4∗) were correlated with both non-sea-salt chloride (Cl *) and high H + concentrations as well as a shift in wind direction from the northeast to the southwest, which may indicate a strong volcanic influence on precipitation chemistry during a few weeks of the year. Annual fluctuations in distribution and amount of rainfall contributed to differences in precipitation chemistry over the course of the study.

  3. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  4. LIGHT DIFFUSION IN THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Calvo-Rodriguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000 require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  5. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  6. Modelo de sostenibilidad para Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chen Mok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de trabajo que permitirá dar sostenibilidad a los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes (CECI, con el fin de continuar con los procesos de apropiación de la tecnología por parte de las comunidades en donde se ubican, y por lo tanto disminuir la brecha digital. Antes de presentar el modelo, se ofrecen los antecedentes conceptuales que fundamentan el proyecto de CECI. Para la creación del modelo, en el 2014 se realizó un diagnóstico del funcionamiento y administración de algunos CECI existentes en el Cantón Central de Puntarenas, que se encuentran en un radio máximo de 12 km de la Sede de Pacífico de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y se indagó sobre los actores locales que podrían intervenir. Se considera que el modelo es replicable para todos los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes existentes en todo el país, con la diferencia de las necesidades propias de cada comunidad en donde estos se encuentran.

  7. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  8. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  9. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONOMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramirez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional (2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.

  10. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  11. TRANSACCIONES INMOBILARIAS REALIZADAS EN COSTA RICA DURANTE EL PERIODO 1800-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un breve informe del proceso de elaboración de una base de datos histórica que contempla todas las transacciones de bienes inmuebles durante la Costa Rica de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. En el mismo se explica paso a paso el proceso de elaboración y la estructura de la Base de Datos “Transacciones inmobiliarias en Costa Rica durante 1800-1850”, la metodología, su importancia, sus aportes y limitaciones.

  12. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  13. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  14. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica.

  15. Percepción de la biotecnología en estudiantes universitarios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una encuesta para estudiar la percepción y el grado de conocimiento sobre biotecnología y organismos modificados genéticamente (OMGs, en una muestra de estudiantes (n=750 de tres universidades públicas de Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, Universidad Nacional (UNA e Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR. Se encontró que un 88% mostraron un conocimiento satisfactorio de la biotecnología moderna, y que un 79% expresaron una posición favorable y una buena aceptación de esa tecnología. Además, los estudiantes encuestados aceptarían ciertos riesgos asociados a la biotecnología, siempre y cuando, ésta mejore la capacidad competitiva de Costa Rica. El área de estudio de los estudiantes entrevistados parece estar relacionada con el grado de aceptación debido a que los estudiantes de disciplinas sociales mostraron una mayor percepción negativa hacia los productos biotecnológicos y OMGs, si se compara con la percepción expresada por los estudiantes encuestados de disciplinas de ciencias naturales y de áreas tecnológicas.Perception about biotechnology in university students in Costa Rica. A survey was carried out to determine the perception and knowledge about biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs in a sample (n = 750 of university students from three public universities in Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional and Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. The study revealed that 88% of the students showed a satisfactory level of knowledge about modern biotechnology and 79% of them reported a favorable opinion and good acceptance of this technology. Students would accept some risks associated to biotechnology if it represents an improvement to the competitiveness of Costa Rica. Some differences were detected in the opinions from students of the three universities that can be associated to the area of study. Students from social disciplines showed a higher percentage of

  16. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  17. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  18. Metales traza en sedimentos costeros de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo García-Céspedes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la concentración de hierro, plomo, cobre y zinc, en sedimentos de cuatro ecosistemas costeros de Costa Rica, por espectroscopia de absorción atómica, con llama o con horno de grafito. En el Pacífico se escogieron Bahía Culebra (Golfo de Papagayo, el Golfo de Nicoya y la bahía de Golfito (Golfo Dulce y en el Caribe la bahía de Moín. Las muestras fueron recolectadas entre los años 2000 y 2002, y los valores promedio de las concentraciones de los elementos, en todos los ecosistemas, siguieron una misma tendencia: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No se encontró ningún tipo de patrón temporal de distribución de los metales en ninguno de los ecosistemas. Las concentraciones medias de hierro y de cobre fueron mayores en la bahía de Golfito (5.8% y 87 µg / g, respectivamente y menores en la bahía de Moín (3.4% y 52 µg / g. respectivamente. La concentración media de zinc fue mayor también en la bahía de Golfito (96 µg / g, pero menor en Bahía Culebra (66 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue mayor en la bahía de Moín (6.4 µg / g y menor en Bahía Culebra (3.0 µg / g. La concentración de plomo fue alta en el Caribe y en la bahía de Golfito; los valores de concentración promedio obtenidos para el hierro, el plomo, el cobre y el zinc, fueron máximos en la bahía de Golfito, comparados con los otros ecosistemas. Con base en los datos obtenidos, se concluyó que la Bahía Culebra fue la zona más limpia; la bahía de Golfito la más contaminada y en un lugar intermedio la bahía de Moín y el Golfo de NicoyaMarine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf, Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf, were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal

  19. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  20. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  1. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.

  2. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  3. Genetic diversity in cattle from eight regions in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero-Solorzano, Juan Miguel; Leon-Rodriguez, Bernal; Chacon-Gonzalez, Idania; Vargas-Leiton, Bernardo; Martinez-Pichardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The degree of inter-regional genetic diversity is explored in cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected of eight different regions of the country during the year 2013. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters are calculated for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance is performed. The genetic distances between cattle of different regions are calculated. A high degree of diversity, with an average number of 14,6±1,01 alleles observed and 5,6+0,37 effective alleles per marker is observed at the national level. The heterozygosity observed (Ho) has been 0,76±0,01 and the expected (He) 0,81±0,01. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and inbreeding index (F IS ) have been of 0,79±0,06 and 0,06±0,004, respectively. At the regional level, HO has varied from 0,73 ± 0,02 in the Central Sur region to 0,78 ±0,01 in the Huetar Norte region. Three clearly differentiated groups are shown by the dendrogram , with the Central Metropolitana and Central Occidental regions in a group: Huetar Caribe, Central Sur, Pacifico Central and Chorotega in a second group; and Huetar Norte and Brunca in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation R ST have been significant between regions of different groups and among regions of the same group have remained without being significant. Genetic differences between regions are related with differentiated proliferation of racial types according to their adaptability to the agroecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region. (author) [es

  4. Mollusks of Manuel Antonio National Park, Pacific Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    The mollusks in Manuel Antonio National Park on the central section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica were studied along thirty-six transects done perpendicular to the shore, and by random sampling of subtidal environments, beaches and mangrove forest. Seventy-four species of mollusks belonging to three classes and 40 families were found: 63 gastropods, 9 bivalves and 2 chitons, during this study in 1995. Of these, 16 species were found only as empty shells (11) or inhabited by hermit crabs (5). Forty-eight species were found at only one locality. Half the species were found at one site, Puerto Escondido. The most diverse habitat was the low rocky intertidal zone. Nodilittorina modesta was present in 34 transects and Nerita scabricosta in 30. Nodilittorina aspera had the highest density of mollusks in the transects. Only four transects did not clustered into the four main groups. The species composition of one cluster of transects is associated with a boulder substrate, while another cluster of transects associates with site. Two clusters were not associated to any of the factors recorded. Some species were present in previous studies but absent in 1995, while others were absent in the previous studies but found in 1995. For example, Siphonaria gigas was present in 1995 in many transects with a relatively high density, but absent in 1962, probably due to human predation before the establishment of the park. Including this study, a total of 97 species of mollusks in three classes and 45 families have been reported from Manuel Antonio National Park. Sixty-nine species are new reports for the area: 53 gastropods, 14 bivalves and 2 chitons. There are probably more species of mollusks at Manuel Antonio National Park, than the 97 reported here, because some areas have not been adequately sampled (e.g., deep environments) and many micro-mollusks could not be identified.

  5. Revised and updated paleomagnetic results from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G.; Constable, C. G.; Staudigel, H.; Tauxe, L.; Gans, P.

    2013-09-01

    Paleomagnetic results from globally distributed lava flows have been collected and analyzed under the time-averaged field initiative (TAFI), a multi-institutional collaboration started in 1996 and designed to improve the geographic and temporal coverage of the 0-5 Ma paleomagnetic database for studying both the time-averaged field and its very long-term secular variations. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 35 volcanic units, either lava flows or ignimbrites, in Costa Rica in December 1998 and February 2000 from the Cordilleras Central and Guanacaste, the underlying Canas, Liberia and Bagaces formations and from Volcano Arenal. Age estimates range from approximately 40 ka to slightly over 6 Ma. Although initial results from these sites were used in a global synthesis of TAFI data by Johnson et al. (2008), a full description of methodology was not presented. This paper documents the definitive collection of results comprising 28 paleomagnetic directions (24 normal, 4 reversed), with enhanced precision and new geological interpretations, adding two paleointensity estimates and 19 correlated 40Ar/39Ar radiometric ages. The average field direction is consistent with that of a geocentric axial dipole and dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles (17.3 ± 4.6°) is in general agreement with predictions from several statistical paleosecular variation models. Paleointensity estimates from two sites give an average field strength of 26.3 μT and a virtual axial dipole moment of 65 ZAm2. The definitive results provide a useful augmentation of the global database for the longer term goal of developing new statistical descriptions of paleomagnetic field behavior.

  6. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  7. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  8. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONÓMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramírez Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional(2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.El nivel de divisas en poder del Banco Central se contrajo ligeramente a contrapelo de la meta del programa de estabilización. Los precios, sin embargo, mostraron una desaceleración en su ritmo de crecimiento; así, la inflación disminuyó hasta ubicarse en un 13,9%, medida por la variación anual del índice de precios al consumidor (IPC a diciembre.

  9. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  10. A history of nonviolence: Insecurity and the normative power of the imagined in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Crime, violence, and insecurity are among the most important social topics in contemporary Costa Rica. These three issues play a central role in the media, politics, and everyday life, and the impression has emerged that security has changed for the worse and that society is now threatened permanently. However, crime statistics do not support this perception. The paper thus asks why violence and crime generate such huge fear in society. The thesis is that the Costa Rican national identity - w...

  11. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto

    2008-01-01

    Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE). In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04) and identification of...

  12. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  13. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that

  14. 75 FR 13421 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements-Costa Rica, Oman, and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... 9000-AL23 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-036, Trade Agreements--Costa Rica, Oman, and... Dominican Republic--Central America-- United States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica, the United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES...

  15. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  16. Nicaraguan migration and the prevalence of adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintonen, Heidi; Bonilla-Carrión, Roger Enrique; Ashorn, Per

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the dynamics of adolescent childbearing of Nicaraguan-born and Costa Rican-born adolescents in Costa Rica and examines the association between socio-demographic factors and adolescent childbearing in the country. We studied Nicaraguan-born and Costa Rican adolescents using the data of the 2000 Census. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between country of origin and adolescent childbearing, while controlling for socio-demographic factors (age, education, union, urbanization and poverty). 26% of Nicaraguan-born migrants and 9.5% of Costa Ricans had given birth during adolescence. The migrants' increased odds of pregnancy decreased from 3.34 (CI 3.21, 3.48) to 1.88 (CI 1.79, 1.97) when controlling for socio-demographic factors. Age, low educational attainment, urban residence, poverty and union were all significant predictors of adolescent pregnancy. Nicaraguan-born status is associated with adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica. Further research is needed to understand what factors, other than socio-demographic indicators, contribute to the differing prevalence of adolescent childbearing in Costa Rica.

  17. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The fertility plateau in Costa Rica: a review of causes and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, K D; Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1993-01-01

    Costa Rica achieved a substantial reduction in its overall fertility rate in a very short period of time. The halving of the fertility rate which occurred in less than ten years in Costa Rica transpired over the course of 100 years in France and 170 in Sweden. The level of contraceptive use in Costa Rica is twice that in other Central American nations. The authors summarize the recent demographic history of Costa Rica and review factors influencing its remarkable fertility decline. They then discuss possible explanations for the ensuing fertility plateau and conclude by suggesting strategies for affecting a further decrease in fertility rates. With regard to the reasons for the fertility plateau, cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, declining government commitment and family planning services, education, and the Church are considered. To reduce the level of fertility even further, the authors recommend that the government adopt a clear population policy which could serve as a basis for other changes such as increased support of family planning programs, improvements in the educational system, increased women's status and employment opportunities, and extensive education in schools and through the mass media on the socioeconomic and environmental effects of overpopulation. It is important to increase Costa Ricans' understanding of the negative impacts of continued population growth and the role of individual family planning decisions in that growth.

  19. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  20. Four new species of Symmerista Hübner, 1816 (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Symmerista Hübner (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) is reviewed for Costa Rica, based on 49 wild-caught specimens. Four species are newly described: Symmerista luisdiegogomezi Chacón, Symmerista inbioi Chacón, Symmerista minaei Chacón and Symmerista aura Chacón. All are from the cloud forests of the Talamanca moutain range, southern Costa Rica. Photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and barcodes are also provided. The species Symmerista tlotzin Schaus (1892) is removed from Symmerista and assigned to the genus Elymiotis Walker as a new combination. PMID:25061379

  1. [Costa Rica: a geographical approach to the study of its population (1522-1984)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Alvarado, G

    1990-01-01

    The author provides a geographical interpretation of population dynamics in Costa Rica from 1522 to 1984. Sections are included on Spanish colonialism as a demographic catastrophe, 1500-1821; the country's stable demographic behavior after obtaining its independence in 1821; the population as a product of cross-breeding; the unequal spatial distribution of the country's population; model demographic growth, 1900-1984; low mortality and high fertility as factors driving population growth; the age structure of the population; regional migration in Costa Rica and areas of migratory attraction; the growth of the urban population and the extent of assimilation of diverse groups; and the problem of poverty.

  2. Los sistemas ganaderos con criollo lechero tropical (Reyna) en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaboa Arroniz, Julio; Quirós Madrigal, Olman; Díaz Rivera, Pablo; WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Brower Keating, Natalie; Zetina Córdoba, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar los componentes tecnológicos utilizados en los ranchos ganaderos con bovinos Criollo Lechero Tropical(CLT) Reyna y las características socioeconómicas de los productores que utilizan esta raza. Este estudio se realizó de mayo a julio de 2011 en las provincias de Cartago y Guanacaste,Costa Rica. Se entrevistó a los administradores de los módulos lecheros de la Estación Experimental Alfredo VolioMata (EEAVM) de la Universidad de Costa Rica y del ...

  3. Ethical and Legal Aspects of the Fertilization in Vitro: Case Artavia Murillo Vs. Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cristina Aguiar De Paula Vilela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Case Fertilization in vitro vs. Costa Rica, judged by the Inter- American Court of Human Rights, from the perspective of bioethics and law. For this, the theories about the beginnings of life were discussed, as the theoretical debate of the Kantian imperative and the Beck's risk society, in order to provide the discussion on human dignity and risks of research in biotechnology and genetics. For the IACHR,to prohibit fertilization in vitro in Costa Rica was discriminatory and violated theduty of not arbitrary interference in private life and the right of family’s formation.

  4. Change in dense forest habitat for endangered wildlife species in Costa Rica from 1940 to 1977

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    El hábitat es un elemento clave en la extinción de especies. Con base en mapas de vegetación, estimaciones de densidad poblacional y teoría de ecología insular analizo la pérdida de bosque denso para 27 especies de Costa Rica. Entre 1940 y 1977, sufrieron en promedio 35% de destrucción del hábitat de bosque denso. Especies como Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Panthera onca, Harpia harpyja y Ara ambigua probablemente se van a extinguir en Costa Rica dentro del próximo siglo debido a que les hace falt...

  5. [Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana C; Cortés, Jorge; Zamora, Priscilla

    2007-03-01

    The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9 trees/10 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/day) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites.

  6. Geología del este de Costa Rica y el norte de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Gregorio; Astorga, Allana

    2011-01-01

    Costa Rica y Panamá forman parte del Bloque Chorotega, el cual conforma una provincia geológica de basamento oceánico, de edad Mesozoica - Conozoica que representa un arco de islas intraoceánico maduro, que ha evolucionado desde el Cretácico Superior. El segmento formado por el este de Costa Rica y el norte de Panamá constituye una unidad tectónica limitada por fallas, donde el límite norte corresponde con el Cinturón Deformado del Norte de Panamá, que en la latitud de Puerto Limón, se transf...

  7. Social Perception and Encounters with Snakes in Costa Rica: An Analysis through the Social Network Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Sánchez-Paniagua; Katherine González-Villalobos; Juan G. Abarca

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are among the animals most affected by the ignorance of humans towards wildlife In Costa Rica, little effort has been made to know how snakes are affected by human actions. In the present study, we used information supplied to the Serpientes de Costa Rica page of the social network Facebook to find out: which species are reported most frequently? Which of these suffer the greatest number of deaths? and what ability to recognize them have those who send the reports? A total of 484 repor...

  8. Evolution and Innovations of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos de Céspedes; Manuel Saborío; Rafael Trejos; Gabriela Abarca; Avelino Sánchez

    2004-01-01

    We present the evolution, organization and results of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica (PNT). This program has been working uninterruptedly for more than fourteen years. Costa Rica currently has a literacy rate of 95%. To August 2004 the rate of infant mortality was 9.74 per 1000 births and to 2003, life expectancy was 76.3 years for men and 81.1 years for women. The control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as of severe malnutrition, has given r...

  9. Evolution and Innovations of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manual; Trejos, Rafael; Abarca, Gabriela; Sánchez, Avelino; Rojas, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution, organization and results of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica (PNT). This program has been working uninterruptedly for more than fourteen years. Costa Rica currently has a literacy rate of 95%. To August 2004 the rate of infant mortality was 9.74 per 1000 births and to 2003, life expectancy was 76.3 years for men and 81.1 years for women. The control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as of severe malnutrition, has given r...

  10. Statistical analysis of abstentionism in the presidential elections of Costa Rica, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Araya Alpízar, Carlomagno

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza estadísticamente el abstencionismo electoral por distritos y provincias en las elecciones presidenciales de Costa Rica, 2014. El autor estudia la importancia de las variables socioeconómicas como el Índice de Desarrollo Social (IDS), con el objetivo de identificar los factores desencadenantes y que representan un problema de legitimación del sistema político costarricense. En este sentido, se determinó que el abstencionismo electoral en los distritos de Costa Rica s...

  11. Inocuidad microbiológica de los alimentos para animales en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Alvarado, Andrea; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    En esta revisión se analizan 3 contaminantes distintos que afectan directamente la inocuidad alimentaria y que están siendo investigados constantemente en Costa Rica y forman parte de programas de vigilancia a nivel nacional e internacional. Los mismos debido a su importancia en salud humana y animal han sido investigados en alimentos para animales comercializados en Costa Rica por investigadores del Centro de Investigación en Nutrición Animal (CINA) en conjunto con otros grupos de investigac...

  12. Durango (México) y Costa Rica: dos maneras contrastantes de ver la educación a distancia

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Monge Nájera; Víctor Hugo Méndez-Estrada

    2008-01-01

    La educación a distancia ha alcanzado una importancia grande y creciente en el siglo XXI. A pesar de sus semejanzas históricas, culturales y económicas, México y Costa Rica tienen características muy diferentes en educación a distancia. A diferencia de México, en Costa Rica la investigación sobre educación a distancia es voluminosa. Este estudio identifica las similitudes y diferencias generales entre la educación a distancia del Estado de Durango, México, y Costa Rica. Para ello, entrevistam...

  13. Radioactive contamination of tropical rainforest soils in Southern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossew, P; Strebl, F

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide content in soils from four locations in a tropical rainforest near Golfito in Southern Costa Rica was investigated. For comparison, two nearby locations in open grassland were also studied. From each site 5 soil cores down to a depth of 15 cm were taken. The median contamination with 137Cs was 584 Bq m-2 (reference date 1 January 1996) and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 50%. This contamination can be attributed to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests between 1945 and 1980. The mean contamination is slightly lower than the value expected for the latitude (8 degrees 42': 700 Bq m-2), which may be explained by migration of radiocaesium to subsoil below 15 cm or by uptake into the living biomass. Out of the total variability of 50%, around 20% can be attributed to the sampling and measuring process uncertainties, thus leaving a 45% contribution of spatial variability. A significant difference between forest and meadow sites could be detected: the meadow sites showed lower radiocaesium soil inventories (median: 291 Bq m-2) than the forest sites (643 Bq m-2). This may be explained by the agricultural activities carried out on meadow sites which lead to an increased redistribution of caesium in the soil profile and therefore a larger fraction of the total 137Cs lying below 15 cm. Another reason for higher contamination levels under forest can be attributed to the high interception potential of dense tree canopies for dry deposition. Extrapolating the 137Cs concentration below the sampling horizon, i.e. accounting for the cut-off of the profiles by the sampling technique, results in an estimated mean of 710 Bq m-2 for the forest sites, which is very close to the expected figure. The mainly mineral part of the forest soil profiles was analysed for the 137Cs transport parameters, apparent convection velocity (v = 0.14 +/- 0.09 cm a-1) and apparent diffusion constant (D = 0.79 +/- 0.49 cm2 a-1). The maximum concentration can be found at 5

  14. Forest Structure and Biomass Data, La Selva, Costa Rica: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides field measurements of diameter, tree height, and crown dimensions for 1,513 trees in 30 plots at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa...

  15. El diagnóstico prenatal de defectos cromosómicos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Castro Volio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una breve reseña histórica del diagnóstico prenatal citogenético en Costa Rica. Se realiza únicamente en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud de la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 1984. Sirve a los hospitales de la seguridad social y a la medicina privada. Trabajamos con muestras de líquido amniótico y de sangre fetal enviadas por los perinatólogos, provenientes de embarazos de alto riesgo, ya sea por presentar alteraciones en el ultrasonograma, marcadores sonográficos de aneuploidía o edad materna avanzada, entre otras indicaciones menos frecuentes. El diagnóstico se realiza en el segundo y en el tercer trimestre de gestación. Como la interrupción del embarazo no es permitida, el personal médico y la familia se prepara con tiempo para recibir de la mejor manera al neonato afectado. En los casos de cariotipo normal, esta información alivia la preocupación de los padres.Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomic defects in Costa Rica. This is an historical overview of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Costa Rica. It started in 1984 at the Institute for Health Research of the University of Costa Rica. This is the only fetal cytogenetic diagnosis facility in the country and serves social security as well as private patients. Perinatologists send amniotic fluid and fetal blood samples from high risk pregnancies, mainly due to abnormal ultrasound assessment, sonographic markers of aneuploidy and advanced maternal age. Second and third trimester diagnosis allows the development of coping strategies for the families of affected fetuses, since pregnancy interruption is not permitted. Normal fetal cytogenetic results provide reassurance to the parents. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 545-549. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  16. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt A. Haberyan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2 , but low in dissolved O2 ; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic. The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1, Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.Se visitaron 51 lagos en Costa Rica como parte de un sondeo de lagos más amplio, con el fin de documentar sus carácteristicas físicas y químicas y las relaciones entre estas carácteristicas y el modo

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    Most parts of Costa Rica, except for the Quaternary volcanic belt, have neither been studied or mapped in detail. Concerning past exploration limited uranium exploration took place in the late 1960's but details are lacking. No additional information is available. A bibliography of Costa Rican geology (Dengo, 19t>2a) and the metallogenic map of Central America (1CAITI, 1970) do not report any uranium occurrences. Data on current exploration activities for uranium are lacking. Mining is essentially regulated by a 1953 code and a 1964 supplement, but the production and use of radioactive materials are controlled by the Costa Rican Atomic Energy Commission. New raining and petroleum laws reportedly are being considered. Mining rights are available with few restrictions to foreign nationals and corporations. Costa Rica contains no rocks older than Cretaceous. The Mesozoic continental clastic sequences of Honduras and northern Nicaragua do not extend this far south. The massive intrusions of acidic granites and syenites in the Talamanca ranges are probably older than the oldest formations now seen adjacent to them and could not have contributed to their mineralization except through weathering. There may be a faint possibility for uranium deposition in lodes and fracture zones within the granitic rocks, but no such deposits have been reported. Insofar as the sediments are concerned, only the shallow water faces of the marine sediments of the Caribbean coastal region offer the remotest possibilities. The uranium potential of Costa Rica is estimated, at less than 1,000 tonnes

  18. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  19. Blood parasites (Haemoproteus and microfilariae) in birds from the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benedikt, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.; Literák, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 197-204 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Blood parasites * microfilariae * birds * Costa Rica * Haemoproteus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.070, year: 2009

  20. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  1. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  2. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  3. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  4. Newly discovered natural hosts of tomato chlorosis virus in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is an emerging whitefly-transmitted crinivirus. ToCV was detected in field-grown and greenhouse tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants in Costa Rica in 2007, causing symptoms of severe yellowing and foliar chlorosis. To identify alternative hosts that may serve as viru...

  5. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  6. Music Education for Social Change in the Secondary Public Schools of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a recently implemented general music curriculum in secondary public schools, whose main goal is to address social issues in Costa Rica. The author describes and discusses its context, rationale, theoretical tenets, and proposed practices with the purpose of advancing theory-practice reflection on music education practices…

  7. Dying with AIDS in Costa Rica. Access to care and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R

    1997-01-01

    Costa Rica, with a population of 3 million people, has approximately 1200 cumulative diagnosed cases of AIDS. 70% of AIDS cases in the country have been among gay men. About 500 people with AIDS (PWA) are still alive and it is estimated that just as many people may be asymptomatic carriers of HIV. At the cost of $800-1000 per month per person, approximately 700,000 people, mostly in the US and Europe, are being treated with combination drug therapy capable of managing AIDS as a fairly curable chronic illness. However, most people in Costa Rica, where the per capita annual income is $2500, cannot afford to pay for such therapy. Arguing that the drugs are too expensive, the government has not approved any of the retroviral medications for general use in its socialized medical system which otherwise guarantees appropriate medical treatment to its citizens. The pharmaceutical companies which distribute the medications in Costa Rica, Roche and Bristol Meyers, refuse to provide patients with either free or significantly discounted drugs. The author discusses social discrimination against gay people in Costa Rica and describes attempts made to negotiate drug supplies for PWA with the government and pharmaceutical companies.

  8. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  9. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015

  10. 20 años de justicia penal Juvenil en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Burgos Mata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1996, Costa Rica ha tenido una evolución cualitativa en relación al Derecho Penal Juvenil, que ha proyectado también una jurisprudencia valiosa en tribunales especializados por 20 años.

  11. Contribución al estudio de los Pezizales (Ascomycotina) de Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Calonge, F.D.; Iturriaga, T.; Mata, M.; Carranza, Julia

    2003-01-01

    [EN] More than 400 herbarium collections ofPezizales have been observed during the confection ofthis work. As a result ofthis research on the taxonomy, chorology and ecology ofthese fungi, 46 taxa have been identified, and within them the following six species represent new records to Costa Rica: Aurophora dochmia, Glaziella allrantiaca, Gyromitra esculenta, Morchella esculenta, Plectania rhytidia and Winnea gigantea.

  12. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical

  13. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente

  14. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five

  15. Costa Rica: una agenda ambiental más allá de carbono neutro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela García Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se hace una sinopsis del concepto y sus implicaciones desde el punto de vista de la economía ecológica, tomando el caso de la agenda ambiental de Costa Rica para hacer una revisión de las acciones gubernamentales encaminadas hacia esta meta de la carbono-neutralidad.

  16. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  17. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  18. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

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    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  19. Pleistocene plant fossils in and near La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally P. Horn; Robert L. Sanford; David Dilcher; Terry A. Lott; Paul R. Renne; Michael C. Wiemann; Duane Cozadd; Orlando Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and 40 Ar/39Ar analysis of overlying tephra indicate that plant fossil assemblages exposed by stream erosion and well construction in and near La Selva Biological Station in eastern lowland Costa Rica are Pleistocene in age. We identified plant taxa based on wood, leaves, fruits, seeds, pollen, and spores examined from three sites at ca 30 m...

  20. Educational Leadership for Social Justice in Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez Gorosave, Gema; Cerdas, Victoria; Torres, Nancy; Antunez, Serafin; Briceno, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of school leaders to provide social justice in three contexts: Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study was conducted under the interpretative tradition characterized by a search for an understanding of the social world from the point of view of a…

  1. Development of a Pliocene mixed-carbonate siliciclastic reef (Limon, Costa Rica).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, T.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; McNeill, D.F.; Schäfer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Miocene to Pleistocene Limon Group of Costa Rica is a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession that formed in association with the emergence of the Central American Isthmus. Our study focuses on a lower Late Pliocene reef unit, the newly excavated Contact Cut, which is located at the contact

  2. Forest Conservation in Costa Rica: when nonuse benefits are uncertain but rising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Soest, van D.P.; Kooten, van G.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Stochastic dynamic programming is used to investigate optimal holding of primary tropical forest in humid Costa Rica when future nonuse benefits of forest conservation are uncertain and increasing. The quasi-option value of maintaining primary forests is included as a component of investment in

  3. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  4. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  5. Fluid sources and pathways of the Costa Rica erosional convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Michael D.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Hilton, David R.

    2010-04-01

    The margins community has only relatively recently begun to examine the tectonics and associated hydrologic systems of erosive convergent margins, which are substantially different as compared with accretionary margins. In this respect, the type example erosive margin is the Costa Rica system, which has been the subject of numerous recent large-scale investigations. Here pore fluids expelled at the wedge toe and at midslope mounds and mud volcanoes have been interpreted to have a common deep source of dehydrating clays, analogous to that at accretionary margins. However, we report unusually high B/Li molar ratios in pore fluids from a recent mudflow on Mound 11, offshore Costa Rica, which, together with unusually low B/Li ratios previously reported at the wedge toe, reveal that alternative fluid sources and/or processes must be operating at the Costa Rica margin. As serpentine formation is the only subduction zone process that significantly fractionates B and Li, we propose that the difference in fluid chemical composition is the result of erosion of upper plate serpentinites, ongoing serpentinization, and serpentine mineral phase transitions in the subduction channel. These processes provide both a source of fluids and fluid pathways that lead to the unique geochemical signature observed at this erosional margin. This conclusion is compatible with, and supported by, the current view of the tectonics, geology, and hydrogeology of the Costa Rica margin and the similarity of the pore fluid to that of two other convergent margins, both with known fluid/serpentinite interactions.

  6. Diet of some spring migrant landbirds on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Spring dietary patterns of migrants in tropical latitudes are largely unknown. Here I present diet data derived from an analysis of fecal samples for six migrant landbird species during spring migration along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. High levels of insectivory were detected for all six species captured. The nature of the data presented is discussed in light...

  7. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  8. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  9. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  10. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with

  11. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  12. Men's narratives of vasectomy: rearticulating masculinity and contraceptive responsibility in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomales, Tony O

    2013-03-01

    This article interrogates the modes by which cultural constructions of male contraceptive use emerge in Costa Rica by analyzing men's narratives of vasectomy. Drawing on ethnographic research data, I examine men's contraceptive decision making and perspectives on vasectomy and specify the ways they work through their vasectomy to rearticulate the relationship between masculinity and contraceptive responsibility and tensions in an emerging Costa Rican social modernity. Following Oudshoorn's (2003) analysis on male contraceptive research, this article highlights contraceptive technologies and men's narratives of these technologies as key sites for examining gender politics in contemporary societies and the materialization of new social orders. In the discussion, I argue that the men's narratives examined here potentiate creation of an "alternative technosociality" (Oudshoorn 2003) in Costa Rica, in which men taking contraceptive responsibility does not constitute performing a subordinate masculinity, but simply another way of acting as men. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  13. Nuevas especies de Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Costa Rica

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    Luis F. de Armas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres especies nuevas de esquizómidos de Costa Rica que pertenecen al género Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995: una de la Estación Biológica La Selva, provincia Heredia; las otras dos, de la Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Coto Brus, provincia Puntarenas. Con estos nuevos aportes, se elevan a 16 los miembros del género y a nueve las especies de esquizómidos formalmente descritas de este país centroamericano.Three new species of Costa Rican schizomids belonging to the genus Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, are described from Biological Station La Selva, Heredia province, and Biological Station Las Cruces, Coto Brus, Puntarenas province. Those additions raise to 16 the known nominal species of this genus and to nine the schizomid species recognized from Costa Rica.

  14. Etnomatemática en Costa Rica: Un acercamiento a su perspectiva socio-histórica

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    Ana-Patricia Vásquez-Hernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of socio-historical research on the development of ethnomathematics in Costa Rica, with an emphasis on the description of events over time, which tries to order the information along a temporal referent. This research is part of the results of the FUNDER Ethnomathematical project of the Regional Section Huetar North and Caribbean (Campus Sarapiqui of the National University of Costa Rica. The methodology is mainly qualitative in its approach and the narrative is subdivided into theme-based topics. The results demonstrate the work that has been developed in this country to delve into ethnomathematics as a line of research from the various areas of human knowledge and work developed around it.

  15. Fitoprotección y Comercio Agrícola en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Valladares, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dos iniciativas futuras imponen a Costa Rica la necesidad de una revisión y redireccionamiento de su estrategia de inserción en los mercados internacionales: la manifestación de las intenciones de los Estados Unidos de establecer un tratado de libre comercio con Centroamérica y de la Comunidad Económica Europea de habilitar un acuerdo de asociación comercial con Centroamérica. Ambas iniciativas implicarán el establecimiento de mayores posibilidades comerciales y plantean importantes oportunid...

  16. [Attitude of primary care professionals to gender violence. A comparative study between Catalonia and Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  18. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA

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    Carmen Grace Salazar Salas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.

  19. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

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    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  20. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

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    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with

  1. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

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    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  2. LA ALEATORIEDAD EN LAS SERIES HISTÓRICAS DE LAS FINANZAS MUNICIPALES DE COSTA RICA EN EL PERIODO 2005-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol M., Rosendo; Pérez M., Eduardo; Sánchez H., Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Las finanzas municipales en Costa Rica exhiben grandes variaciones temporales y espaciales. En algunos municipios, la serie de tiempo de ingresos tributarios per cápita se comporta como un proceso de caminata aleatoria. Otros municipios presentan series históricas estables. Las series históricas de ingresos tributarios municipales per cápita de todo Costa Rica (1998-2010) y por cantón (2005-2011) fueron clasificadas de acuerdo con el proceso que exhiben como estables en sus niveles o procesos...

  3. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  4. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Basidiomicetes de Costa Rica: nuevas especies de Exobasidium (Exobasidiaceae y registros de Cryptobasidiales

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    Luis D. Gómez P

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen seis nuevas especies (Exobasidiales, Exobasidiaceae: Exobasidium aequatorianum parásito de Vaccinium crenatum (Don Sleumer en los Andes ecuatorianos; Exobasidium jamaicense como parásito de Lyonia jamaicensis (Sw.D.Don de Jamaica, Exobasidium disterigmicola como parásito de Disterigma huboldtii (Klz. Nied., de Costa Rica y que forma distrofias del tipo escoba de bruja, Exobasidium sphyrospermii de Costa Rica, como parásito de Sphyrospermum cordifolium Bentham, Exobasidium poasanum, de Costa Rica y que forma gigantescas pseudoagallas en hojas y yemas de Cavendishia bracteata (R. & P. ex St.-Hil. Hoer., Exobasidium pernettyae, de Costa Rica y parásito foliar de Pernettya prostrata (Cav. DC. Es muy posible que esas especies de parásitos se extiendan en todo el ámbito geografico de las plantas que parasitan, como lo demuestra el hallazgo de Exobasidium escalloniae Gómez & Kisimova, descrito de Costa Rica, en Escallonia myrtilloides var. patens, en Ecuador de donde tambien se registra Exobasidium vaccinii (Fkl. Wor. Como parásito de las especies costarricenses de Arctostaphylos y Comarostaphylos, se registra, describe e lustra la especie Exobasidium arctostaphyli Hark., descrita de la coasta occidental de los E.E.U.U. lo que constituye un nuevo registro neotropical. La exploración en búsqueda de criptobasidiáceas eleva el número de Cryptobasidiales registrados en Costa Rica a tres: Clinoconidium bullatum Sydow, originalmente descrito de las inmediaciones de Grecia, Alajuela, ahora se conoce también de Monteverde, Puntarenas, como parásito de Cinnamomum spp., Clinoconidium farinosum (P.Henn. Pat., de la misma localidad y como parásito de Ocotea monteverdensis Burger. En la Cordillera de Talamanca, se localizó una población de Aiouea costaricensis (Mez Kosterm., con numerosas agallas foliares y caulinares causadas por Drepanoconis larviformis (Speg. Speg. Con excepción de C. bullatum, todos son nuevos registros

  6. Educational gradients in psychotropic medication use among older adults in Costa Rica and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Dow, William H; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The relationship of education, psychiatric diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medication has been explored in the United States, but little is known about this relationship in poorer countries, despite the high burden of mental illness in these countries. This study estimated educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic drug use in the United States and Costa Rica, a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Analyses were conducted by using data of older adults (≥60) from the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=4,788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (N=2,827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of education level (low, medium, or high) and urban residence on the rates of self-reported mental health diagnoses, screening diagnosis, and psychotropic medication use with and without an associated psychiatric diagnosis. Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the United States (12%) than in Costa Rica (20%), possibly reflecting differences in survey wording. In both countries, the odds of having depression were significantly lower among persons with high education. In Costa Rica, use of psychotropic medication among persons with self-reported diagnoses increased by education level. The educational gradients in medication use were different in the United States and Costa Rica, and stigma and access to care in these countries may play an important role in these differences, although type of insurance did not affect educational gradients in the United States. These analyses increase the evidence of the role of education in use of the health care system.

  7. Educational Gradients in Psychotropic Medication Use Among Older Adults in Costa Rica and the United States†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa E.; Dow, William H.; Coto-Yglesias, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship among education, psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic medication use has been explored in the United States, but little is known about patterns in poorer countries, despite their high documented burden of mental illness. Educational gradients in diagnosis and psychotropic use were estimated in the United States and Costa Rica – a middle-income country with universal health insurance. Methods Analyses were conducted using data on older adults (ages 60+) in nationally representative surveys from each country: the 2005 U.S. Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (n=4788) and the 2005 Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (n=2827). Logistic regressions examined the effect of lower educational attainment, income and urban residence on diagnosis and on psychotropic medication use with and without an associated mental illness diagnosis. Results Rates of self-reported diagnoses were lower in the U.S. (12% U.S.; n=598) than in, Costa Rica (20%; n=526), but may reflect differences in survey wording. Measures of self-reported and screened depression decreased with education in both countries. Psychotropic medication use among those with diagnoses increased with education in Costa Rica only. Conclusions We find similar patterns of educational gradients in diagnosis and screening between the U.S. and Costa Rica, but different patterns of medication use by education. Differences in stigma and access to care may play an important role in explaining differences between the countries, though we did not find evidence that insurance affected educational gradients in the U.S. These analyses increase the evidence on the role of education in the use of the health care system. PMID:24932755

  8. Effectiveness of protected areas for representing species and populations of terrestrial mammals in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F; Víquez-R, Luis R; Belant, Jerrold L; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species' geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection.

  9. Effectiveness of Protected Areas for Representing Species and Populations of Terrestrial Mammals in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Maya, José F.; Víquez-R, Luis R.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Costa Rica has one of the greatest percentages (26%) of protected land in the world. The National Protected Areas System (NPAS) of Costa Rica was established in 1976 and currently includes >190 protected areas within seven different protection categories. The effectiveness of the NPAS to represent species, populations, and areas with high species richness has not been properly evaluated. Such evaluations are fundamental to understand what is necessary to strengthen the NPAS and better protect biodiversity. We present a novel assessment of NPAS effectiveness in protecting mammal species. We compiled the geographical ranges of all terrestrial Costa Rican mammals then determined species lists for all protected areas and the estimated proportion of each species’ geographic range protected. We also classified mammal species according to their conservation status using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. We found almost complete representation of mammal species (98.5%) in protected areas, but low relative coverage (28.3% on average) of their geographic ranges in Costa Rica and 25% of the species were classified as underprotected according to a priori representation targets. Interestingly, many species-rich areas are not protected, and at least 43% of cells covering the entire country are not included in protected areas. Though protected areas in Costa Rica represent species richness well, strategic planning for future protected areas to improve species complementarity and range protection is necessary. Our results can help to define sites where new protected areas can have a greater impact on mammal conservation, both in terms of species richness and range protection. PMID:25970293

  10. Distribution and ecological aspects of Rhodnius pallescens in Costa Rica and Nicaragua and their epidemiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the Central American Initiative for the control of Chagas disease, efforts were made on the part of Costa Rican and Nicaraguan teams, working separately, to determine the present status of Rhodnius pallescens in areas close to the common border of the two countries, where the insect has appeared within the last few years. The opportunity was also used to establish whether R. prolixus, a vector present in some areas of Nicaragua, has been introduced in recent years into Costa Rica with Nicaraguan immigrants. It became evident that wild adults of R. pallescens are common visitors to houses in different towns of a wide area characterized as a humid, warm lowland, on both sides of the frontier. Up to the present, this bug has been able to colonize a small proportion of human dwellings only on the Nicaraguan side. There was strong evidence that the visitation of the adult bug to houses is related to the attraction of this species to electric lights. There were no indications of the presence of R. prolixus either in Nicaragua or in Costa Rica in this area of the Caribbean basin. Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread domestic species in both countries, was totally absent in the explored areas of Costa Rica but occasionally occurs on the Nicaraguan side. Serological surveys in children of both areas showed that transmission of Chagas disease takes place in a rather small degree in Costa Rica and more commonly in Nicaragua, indicating that R. pallescens could be a potential threat as a vector in this particular region.

  11. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  12. Gestión del conocimiento en el primer nivel de atención de salud, en Heredia (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Luisa Elena Villanueva Salazar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación “Gestión del conocimiento en el primer nivel de atención de salud” se originó en el reconocimiento de que las instituciones de servicio y públicas no pueden estar funcionando ajenas al momento histórico de cambio acelerado que se vive en el mundo, producto del avance de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, que están influyendo de manera decisiva en los cambios de escenarios y paradigmas de cualquier proceso organizacional o actividad socio-profesional. El incremento de productividad de las organizaciones se basará más que en la información, en el conocimiento. En este sentido, el desafío es cómo convertir información en conocimiento útil, y cómo aprovechar el proceso de generación y apropiación del conocimiento para inducir procesos dinámicos de aprendizaje, que permita el fortalecimiento de capacidades y habilidades en las personas u organizaciones que se lo apropian. Bajo este marco se orientó la construcción de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento para el primer nivel de atención de salud, realizado con la participación activa de los actores sociales de los tres estamentos (autoridades, equipos de apoyo y equipos básicos de atención integral de la Cooperativa Autogestionaria de Salud Integral de Barva - Heredia, Costa Rica, entre julio y diciembre del año 2000. El tipo de estudio desarrollado es de investigación-acción, el paradigma utilizado fue cualitativo y el método fenomenológico. El hallazgo principal es que la gestión del conocimiento es asumida como sinónimo de capacitación, por tanto, no se aprovechan las oportunidades que existen derivadas de los procesos de trabajo para la generación, difusión y adquisición del conocimiento.

  13. Avances en la reducción del consumo de sal y sodio en Costa Rica Advances in reducing salt and sodium intake in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Blanco-Metzler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describen los avances logrados en Costa Rica -así como los desafíos y limitaciones- en la reducción del consumo de sal. El establecimiento del Plan Nacional para la Reducción del Consumo de Sal/sodio en la Población de Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 se complementó con programas y proyectos multisectoriales específicos dirigidos a: 1 conocer la ingesta de sodio y el contenido de sal o sodio en los alimentos de mayor consumo; identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos del consumidor respecto a la sal/sodio, su relación con la salud y el etiquetado nutricio-nal; evaluar la relación costo-efectividad de las medidas dirigidas a reducir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial; 2 implementar estrategias para disminuir el contenido de sal/sodio en los alimentos procesados y los preparados en casa; 3 promover cambios de conducta en la población para reducir el consumo de sal en la alimentación; y 4 monitorear y evaluar las acciones dirigidas a reducir el consumo de sal o sodio en la población. Para alcanzar las metas propuestas se debe lograr una exitosa coordinación interinstitucional con los actores estratégicos, negociar compromisos con la industria alimentaria y los servicios de alimentación, y mejorar la regulación de los nutrientes críticos asociados con las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, en los alimentos. Se espera que a partir de los avances logrados durante la ejecución del Plan Nacional, Costa Rica logre alcanzar la meta internacional de reducción del consumo de sal.This article describes the progress-as well as the challenges and limitations-in reducing salt intake in Costa Rica. The National Plan to Reduce Public Consumption of Salt/Sodium in Costa Rica 2011 - 2021 was complemented with multisectoral programs and projects specifically designed to: 1 determine sodium intake and the salt/sodium content of the most widely consumed foods; identify the consumer knowledge, attitudes

  14. Pura Vida: Teacher Experiences in a Science Education Study Abroad Course in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Stephanie Rae

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of classroom teachers who participated in a science-focused study abroad during their time as a preservice teacher and to explore how they are using their study abroad experiences in science curriculum planning and in classroom instruction. This study is guided by two research questions: 1) what are the study abroad experiences that have influenced classroom teachers; and, 2) how do classroom teachers incorporate study abroad experiences into science curriculum planning and instruction in the classroom? Participants were two in-service science teachers from schools located in the Southwestern United States. The participants were enrolled in the course, Environmental Science and Multicultural Experience for K-8 Teachers offered through the Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction during their time as preservice teachers. The course included a two-week study abroad component in Costa Rica. Participants spent their mornings observing a monolingual, Spanish-speaking elementary classroom followed by a faculty-led multicultural seminar. Afternoons during the study abroad experience were dedicated to field science activities such as quantifying plant and animal biodiversity, constructing elevation profiles, determining nutrient storage in soil, and calculating river velocity. Throughout the course students participated in science-focused excursions. A cross case study design was used to answer the two research questions guiding this dissertation study. Data collection included participant-created concept maps of the science experiences during the study abroad experience, in-depth interviews detailing the study abroad experience and classroom instruction, and participant reflective journal entries. Cross-caseanalysis was employed to explore the uniqueness of each participant's experience and commonalities between the cases. Trustworthiness was established by utilizing multiple sources of data

  15. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  16. Canopy Height and Biomass from LiDAR Surveys at La Selva, Costa Rica, 1998 and 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains land-use, canopy height, and aboveground carbon estimates derived from LiDAR data collected at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica in...

  17. Individual foraging, activity level and longevity in the stingless bee Melipona beecheii in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Tóth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Foraging behaviour of individually marked workers of Melipona beecheii (Meliponinae) was monitored in Costa Rica to investigate individual specialisation for different materials and how this influences foraging longevity. The majority of the individuals harvested one commodity (pollen, nectar or

  18. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  19. Patrones diferenciales de mortalidad entre inmigrantes nicaragüenses y residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring, Andrew A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  20. Dengue in Costa Rica: the gap in local scientific research Dengue en Costa Rica: la brecha en la investigación científica local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El dengue es una enfermedad de gran importancia a escala mundial. Los esfuerzos para su control en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo no han logrado detener el aumento en su incidencia, y se fomenta la investigación científica para contribuir a desarrollar nuevos enfoques de control basados en la evidencia científica o a mejorar los existentes. Enfermedad recientemente reemergente en Costa Rica, el dengue se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud en ese país. A pesar de esta crítica situación, se dispone de pocas publicaciones científicas sobre dengue en Costa Rica. En una búsqueda realizada en la base de datos PubMed se encontraron solo 11 artículos, mientras que en varias bases de datos bibliográficas centradas en Costa Rica y otros países de América Latina se hallaron 19 artículos más. Además, se encontraron 10 tesis relacionadas con el dengue realizadas en universidades costarricenses. Por lo tanto, son pocos los artículos científicos originales publicados sobre este tema en revistas científicas arbitradas, especialmente en aspectos vinculados con la epidemiología, la salud pública y la idoneidad y eficacia de las intervenciones en marcha. Esta brecha en las investigaciones puede deberse a diversos factores, como el contexto histórico y político, insuficientes recursos financieros y humanos, deficiencias en la colaboración entre las instituciones y dificultades para disponer de los datos. Costa Rica puede aprender de la experiencia de otros países de la Región de las Américas (como Cuba y Trinidad y Tobago, donde se ha investigado mucho más sobre dengue. Las investigaciones de esos dos países han aportado evidencias cruciales para el desarrollo de estrategias locales y generales dirigidas al control y la prevención del dengue. En dependencia del contexto local, algunos métodos de control pueden ser más eficaces que otros, por lo que las acciones basadas en la evidencia deben adaptarse para las

  1. Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica Nutritional status of classical ballet dancers, metropolitan area of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Madrigal Rojas; Ana Rocío González Urrutia

    2008-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico de las tres academias más importantes de ballet localizadas en el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Se trabajó con 24 bailarinas adultas (18 a 30 años) de niveles avanzados de ballet. Se registró el consumo de alimentos durante tres días. Se tomaron medidas de talla, peso y pliegues cutáneos. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre para análisis bioquímicos. Se evaluó además la densidad...

  2. Constructions of Difference and Deficit, a Case Study: Nicaraguan Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling of the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican…

  3. Frente a la encrucijada de las etiquetas políticas. Editorial Costa Rica, Estado e intelectuales (1959-1987).

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Mejías, Diana

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the Editorial Costa Rica and its publications as space of disputes between intellectuals, since its creation at 1959 until its economic crisis at 1987. For that purpose, analyses the foundational process, the politics discusses about the topics of its publications and the treats of others entities to market literary works. Este artículo estudia la Editorial Costa Rica y sus publicaciones como espacios de disputa dentro del mundo intelectual, desde su creación en 1959 h...

  4. La organización, promoción y proyección de las Matemáticas en Costa Rica (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison De Faria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe initiatives and efforts realized by groups of people, organizations and Costa Rican institutions in benefit of the development and projection of mathematics in Costa Rica

  5. La población con discapacidad en los censos del siglo XX en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn este trabajo se logró conocer los criterios de clasificación empleados para definir a la población con discapacidad en los registros censales del siglo XX en Costa Rica y, por consiguiente, una aproximación a las formulaciones conceptuales para referirse al grupo en estudio. Además, se caracterizó a ese segmento poblacional a partir de diferentes variables: sexo, edad, estado civil y distribución geográfica. También se abordaron otros aspectos como fueron: alfabetismo, nivel de educación, ocupación, jefatura de hogar y vivienda. Entre los hallazgos más destacables se encuentra la permanencia, en los registros censales del siglo XX, de un concepto de discapacidad basado en la deficiencia, lo que definió los criterios de clasificación para esa población en esas fuentes. Asimismo se constató, por una parte, la asociación entre discapacidad e inequidad en esa centuria y, por la otra, la fragilidad de los vínculos de parentesco en ese grupo poblacional con respecto al conjunto de hogares de Costa Rica a fines de ese siglo. Las fuentes empleadas en esta investigación fueron los censos de población de Costa Rica del siglo XX. En el procedimiento con los datos, se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo de distribución de frecuencias. ABSTRACTThis research discloses the classification criteria used to define the population with disability in the twentieth century census records in Costa Rica and therefore gives an approximation of the conceptual formulations needed to refer to the examined group. Additionally, a segment of the population has been characterized by sex, age, marital status and geographical distribution. Other aspects like literacy rate, education level, occupation, head of household and housing were also dealt with. The disability concept based on deficiency, which defined the classification criteria for the population in those data sources, is among the most significant findings of this research. Furthermore

  6. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  7. PM10 Concentration Estimates over Costa Rica using Chemical Transport Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno-Castillo, J. S.; Vidaurre, G.; Herrera, J.; Mora, R.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol pollution has become a major issue in Costa Rica because of the urban development that induces an increase in vehicle and industrial emissions. The Metropolitan area in Costa Rica is a valley ( 1,967 km2 area) with a population of 2.6 million. This area concentrates 60% of the country's total industry and 57% of its vehicle emissions. In addition, this area is impacted by biogenic emissions coming from national forests surround it and windblown dust from the Sahara Desert transported by the Trade winds. PM10 and other criteria pollutants have been measured in the past 12 years. However, those monitor stations are single points of observation and do not represent the spatial and temporal resolution that the Costa Rican national government requires for long term policy decisions and health effects assessments. This investigation uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry version 3.7 (WRF-Chem) to forecast PM10 concentration over Costa Rica in 2013. The temporal scales take into consideration the dry, rainy, and transition seasons of the country. The spatial domain was constructed with a master domain (27 km resolution) and multiple nested-domains (9, 3, and 1 km respectively) that include the total area of Costa Rica. The meteorology data bases for this model are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Reanalysis (Era-Interim; Dee et al. 2011). In addition, the chemical transport model uses emissions inventories from the PREP-CHEM-SRC tool, because of the lack of an appropriate national emission inventory for this investigation. The total average of PM10 observed at the metropolitan area of Costa Rica was 26±9 μgm-3 in 2013. According to the World Health Organization, this result exceeds the PM10 standard established in the air quality guidelines (WHO 2005). The final goal of this investigation is to evaluate the chemical transport simulations with ground-level measurements from more than 10

  8. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoyan Peninsula: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2013-01-01

    Studies in humans suggest that leukocyte telomere length may act as a marker of biological aging. We investigated whether individuals in the Nicoya region of Costa Rica, known for exceptional longevity, had longer telomere length than those in other parts of the country. After controlling for age, age squared, rurality, rainy season and gender, mean leukocyte telomere length in Nicoya was substantially longer (81 base pairs, pCosta Rica, providing evidence of a biological pathway to which this notable longevity may be related. This relationship remains unchanged (79 base pairs, p<0.05) after statistically controlling for nineteen potential biological, dietary and social and demographic mediators. Thus the difference in mean leukocyte telomere length that characterizes this unique region does not appear to be explainable by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors. More detailed examination of mean leukocyte telomere length by age shows that the regional telomere length difference declines at older ages. PMID:23988653

  9. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga; Liliana Pazos Sanou

    1998-01-01

    Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunología, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 19...

  10. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  11. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  12. Diccionario histórico-toponímico de la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eduardo Díaz Bolaños

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron de distintas fuentes documentales los nombres de setenta y seis topónimos correspondientes a los principales accidentes topográficos del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. Estos se pueden agrupar en cuatro grupos principales, como son aquellos pertenecientes a las visitas de navegantes británicos, la vida republicana en Costa Rica y aquellos de la flora y fauna, tanto terrestre como marina. La metodología empleada ha permitido identificar setenta y uno de estos topónimos. Conceptualmente, el dinamismo del abordaje metodológico y la divulgación de sus resultados sugieren tener implícito un proceso de retroalimentación.

  13. New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae from Costa Rica and Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte H. Jordal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Scolytodes (tribe Ctenophorini are described as new to science: S. concavus and S. circumsetosus (from Ficus branches, La Selva, S. montanus (Monteverde, S. nudifrons (Las Cruces near San Vito, and S. triangulus (fogging sample, La Selva, all from Costa Rica, and S. ungulatus (Cerro Punta and S. punctifrons (from Astronium graveolens, Canal Zone, both from Panama. New distributional and host plant data are given for the following species: S. amoenus (Ficus branch, La Selva, and the first record south of Mexico, S. immanis (Cerro de La Muerte, S. impressus (Xylopia branch, Peninsula de Osa, S. ochromae (Ochroma branch, La Selva, S. piceus (fogging sample, La Selva, the first low altitude record, and S. swieteniae (fogging sample, La Selva and Braulio Carrillo, the first exact locality data, all from Costa Rica, and S. nanellus (Barro Colorado Island from Panama.

  14. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  15. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homedes N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.

  16. SME´s semi-formality rate in Costa Rica: a clusters approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MSME Observatory has been studying MSMEs in Costa Rica. Its findings show that for every formal enterprise, there are 2.4 semi-formal ones. The latter refers to those enterprises that have already started the formalization process with the corresponding municipality but that still do not have all the formalization requirements.Owing to the importance of the semi-formal sector in the economic activity of Costa Rica, this study analyzed this business park and the role of municipal management concerning MSMEs, calculated the correlation among semi-formality, competitiveness, and development, and finally, proposed a cluster design to deal with the state of affairs. It should be noted that this type of analysis has never been undertaken in the country.

  17. Costa Rica as a source of emigrants: a reading from a political economy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gatica López

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Available data shows an increase in international migration departing from Costa Rica, mainly to the United States. Based on the data obtained from two surveys conducted with potential emigrants and families with members living abroad, this paper is aimed at understanding their reasons for emigrating. In addition, some socio-economic impacts in four suburbs with high rates of emigration are identified. From a political economy approach, the most appropriate framework to better understand these emigration cases is discussed.  Moreover, the transformation of the employment and productive matrix followed by Costa Rica during the last three decades, as well as the country’s form of insertion into the international economy are two structural factors strongly linked to the emigration of the subjects studied in this paper.

  18. The basic limnology of a low altitnde tropical crater lake: Cerro Chato, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña V, Gerardo; Jiménez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cerro Chato Lake was visited in April, May, and lune 1992. The lake is located within an intemlediate- El lago de Cerro Chato se visitó varias veces en 1992 para estudiar su limnología básica. El lago se localiza en un antiguo crater a una altitud intermedia (1020 m) en Costa Rica, América Central. Tiene paredes empinadas y alcanza una profundidad máxima de 18.8 m. No posee salida superficial, sin embargo el agua posee una baja concentración de solutos, posiblemente como resultado de una a...

  19. Gestión ambiental participativa: la experiencia de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leadem, Daniel Avendaño; Sánchez, Daniela Gacía

    2016-01-01

    La gestión ambiental desarrollada en los campus universitarios es una tendencia que se extiende entre las universidades de toda América. El programa ambiental UNA-Campus Sostenible de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica es el encargado de implementar diferentes acciones en cumplimiento con la política ambiental de esta institución pública de enseñanza superior. Su metodología se ha basado en un Modelo de Gestión Ambiental Participativa por medio de Comisiones Ambientales. En la práctica, la...

  20. Management commitments and primary care: another lesson from Costa Rica for the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soors, Werner; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maintained dedication to primary care has fostered a public health delivery system with exceptional outcomes in Costa Rica. For more than a decade, management commitments have been part of Costa Rican health reform. We assessed the effect of the Costa Rican management commitments on access and quality of care and on compliance with their intended objectives. We constructed seven hypotheses on opinions of primary care providers. Through a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach, we tested these hypotheses and interpreted the research findings. Management commitments consume an excessive proportion of consultation time, inflate recordkeeping, reduce comprehensiveness in primary care consultations, and induce a disproportionate consumption of hospital emergency services. Their formulation relies on norms in need of optimization, their control on unreliable sources. They also affect professionalism. In Costa Rica, management commitments negatively affect access and quality of care and pose a threat to the public service delivery system. The failures of this pay-for-performance-like initiative in an otherwise well-performing health system cast doubts on the appropriateness of pay-for-performance for health systems strengthening in less advanced environments.

  1. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  2. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Education in Costa Rica: Building a Framework for Sustainable Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Environmental education is commonly claimed to be at the centre of efforts to achieve sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Costa Rica has been one of the acknowledged leaders in efforts to promote environmental learning, and national policy includes a threefold national development strategy which simultaneously promotes education, conservation and ecotourism. As of yet, however, what is happening ?on the ground? has not been examined in much detail. This article addresses this gap in the...

  4. [Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in swine in Costa Rica: epidemiologic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A L; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1991-01-01

    On a three hundred swine sera sample collected from a Municipal Slaughter house and a Research Laboratory at the Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería a 26% of positivity against T. gondii was found using the carbon immunoassay. A relationship between the age and swine race are made. The epidemiological significance of this findings are discussed focused mainly on the role of swine meat as a source of human infection in Costa Rica.

  5. Institutionalisation, deinstitutionalisation and change: The context of policy change for software exports in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Brian; Sahay, Sundeep

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses deinstitutionalisation from a longitudinal perspective. Drawing on the case of software exports policymaking in Costa Rica, it analyses persistence and change paying particular attention to formation of dissensus, understood as lack of unanimity on the value of an activity that is sufficient to destabilise institutional norms and activities. The role of cultural and political factors in deinstitutionalisation or persistence is considered. Based on the empirical data, a fr...

  6. A new subspecies of sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos, from Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bessesen,Brooke; Galbreath,Gary

    2017-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new subspecies of sea snake from the occasionally anoxic inner-basin waters of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, based on combined data garnered between 2010 and 2017 for 154 specimens, 123 free-ranging and 31 museum-held. The yellow sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath, subsp. n., is diagnosed by a notably smaller body size and nearly uniform yellow coloration, which contrasts with the black and yellow striae and tail spots or bands typical of t...

  7. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jim?nez, D.; Romero-Zu?iga, J.J.; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora...

  8. Cambio en la dinámica electoral en Costa Rica: un caso de desalineamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Campos, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The results of the last two general elections (1998 and 2002) in Costa Rica, suggest that the country’s electoral dynamics have exited their apparent stability and entered a process of change. The present study evaluates the main signs of this change (rising levels of absenteeism, ticket-splitting, electoral volatility, and support for third parties), and defines it as an «electoral dealignment» process. Moreover, it argues that there is evidence to conclude that electoral dealignment in Cost...

  9. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  10. Feather mites of the subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4297, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-105 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Proctophyllodidae * systematics * new species * fauna * host associations * Passeriformes * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  11. Temporal variation of phytoplankton in a small tropical crater lake, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Umaña-Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    The temporal variation in lake’s phytoplankton is important to understand its general biodiversity. For tropical lakes, it has been hypothesized that they follow a similar pattern as temperate ones, on a much accelerated pace; nevertheless, few case studies have tried to elucidate this. Most studies in Costa Rica have used a monthly sampling scheme and failed in showing the expected changes. In this study, the phytoplankton of the small Barvas’s crater lake was followed for more than three ye...

  12. Analisis de la conducta en Costa Rica y Guatemala: presente y futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Villalobos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe el desarrollo reciente del análisis de la conducta en Costa Rica y Guatemala, luego se realizan una serie de comentarios sobre la necesidad de construir, adaptar e implementar un análisis de la conducta centroamericano, involucrado en los problemas sociales reales y macro de la región como estrategia de mantenimiento y difusión del mismo

  13. Hemidactylus frenatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae): call frequency, movement and condition of tail in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Caty Frenkel

    2006-01-01

    Call frequency and movements of the gecko Hemidactylus frenatus were studied in Punta Morales, Costa Rica from April 1999 through May 2000. Call activity of H. frenatus was positively related to air temperature at night and throughout the year. Higher activity was at dusk, dawn, and during the hottest months. Call frequency was related with gecko abundance per month, although not during the night. More males and females had a regenerated tail compared to juveniles, the last ones could have it...

  14. Didactic transposition: an example in the educative system in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Alfaro Carvajal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes some fundamental ideas about the theory of didactic transposition of Yve Chevallard (1980, from which it is made an analysis of the knowledge transformation suffers from the mathematical level to the scholastic level. To demonstrate this transformation, it is analyzed the theme of integers, which is included in the seventh- grade curriculum of the educational system of Costa Rica.

  15. Helicotylenchus stylocercus n. sp. and Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, M R; Pinochet, J

    1979-10-01

    Two new species of plant-parasitic nematodes from Costa Rica are described. Helicotygenchus styloeercus n. sp., from soil around roots of banana at Coto, is distinguished hy the female tail, which bears a large pillarlike ventral projection. Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp., from soil artmnd roots of Dioscoroea sp. at Sixaola, differs from R. caudaphasmidius in having the conus equal to or more than half the spear length, and large terminal annules on the female tail.

  16. Never ride a turtle : ecotourism in Costa Rica : a case study from a national park

    OpenAIRE

    Lerfald, Trude

    1999-01-01

    Tourism is often presented as a panacea to less developed countries. Costa Rica, with its well-developed tourist infrastructure and impressive natural wildlife and nature reserves, has become a hot spot for so-called ecotourism. The main attraction in the national park Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas in Playa Grande, is The Turtle Tour. These tours are marketed as an ecotourist s dream of an encounter with nature . There is a great deal of controversy about the national park, related...

  17. Genetic Characterization of chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz, in Costa Rica by using isozyme markers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Rocha, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    We established protocols for the analysis of genetic diversity in chayote (Sechium edule) by using isozyme markers, thereby determining the level of genetic diversity present in 42 accessions of chayote from Costa Rica. We obtained clear and reproducible zymograms for eight enzyme staining systems: PGM, 6-PGD, PGI, IDH, MDH, SOD, SKD, and EST, and were able to score 14 putative loci. Eight of the 14 loci examined were polymorphic. We found 35 distinct multilocus genotypes among these accessio...

  18. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  19. A Disaggregate Model and Second Round Effects for the CPI Inflation in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates a medium-term forecasting model for the headline inflation of Costa Rica, utilizing disaggregate data from the components of the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The period used for the estimation is characterize by a process of reduction of inflation and stabilized around the Central Bank's inflation target. The result show that the use of disaggregate data is at least as good as the aggregate data in forecast accuracy. The disaggregate model allows to differentiate the inert...

  20. HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica: epidemiological and sociological features,1993

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo; Ramírez, Giselle; Quesada, Jorge

    1995-01-01

    Artículo científico-- Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1995 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first detected in Costa Rica in 1983. For four years most known cases were in hemophiliac men. Thereafter, AIDS in homosexual and bisexual men predominated. By December 31 of 1993, 563 persons had been diagnosed with the syndrome, 71% of them homosexual and bisexual men, 10% heterosexual men and women, 6% hemophiliacs, 2% intravenous drug abusers (IVDA' s), 2% women and men who h...

  1. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria del turismo de Costa Rica representa 7,5% de PNB, 21% de las exportaciones totales y de esa contribución el subsector de alimento y bebidas representa 28%. El propósito de esta investigación fue el de identifi car, elementos y obstáculos potenciales en jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias de universidades en Costa Rica. El estudio fue realizado entre estudiantes de artes culinarias en de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, las entrevistas realizadas fueron 237 todos los matriculados en artes culinarias. Ausencia de tradición, la falta de cultura empresarial entre los jóvenes estudiantes y la necesidad de apoyos de la familia y amigos parecen ser pertinente y una necesidad sentida por el grupo. La falta de instrucción general en negocio y la falta de iniciativa empresarial se reconoce por ambos grupos como una debilidad y necesidad. El "coaching" y el apoyo para mujeres empresarios es muy pertinente, en especial en los aspectos administrativos y técnicos en los jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias. La información generada por este estudio es importante si en verdad queremos entrenar con los programas en artes artes culinarias , la nueva casta de chef/empresarios necesarios para la expansión de la industria de la gastronomía en los próximos años para Costa Rica y la región.

  2. Diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Cerdas, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Tesis (magíster scientiae en biología con énfasis en genética y biología molecular)--Universidad de Costa Rica. Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, 2005. UCR::Investigación::Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado::Ciencias Básicas::Maestría Académica en Biología con énfasis en Genética y Biología Molecular

  3. Eliminating War By Eliminating Warriors: A Case Study in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Central America averaged 15.7% of GDP on healthcare.80 Costa Rica nearly doubles that with approximately 29% of its GDP dedicated to its healthcare...years of the Cold War doubled from just the United States to include the Soviet Union. Demonstrating the exclusivity of having a nuclear arsenal at...and requires relatively high taxation , so the legal residents of the state must pay into a system that provides the security that they enjoy. Rather

  4. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

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    Juan Carlos Vargas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002 Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  5. Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica y Estados Unidos: datos de etnoencuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Centroamérica el único país con un comportamiento claramente bipolar en el destino de la emigración es Nicaragua. La migración de este país tiene a Costa Rica como principal destino y los Estados Unidos de América como el segundo. Este comportamiento no ha sido estático, aunque si muestra un patrón inverso. De mediados del siglo XIX a finales del decenio de 1970 con el triunfo sandinista (1979, Costa Rica era el principal destino. En la década de los años 80, con la denominada guerra de los contras, se presenta aumento de la emigración y se varía el destino y ocupa los Estados Unidos el primer lugar. Una vez que cesa el conflicto armado y los sandinistas dejan el gobierno, nuevamente Costa Rica se presenta como el principal destino, esta vez con aumento respecto del comportamiento histórico (Vargas; 1999, 2003. Pese a la magnitud de esta migración y las repercusiones para Costa Rica, son pocos los estudios que tienen por objeto analizarla en forma sistemática. Un importante esfuerzo lo han realizado Jimmy Rosales y otros, al estudiar los "nicaragüenses en el exterior" (Rosales: 2001 con datos del censo nicaragüense de 1995. Estudios más puntuales, con trabajo de campo en algunas comunidades fronterizas con Costa Rica, los han realizado investigadores de FLACSO-Costa Rica (Morales; 1997, 2000 (Morales y Castro, 2002. Recientemente, con el empleo de datos de etnoencuestas (para 5 comunidades en Nicaragua y otros países, se han desarrollado algunos trabajos para temas específicos. Fussell (2003 ha revisado las evidencias para la teoría de la causación acumulativa que brinda esta migración; Riosmena (2003 ha estudiado las posibilidades de retorno, y Hickes y Massey (2003, han estudiado las relaciones con el conflicto armado y político en Nicaragua y el destino de los migrantes. En este trabajo se analizan las características demográficas básicas de los migrantes, así como las corrientes migratorias con una mirada

  6. 77 FR 37997 - Importation of Dracaena Plants From Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Rica will have to be produced in accordance with integrated pest risk management measures that will include requirements for registration of place of production and packinghouses, a pest management plan... provide protection against the introduction of quarantine pests. DATES: Effective Date: July 26, 2012. FOR...

  7. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  8. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

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    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  10. Forest area in Costa Rica: a comparative study of tropical forest cover estimates over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinn, Lenin; Corrales, Christoph; Morales, David

    2002-01-01

    Forest area figures. at a given point in time and for a given region of interest, differ considerably, affecting the calculation of deforestation rates and thus confuse the political and scientific discussion on the state and change of the resource forest. This article discusses the variation of published forest cover figures, using Costa Rica as an example. A list of published figures on the forest cover of Costa Rica from 1940 onwards is analyzed. Reasons for the differences are hypothesized and discussed. These differences are mainly in the definition of forest and forest classes included, in the type of the studies conducted (mapping and/or sampling), in the precision of the estimates, and in the information sources used. It is concluded that part of the problem is inherent in the nature of the resource 'forest'. Quality and completeness of the presentation of the forest cover estimates are a clue to their correct understanding and interpretation. The latter point being especially relevant, as forest cover data have both a technical-scientific and a political meaning and are used as relevant arguments in many discussions. In the example of Costa Rica, a general downward trend is observed up to about 1985/1990, whereas after that forest area figures are on the average at a markedly higher level. Some hypotheses for this change in the trend are discussed.

  11. Conservation genetics of American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, populations in Pacific Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Laurie A.; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brien, Matthew L.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Spotila, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is crucial for the survival and management of threatened and endangered species. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure at neutral loci in American crocodiles, Crocodylus acutus, from several areas (Parque Nacional Marino Las Baulas, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Parque Nacional Palo Verde, Rio Tarcoles, and Osa Conservation Area) in Pacific Costa Rica. We genotyped 184 individuals at nine microsatellite loci to describe the genetic diversity and conservation genetics between and among populations. No population was at Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) over all loci tested and a small to moderate amount of inbreeding was present. Populations along the Pacific coast had an average heterozygosity of 0.572 across all loci. All populations were significantly differentiated from each other with both FST and RST measures of population differentiation with a greater degree of molecular variance (81%) found within populations. Our results suggest C. acutus populations in Pacific Costa Rica were not panmictic with moderate levels of genetic diversity. An effective management plan that maintains the connectivity between clusters is critical to the success of C. acutus in Pacific Costa Rica.

  12. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  13. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  14. Corrupción en América Latina. Evidencia de tres escenarios: Uruguay, Costa Rica y Honduras.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Matute, Tania Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    En esta investigación se observó el periodo 2002-2011 en tres países de la región latinoamericana y se escogió el Índice de Percepciones de la Corrupción (IPC), elaborado por Transparencia Internacional como variable dependiente. En este análisis comparado, se seleccionaron tres países de la región latinoamericana que tienen diferente IPC: Honduras (mucha corrupción), Costa Rica (mediana corrupción) y Uruguay (poca corrupción). De esta forma se garantiza la varianza en la variable dependiente...

  15. Estado actual de la biotecnología en Costa Rica

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    Marta Valdez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio del estado de la biotecnología en Costa Rica como parte del proyecto "SIMBIOSIS: Programa Cooperativo para la Construcción de Indicadores en Biotecnología adaptados a los países de América Latina y el Caribe, para motivar la aplicación y transferencia de tecnologías industriales". El estudio se enfocó en dos ítemes: "investigadores" y "proyectos de investigación", desarrollados en Costa Rica entre 1998 y 2002. Se construyó una base de datos a partir de la cual se obtuvieron indicadores para los investigadores, relacionados con aspectos como género, edad, desempeño como docentes, número de proyectos, funciones, grado académico, área de especialidad y número de publicaciones. Los indicadores determinados para los proyectos de investigación se vinculan con los temas de: especialidades, sector socioecónomico de aplicación, duración y número de investigadores por proyecto. Entre las principales conclusiones obtenidas a nivel nacional cabe mencionar la alta participación de las mujeres en esta área de investigación (54%; la baja participación de recursos humanos jóvenes como investigadores (13% menores de 30 años, y que la mayoría de los investigadores, con altos grados académicos, tienen 4 o más proyectos a su cargo (42%. Con relación a las especialidades de los proyectos, la mayoría se clasifican en la categoría Bio-Agro (39% mientras que en Acuicultura sólo se encontró un 1% del total. Los sectores de aplicación con el mayor número de proyectos son: Agropecuario (37% y Salud Humana (35%. Se discuten las principales fortalezas y limitaciones para el desarrollo de la biotecnología en Costa Rica, para contribuir a una mejor definición de políticas de desarrollo científico y tecnológico del país.Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica. Astudy was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for

  16. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  17. Inflation persistence on Services and Regulated Goods in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Murillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present document studies the degree of inflation persistence and price stickiness across different categories in the Costa Rican Consumer Price index (CPI, using disaggregate and aggregate data, with a particular focus in the regulated and services prices. We adopt two approaches: The parametric approach is based in an autoregressive process with constant mean, and the structural approach is based on the estimation of the New Keynesian Hybrid Phillips Curve. We use different econometric techniques, as univariate and multivariate time series, and panel data methods. The evidence suggests that changes in prices and services regulated items have higher degrees of persistence in addition to presenting rigidities in the adjustment pattern. Also it was found that using disaggregate data the degree of inflation persistence is lower than the inflation persistence estimation of univariate models with aggregate data, and this tend to reduce excluding the regulated and services products prices.

  18. Evolution of industrial sector electricity demand in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steven C.

    2005-01-01

    This note is a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the efficiency of electricity utilization in the Costa Rican industrial sector and the competitive pressures generated by the implementation of economic reforms, in particular, the progressive liberalization of international trade, in the years since the debt and economic crisis of the early 1980s. The steady, year-by-year, reduction in the rate of import tariff protection, with only temporary interruptions and reverses, has been the most consistently implemented component of the macroeconomic, trade, and financial sector reforms upon which this country has embarked over the past two decades. The note sheds some light on the nature of the general policy environment that is conductive to an efficient utilization of energy in the productive sectors and to the success of national energy efficiency promotion programs in this and other parts of the world. (Author)

  19. Análisis de la relación comercial entre la República de Colombia y la República de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Escobar, Juán Sebastián; Bermudez Monroy, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dadas las relaciones de cooperación internacional que presentan las Repúblicas de Colombia y Costa Rica, que se evidencia en los fuertes vínculos comerciales existentes entre las dos naciones, Proexport por medio de su oficina comercial en Costa Rica, ha mantenido al tanto la situación en la que se desenvuelve la alianza comercial entre Colombia y Costa Rica. Él último de estos informes, demuestra la potencialidad de Costa Rica como un mercado para los bienes colombianos y una posibilidad par...

  20. Los manglares de Costa Rica: el Pacífico norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Zamora-Trejos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica tiene bosques de manglar en las costas Caribe y Pacífica. El 99% de los manglares del país se encuentran en la costa Pacífica. En este trabajo recopilamos la información disponible sobre los manglares del Pacífico norte de Costa Rica, desde la frontera con Nicaragua hasta la Reserva Absoluta de Cabo Blanco, en la punta sur de la Península de Nicoya. La ubicación de los manglares y cualquier información disponible para cada manglar es resumida. El clima de esta región es seco con estaciones de lluvia y sequía muy bien definidas. Los manglares del norte son relativamente pequeños en extensión y tamaño de árboles, y de baja diversidad comparados con los del Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Las principales especies de mangle son: Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa a lo largo de los bordes de los canales, seguido por Avicennia germinans, y más tierra adentro Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus. En el manglar de Potrero Grande se informa de una población saludable de la especie de Pelliciera rhizophorae, especies muy poco abundante. Reconocemos 38 comunidades de manglares en el Pacífico norte de Costa Rica basado en el Inventario Nacional de Humedales, artículos publicados, observaciones de campo, tesis, informes técnicos y los mapas 1: 50 000 del Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Se pudo encontrar información relativamente detallada pero fragmentada de únicamente cinco manglares (los descritos en esta publicación, de 14 solamente hay listas preliminares e incompletas de plantas y en algunos casos de animales, de nueve manglares más hay información todavía más limitada, y de otros nueve se conoce solamente su ubicación, que en algunos casos se comprobó que era incorrecta. Trabajos de mapeo detallado, caracterización de la vegetación y la fauna, estudios fisiológicos, análisis de procesos biogeoquímicos, evaluaciones económicas, y determinación del estado de salud de los manglares

  1. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Quesada-Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690

  2. Características cromosómicas asociadas con leucemias y otras hematopatías en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Volio, Isabel; Montero-Umaña, Carlos; Jiménez-Cruz, Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1993 Se realizaron análisis cromosómicos en muestras de médula ósea y sangre periférica de 117 pacientes con leucemias agudas y crónicas y síndromes mieloclisplasicos, mieloproliferativos e hipereosinofnicas, diagnosticados en un hospital de Costa Rica entre mayo de 1990 y julio de 1992. En el 69.5% de las 131 muestras se obtuvo el cariotipo, el cual fue normal en la mitad de los casos. El defecto cromosómico mas...

  3. Escasez monetaria y transacciones de bienes y servicios en la provincia de Costa Rica en el siglo XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Hidalgo, Manuel Benito

    2017-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Historia y Estudios Humanísticos: Europa, América, Arte y Lenguas La tesis estudia la economía y la circulación monetaria en la provincia de Costa Rica en el siglo XVII para explicar y caracterizar la escasez de moneda metálica, su concentración en determinados grupos socioeconómicos y las estrategias para resolver su faltante para las transacciones de bienes y servicios. Identifica las posibles fuentes de moneda para la economía de Costa Rica durante el siglo XVII...

  4. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Decapoda (Penaeoidea, Sergestoidea, Caridea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Palinura del Pacífico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Pacífico de Costa Rica se ha encontrado 117 especies de camarones y langostas. Estas se ubican en el Suborden Dendrobranchiata (Penaeoidea, 25 spp.; Sergestoidea, 1 sp.; y en el Suborden Pleocyemata (Caridea, 73 spp.; Astacidea, 1 sp; Thalassinidea, 13 spp. y Palinura, 4 spp.. Veintisiete especies (23% son nuevos infomes para Costa Rica. Cinco informes representan ampliaciones de ámbito, tres de importancia: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 se extiende la distribución desde la bahía Tenacatitán, México hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 se amplia la distribución al norte desde La Libertad, Ecuador hasta Sámara, Guanacaste y Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 también al norte desde la isla Gorgona, Colombia hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste. Nueve especies fueron descritas con material recolectado en Costa Rica y dos son endémicas. 43% de las especies de camarones del Pacífico este se encuentran en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. El total de especies indicado aquí es probablemente una subestimación de la diversidad de estos grupos en el Pacífico de Costa Rica.A total of 117 species of shrimp and lobster are known from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. They belong to the Suborders Dendrobranchiata, Superfamily Penaeoidea (26 species and Pleocyemata, Infraorder Caridea (73, Astacidea (one, Thalassinidea (13, and Palinura (four species. Twenty seven species (23% are reported for the first time for Costa Rica. The distribution range of five species is extended, three of which are significant: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 from Tenacatitán Bay, México to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 from La Libertad, Ecuador to Sámara, Guanacaste and Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 from Gorgona Island, Colombia to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste. Nine species, two of which are endemic, were described based on specimens collected in Costa Rica. Forty

  5. Exploring why Costa Rica outperforms the United States in life expectancy: A tale of two inequality gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Dow, William H

    2016-02-02

    Mortality in the United States is 18% higher than in Costa Rica among adult men and 10% higher among middle-aged women, despite the several times higher income and health expenditures of the United States. This comparison simultaneously shows the potential for substantially lowering mortality in other middle-income countries and highlights the United States' poor health performance. The United States' underperformance is strongly linked to its much steeper socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health. Although the highest SES quartile in the United States has better mortality than the highest quartile in Costa Rica, US mortality in its lowest quartile is markedly worse than in Costa Rica's lowest quartile, providing powerful evidence that the US health inequality patterns are not inevitable. High SES-mortality gradients in the United States are apparent in all broad cause-of-death groups, but Costa Rica's overall mortality advantage can be explained largely by two causes of death: lung cancer and heart disease. Lung cancer mortality in the United States is four times higher among men and six times higher among women compared with Costa Rica. Mortality by heart disease is 54% and 12% higher in the United States than in Costa Rica for men and women, respectively. SES gradients for heart disease and diabetes mortality are also much steeper in the United States. These patterns may be partly explained by much steeper SES gradients in the United States compared with Costa Rica for behavioral and medical risk factors such as smoking, obesity, lack of health insurance, and uncontrolled dysglycemia and hypertension.

  6. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  7. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  8. El multilingüismo y la identidad de los afro-limonenses de Costa Rica

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    Anita Herzfeld

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Limon to plant bananas. Their English-based Limonese Creole language has remained extant in spite of many government attempts to eradicate it, most likely because it acts, among other elements, as an identity marker for its people. But, will it survive globalization? And if so, for how long?.//En el siglo XIX un grupo compuesto en su mayoría por afro-jamaiquinos se estableció en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, un país de habla hispana. Dicha comunidad debía trabajar para Minor C. Keith un ingeniero estadounidense que había sido comisionado por el gobierno costarricense para construir un ferrocarril que uniese un puerto del este con la capital del Valle Central, San José. Para financiar su empresa Keith fundó la United Fruit Company y los trabajadores jamaiquinos permanecieron en la provincia de Limón para plantar bananos. El lenguaje creole de los empleados, basado en el inglés, sobrevivió, a pesar de los esfuerzos del gobierno por erradicarlo, principalmente porque actúa, entre otros elementos, como una marca de identidad para quienes lo hablan. Pero ¿sobrevivirá a la globalización? Y si es así, ¿por cuánto tiempo?

  9. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  10. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  11. EXPERIENCIAS EN POLÍTICA MONETARIA: LECCIONES PARA COSTA RICA

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    Marlene Villanueva Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La conducción de la política monetaria ha evolucionado junto con el desarrollo de los diferentes enfoques teóricos macroeconómicos y las enseñanzas que se han derivado de la evidencia empírica. A partir de la quiebra del Sistema de Bretton Woods todos los países tuvieron que buscar la forma de implementar y conducir su política cambiaria y monetaria en forma consistente. En ese momento, empezó un proceso de prueba y error que ha sido fundamental en la conceptualización de la política monetaria.Por mucho tiempo Estados Unidos fue quien llevó la pauta en esta materia, su máxima contribución fue deducir a la luz de la evidencia empírica que la función primordial de la política monetaria es garantizar una inflación baja y estable con el fin de crear las condiciones necesarias para lograr el máximo crecimiento económico. A pesar de esa conclusión, su estrategia muestra una discrepancia con la concepción teórica, lo cual podría estar justificada en el mandato legal que obliga a la política de la Reserva Federal a alcanzar varios objetivos macroeconómicos simultáneos, es decir, máximo crecimiento, mínima inflación y tasa de interés moderada de largo plazo.

  12. El inglés en Costa Rica: requisito indispensable en un mundo globalizado / The English language in Costa Rica: an essential tool in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo ofrece los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que se llevó a cabo en la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica .Se elaboró un diagnóstico sobre las necesidades que tiene el país en cuanto al aprendizaje del inglés. En la actualidad, muchas compañías nacionales e internacionales requieren personal bilingüe calificado, por lo que el hablar otro idioma, especialmente el inglés, se ha convertido en un requisito indispensable para conseguir un buen trabajo. Este idioma debe poder utilizarse para satisfacer necesidades muy específicas en las diferentes situaciones laborales. Lo anterior implica diseñar cursos con propósitos específicos (ESP en los cuales el contenido requiere estar basado en (a tareas similares a las que las personas van a encontrarse en la situación laboral o educacional; y (b en la utilización de estrategias de aprendizaje que ayuden a compensar las limitaciones en el uso del lenguaje. Con base en este diagnóstico, se establecieron las destrezas que requiere el personal docente de inglés para contribuir de manera efectiva a solventar la carencia de personal bilingüe que requiere el sector empresarial. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa.Abstract: This article presents the results of a research project carried out at the School of Modern Languages at the University of Costa Rica. A diagnosis was done to determine the country’s specific English language needs. At present, many companies, both Costa Rican and international, require bilingual personnel. Therefore, proficiency in a foreign language, especially English, has become an essential tool in securing good employment. Personnel have to be able to use the language to cope with specific job-related situations. This requires planning English for Specific Purposes (ESP courses; that is, designing courses whose content is based on (a job-related tasks, and (b strategy training that helps students compensate

  13. La enseñanza del Inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza en el aula desde una perspectiva histórica

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    Coto Keith, Rossina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es parte de una serie de escritos producto de un proyecto de investigación sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la destreza auditiva en la clase de inglés en colegios públicos de Costa Rica. El mismo pretende proveer una reseña histórica sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza auditiva en una segunda lengua en general. El artículo está dividido en dos grandes secciones. La primera sección se concentra en la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica, desde alrededor de 1850 hasta nuestros días. La segunda parte trata sobre la enseñanza de la destreza auditiva en el aula, a la luz de los diferentes métodos que se han utilizado para la enseñanza de una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera. This article is the first in a series of pieces that are the result of a research project about the teaching and learning of the listening skill in the English class in public high schools in Costa Rica. It intends to give a historical overview of the teaching of English in Costa Rica and the teaching of the listening skill in general. The article is divided in two sections. The first part centers on the teaching of English in Costa Rica from around 1850 up to the present. The second part deals with the teaching of the skill through history in light of the different methods that have been used to instruct in a second or foreign language.

  14. Historia e investigación de la leucemia en Costa Rica

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    Rafael Jiménez Bonilla

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace inicialmente una revisión de la historia de la leucemia en el mundo, analizando sus principales causas etiológicas y las primeras formas de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Acontinuación se revisa la historia de la investigación de la leucemia en Costa Rica, puntualizando los diagnósticos iniciales en los hospitales, la llegada de los primeros hematólogos clínicos y de laboratorio, la creación de los laboratorios especializados en Hematología, la aplicación en nuestro país de los modernos tratamientos contra la leucemia y la importancia que para ello tuvieron las relaciones con centros del extranjero. También se presenta la secuencia de la implementación en Costa Rica de las modernas metodologías de ayuda diagnóstica y la importancia que tuvo en el manejo de la leucemia el hecho de que se empezaran a formar en el país nuevos profesionales especializados en la rama de la Hematología, así como la creación de las asociaciones de voluntarios. Por último se presentan algunas de las publicaciones nacionales en leucemia y unos comentarios acerca del futuro del tratamiento y el diagnóstico de los pacientes leucémicos.History of leukemia research in Costa Rica. A review of leukemia worldwide is discussed, focusing on etiology, diagnosis and treatment. The history of research of this type of cancer in Costa Rica is presented through the first hospital diagnosis, the arrival of clinical and laboratory hematologists, the establishment of specialized laboratories, the local hematology teaching programs and the voluntary associations that help patients with leukemia. A brief review of Costa Rican publications in this area and the future of this problem in our country is also shown. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 559-569. Epub 2004 Dic 15.

  15. Proliferaciones algales nocivas de cianobacterias (Oscillatoriaceae y dinoflagelados (Gymnodiniaceae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica

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    Maribelle Vargas-Montero

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica ha experimentado un aumento en magnitud y frecuencia de proliferaciones algales nocivas (PAN. La falta de datos con respecto a la dinámica de estos eventos en el área, y las especies de microalgas que los producen, son temas de mucho interés. Las PAN han producido impactos negativos en los recursos pesqueros y en la salud humana en Costa Rica. En mayo de 2002, una PAN se observó frente a las playas a lo largo del Pacífico central; además, se observó un gran número y diversidad de peces muertos. Las muestras de agua fueron recolectadas usando una red de fitoplancton y se fijaron para ser procesadas posteriormente con microscopía electrónica. Asimismo, se tomó un litro de muestra de la superficie para su posterior conteo celular. En la PAN observada, los organismos dominantes fueron la cianobacteria Trichodesmiun erythraeum, rodeada por altas concentraciones de bacterias Gram -, y el dinoflagelado Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides. T. erythraeum, es una de las principales cianobacterias fijadoras de N2 atmosférico en aguas marinas, y se ha asociado con los eventos PAN en diversas partes del mundo, produciendo síntomas como dermatitis por contacto con la brisa marina y otras afecciones. C. cf. polykrikoides es un dinoflagelado asociado con mortalidad de peces; aunque el tipo de toxinas asociadas aún es desconocido. En un periódico nacional se reportaron 17 casos de intoxicación en humanos durante este mismo periodo de PAN, los afectados presentaron desórdenes respiratorios e irritación en los ojos. Éste es el primer informe en Costa Rica dónde se observaron cianobacterias y dinoflagelados juntos produciendo PAN. Este tipo de fenómenos debe analizarse y debe documentarse, para habilitar una comprensión en la dinámica y los factores asociados con el aumento de estos eventos en el Pacífico costarricenseRecently, the Pacific coast of Costa Rica has experienced an increase in both

  16. Breast cancer characteristics and survival in a Hispanic population of costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur-Rivero, Nadia; Cartin-Brenes, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer characteristics may vary according to the patient's ethnic group. The goal of this cohort study was to evaluate the characteristics of a group of Costa Rican breast cancer patients and their relationship with survival. Age, stage, tumor grade, immunohistochemistry, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence, and survival data on 199 Hispanic patients with breast cancer diagnosis, treated between January 2009 and May 2010, were collected from a single institution in San Jose, Costa Rica. The data were statistically analyzed for significance. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. With a median follow-up of 46.5 months, there was an 88% overall survival rate. Thirty-seven percent of the patients (p Costa Rica. The higher proportion of triple negative tumors, advanced stage, and younger median age at diagnosis could contribute to the inferior prognostic described among Hispanic women. There may be a different distribution of tumor subtypes compared to non-Hispanic white women. Further studies are necessary to confirm such findings.

  17. The Neutral State: A Genealogy of Ecosystem Service Payments in Costa Rica

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    David M Lansing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the case of Costa Rica, this paper examines how ′carbon′ became an identifiable problem for that state. We trace how, during the 1980s, rationalities of financialisation and security arose in this country that allowed for Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES to emerge as an economic and political mechanism. Our central thesis is: this period initiated a government project of securing a viable future for the nation′s resources by linking them to global financial markets and international trade. This project of achieving resource security through economic circulation introduced new financial logics into forest management, as well as new modes of calculating the value and extent of the forest. These ways of framing resources found expression in the nation′s PES programme that is now central to the state′s goal of achieving carbon neutrality. Today, Costa Rica′s carbon flows are becoming territorialised as part of the nation′s atmosphere, biomass, people, and economy. This paper shows how carbon′s territorialisation did not begin with a concern for the climate, nor did it occur through diffusion of global climate policy to Costa Rica. Instead, carbon′s rise can be traced to locally specific ways of coping with the problem of resource security.

  18. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  19. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica

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    Roger Bonilla

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica’s Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA. Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1 with a seasonal component of the Yt = lambda a t + gamma S12 + a t typeEn este trabajo, se analizaron los datos de desembarque de tiburón de la flota pesquera artesanal en el Pacífico costarricense entre 1988 y 1997. Los datos provienen de un sistema de facturas administrado por el Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca (INCOPESCA. En el Pacífico, la pesca de tiburón en el período de estudio representó aproximadamente el 20% del volumen total de pesca a nivel nacional. De acuerdo con los datos del sistema de facturas, la región del Pacífico Norte fue la más productiva, reportando un 58% de los desembarques de tiburón a nivel nacional. En esta región, la pesca de tiburón en la zona del Golfo de Papagayo reportó 91% y 53% de los

  20. Massive regularization in Costa Rica: recent effects of immigration on the Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a massive regularization of Central American migrants was realized in Costa Rica and later the whole country population was quantified, the kind of public insurance and the way healthcare services are use among other things, by a population census and home survey during 2000. Based on evidence found in investigations that were realized during those years, about the impact that the immigration has had in the Costa Rican Social Security organization, the author concludes that the immigrant does not contribute unfavorably to the Institutional pension system, that they use the hospital and urgency services less than the natives, they use the preventive medicine more and they has adopted the Costa Rican usual practices of avoidance the obligatory pays to the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, which is the most important public institution of healthcare services in the country. Some international experience and concepts were checked about the topic and a brief explanation of how the Costa Rican Social Security organization works, for the best comprehension of readers who are not use to deal with it

  1. Constructions of Deficit: Families and Children on the Margins in Costa Rica

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    Victoria Purcell-Gates

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examines the nexus of marginalization and education, particularly the literacy potential and achievement of young children from socially and politically marginalized communities. Drawing on data from a study of literacy practice among Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica and the schooling the Nicaraguan children in Costa Rican schools, this analysis reveals the ways that constructs such as difference and deficit are constructed within historical, economic, and cultural contexts, for the most part in the absence of empirical evidence. The data used for this analysis was collected as part of a six-month, ethnographic case study of literacy practice within Costa Rican and the Nicaraguan immigrant communities. Data came from (a observations in kinder, grade 1, and grade 2 classes in a public school near San José; (b interviews with public school administrators and teachers; (c community observations of literacy practices in Costa Rican contexts and within the precarios where Nicaraguan immigrants live; (d semi-structured home literacy interviews with Nicaraguan participants from one prominent precario; (e early literacy assessment results for children in the kinder and first grade; (f expert interviews with administrators of NGOs who focus on the “Nicaraguan problem; and (g reading and writing artifacts from the communities and the schools.

  2. Las ciperáceas (Cyperaceae de la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Gómez-Laurito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La familia Cyperaceae es cosmopolita e incluye unos 115 géneros y 3600 especies. Costa Rica tiene 25 géneros y 210 especies. Aquí presento claves y descripciones para las 34 especies (10 géneros que ocurren en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica. El género Cyperus está representado por 12 especies, seguido por Rhynchospora (6, Scleria (5, Calyptocarya (2, Eleocharis (2, Kyllinga (2, Mapania (2, Hypolytrum (1 y Lipocarpha (1. Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth Palla, ha sido colectada en los alrededores y eventualmente podría ser encontrada en la Estación.The Cyperaceae of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The family Cyperaceae is cosmopolitan and includes some 115 genera and 3600 species. Costa Rica has 25 genera and 210 species. Here I present keys and descriptions for 34 species (10 genera that occur in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The genus Cyperus is represented by 12 species, followed by Rhynchospora (6, Scleria (5, Calyptocarya (2, Eleocharis (2, Kyllinga (2, Mapania (2, Hypolytrum (1 and Lipocarpha (1. Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp & Kunth Palla, has been collected in the vicinity and could eventually be found at the Station. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 93-110. Epub 2009 November 30.

  3. New records of benthic marine algae and Cyanobacteria for Costa Rica, and a comparison with other Central American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Andrea; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of an intensive sampling program carried out from 2000 to 2007 along both coasts of Costa Rica, Central America. The presence of 44 species of benthic marine algae is reported for the first time for Costa Rica. Most of the new records are Rhodophyta (27 spp.), followed by Chlorophyta (15 spp.), and Heterokontophyta, Phaeophycea (2 spp.). Overall, the currently known marine flora of Costa Rica is comprised of 446 benthic marine algae and 24 Cyanobacteria. This species number is an under estimation, and will increase when species of benthic marine algae from taxonomic groups where only limited information is available (e.g., microfilamentous benthic marine algae, Cyanobacteria) are included. The Caribbean coast harbors considerably more benthic marine algae (318 spp.) than the Pacific coast (190 spp.); such a trend has been observed in all neighboring countries. Compared to other Central American countries, Costa Rica has the highest number of reported benthic marine algae; however, Panama may have a similarly high diversity after unpublished results from a Rhodophyta survey (Wysor, unpublished) are included. Sixty-two species have been found along both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica; we discuss this result in relation to the emergence of the Central American Isthmus.

  4. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Appendicularians (Urochordata and chaetognaths (Chaetognatha of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

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    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.Appendicularians and chaetognaths are important members of the zooplancton but little studied in Costa Rica and not at all at Isla del Coco Nacional Park, eastern tropical Pacific. Epipelagic (0-50m zooplankton samples from the oceanic area off Isla del Coco, were collected in November 2001, and over patch reefs in 2009. We analized the species composition of appendicularians and chaetognaths present in 31

  5. Current Complexities of English Teaching in Costa Rica (Aspectos actuales de las complejidades de la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica

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    Henry Sevilla Morales

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current complexities of English teaching in Costa Rica’s public secondary education are discussed. Using an autoethnographic research approach, critical incidents of an EFL teacher are examined in light of Complexity Theory. Findings suggest that classrooms are unpredictable sites of struggle where multiple rationalities coexist (and often conflict, which must be understood before random decisions are made. For applied linguistics, the study is relevant at three levels: it expands the bulk of literature on the subject, it calls for more attention to the complexities of EFL, and it opens an avenue for reflection and future research directions. Resumen Se analizan ciertos aspectos de las complejidades actuales sobre la enseñanza del inglés de secundaria en la educación pública de Costa Rica. Mediante la autoetnografía, se analizan incidentes críticos de un docente de inglés como lengua extranjera, a la luz de la teoría de la complejidad. Los hallazgos indican que el aula es un espacio de enfrentamientos entre las distintas racionalidades que coexisten, que deben comprenderse ante cualquier toma de decisiones. El estudio atiende tres aspectos: expande la bibliografía sobre el tema, resalta las complejidades de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras y abre espacios de reflexión y rutas para investigaciones futuras.

  6. MERCADO LABORAL, EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR Y FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN COSTA RICA (LABOR MARKET, HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN COSTA RICA

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    Morales Zúñiga Luis Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se analiza la relación que existe entre la educación superior, la dinámica del mercado laboral, y la formación de docentes, en un nuevo contexto histórico-social caracterizado por la liberalización de la economía, y el avance de una concepción mercantil de la educación en Costa Rica. Se describe la relación que existe entre la desregulación de la oferta de educación superior, sobre todo privada, y la consecuente saturación de profesionales en el mercado laboral. Se analiza con especial interés la situación de los profesionales de la educación en este contexto, sobre todo, las condiciones laborales que enfrenta este sector educativo, como consecuencia de la aplicación de la lógica de mercado.Abstract: This essay analyzes the relationship between higher education, labor market dynamics, and teacher training in a new historical and social context characterized by the liberalization of the economy, and advancing of a merchant conception of the education practice in Costa Rica. It describes the relationship between deregulation of the supply of higher education, especially private, and the resulting saturation of professional manpower in the labor market. It is analyzed with special interest, the status of the professionals of education in this context, especially the working conditions faced by this sector of the working class as a result of the application of market logic in the educational field.

  7. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  8. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, M J; Geithman, D T

    1986-01-01

    "This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital." excerpt

  9. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Campos, Virginia; Quesada-Kimsey, Jaime; Ledezma-Espinoza, Aura; Sandoval-Mora, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author) [es

  10. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

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    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out between Museo de los Niños and other six museums or Science Centers located in Spain which are known as New Museology. Certain aspects in which the New Spanish Museology enriches the practice in Costa Rican museum are detailed.

  11. Ultraestructura del bambú Guadua paniculata (Poaceae: Bambusoideae de Costa Rica

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    Mayra Montiel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron características ultraestructurales de la lámina y la bráctea de la hoja, así como de las ramas, de plantas adultas de Guadua paniculata recolectadas en Costa Rica. Sus características ultraestructurales diagnósticas incluyen el patrón celular de la zona adaxial de la lámina foliar, los largos tricomas unicelulares de la superficie abaxial, los más numerosos tricomas auriculares, agrupados en número de 17, el patrón de cera cuticular y las bandas de estomas rodeadas de papilas céricas.Sections of leaf lamina, leaf sheath and branches of adult Guadua paniculata collected in Costa Rica, were studied ultrastructurally. Diagnostic ultrastructural characteristics include the cellular pattern of the adaxial zone in the leaf blade; the large unicellular trichomes of the abaxial area, the more numerous auricular trichomes, grouped in number of 17, the pattern of cuticular wax and the bands of stomata surrounded by ceric papillae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2: 29-34. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.

  12. Instituto Meteorológico Nacional: perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2004

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    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados del primer informe realizado por el Instituto Meteorológico Nacional con respecto al comportamiento climático del año 2004 en Costa Rica. Su realización estuvo basada en investigaciones, modelos y bases de datos de diferentes instituciones y organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales. El informe incluye información referente al comportamiento de diferentes fenómenos hidrometeorológico: las lluvias, los huracanes y el Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, así como su afectación en el país. Además, se presenta una referencia histórica de las temporadas de huracanes consideradas análogas con el 2004 It presents the results of the first report developed by the National Meteorological Institute in relation with the climate behavior in Costa Rica during the year 2004. Its development was based on investigations, models and data basis from different institutions and organizations, national as well as international. The report includes information about the behavior of different hydrometeorological phenomena: rain, hurricanes and El Niño/South Oscilation (ENOS, as well as how they affected the country. It also includes a historical reference of the hurricanes season considered analogous to 2004

  13. Monitoreo de pastos marinos en Perezoso, Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

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    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El pasto marino de Perezoso en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, costa Caribe de Costa Rica, se está monitoreando con el protocolo de CARICOMP. La productividad (2.7±1.15 g/m²/d, n=74 resultó intermedia, comparada con otros sitios del Caribe. La biomasa total resultó de intermedia a alta (750-1 500 g/m² en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP (Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico y Venezuela incluyendo Costa Rica (822.8±391.84 g/m², n=32. Las tasas de recambio son altas (5.5±1.36%, n=74 comparadas con lo que se encontró en marzo y agosto en otros sitios. La densidad promedio es de 725 plántulas/m², en la región Caribe, mientras que en Costa Rica resultó mayor (1 184±335.5 plántulas/m². El largo y ancho de hoja promedio en toda la región es de 14.4 cm y 10.6 mm, respectivamente, similar a lo que se encontró en este estudio, pero el índice de área foliar promedio es de 3.4 m²m-2, mayor a lo que se encontró en Costa Rica (0.92 m²m-2. En Cahuita la productividad del pasto es significativamente menor comparado con los seis años previos, y la biomasa disminuyó en el tiempo. La productividad y biomasa de los pastos se está viendo afectada por las temperaturas máximas que aumentaron casi 10 °C de 1999 a 2005, y muestran una alta correlación negativa. La tasa de recambio y la temperatura no mostraron correlación. La actividad por botes, nadadores y la alta carga de nutrientes proveniente de la contaminación local por aguas negras, la deforestación y las actividades agrícolas en tierras costeras y rivereñas son fuentes potenciales de impacto en los pastos marinos de Cahuita.Seagrass monitoring at Perezoso, Cahuita, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The seagrass of Perezoso (Cahuita National Park, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica was monitored using the CARICOMP protocol. Productivity (2.7±1.15 g/m²/d; n=74 was intermediate, compared to other Caribbean sites. Total biomass was intermediate to high (750-1500 g/m² at most CARICOMP sites

  14. Incidence and risk factors for cognitive impairment in rural elderly populations in Costa Rica

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    Jeffrey L. Nadel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for the onset of cognitive impairment in Costa Rica are not well understood, despite a substantial elderly population stemming from a higher than average life expectancy for the western hemisphere. To investigate the risk factors that predict the onset of cognitive impairment in the rural elderly of Costa Rica, a modified version of the Mini Mental State Exam-designed for illiterate populations-was administered to 90 elderly inhabitants of San Carlos, Alajuela, Costa Rica between April and May of 2011. Subsequently, each participant took a structured interview assessing viability of risk factors and behaviors potentially contributing to a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Results showed strong dependencies between age (p=0.0001, education level (p=0.0095, the ability to read (p=0.0001 and write (p=0.0153, frequency of reading (p=0.0011, use of puzzles and mind games (p<0.0001, vocation (p=0.0225, area of residence (p<0.0001, comorbid mental diseases (p=0.0005, history of stroke or brain trauma (p=0.0104, urinary or renal problems (p=0.0443, consistent cooking practices (p=0.0262 and number of living companions (p=0.0299 in susceptibility for developing cognitive impairment. The study concluded that high intellectual use, or lack thereof, during the lifetime of a person was a predictor for cognitive status later in life. In addition, comorbid mental disorders, including neurological trauma due to stroke, impeded normal cognitive function. Future research should examine incidence and risk factors of cognitive impairment in urban, more educated populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 869-876. Epub 2014 September 01.

  15. Volunteer provision of long-term care for older people in Thailand and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Pot, Anne Margriet; Sasat, Siriphan; Morales-Martinez, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Demand for long-term care services for older people is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Countries need to establish national long-term care systems that are sustainable and equitable. The Governments of Costa Rica and Thailand have implemented broadly comparable interventions to deploy volunteers in long-term home care. Both countries trained older volunteers from local communities to make home visits to impoverished and vulnerable older people and to facilitate access to health services and other social services. Costa Rica and Thailand are upper-middle-income countries with strong traditions of community-based health services that they are now extending into long-term care for older people. Between 2003 and 2013 Thailand's programme trained over 51 000 volunteers, reaching almost 800 000 older people. Between 2010 and 2016 Costa Rica established 50 community care networks, serving around 10 000 people and involving over 5000 volunteers. Despite some evidence of benefits to the physical and mental health of older people and greater uptake of other services, a large burden of unmet care needs and signs of a growth of unregulated private services still exist. There is scope for low- and middle-income countries to develop large-scale networks of community-based long-term care volunteers. The capacity of volunteers to enhance the quality of life of clients is affected by the local availability of care services. Volunteer care networks should be complemented by other initiatives, including training about health in later life for volunteers, and investment in community long-term care services.

  16. LOS SISTEMAS GANADEROS CON CRIOLLO LECHERO TROPICAL (REYNA EN COSTA RICA

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    Julio Vilaboa-Arroniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas ganaderos con criollo lechero tropical (Reyna en Costa Rica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identifi car los componentes tecnológicos utilizados en los ranchos ganaderos con bovinos Criollo Lechero Tropical (CLT Reyna y las características socioeconómicas de los productores que utilizan esta raza. Este estudio se realizó de mayo a julio de 2011 en las provincias de Cartago y Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Se entrevistó a los administradores de los módulos lecheros de la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata (EEAVM de la Universidad de Costa Rica y del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE además de cinco productores independientes. Se analizaronvariables sociales, tecnológicas y comerciales además de la percepción sobre el uso de esta raza. La información obtenida se analizó mediante estadística descriptiva y análisis de cluster utilizando el programa SAS versión 8.0. Se encontraron cuatro grupos: denominados G1: productores de Guanacaste, G2: EEAVM, G3: productor de Cartago y G4: CATIE. La superfi cie para estos grupos fue de 60±31,6; 24; 57; 46 ha con una carga animal (UA/ha de 0,6±0,1; 2,6; 0,7 y 4,1, respectivamente. La raza CLT Reyna se utiliza principalmente para establecer cruces con Bos taurus y/o Bos indicus con la fi nalidad de obtener adaptabilidad y resistencia al medio. Sin embargo, su utilización y manejo ha ido en detrimento por políticas institucionales, aspectos legales y productivos.

  17. SEROPREVALENCE AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF FERLAVIRUS IN CAPTIVE VIPERS OF COSTA RICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Cristina; Arguedas, Randall; Baldi, Mario; Piche, Martha; Jimenez, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Ferlaviruses (FV, previously referred to as ophidian paramyxoviruses, OPMV), are enveloped viruses with a negative-strand RNA genome, affecting snakes in captivity worldwide. Infection is characterized by respiratory and nervous clinical signs and carries high mortality rates, but no specific treatment or vaccine is currently available. Costa Rica has 16 species of vipers, found in captivity in collections essential for antivenom production, reintroduction, and public education. FV circulation in these populations was previously unknown, and the risk of introducing the viruses into naïve collections or free-ranging populations exists if the virus's presence is confirmed. The objective of this study was to determine seroprevalence and FV shedding in 150 samples from captive vipers in nine collections across Costa Rica. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was performed to determine the antibody titer against two Ferlavirus strains, Bush viper virus (BV) and Neotropical virus (NT), and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing to determine virus secretion in cloacal swabs. Ferlavirus strains were replicated in Vero cells, and chicken anti-FV polyclonal antibodies were produced and used as a positive control serum for the HI. Results demonstrate that seroprevalence of anti-FV antibodies in viper serum was 26.6% (n = 40) for the BV strain and 30% (n = 45) for the NT strain in the population tested. Furthermore, molecular characterization of FV group A was possible by sequencing the virus recovered from three cloacal swabs, demonstrating circulation of FV in one collection. This study demonstrates for the first time serological evidence of FV exposure and infection in vipers in captivity in Costa Rica, and suggests cross reactivity between antibodies against both strains. Appropriate biosafety measures could prevent the spread of FV between and within collections of reptiles in the country.

  18. The professional practice and imaging specialist from the deontological perspective in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vega, Albert; Alvarado Garcia, Danny; Amen Montero, Omar; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Jonnathan; Jimenez Alpizar, Ana Carolina; Solano Arguello, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    A vision of how to address the challenges facing, daily, the professional person imaging specialist has been raised with the use of new and emerging technologies. Issues to consider conflicts, ethical and moral dilemmas that may affect the way patient care, besides his family; and also, working relationship with colleagues and the institution in which he serves. This professional requires of development and training that will enable him to assess with sufficient objectivity, ethical-moral and conflicting situations to take decisions more convenient, from a critical and reflective practice. A rule of professional practice in diagnostic and therapy imaging has been missing in Costa Rica. Consequently, the need for a study, both theoretical and practical, which take into account ethical and moral guidelines, professional and regulatory was presented, with the objective to establish a possible course to comprehensive consolidation of the professional. The imaging specialist has a great responsibility in his practice, with society and with the patient attending the services in which he works. Different data collection techniques were used, to develop a proposal for guidelines for a possible rules of conduct for the professional person imaging specialist in Costa Rica; in this, have addressed the appropriate deontological topics for future implementation taking into account the professional profile, the academic level, professional practice and the requirements of society. This research has made evident the need and importance of establishing such guidelines as main result. A proposed improvement to the practice of professional person imaging specialist in diagnosis and therapy in Costa Rica is exposed from the qualitative data analysis. (author) [es

  19. Back to the green jewel. After a period of using fossil fuels, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources; Zurueck zum gruenen Juwel. Nach einem Ausflug zu den fossilen Brennstoffen kehrt Costa Rica zurueck zu den erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Melissa

    2010-07-15

    For more than two decades now, Costa Rica has been a Mecca for eco-tourists. Deep rainforests, empty beeches and an incredible variety of species have made the country into one of the forerunners of sustainability. This picture was marred by the fact that fossil fuels were getting more attention by the government recently. Now, however, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources which had already supplied 100 percent of the country's total power. The government is even considering reimbursement tariffs for solar power. (orig.)

  20. Cryptic species within cryptic moths: new species of Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaleinae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; J. Bolling Sullivan; Hajibabaei,  Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Based on almost 1,700 recently reared and wild-collected specimens, the genus Dunama Schaus (Notodontidae, Nystaelinae) in Costa Rica is reviewed. Eight species are recorded of which seven are newly described: Dunama jessiehillae Chacón, Dunama jessiebarronae Chacón, Dunama janewaldronae Chacón, Dunama jessiebancroftae Chacón, Dunama janecoxae Chacón, Dunama biosise Chacón, Dunama indereci Chacón. Dunama angulinea Schaus is redescribed and associated with its correct genitalia. Dunama tuna (Schaus), previously listed as ocurring in Costa Rica, is restricted to Colombia. Most species are described through their distinctive CO1 barcodes, genitalia and life histories. Dunama adults and caterpillars, their foodplants, and their parasites in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica are described where known. Many life history stages are illustrated. PMID:23730176

  1. Identificación de malezas trepadoras del banano (musa sp. en la zona caribe de costa rica

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    Ana Mar\\u00EDa Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificación de malezas trepadoras del banano (Musa sp. en la zona caribe de Costa Rica. Las poblaciones de las malezas conocidas como trepadoras, han ido en aumento en las plantaciones de banano en Costa Rica. La identificación es una base necesaria para otros estudios. El presente trabajo es de carácter exploratorio y deberá continuarse, ya que muchas de las especies objeto de este estudio son difíciles de identificar. Se procedió a visitar fincas bananeras ubicadas en diferentes regiones de la zona Caribe de Costa Rica y recolectar las principales malezas trepadoras del cultivo. Cucurbitaceae, Araceae y Fabaceae destacaron como las familias con el mayor número de especies

  2. Illustrations and studies in neotropical orchidaceae. the specklinia condylata group (pleurothallidinae) in Costa Rica and Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Bogarín, Diego; Serracín, Zuleika; Samudio, Zabdy

    2014-01-01

    La taxonomía de grupos discretos de taxones dentro Pleurothallidinae es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la diversidad de especies, evolución y filogenética. Este documento se centra en la taxonomía y sistemática de las especies relacionadas a Specklinia condylata en Costa Rica y Panamá. Se discute su historia taxonómica y posición filogenética. El grupo comprende cinco especies, tres de ellas se proponen como nuevas para la ciencia. Cada taxón se describe con base en material vivo y...

  3. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  4. Reptiles of the Unión river basin, Valle de El General, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Campos, Luis Diego

    2016-01-01

    Reptiles are unappreciated, mainly for their appearance, yet they have important functions in ecosystems, such as population control and as food for other species. I made monthly surveys (June 2014 to June 2015) in 20 sectors (15X200 m each) on both sides of Unión river in southern Costa Rica, along 12 km transects. I found 24 species of reptiles; one introduced, one endemic and three that range between Nicaragua and Panama; by group: nine snakes, one turtle, and 12 lizard iguana. Some, espec...

  5. La pedagogía intercultural en los territorios indígenas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Torres-Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 3 de mayo de 2007 • Aprobado 30 de mayo de 2007   Se plantea en este artículo la necesidad de construir en forma conjunta estrategias de pedagogías interculturales, con el fin de revitalizar las lenguas y culturas indígenas de Costa Rica. Este proyecto se lleva a cabo por parte de la División de Educación Rural del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE con docentes itinerantes de lengua y cultura en la comunidad de Suretka, Talamanca.

  6. Calidad del diesel de Costa Rica entre los años 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Salazar, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio explora el comportamiento y evolución de la calidad del diésel automotriz que se distribuyó en Costa Rica durante el periodo 2006-2010. Tradicionalmente el estudio del comportamiento de los combustibles se basa en métodos estadísticos univariantes y bivariantes que no logran proporcionar información suficiente para describir las relaciones entre los atributos y el comportamiento multidimensional de los individuos. Para solventar esta limitante, se realizó un análisis en component...

  7. Conocimiento de estudiantes de la universidad de costa rica sobre el virus de papiloma humano, durante el II ciclo lectivo del año 2006, Costa Rica Knowledge among students of the university of Costa Rica regarding the human papilloma virus during the second semester of the 2006 academic year, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Luis G Jiménez Herrera

    2007-01-01

    El virus del papiloma humano, se relaciona con cáncer cervical, anal y de pene. Dada la incidencia de algunas de esas enfermedades y de sus consecuencias, es que éste es un tema de actualidad y que debe de abordarse desde diversas perspectivas. Este trabajo exploró el conocimiento de estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica con respecto a este tema, durante el II semestre del 2006. Se realizó una entrevista personalizada utilizando preguntas claves sobre el tema y luego se creó un índice d...

  8. La transparencia presupuestaria en Costa Rica en el período 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Rodríguez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Este articulo analiza los principales resultados del estudio sobre la transparencia de los presupuestos públicos de Costa Rica y una evolución de los principales atributos que la conforman, en el periodo 2003-2009, como un elemento relevante, dentro de la nueva concepción de la Gestión Pública. La visión moderna de incorporar a la ciudadanía como un actor más dentro del proceso de las políticas públicas, nos obliga a desarrollar nuevos modelos presupuestarios, para lograr una administración p...

  9. Volatile constituents of the leaves of Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae from Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from leaves of Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. et Endl. A. DC. collected in Turrialba, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary GC/MS. Seventy-six compounds were identified corresponding to ca. 95% of the oil. The major components were germacrene D (32.7%, α-pinene (16.3%, β - pinene (13.8% and β -caryophyllene (4.1%. Thirty-one minor compounds were identified for the first time in this genus of plants.

  10. Volatile constituents of the leaves of Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae) from Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicció, José F; Gómez-Laurito, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil from leaves of Siparuna thecaphora (Poepp. et Endl.) A. DC. collected in Turrialba, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary GC/MS. Seventy-six compounds were identified corresponding to ca. 95% of the oil. The major components were germacrene D (32.7%), alpha-pinene (16.3%), beta-pinene (13.8%) and beta-caryophyllene (4.1%). Thirty-one minor compounds were identified for the first time in this genus of plants.

  11. Annual Proxy Records from Tropical Cloud Forest Trees in the Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; Wheelwright, N. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    The extinction of the Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) from Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest prompted research into the causes of ecological change in the montane forests of Costa Rica. Subsequent analysis of meteorological data has suggested that warmer global surface and tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures contribute to an observed decrease in cloud cover at Monteverde. However, while recent studies may have concluded that climate change is already having an effect on cloud forest environments in Costa Rica, without the context provided by long-term climate records, it is difficult to confidently conclude that the observed ecological changes are the result of anthropogenic climate forcing, land clearance in the lowland rainforest, or natural variability in tropical climate. To address this, we develop high-resolution proxy paleoclimate records from trees without annual rings in the Monteverde Cloud Forest in Costa Rica. Calibration of an age model in these trees is a fundamental prerequisite for proxy paleoclimate reconstructions. Our approach exploits the isotopic seasonality in the δ18O of water sources (fog versus rainfall) used by trees over the course of a single year. Ocotea tenera individuals of known age and measured annual growth increments were sampled in long-term monitored plantation sites in order to test this proposed age model. High-resolution (200μm increments) stable isotope measurements on cellulose reveal distinct, coherent δ18O cycles of 6 to 10‰. The calculated growth rates derived from the isotope timeseries match those observed from basal growth increment measurements. Spatial fidelity in the age model and climate signal is examined by using multiple cores from multiple trees and multiple sites. These data support our hypothesis that annual isotope cycles in these trees can be used to provide chronological control in the absence of rings. The ability of trees to record interannual climate variability in local hydrometeorology

  12. Las masas de agua del océano pacifico tropical frente a Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Brenes.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos de la Expedición EASTROPAC, se estudiaron las principales masas de agua presentes en el Océano Pacífico Tropical frente a Costa Rica. Fueron encontradas el agua superficial tropical (AST, el agua subsuperficial subtropical (ASS, caracterizada por un núcleo de alta salinidad con valores superiores a 34,9% y el agua intermediaria antártica (AIA, que se caracteriza por presentar un mínimo relativo de salinidad del orden de 34,55%.

  13. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poás volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Thorpe, R. S.; Brown, G. C.

    1980-02-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on Io1-7. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO2 gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported8,9, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poás volcano, Costa Rica10. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini10 and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  14. Análisis general de la legislación forestal de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Zúñiga, Anabelle

    2014-01-01

    Dentro de un Plan Nacional de Desarrollo concordante con las políticas y estrategias universales del desarrollo de los recursos naturales, del Ambiente o Biosfera en general, la Legislación Forestal en Costa Rica debe estar vinculada a las medidas nacionales e internacionales para la protección del medio natural, las cuales deben estar integradas al nuevo orden económico mundial basado en la cooperación internacional y el respeto mutuos. Sólo así podría la Legislación forestal costarricense, ...

  15. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  16. Communists and Advertisement. The Experience of Costa Rica in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Molina Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we identify the main characteristics of the advertising included in the Vanguardia magazine (1941-1942 and the Combate (1944 and Tinchera (1946 newspapers, all of them publications linked with the Communist Party in Costa Rica. It also considers the specific details of the individuals, institutions and companies that published advertisements in these media. Finally, we analyze to what extent some of the contents of those advertisements were related to broader discourses which took place in the 1940s (economic nationalism and defense of democracy, while others promoted values, beliefs, worldviews and lifestyles different from the culture the Communists were trying to spread.

  17. Calculating spectral direct solar irradiance, diffuse and global in Heredia, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    A spectral model under conditions of clear skies has described the flow of solar irradiation and is verified experimentally in Heredia, Costa Rica. A description of the model is presented by comparing its results with experimental measurements. The model has calculated the spectral flows of the global solar irradiation, direct and diffuse incident on a horizontal surface. Necessary input data include latitude, altitude, surface albedo as characteristics of a locality, and atmospheric characteristics: turbidity, precipitable water vapor, total ozone content and the optical thickness of a particular subject. The results show satisfactory values. (author) [es

  18. Macromorfometría de juveniles de Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidaeen Costa Rica

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    Manuel Merchán

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se midieron 31 ejemplares de tortuga africana de espolones Geochelone sulcata para la realización de un estudio biométrico. Se consideraron 26 medidas morfológicas para cada individuo. Las tortugas tenían una edad de entre 5 y 34 meses, y ninguna había alcanzado la madurez sexual. Todas ellas habían nacido en cautiverio en La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica, donde son una especie introducida. La longitud recta del espaldar fue de 83.1 mm, la anchura recta del espaldar de 68.3 mm y la altura máxima media de 46.2 mm. Todas las medidas estaban correlacionadas entre sí, salvo la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal. El mayor coeficiente de alometría positiva correspondió a la variable Peso. El mayor coeficiente de alometría negativa correspondió a la anchura a nivel de los escudos gulares. Todas las variables se agruparon en dos componentes principales, la longitud de la cola y la distancia cloacal en el Factor 2 y el resto en el Factor 1. La falta de correlación de las medidas de la cola así como su inclusión en un factor aparte al resto de la muestra podría responder a un proceso incipiente de diferenciación sexualGross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae in Costa Rica. The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had the highest positive allometry coefficient. All the variables were joined in two Principal Components; tail length and cloacal distance in Factor 2 and the rest of them in Factor 1. Lack of correlation among tail measures and the other

  19. A new fish, Peristedion nesium (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Bussing

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several expeditions in recent years to Isla del Coco have increased the total number of species of fishes known from the island. Several of these species have been described as new endemics (Bussing 1983, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1997. During the 1972 R/V Searcher Expedition to Costa Rica several trawl collections were made around Isla del Coco. At five localities in depths between 110 and 180m, 86 specimens of a new species of Peristedion were taken and are described herein. A key to the four species of Eastern Pacific Peristedion is included. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1149-1156. Epub 2010 December 01.

  20. El suicidio en Costa Rica en el año 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Chaves Moreno; Édgar Madrigal Ramírez; Maikel Vargas Sanabria; Zarela Abarca Villalobos

    2008-01-01

    Si bien en Costa Rica la tasa de suicidios por 100000 habitantes históricamente se ha encontrado por debajo de 10 por 100 mil habitantes, lo cual es bajo comparado a otros países, existen múltiples factores de riesgo, tanto sociales (pobreza, desempleo, drogadicción) como psicológicos (depresión, duelo) que son significativamente frecuentes y podrían incrementar estas cifra. En el presente artículo se pretende brindar un panorama actualizado acerca del suicidio en nuestro país, para ello se r...

  1. Hacinamiento carcelario en Costa Rica: una revisión desde los Derechos Humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa Cordero, Jorge Arturo; Araya Álvarez, María José

    2016-01-01

    Los autores exponen la problemática del hacinamiento carcelario como violencia institucional en Costa Rica por las graves violaciones a los Derechos Humanos, con alusiones a las principales tesis de los Organismos Internacionales. Asimismo, exponen las líneas jurisprudenciales de la Sala Constitucional y de los Tribunales de Apelación de Sentencia Penal. Proponen superar el “criterio objetivo del 120% de hacinamiento crítico” y dirigirse hacia una solución tipo estado de cosas inconstituciona...

  2. Programa Nacional de Clasificación de Canales Bovinas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo-Bravo, Olger; Galindo-Badilla, Jaime; Unruh, John; Arce-Calderón, Carlos; Blanco-González, Angie; Gadea-Baltodano, Antonio; Martínez-Gutiérrez, Bernal; Rodríguez-Barquero, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    Proyecto de Investigación CÓDIGO: 5402 - 2151- 5101 El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo general evaluar las principales características de las canales de bovinos sacrificados en el país, con el fin de establecer un sistema de clasificación de canales bovinas basadas en la calidad de la carne. Para ello, se seleccionaron animales de las regiones Huetar Norte, Huetar Atlántica y Chorotega de Costa Rica. Para cada una de ellas se tomaron 48 animales, alimentados a base de pasturas y selecc...

  3. The Impact of Pesticide Exposure on Breast Cancer Incidence. Evidence from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría-Ulloa, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: El cáncer de mama (CM) es el más prevalente y la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en las mujeres alrededor del mundo. El bajo porcentaje de casos relacionado con el historial reproductivo o la genética sugiere que el ambiente puede estar jugando un rol en su etiología. Se ha hipotetizado que la exposición a plaguicidas puede tener un efecto importante. Objetivo: Este estudio ecológico prueba si la incidencia de CM en Costa Rica está relacionada con la exposición ambiental a ...

  4. Condiciones de movimiento geostrofico para la corriente costera de Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Brenes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The geostrophic current and the volumen transport have been calculated, for the month of January 1969, for a section off Golfo Dulce, using the Montgomery´s method. During this period the Costa Rica Coastal Current was flowing northwestward, along the continental shelf, with a velocity up to 20cm/s, related to 67 cl/ton isanosteric surface. Under this current, a sub-surface flow in the opposite directions was found with an associated maximum velocity of 11 cm/s. The volume transport generated...

  5. [Seasonality of parasites and intestinal bacteria in vegetables that are consumed raw in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, R; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L

    1996-08-01

    In Costa Rica, a total of 640 samples from eight different vegetables used for raw consumption, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites and fecal coliforms. Eighty samples of each vegetable were analyzed, forty during the dry season and forty in the rainy. A greater, but unsignificant (p > 0.05) level of fecal coliforms was found during the dry season. Levels of Escherichia coli, were higher (p vegetables. The greater percentage of positive samples was found during the dry season, although these relation was only corroborated (p parasites and fecal coliforms.

  6. [Phytogeography of dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Ulate, G

    2001-03-01

    The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast, woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance), Curatella americana (raspa guacal) and Quercus oleoides (encino) are found because of the acid and infertile soils.

  7. Fitogeografía de ecosistemas secos en la meseta de ignimbritas de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Vargas Ulate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry ecosystems in the ignimbrite meseta of Guanacaste, northwest Costa Rica is mapped. Plant community distribution is intimately related to the type of relief, soils and humidity. In the upper parts of the meseta, characterised by soils which are stony, sandy, and acidic, herbacious vegetation such as savanna and edaphic steppe is dominant. By contrast,woodland is found on the deep and organically rich soils of the valley floors. Within the herbaceous formations dwarf varieties of Byrsonima crassifolia (nance, Curatella americana (raspa guacal and Quercus oleoides (encino are found because of the acid and infertile soils.

  8. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  9. Afrocostarricense y comunista. Harold Nichols y su actividad política en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Jiménez, Iván

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo, se analiza el caso de Harold Nichols, el único afrocostarricense que, en la década de 1930, colaboró activamente con el Partido Comunista de Costa Rica. La experiencia de este militante permite explorar las complejas relaciones entre esa organización política y la importante comunidad negra y extranjera asentada en el Caribe, cuya presencia exacerbó la xenofobia y el racismo en el decenio indicado. This article analyses the case of Harold Nichols, the only ...

  10. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro; Luis Gómez Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásic...

  11. Desarrollo de la especialidad en Psicología clínica en Costa Rica: perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto López-Core

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los antecedentes históricos, evolución y desarrollo de la Especialidad en Psicología Clínica en Costa Rica. En el año 1957, se inició el ejercicio de esta disciplina y a partir del año 1979 se consolidó el programa de estudios adscrito al Convenio Marco firmado entre la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) y la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS). Desde entonces, ha mantenido una acción ininterrumpida en la formación de especialistas. Los y las residentes en ...

  12. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alvarado

    Full Text Available Abstract Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884 was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845. This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812 on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM of the specimens are given.

  13. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given.

  14. Aspectos psicosociales en torno a las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1989-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 Este trabajo describe aspectos psicosociales que resaltan de la interacción entre los proveedores de atencion en salud (el personal de salud) y las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia human (HIV). La discusión se basa en las experiencias del autor obtenidas mediante el seguimiento de una falange de casi 1000 hombres homosexuales o bisexuales en Costa Rica, así como de la intera...

  15. Cría comercial del caracol en Costa Rica. Estudio de factibilidad y estrategia de mercadeo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Gómez, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Administración de Empresas) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Administración de Empresas, 1998. Costa Rica es un país con una diversidad de microclimas muy variados que permite desarrollar actividades muy diversas, principalmente en el área de la agroindustria. La región del Valle Central presenta condiciones muy favorables para criar el caracol de tierra para consumo humano conocido como escargot. Esta investigación analiza la factibilidad...

  16. El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en Hemofílicos de Costa Rica, 1980-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero, Roberto; Montero Umaña, Carlos; Astúa, Mary; Murillo, Nuria

    1988-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1988 Este trabajo resume el brote de SIDA en los hemofílicos de Costa Rica. Se determinó mediante estudio retrospectivo, que la primera víctima, un paciente con Hemofilia A, murió en 1980. Tan pronto la prueba ELISA estuvo disponible en el país, se tamizó 86 hemofílicos A, 18 hemofílicos B, 75 parientes de estas personas, 11 trabajadores de salud relacionados con estos pacientes...

  17. Identificación de malezas trepadoras del banano (musa sp.) en la zona caribe de costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mar\\u00EDa Rodr\\u00EDguez; Ren\\u00E1n Ag\\u00FCero

    2000-01-01

    Identificación de malezas trepadoras del banano (Musa sp.) en la zona caribe de Costa Rica. Las poblaciones de las malezas conocidas como trepadoras, han ido en aumento en las plantaciones de banano en Costa Rica. La identificación es una base necesaria para otros estudios. El presente trabajo es de carácter exploratorio y deberá continuarse, ya que muchas de las especies objeto de este estudio son difíciles de identificar. Se procedió a visitar fincas bananeras ubicadas ...

  18. Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Valverde; Marco A. Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Identificación de virus en el cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) en Costa Rica. En el período entre febrero y mayo del 2002, se realizó un reconocimiento de los virus del cultivo de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.), en cinco plantaciones comerciales ubicadas en las principales regiones productoras de este cultivo en Costa Rica. Previo al muestreo, en cada plantación se evaluó la incidencia de plantas con síntomas de enfermedades virales. Para la identificación de los virus...

  19. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  20. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  1. Illustrations and studies in Neotropical Orchidaceae. 6. The Lepanthes guatemalensis group (Pleurothallidinae in Costa Rica

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    Pupulin, Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revise and characterize the group of species close to Lepanthes guatemalensis. The group comprises eight species in Costa Rica. Three new species are described and illustrated. Lepanthes durikäensis is distinguished by the non resupinate flowers, the lateral sepals ovate with the apical tails diverging, the lower lobe of petals lanceolate-subfalcate, up-curved and the pinkish column. Lepanthes leporina is recognized by the resupinate flowers with yellow sepals, faintly suffused with red, the petals violet, the lip orange, the bifid synsepal with the apices of the lateral sepals not forming tails, the lateral sepals subequal to the dorsal sepal, the petals markedly convex with the upper lobe elliptic-lanceolate and the lobes of the lip connivent at apex. Lepanthes sanctiorum is characterized by the small plants less than 1.1 cm tall, the short peduncle less than 10 mm long, the petals as wide as the lip length and the blades of the lip distinctly diverging at apex. All the species are described and illustrated on the basis of Costa Rican material. A key to the species of the group is provided.Revisamos y caracterizamos el grupo de especies cercanas a Lepanthes guatemalensis. El grupo está compuesto por ocho especies en Costa Rica. Se describen e ilustran tres especies nuevas. Lepanthes durikäensis se caracteriza por las flores no resupinadas, los sépalos laterales ovados, con las colas apicales divergentes, el lóbulo inferior de los pétalos lanceolado-subfalcado, con curvatura hacia arriba y la columna rosada. Lepanthes leporina es reconocida por las flores resupinadas, los sépalos amarillos y ligeramente teñidos de rojo, los pétalos violeta, el labelo naranja, el sinsépalo bífido con los ápices de los sépalos laterales que no forman colas, los sépalos laterales subiguales al sépalo dorsal, los pétalos marcadamente convexo con el lóbulo superior elíptico-lanceolado y los lóbulos del labelo conniventes en el ápice. Lepanthes

  2. Insights into the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Costa Rica

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    Jennifer Rebecca Kelly, Ph.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has given the illegal trade of feline derivatives in Mexico as well as Central and South America little attention. The purpose of this article is to: 1 Begin a dialogue among human dimensions of wildlife scholars about the economic and cultural values of feline derivatives throughout Mexico, Central and South America; 2 Present the range of economic values that emerged in my interview and participant observation data from Costa Rica; 3 Offer an explanation of how sociological concepts influence the buying and selling of dead jaguars (Panthera onca, pumas (Puma concolor, and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in Costa Rica. The principal results are: 1 The sociological concepts of social status and masculine identity interlace with and motivate the illegal trade; 2 The value of feline parts in Costa Rica ranges from $25 to $5000; 3 This value differs by culture and geographic residency of the seller (urban versus rural and diverged from values discovered in other countries; 4 The men who adorn their homes with illegal trophies are not necessarily the poachers. The value of jaguar skin has been recorded for as little as $100 in a 1983 study conducted in Belize and for as high as $600 in a study done in Venezuela in approximately 2011. Because of cultural differences, Cabécar sell a feline skin for as little as $25 and up to $400 if it includes teeth and nails, but Ticos, who are non-indigenous Costa Ricans, sell the skins from $500-$5000. Non-indigenous, wealthy urban men indicate prestige by the display of feline parts. My findings align with existing research that jaguar skins are sold to people in larger cities and that adornment of feline derivatives is a masculine tradition that can be linked with Amerindian cultures and ancient times. Historically jaguars have been associated with elitist symbolism and evidence in this study suggests this continues in today's culture as a sign of social status. Results suggest that money alone does not

  3. Varicella prevention in Costa Rica: impact of a one-dose schedule universal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Aguero, María L; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Camacho-Badilla, Kattia; Soriano-Fallas, Alejandra; Arroba-Tijerino, Roberto; Morice-Trejos, Ana

    2017-03-01

    To describe the impact following a 1-dose Varicella vaccination schedule introduced in Costa Rica in September 2007. Areas covered: This is a retrospective review using epidemiologic surveillance national databases of varicella cases and hospitalizations, period 2000-2015. We analyzed age-related varicella incidence cases and hospitalization trends before and after the vaccine introduction. Expert commentary: Varicella vaccine coverage among children 16 months age increased from 76% in 2008 to 95% in 2015. During this period Costa Rica reached a 73.8% reduction of Varicella reported cases and 85.9% reduction of hospitalizations in the general population. Among children under 5 years of age, that reduction was 79.1% and 87%, respectively. Varicella complications in hospitalized patients decreased 98%, from n = 53 in 2008 to n = 1 in 2014. After 8-years post implementation of a 1-dose schedule of universal varicella vaccination, a dramatic overall disease reduction in incidence, hospitalizations and complicated cases has been observed in all age groups.

  4. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  5. Evaluation of methods for available Zn in four soil orders in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Bornemisza, E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical methods for available Zn determination were evaluated on four soil orders in Costa Rica (Ultisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols and Andisols) with 25 samples for each; using the following extract solutions : Modified Olsen, Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan , DTPA and HCI. The Zn levels obtained depended on the chemical characteristics of the extracting solutions. The highest levels were obtained with HCI, except for the Vertisols. The solutions with EDTA (Modified Olsen and Mehlich 3), extracted intermediate levels of Zn, while the method using DTPA (Modified Morgan and DTPA) gave the lowest Zn values . In most of the cases, significant values of correlation were obtained between the 5 extraction methods; so for individual soil orders, or comparing all 100 soils. The highest correlation coefficients for extractable Zn were found for the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA. The correlations were consistent for the 4 orders, which indicate that they are adaptable to different soils, a useful characteristic for these methods. The Modified Olsen was the most efficient extractor in slightly acis soils (Vertisols and Inceptisols). The HCI extracted very high Zn levels, which are probably not related to plant available forms. It is concluded that the Mehlich 3, Modified Morgan and DTPA solutions are probably adequate for available Zn determination and might present an alternative to substitute the generally used Modified Olsen solution in Costa Rica. (Author) [es

  6. Rezagados durante la crisis económica: Pobreza entre adultos mayores en Costa Rica

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    Brenes Camacho, Gilbert

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica de inicios de los años ochentas impactó de muy diversas maneras a la Costa Rica del siglo XX. Las acciones gubernamentales desde 1982 tuvieron éxito en reducir la proporción de personas pobres desde un 35% en 1985 a un 23% en el 2000. El presente artículo utiliza las Encuestas de Hogares entre 1981 y 2002 y los Censos de Población para realizar una estimación de los efectos de cohorte, edad y período, y así mostrar que la pobreza entre la población adulta mayor en Costa Rica se puede entender como un efecto de cohorte. Esta condición de pobreza de estas cohortes está asociada principalmente con su bajo nivel de escolaridad, principalmente entre los hombres. La probabilidad de haber tenido derecho a pensión por jubilación y el hecho de que los menos educados recibían un ingreso bajo al final de su vida laboral median en la relación entre la educación y la pobreza como efecto de cohorte.

  7. Rezagados durante la crisis económica: Pobreza entre adultos mayores en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Brenes Camacho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica de inicios de los años ochentas impactó de muy diversas maneras a la Costa Rica del siglo XX. Las acciones gubernamentales desde 1982 tuvieron éxito en reducir la proporción de personas pobres, desde un 35% en 1985 a un 23% en el 2000. El presente artículo utiliza las encuestas de hogares entre 1981 y 2002 y los censos de población para realizar una estimación de los efectos de cohorte, edad y período, y así mostrar que la pobreza entre la población adulta mayor en Costa Rica se puede entender como un efecto de cohorte. Esta condición de pobreza de estas cohortes está asociada principalmente con su bajo nivel de escolaridad, principalmente entre los hombres. La probabilidad de haber tenido derecho a pensión por jubilación y el hecho de que los menos educados recibían un ingreso bajo al final de su vida laboral median en la relación entre la educación y la pobreza como efecto de cohorte.

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO ESTRATÉGICO EN BANCA: CASO DEL BANCO NACIONAL Y DEL BANCO DE COSTA RICA

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    Pablo Villalobos González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La competencia por clientes en el sector bancario costarricense se ha intensificado en los últimos meses, las campañas publicitarias la hacen evidente.Particularmente ha sido llamativo el enfrentamiento entre el Banco Nacional y el Banco de Costa Rica, pues son los dos bancos más grandes del país y que tienen la característica común de ser estatales.Siguiendo el enfoque del Nuevo Paradigma de Organización Industrial Empírico (NPOIE, y bajo un modelo de localización espacial de tipo Lancasteriano, se construye un vector de atributos para tres productos en ambos bancos, buscando identificar acciones y respuestas y calculando una distancia estratégica entre el mismo producto para las dos instituciones y para cada producto en un banco en dos momentos diferentes (1994 y 1999.Además se analiza brevemente el aspecto de localización geográfica como estrategia competitiva.Se hace evidente que estos bancos siguen estrategias competitivas diferentes; así mientras el Banco Nacional concentra buena parte de sus esfuerzos en innovaciones, cambios, mayor cobertura y en abarcar la mayor cantidad de productos que ofrece la banca universal (supermercado financiero, el Banco de Costa Rica podría decirse es más cauto y enfoca su estrategia en ofrecer mejores precios que su rival.

  9. Algunos poliquetos holoplanctónicos (Annelida: Polychaeta del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

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    Soledad Jiménez-Cueto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los poliquetos holoplanctónicos no han sido estudiados en las aguas oceánicas adyacentes al Parque Isla del Coco. Se estudiaron estas formas pelágicas a partir del análisis de muestras de zooplancton recolectadas en esta área protegida. Las muestras fueron obtenidas mediante redes de plancton estándar (0.2-0.5mm de malla, 0.49m de diámetro de boca en arrastres horizontales y verticales en la isla oceánica Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Los poliquetos pelágicos de esta zona fueron analizados taxonómicamente. El material obtenido incluye representantes de seis especies y cinco familias: Alciopidae, Lopadorhynchidae, Tomopteridae, Polynoidae y Typhloscolecidae. Se presentan diagnosis breves, sino- nimias, análisis morfológicos comparativos, ilustraciones taxonómicas y la distribución conocida de las especies recolectadas en el plancton de Isla del Coco. El registro de Drieschia pellucida Moore es el primero en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental; nuestro espécimen muestra algunas diferencias respecto a la descripción original. El resto de las especies han sido encontradas previamente en aguas del Pacífico Tropical Oriental y en el Domo de Costa Rica, pero son los primeros registros para esta área protegida.

  10. Social Perception and Encounters with Snakes in Costa Rica: An Analysis through the Social Network Facebook

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    Katherine Sánchez-Paniagua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snakes are among the animals most affected by the ignorance of humans towards wildlife In Costa Rica, little effort has been made to know how snakes are affected by human actions. In the present study, we used information supplied to the Serpientes de Costa Rica page of the social network Facebook to find out: which species are reported most frequently? Which of these suffer the greatest number of deaths? and what ability to recognize them have those who send the reports? A total of 484 reports were obtained, 389 of which were non —venomous snakes and 95 were venomous, with 66 species being identified. The most frequent species were Ninia maculata, Senticolis triaspis, Leptodeira rhombifera, Boa imperator, Bothrops asper, Bothriechis schlegelii and Mastigodryas melanolomus. The genera with higher mortality were Mastigodryas, Bothrops, Senticolis, Geophis and Leptodeira. People killed one in four snakes, regardless of whether it was venomous or not. Species of the genera Mastigodryas, Geophis, Senticolis, Ninia and Leptodeira were among the least identified. The best identified species were B. imperator, B. asper and B. schlegelii. Only one in five people could correctly recognize whether a snake was poisonous or not. The reports were given with a small group of species, which seem to be the ones that are in closest contact with the studied population; education for the conservation of these animals can start with those species that seem to be more frequent and so people will gradually recognize and protect the wild life that surrounds them.

  11. Barriers and Motivations for Construction Waste Reduction Practices in Costa Rica

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    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low- and middle-income countries lag behind in research that is related to the construction industry and the waste problems that the sector is facing. Literature shows that waste reduction and recycling have received a continuous interest from researchers, but mainly from developed countries. Few reports from low- and middle-income countries are concerned about the reuse of masonry, concrete, and mortar in clay based building ceramics or recycling construction waste, but mostly in relation to concrete aggregates. Furthermore, few authors have described the major barriers and motivations for construction waste reduction. The objective of this paper is to report the findings on a research performed in Costa Rica with the objective to determine the barriers and motivations that the construction sector is facing to improve the management of the construction materials. The study is based on data collected in two phases. During the first phase, a survey was sent via e-mail to 419 main contractors registered at the School Federation of Engineers and Architects (CFIA. The second phase consisted of a focus group discussion with 49 professionals from the construction industry to analyse and validate the findings from the survey. Descriptive statistic methods helped to draw the conclusions. The result of the research is a comprehensive list of observed barriers and motivations for waste reduction practices in the construction sector. These are not only applicable to Costa Rica, but can be used as a guide for similar studies in other low- and middle-income countries.

  12. El uso del imperfecto de subjuntivo en el habla culta de Costa Rica

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    Petr Pitloun

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation is to describe the use of the imperfect subjunctive tense in educated Spanish of Costa Rica. Furthermore, the study aims to find out the distribution of the two forms of this verbal tense. It is a descriptive study based on the material collected within the framework of the Project of Coordinated Study of the Standard Linguistic Norm of the Principal Cities of Latin America and Spain. Findings are that the -ra form is the prevailing form of the imperfect subjunctive. The -se form has not disappeared completely from the educated Spanish of Costa Rica, but its use is minimal (1,3 % of all documented cases. Results also indicate that the imperfect subjunctive is used mostly in contexts where its use is obligatory and where the use of another verbal form would be unacceptable (81,9 % of all registered cases. It can alternate with another verbal tense in 16,4 % of all documented cases (in independent sentences this possibility comes to 90 % and in adjective clauses to 30 %. Only in 1,7 % of all found cases (all in adverbial clauses the imperfect subjunctive is used with the meaning of another verbal tense.

  13. Las principales fallas de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica

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    Osvaldo Guerreo Castro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tareas más importantes en la gestión del mantenimiento de los equipos de producción, y particularmente de los motores eléctricos, es identificar y prevenir las fallas para tomar acciones que eviten la incidencia de las mismas.Mediante una investigación de campo, con visitas a empresas de varios sectoresproductivos y talleres de reparación de motores eléctricos en Costa Rica, se logróobtener una clasificación y distribución porcentual de las fallas más comunes enlos motores trifásicos de inducción, en el rango de 2 a 50 HP.Esta investigación determinó que existen cuatro tipos de fallas más comunes enmotores eléctricos en Costa Rica; estas se concentran en dos sectores productivos.La investigación identificó aspectos relevantes por mejorar en cuanto a la orientación de la formación profesional universitaria y, en el modelo administrativo del mantenimiento de estos equipos, en lasindustrias.

  14. Determination of human cytomegalovirus genetic diversity in different patient populations in Costa Rica

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    Ahumada-Ruiz Sara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of HCMV in Costa Rica is greater than 95% in adults; primary infections occur early in life and is the most frequent congenital infection in newborns. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variability and genotypes of HCMV gB gene in Costa Rica. Samples were collected from alcoholics, pregnant women, blood donors, AIDS patients, hematology-oncology (HO children and HCMV isolates from neonates with cytomegalic inclusion disease. A semi-nested PCR system was used to obtain a product of 293-296 bp of the gB gene to be analyzed by Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing to determine the genetic polymorphic pattern and genotypes, respectively. AIDS patients showed the highest polymorphic diversity with 14 different patterns while fifty-six percent of HO children samples showed the same polymorphic pattern, suggesting in this group a possible nosocomial infection. In neonates three genotypes (gB1, gB2 and gB3, were determined while AIDS patients and blood donors only showed one (gB2. Of all samples analyzed only genotypes gB1, 2 and 3 were determined, genotype gB2 was the most frequent (73% and mixed infections were not detected. The results of the study indicate that SSCP could be an important tool to detect HCMV intra-hospital infections and suggests a need to include additional study populations to better determine the genotype diversity and prevalence.

  15. Land cover dynamics following a deforestation ban in northern Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagan, M E; DeFries, R S; Sesnie, S E; Arroyo, J P; Soto, C; Walker, W; Chazdon, R L; Sanchun, A

    2013-01-01

    Forest protection policies potentially reduce deforestation and re-direct agricultural expansion to already-cleared areas. Using satellite imagery, we assessed whether deforestation for conversion to pasture and cropland decreased in the lowlands of northern Costa Rica following the 1996 ban on forest clearing, despite a tripling of area under pineapple cultivation in the last decade. We observed that following the ban, mature forest loss decreased from 2.2% to 1.2% per year, and the proportion of pineapple and other export-oriented cropland derived from mature forest declined from 16.4% to 1.9%. The post-ban expansion of pineapples and other crops largely replaced pasture, exotic and native tree plantations, and secondary forests. Overall, there was a small net gain in forest cover due to a shifting mosaic of regrowth and clearing in pastures, but cropland expansion decreased reforestation rates. We conclude that forest protection efforts in northern Costa Rica have likely slowed mature forest loss and succeeded in re-directing expansion of cropland to areas outside mature forest. Our results suggest that deforestation bans may protect mature forests better than older forest regrowth and may restrict clearing for large-scale crops more effectively than clearing for pasture. (letter)

  16. Characterization of true-branching cyanobacteria from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsinger, Karin; Scholz, Ingeborg; Serrano, Aurelio; Morales, Saylen; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Mora, Marielos; Sittenfeld, Ana; Weckesser, Jürgen; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2008-02-01

    Costa Rica is at the centre of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot. Little is known about cyanobacteria from this region so far. Here, four isolates of the order Stigonematales (section V) were characterized in a polyphasic approach. All strains were isolated from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica. However, one of them, identified as Westiellopsis sp. Ar73, did not grow at more than 40 degrees C. Based on its identical 16S rRNA to several previously isolated Westiellopsis sp. and Fischerella muscicola strains, a ubiquitous distribution throughout tropical and subtropical regions can be implied. In contrast, the isolates MV9, MV11 and RV14 grew well up to 50-55 degrees C. Based on morphologic, ultrastructural, molecular and physiologic data, MV9, MV11 and RV14 were identified to belong to the genus Fischerella. Two distinct intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) types, with or without tRNA genes, were detected for all Stigonematales analysed here, indicating ITS polymorphism as a characteristic feature of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In phylogenetic trees, these Fischerella spp. formed a new and distinct clade within the wider lineage of thermophilic Fischerella (Mastigocladus cf. laminosus), which might represent a geographic lineage. Thus, geographic isolation may be an underestimated aspect of microbial evolution. The strains presented here are suitable as new models to study this group of cyanobacteria.

  17. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

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    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  18. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  19. Monitoreo del arrecife coralino Meager Shoal, Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

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    Ana C Fonseca E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the Meager Shoal coral reef, Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The coral reefs at Cahuita National Park, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, specifically at the CARICOMP site Meager Shoal, have been monitored since 1999. Complete data sets from 2000 and 2004 have shown that live coral cover has increased less than 3 % (from 15 to 17 %, but non-coralline algae cover has increased much (63 to 74 % and coralline algae cover has decreased (17 to 5 % significantly. The proportion of affected colonies by diseases, injuries and bleaching decreased from 24 % in 2000 to 10 % in 2004, but the difference was not statistically significant. Densities of the urchin Diadema antillarum increased, and are probably help to maintain the macroalgae biomass low, while those of Echinometra viridis decreased significantly. The coral reef at Cahuita National Park continues to be impacted by chronic terrigenous sediments and does not show a significant recovery since the late 1970’s. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 755-763. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  20. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

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    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  1. Dynamics of QoI Sensitivity in Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Costa Rica During 2000 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, A F; Heaney, S P; Stanger, C; Shaw, M W

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT From 1997 onward, the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin was widely used in the main banana-production zone in Costa Rica against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis causing black Sigatoka of banana. By 2000, isolates of M. fijiensis with resistance to the quinolene oxidase inhibitor fungicides were common on some farms in the area. The cause was a single point mutation from glycine to alanine in the fungal target protein, cytochrome b gene. An amplification refractory mutation system Scorpion quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used to determine the frequency of G143A allele in samples of M. fijiensis. Two hierarchical surveys of spatial variability, in 2001 and 2002, found no significant variation in frequency on spatial scales <10 m. This allowed the frequency of G143A alleles on a farm to be estimated efficiently by averaging single samples taken at two fixed locations. The frequency of G143A allele in bulk samples from 11 farms throughout Costa Rica was determined at 2-month intervals. There was no direct relationship between the number of spray applications and the frequency of G143A on individual farms. Instead, the frequency converged toward regional averages, presumably due to the large-scale mixing of ascospores dispersed by wind. Using trap plants in an area remote from the main producing area, immigration of resistant ascospores was detected as far as 6 km away both with and against the prevailing wind.

  2. Variabilidad de establecer el sistema de denominaciones de origen de los productores agroalimentarios en Costa Rica

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    Leonardo Granados

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la opinion de personas vincu- ladas al desarrollo rural y a los sectores agricola y alimentario, se explor6 la viabilidad de esta- blecer en Costa Rica un sistema de denomina- ciones de origen, como un medio para la valora- estabcion y promocion de productos agricolas y ali- menticios tradicionales, con un origen geografi- co reconocible. La poblaci6n consultada mostr6 un bajo nivel de conocimiento sobre el tema; sin embargo, se percibi6 una alta valoracion para es- te tipo de productos y una percepcion positiva acerca de las ventajas del establecimiento del sistema en Costa Rica, principalmente en el me- establishjoramiento de la imagen y calidad de los produc- tos y en la apertura de nuevos mercados. Se in- dicaron como factores limitantes para su imple- mentacion, entre otros, el insuficiente conoci- miento y experiencia acerca del sistema. Se re- comendo realizar nuevas investigaciones sobre knowllos productos que preliminarmente presentaron caracteristicas promisorias para ser incluidas en el sistema, 10 mismo que profundizar en el ana- lisis del marco normativo e institucional para la adecuacion de una estructura general de organi- syszacion y operaci6n del sistema.

  3. Base de datos económicas y sociales de Costa Rica (1800-1860.

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    Marcia Robinson Angli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de datos que presentamos a continuación, por medio del enlace www.historia.fcs.ucr.ac.cr/articulos/2009/vol2/cafe.html, fueron elaboradas a partir de información extraída de una serie documental denominada Protocolos Coloniales, la cual se custodia en el Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica. Una cantidad considerable de la información contenida en los protocolos se transcribió en formularios denominados fichas de resumen histórico, con el propósito de elaborar bases de datos de carácter analítico, económico y social, respecto del tipo de movimientos o transacciones realizadas por los habitantes de varias regiones de Costa Rica, principalmente del Valle Central, en el período 1800-1860. Las transacciones más comunes en esa época eran las compraventas de bienes inmuebles (no incluidas en este trabajo, los remates de estanquillos y de tercenas, los préstamos condicionados con pago en habilitaciones de café, los préstamos de dinero y la concesión de cartas poder.

  4. DNA damage in female workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations at Limon, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, V.; Cuenca, P.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in Costa Rica is very high and all year round. A high percentage of what is sprayed remains in the environment and in the living organisms around. This situation brings contamination and health problems to people in contact with them. The onset of adverse effects may be in the short or long term, and symptoms vary widely, from headaches to cancer. Much research in the area has been devoted to acute or chronic effects, and not until recently to the genotoxic effect of pesticides. This study evaluated the genotoxic effect of pesticide used in banana packing activities, using the comet assay (single cell electrophoresis) as the biological marker in lymphocytes. This was a cases-control double blind study of 30 exposed women from 15 banana farms and 28 women not occupationally exposed to pesticides from the same geographic area. Results show damage to single straded DNA after working from 5 to 15 years (R 2 =0.12). In Costa Rica we do not have an historical record of the kind of pesticides used in banana farms, the period of time and for how long were they used. This prevented further analysis concerning dose, frequency of exposure and use of new or old kind of pesticides in the farms in relation to DNA damage. The comet assay is of value in the genetic monitoring of pesticide exposed populations. (Author) [es

  5. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

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    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  6. Fifteen Years of Slow Slip and Tremor Observations at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S. Y.; Dixon, T. H.; Protti, M.; González, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated long-term geophysical observations at the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, facilitated by NSF's MARGINS program, have greatly expanded our understanding of its megathrust behavior. Here we review fifteen years of seismic, geodetic, ocean bottom fluid flow and pressure sensor data collected on or near the Nicoya Peninsula, above the shallow thrust interface that document a variety of slow slip behaviors. These include relatively deep (~30-40 km), large slow slip events that occur about every 2 years, smaller events that locate at more intermediate depth (10-15 km) and occur more frequently (~1 per year), and very shallow events at the toe of the margin wedge that produce no discernible GPS signal on land but are detected on seafloor pressure sensors. Most of these slow slip events at the toe are accompanied by seismic tremor. Short-term, GPS only observations might have detected a few of these slow slip events; however, the longer more diverse instrument deployment was necessary to reveal their greater complexity. This demonstrates the need for a sustained, multi-instrument deployment and off-shore instrumentation at several different subduction zones, like that proposed for the Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO), to significantly advance our understanding of slow slip at convergent boundaries. Similar instrumentation to what exists in Nicoya is presently being established in the Osa-Burica region of southern Costa Rica to capture earthquake cycle deformation there. These two installations can provide a good nucleus for a larger circum-Pacific SZO effort.

  7. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

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    Ricardo Monge González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se trasladó a empresas locales (15 139. El impacto de los derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de empresas locales se midió en términos de tres variables: ventas, empleo y productividad media del trabajo; para esto se empleó un panel de empresas locales para el periodo que va del 2007 al 2009. Mediante el empleo de modelos econométricos sugeridos por la literatura en este campo, se encontró evidencia de que las empresas locales que han contratado ex empleados de MNCS obtienen un mejor desempeño en términos de crecimiento de sus ventas y empleo, que aquellas empresas locales que no contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Es decir, se obtuvo una clara evidencia de la externalidad positiva asociada con los derrames de conocimiento para Costa Rica, producto de la movilidad laboral desde las MNCS. No se encontró esta evidencia cuando el desempeño de las empresas locales se mide en términos de la productividad media del trabajador. Finalmente, los resultados señalan la importancia de llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones sobre la capacidad de absorción de las empresas locales para potenciar más los impactos positivos de los derrames de conocimiento, así como respecto al impacto de tales derrames sobre la productividad total de los factores.This paper aims to determine the existence of knowledge spillovers associated to labor mobility from multinational companies (MNCS operating in Costa Rica. That is, the impact of such knowledge spillovers over the

  8. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  9. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  10. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB, were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P. berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae; Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae; Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae; Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae; Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae; Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae; Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae; Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae; Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae; Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae; Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae; Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae; Prunus annularis (Rosaceae; Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae; Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanácea (Solanaceae; Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae; Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae. We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9μg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  11. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Porras Chaverria, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  12. Taxonomía y distribución del género Leptoscelis en Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Leptoscelis in Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Leptoscelini

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    Harry Brailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa el género Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini para Costa Rica y se describe una especie nueva, L. conspicuus. Se discuten sus relaciones con L. quadrisignatus (Distant y L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin es sinonimizada con L. quadrisignatus. Se cita por primera vez L. tricolor para Costa Rica. El trabajo incluye nuevos datos de distribución para el género, ilustraciones de las especies y de los parámeros y una clave para la identificación de las especies costarricenses.The genus Leptoscelis Laporte (Coreidae: Leptoscelini from Costa Rica is revised. One new species, L. conspicuus, is described and compared with L. quadrisignatus (Distant and L. tricolor Westwood. Leptoscelis bisbimaculata Breddin is synonymized with L. quadrisignatus. Leptoscelis tricolor is recorded for the first time from Costa Rica. New distribution records are presented. Habitus illustrations and drawings of parameres are provided. A key to the known Costarican species is presented.

  13. El proceso hacia la paridad en América Latina. Argentina y Costa Rica, experiencias comparadas

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    Nélida Archenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available : Las dificultades que encontró la implementación de las cuotas dieron lugar al debate sobre la paridad política de género en América Latina. El principio de paridad es expresado en una norma que obliga a los partidos políticos a confeccionar las listas de candidatos con 50% de integrantes de cada sexo, ordenados en forma secuencial y alternada. A pesar del alto potencial de igualdad y equidad de género que conlleva este principio, al integrarse las normas paritarias a un sistema electoral determinado, los elementos de este marco normativo condicionan su efectividad, tal como ocurre con el sistema de cuotas. De tal modo que una legislación electoral paritaria altamente favorable a la participación política de las mujeres no resulta suficiente cuando el diseño del sistema electoral y la forma como los partidos y alianzas confeccionan sus listas, dando prioridad a las candidaturas masculinas, actúan como obstáculos para su acceso. El artículo presenta datos de los resultados de las elecciones paritarias a nivel subnacional en Costa Rica y Argentina que dan sustento a esta hipótesis

  14. El rápido descenso de la fecundidad en Costa Rica

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    Gómez Barrantes, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gómez Barrantes es profesor emérito de la Escuela de Estadística de la Universidad de Costa Rica con estudios de postgrado en demografía en CELADE, Santiago de Chile, y de sociología y muestreo en la Universidad de Michigan, donde fue discípulo favorito de posiblemente el muestrista más importante que ha existido en la ciencias sociales: el Profesor Leslie Kish. Pero Miguel es más que estos títulos. Es el maestro y mentor de prácticamente todos los estadísticos, muestristas, encuestadores (en el sentido de pollsters, politólogos y opinionólogos cuantitativos de Costa Rica. Y también de los demógrafos. Una época de la vida profesional de Miguel, hace como 40 años, estuvo dedicada a la investigación demográfica, en particular, al estudio de la fecundidad en el país. En 1964, por ejemplo, Miguel dirigió la primera encuesta científica poblacional que se atrevió a preguntar a una muestra de 2.000 mujeres josefinas intimidades de las que muy pocas personas se atrevían a hablar en público en ese entonces, como el uso de anticonceptivos.El manuscrito que se reproduce a continuación, que data de1970, resume algunas de las investigaciones de la fecundidad de Costa Rica que Miguel, a veces con la ayuda de sus estudiantes, efectuó en esa época. Lo presentó en el Quinto Seminario Nacional de Demografía que se llevó a cabo en ese año en el Centro de Recreación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Miguel es un investigador extremadamente cuidadoso que por exagerado pudor dejó sin publicar mucho material de su trabajo de esa época. Este manuscrito es casi una excepción y es una suerte que haya visto la luz pública en un volumen (difícil de conseguir en la actualidad con los trabajos presentados en dicho Seminario. La Revista Población y Salud en Mesoamérica rescata este trabajo considerándolo visita obligada para investigadores que traten de entender una de las revoluciones más importantes ocurridas en Costa Rica en

  15. Highly polymorphic DNA markers in an Africanized honey bee population in Costa Rica

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    Jorge Arturo Lobo Segura

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genetic markers (the mtDNA COI-COII intergenic region and the microsatellite A7 with high levels of variability in South African and European honey bees were analyzed in wild swarms of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera from Costa Rica. Allelic or haplotypic frequencies revealed high levels of genetic variability at these loci in this population. Most of the alleles were African alleles, although some European-derived alleles were also present. Differences in the frequencies of African alleles between African and Africanized samples were minor, which could be explained by founder effects occurring during the introduction of African honey bee populations into South America.Dois marcadores genéticos (a região intergénica mitocondrial COI-COII e o microsatélite A7, com altos níveis de variabilidade em populações de abelhas melíferas da África do Sul e Europa, foram analisados em uma amostra de enxames naturais da Costa Rica. As freqüências alélicas e haplotípicas na amostra africanizada mostraram altos níveis de diversidade nestes loci. A maioria dos alelos são de origem africana, embora alguns alelos de origem européia foram observados. As mudanças nas freqüências dos alelos de origem africana entre as abelhas da África do Sul e as abelhas da população africanizada são de baixa magnitude e podem ter sido causadas pelo efeito fundador que ocorreu na introdução da abelha africana na América do Sul.

  16. Ultraestructura del bambú Guadua amplexifolia (Poaceaea: Bambusoideae presente en Costa Rica

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    Mayra Montiel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio anatómico ultraestructural, con microscopio electrónico de barrido, de partes vegetativas y florales de Guadua amplexifolia de Costa Rica, la cual se caracteriza por presentar culmo sólido en la sección basal y un pequeño lumen en la zona distal. Las características más evidentes fueron las células epidérmicas con papilas oblicuas operculadas en las paleas, la gran cantidad de papilas céricas formando rosetas en la sección adaxial de a lámina foliar, la abundancia de células de sílice en la lema, los numerosos tricomas de la pálea y lema; y la abundancia de almidones en el tejido parenquimatoso. Las hojas midieron 7-16 cm de largo y 3 cm de ancho, mientras que en trabajos previos se informaron 16-24 cm de largo y 3-5 cm de ancho para esta especie.We used a scanning electron microscope to study the ultrastructure of vegetative and floral parts of Guadua amplexifolia from Costa Rica, a bamboo characterized by a solid culm in the base and a small lumen in the distal part. The most evident characteristics were: epidermic cells with operculated-oblique papillae in the palea, the great amount of ceric papillae forming rosettes in the adaxial section of the leaf blade, the abundance of silica cells in the lemma, the numerous trichomes of the palea and lemma, and the abundance of starch in the parenchymatous tissue. Leaves in the particular genotype under study were 7-16 cm long and 3 cm width, while previous studies reported 16-224 cm long and 3-5 cm width for the species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2: 21-28. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.

  17. Chewing lice of genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Turdidae (Passeriformes) of Costa Rica, with descriptions of seven new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kounek, F.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3620, č. 3620 (2013), s. 201-222 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amblycera * Myrsidea * new species * new host -louse associations * population dynamics * Turdidae * Catharus * Myadestes * Turdus * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013

  18. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles,

  19. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  20. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  1. Understanding Social Justice Leadership: An International Exploration of the Perspectives of Two School Leaders in Costa Rica and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Charles; Potter, Ian; Torres, Nancy; Briceno, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article is an examination of two social justice leaders, one in Costa Rica and one in England. It is part of the International Study of Leadership Development Network, a multi-nation study of social justice and educational leadership. A brief discussion of the philosophy of social justice and an examination of the macro and micro context in…

  2. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  3. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  4. Calochaete gen. nov. (Cyanobacteria, Nostocales), a new cyanobacterial type from the "páramo" zone in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauer, Tomáš; Bohunická, Markéta; Mühlsteinová, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 1 (2013), s. 36-44 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * new genus * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2013

  5. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Jansen, K.; Wendel de Joode, van B.; Wesseling, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to

  6. Geochemical evolution of the acid crater lake of Poas volcano (Costa Rica): Insights into volcanic-hydrothermal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Cruz, María

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the evolution of Laguna Caliente, an acid crater lake at the summit of Po:is, a persistently active volcano in central Costa Rica. The appearance, volume, temperature and chemical composition of the lake have continuously changed over the entire known period of its

  7. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Andrés, M.; Rämö, R.; Mena Torres, F.; Ugalde, R.; Grandas, L.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.E.; Den Brink, van P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier

  8. Regional analysis of soil-atmosphere nitrous oxide emissions in the Northern Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plant, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Regional analysis of greenhouse gas emissions is becoming increasingly important in answering questions related to environmental change, and typically employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) linked with a process-based simulation model. For the Northern Atlantic Zone (NAZ) in Costa Rica (281

  9. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cabrera Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  10. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Peña, Jorge; Solano López, Yanaide; Barrantes Barrantes, Rosibel; Rodriguez Ugalde, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    No determinado Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  11. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cabrera Peña; Yanaide Solano López; Rosibel Barrantes Barrantes; Daniel Rodriguez Ugalde

    2016-01-01

    Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  12. Superficial alteration mineralogy in active volcanic systems : An example of Poás volcano, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    The alteration mineralogy in the crater area of Poás volcano (Costa Rica) has been studied to constrain acid fluid-rock interaction processes and conditions relevant for the formation of sulphate-bearing mineral assemblages found on the surface of Mars. Individual sub-environments, which include the

  13. The economics of soil nutrient stocks and cattle ranching in the tropics: optimal pasture degradation in humid Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Plant, R.A.J.; Nieuwenhuyse, A.; Jansen, H.G.P.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that can be used to analyse economically optimal nutrient (nitrogen) stocks in agricultural lands. The model is applied to study cattle ranching in humid Costa Rica. The numerical results indicate that, for current meat prices and discount rate, it is privately optimal to 'mine'

  14. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Alfaro, A.R.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  15. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae) on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J R; Rodríguez Solano, O; Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-03-01

    A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark). Longer specimens were most abundant.

  16. Los "Acaritos Blancos" (Insecta: psocoptera): una plaga erróneamente interpretada en la industria de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jirón Porras, Luis Fernando; Vargas V., Mario

    2001-01-01

    Se informa sobre la presencia por primera vez, como plaga en Costa Rica, del psócido Liposcelis spp. (Troctomorpha: Liposcelidae), Mockford, 1991. UCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias Agroalimentarias::Centro Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos (CITA)

  17. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  18. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Spongberg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the north- western coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of air-borne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprisingSe analizó los bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 31 muestras de sedimentos colectadas entre 1996 -2003 en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa noroeste de Costa Rica. Esto es parte de un primer estudio para evaluar la contaminación por PCB en aguas costeras de Costa Rica. En general, las concentraciones fueron bajas especialmente cuando se les compara con sedimentos de climas templados y / o sedimentos de areas altamente industrializadas. Los valores promedio son inferiores a 3 ng / dw (peso seco de sedimento. Sin embargo, unas pocas muestras contienen hasta 7 ng/ g dw de sedimento. Los sedimentos con las concentraciones más altas están localizados en el area de Punta Morales, en cienos de entre raíces de mangle. Las

  19. Geochronological synthesis of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny of Costa Rica, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Gans, Phillipe B.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive compilation of 651 (since 1968) radiometric ages determinations (415 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, 211 K/Ar, 5 U/Th, 4 Rb/Sr, 2 U/Pb, and 13 fission track thermochronology ages using zircon) have provided a complete picture of the igneous stratigraphy of Costa Rica, and information about the age of the major metamorphic and metallogenic events in the region. Igneous rocks of Late Jurassic to Middle Eocene age (∼ 160 to ∼ 41 Ma), mainly accreted ophiolites. The actual subduction zone was established, represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of basic to felsic composition, at the beginning of Campanian time (∼ 71 Ma). However, voluminous subalkaline, primary volcanic rocks have appeared only after ∼ 29 Ma. Intrusive to hypabyssal granitic to gabboic plutons, stocks, equivalent dykes and sills, are widely exposed in the Talamanca range (∼ 12,4 - 7,8 Ma), hills of Escazu (∼ 6,0 - 5,9 Ma), and Fila Costena (∼ 18,3 - 16,8 and ∼ 14,8 - 11,1 Ma), Tapanti-Montes del Aguacate-Carpintera (∼ 4,2 - 2,2 Ma) and Guacimal (∼ 6,4 - 5,2 Ma). Arc rocks between 29 and 11 Ma (called Photo-Volcanic Front) are known in the San Carlos plains and in southern Costa Rica. The location and age of the igneous rocks have indicated that there was a 20 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the arc (termed as Proto-Volcanic Front) between 15 and 8 Ma, with a pole of rotation that has centered on southern Costa Rica. This rotation is attributed to deformation in the overriding plate (shortening in the south coeval with extension in the NW), accompanied by trench retreat in the south. At ∼ 3,45 Ma, arc-related volcanism has shut off in southern part of the region, but local acid-adakite volcanism has persisted in the Talamanca range (4,2 - 0,95 Ma) due to the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The Paleo-Volcanic Front is represented by arc-related rocks (8 - 3,5 Ma) along the length of Costa Rica, parallel to but in front of the modern arc. This activity was followed by the

  20. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton

    2013-04-01

    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (www.lagamba.at), together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families