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Sample records for barueiros dipteryx alata

  1. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Dipteryx alata Vogel extract

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    Esteves-Pedro Natália

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipteryx alata Vogel popularly known as "baru" is an important commercial leguminous tree species from the Brazilian Cerrado, which possess medicinal properties, besides its fruits consumption by animals and humans. The use of the "naturally occurring plants" as herbal remedies and foods mainly from leaves, seeds, flowers and roots of plants or extracts require precautions before ensuring these are safe and efficacious. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of D. alata barks extract. Methods Vegetal drugs of D. alata barks were submitted to quality control assays and further to the safety assays under 1 in vitro parameter by Salmonella (Ames mutagenicity, and 2 in vivo parameter on the pregnancy of rats. Results The extract was non-mutagenic to any of the assessed strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 even after metabolic activation (+S9. All in vivo parameters (reproductive ability evaluation, physical development of rat offsprings, and neurobehavioral development assays showed no changes related to control group. Conclusion D. alata barks extract is neither mutagenic by the Ames test nor toxic in the pregnancy of rats, with no physical-neurobehavioral consequences on the rat offsprings development.

  2. Sincronização do ciclo celular em meristema radicular de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. Sinchronization of cell cycle in root meristem of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Giovana Augusta Torres

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das dificuldades de se conduzir estudos citogenéticos em espécies vegetais nativas do cerrado é a ocorrência de baixos índices metafásicos no meristema radicular. O incremento dos índices mitótico e metafásico em células de pontas de raiz tem sido obtido em várias espécies com a sincronização do ciclo celular por meio de hidroxiuréia (HU. Neste trabalho foram determinadas as condições ótimas para a sincronização eficiente do ciclo em células meristemáticas de raízes de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de HU (0,00; 1,25; 2,50; 5,00 e 10,00 mM, três tempos de exposição das raízes (10, 15 e 20 h e dois tempos de recuperação do ciclo (5 e 10 h. As melhores respostas foram obtidas com exposição das raízes, de cerca de 1 cm, à solução de HU 3,5 mM, por 20 horas, com posterior recuperação do ciclo em água destilada por 5 horas. O índice de 45% de células em divisão representou um incremento de cerca de 5 vezes em relação à testemunha, ao passo que para células em metáfases, o índice de 22,6% foi cerca de 10 vezes superior. Portanto, o uso dessa estratégia mostrou-se bastante eficiente para a obtenção de grande quantidade de cromossomos para análise citogenética do baru.A major difficulty in cytogenetic studies of plant species from "cerrado" is the low metaphasic index in root tip cells. Cell cycle synchronization, by using hydroxyurea (HU, has been successfully used in order to obtain high mitotic and metaphasic index in several species. The goal of this work was to optimize conditions for efficient synchronization of Dipteryx alata root tip meristematic cells. Different levels of hydroxyurea (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, and 10.00 mM, periods of treatment (10, 15, and 20 h and periods of cell cycle recovery (5 and 10 h were tested. Best results were achieved by treating 10-mm long roots with 3.5 mM hydroxyurea, for 20 h and incubating for 5 h in distilled water. The

  3. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.

  4. An Isoflavone from Dipteryx alata Vogel is Active against the in Vitro Neuromuscular Paralysis of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom and Bothropstoxin I, and Prevents Venom-Induced Myonecrosis

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    Miriéle C. Ferraz; Edson H. Yoshida; Renata V.S. Tavares; Cogo, José C; Adélia C.O. Cintra; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Franco, Luiz M.; dos Santos, Márcio G; Flávia A Resende; Eliana A. Varanda; Stephen Hyslop; Pilar Puebla; Arturo San Feliciano; Yoko Oshima-Franco

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite is a neglected disease and serious health problem in Brazil, with most bites being caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops. Although serum therapy is the primary treatment for systemic envenomation, it is generally ineffective in neutralizing the local effects of these venoms. In this work, we examined the ability of 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (TM), an isoflavone from Dipteryx alata, to neutralize the neurotoxicity (in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations) and myoto...

  5. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog. Propriedades térmicas de farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.Componentes de polpa e de semente de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., leguminosa do cerrado brasileiro, foram objetos de estudo neste trabalho. Análises térmicas, Termogravimetria (TG e Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas na investigação de proteínas em farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico. A extração do concentrado proteico foi em pH 10, seguida de precipitação no ponto isoelétrico para obter o isolado, o qual foi seco por atomização. As curvas termogravimétricas foram obtidas em atmosfera de nitrogênio em vazão de 100 mL/minutos. As temperaturas iniciais, finais e de pico foram analisadas, assim como a perda de massa. Na faixa de temperatura avaliada, a farinha desengordurada e o concentrado apresentaram quatro etapas de perda de massa, enquanto que o isolado apenas duas etapas. O conteúdo de proteína da farinha desengordurada da semente de Baru foi mais

  6. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog Estudo das proteínas da farinha desengordurada e concentrado protéico de castanhas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.O baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. é uma leguminosa abundante no Cerrado brasileiro, cuja castanha pode ser explorada através do uso sustentável para o aproveitamento das frações proteicas e lipídicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as proteínas desta castanha, presentes na farinha desengordurada e no concentrado proteico, quanto as suas propriedades funcionais, ao perfil das frações proteicas e à digestibilidade in vitro. A farinha desengordurada com hexano foi submetida à extração no pH de maior solubilidade das proteínas, obtendo-se o concentrado proteico. O perfil eletroforético das frações proteicas foi avaliado em gel de SDS-PAGE. As propriedades funcionais indicaram a possibilidade de emprego em diversos alimentos, assim como a soja, conferindo capacidade de absorção de água, capacidade de absorção de óleo, propriedades emulsificantes e espumabilidade. As globulinas, seguidas das albuminas, são as frações majoritárias da farinha e do concentrado proteico

  7. An Isoflavone from Dipteryx alata Vogel is Active against the in Vitro Neuromuscular Paralysis of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom and Bothropstoxin I, and Prevents Venom-Induced Myonecrosis

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    Miriéle C. Ferraz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a neglected disease and serious health problem in Brazil, with most bites being caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops. Although serum therapy is the primary treatment for systemic envenomation, it is generally ineffective in neutralizing the local effects of these venoms. In this work, we examined the ability of 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (TM, an isoflavone from Dipteryx alata, to neutralize the neurotoxicity (in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and myotoxicity (assessed by light microscopy of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro. The toxicity of TM was assessed using the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test. Incubation with TM alone (200 μg/mL did not alter the muscle twitch tension whereas incubation with venom (40 μg/mL caused irreversible paralysis. Preincubation of TM (200 μg/mL with venom attenuated the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade by 84% ± 5% (mean ± SEM; n = 4. The neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I, the major myotoxic PLA2 of this venom, was also attenuated by TM. Histological analysis of diaphragm muscle incubated with TM showed that most fibers were preserved (only 9.2% ± 1.7% were damaged; n = 4 compared to venom alone (50.3% ± 5.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3, and preincubation of TM with venom significantly attenuated the venom-induced damage (only 17% ± 3.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3; p < 0.05 compared to venom alone. TM showed no mutagenicity in the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA98 and TA97a with (+S9 and without (−S9 metabolic activation. These findings indicate that TM is a potentially useful compound for antagonizing the neuromuscular effects (neurotoxicity and myotoxicity of B. jararacussu venom.

  8. PHYSICAL CARACTERIZATION OF BARU FRUITS (Dipteryx alata VOG. IN THREE POPULATIONS IN CERRADOS FROM THE GOIÁS STATE CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DE BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. EM TRÊS POPULAÇÕES NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out with 150 plants of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. from three regions of Goiás State. It had 50 plants per region, and it were randomizes choiced at 1995. The purpose was to verify the occurrence and distribution of genetic variation among tested populations. Fruits were analysed about morphollogical characters. The experiment was planted as hierarchal model with regions level, plants within regions and fruits within plants. There was variation to all morphollogical characters in fruits at regions and plants within regions levels. The most variation proportion was founded at plants within regions level with high levels of transmission to all characters.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; cerrados; population.

    O estudo foi conduzido com 150 plantas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., originárias de três regiões do Estado de Goiás, num total de 50 plantas por região, escolhidas, aleatoriamente, no ano de 1995. O objetivo foi verificar a ocorrência e distribuição da variabilidade genética das populações amostradas, através da avaliação dos caracteres morfológicos de frutos. Adotou-se, para o experimento, o modelo hierárquico com os níveis de regiões plantas dentro de regiões, e frutos dentro de plantas. Houve variação para todas as variáveis morfológicas de frutos, entre plantas de diferentes regiões e entre plantas dentro de regiões. Não houve variação entre frutos dentro de plantas para nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas. Maior proporção da variabilidade foi observada entre plantas dentro de regiões, com altos níveis de herdabilidade, no sentido amplo, para todas as variáveis estudadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baru; cerrados; população.

  9. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

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    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  10. Scapula alata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gadsbøll, Janne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, there are no published outcomes-based treatment programs to guide clinicians when managing patients with scapula alata. The purposes of this study were to describe a physical therapy program in patients with scapula alata and to evaluate its effect using a shoulder...... to a physical therapy program at a university hospital. The program included (1) physical examination, (2) thoracic brace treatment, and (3) muscular rehabilitation. The treatment frequency and duration were determined individually. The effect was evaluated by a shoulder-specific quality-of-life questionnaire......, the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) Index. The WORC Index is grouped into 5 domains: physical symptoms, sport/leisure time, work, lifestyle, and emotional health. RESULTS: The results showed a highly significant improvement (P

  11. Senna alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Weniger, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2009-10-01

    A review is made of chemical, ethnopharmacological and pharmacological papers dealing with Senna alata (L.) Roxb., a plant that belongs to the Creole traditional system of medicine and that has recently been introduced in the French Pharmacopoeia. The proofs existing for its various usages are presented. The species is mainly used against constipation and skin diseases. The laxative activity is supported by scientific findings. In contrast the dermatologic use requires further investigation. The species can be considered as safe for short-term or topical use. PMID:19446609

  12. Cultivos celulares de Choibá Dipteryx oleifera Benth

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    Paola Andrea Murillo Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Cell cultures of Choiba Dipteryx oleifera BenthTítulo corto: Cultivos celulares de ChoibáResumen: Choibá (Dipteryx oleifera Benth es un árbol de la familia Fabaceae (Papilionoideae, con una distribución geográfica reportada desde Nicaragua  hasta Colombia a una altura de hasta 1000 msnm. Crece en bosque húmedo, muy húmedo o premontano húmedo. Esta especie es considerada vulnerable debido a la sobreexplotación de su madera, ya que es un árbol altamente apetecido por esta y por sus frutos. Su almendra almacena una buena cantidad de aceites con potencial para la industria alimentaria, lo que podría resultar en una nueva fuente alimenticia, por lo cual el cultivo in vitro de vegetales con el propósito de producir compuestos de interés, marca un punto de partida para reducir el uso del suelo y lograr componentes bioactivos bajo condiciones controladas. En este trabajo, como una primera etapa experimental, se evaluó el crecimiento celular en suspensiones,  a partir de callo inducido en explantes de cotiledón; se ensayaron 6 tratamientos diferentes, la mitad de estos con MS como medio basal y la otra mitad con B5, cada uno de los dos grupos con un control y la combinación hormonal de 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de BAP o kinetina, suplementado con adenina, biotina, glutamina y ácido pantoténico y 30 g/L de sacarosa, bajo completa oscuridad. Se encontró que dos tratamientos con MS en combinación con 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de kinetina o BAP fueron los mejores.Palabras clave: Biomasa, choibá, cultivos celulares, Dipteryx oleifera.Abstract: Choibá (Dipteryx olifera is a tree of the Fabaceae family, with a geographical distribution reported from Nicaragua to Colombia, nearly 1.000 msnm in a tropical rain forest. This species is a highlydesiredtreefor its timber andfruits, thekernelstore alot ofimportant oilsfor the food industry, resulting in a new possible food source,so we are making in vitro cultivation

  13. AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog.) PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog.) COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY

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    Aline Medeiros Alves; Aline Luiz de Mendonça; Márcio Caliari; Raquel de Andrade Cardoso-Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, an...

  14. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA

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    Márcio Caliari

    2010-08-01

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    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, and ethical sustainability, has been increasingly used as a tool for social and cultural transformation. Within that perspective, the Brazilian Cerrado provides fruits such as baru, which is highly genetically variable, but also widely used as a source of income by the regional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical characteristics of baru pulp, along a 181-day storage period. For that purpose, weight and size analyses, centesimal analysis, monitoring of changes, and sensorial analysis of dry biscuits, in which 25% of the wheat flour was replaced by baru pulp, were carried out. Physical characteristics such as weight, length, and width did not present significant differences, during the storage period. The level of total sugars and reducers increased during the storage period, unlike the tannin level, which decreased. Baru pulp may be considered an important source of sugars and dietary fiber. In addition, the biscuits obtained satisfactory scores for both taste and appearance, on the acceptability test, and their nutritional quality increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; pulp; physical and chemical analyses; kinetics; sensorial analysis.

    A Agroecologia, ciência dedicada ao estudo das relações produtivas entre homem e natureza, visando sempre à sustentabilidade ecológica, econômica, social, cultural, política e ética, vem sendo utilizada como ferramenta de transformação social e cultural. Nesta perspectiva, o Cerrado brasileiro possui frutos como o baru, que, apesar da alta variabilidade genética, é muito utilizado pela população regional, como fonte de renda familiar. Portanto, este trabalho acompanhou as características químicas e físicas da polpa do baru, durante 181 dias de armazenamento. Foram realizadas análises de peso, tamanho, composição centesimal, acompanhamento das alterações e análise sensorial de biscoitos formulados com 25% de substituição da farinha de trigo pela polpa de baru. Características como peso, comprimento e largura não apresentaram diferenças significativas, durante o período de estocagem. O teor de açúcares totais e redutores aumentou, durante o período de armazenamento, ao passo que o teor de taninos sofreu redução. A polpa do baru pôde ser considerada fonte importante de açúcares e fibra alimentar. Os biscoitos obtiveram notas satisfatórias no teste de aceitabilidade, tanto para sabor quanto para aparência, e verificou-se melhora na qualidade nutricional.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baru; polpa; análises físico-químicas; cinética; análise sensorial.

  15. Variações geneticas para características do sistema radicular de mudas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. Genetic variation for root system traits baru seedlings (Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Adelson Nascimento Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou estimar os parâmetros genéticos relativos à qualidade do sistema radicular de mudas de baru. Para isso, foram utilizadas mudas provenientes de sementes colhidas em 21 árvores-matriz de polinização livre no Município de Capinópolis, Minas Gerais. Quarenta e cinco dias após a germinação, as imagens das raízes de 20 mudas de cada progênie foram obtidas por "scanner" ótico. Na análise de variância, houve variação significativa entre as progênies quanto aos caracteres: comprimento total de raízes, volume de raízes, diâmetro médio e número de raízes finas. As análises indicaram altos valores de herdabilidade e coeficiente de variação genética, indicando que altos ganhos genéticos poderão ser obtidos mediante a seleção de matrizes.Baru seedlings originated from seeds collected from 21 open-pollinated progenies were used in Capinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to estimate genetic parameters concerning the quality of their root system. Forty-five days after germination, the root images of twenty seedlings of each progeny were obtained using an optical scanner. The analysis of variance showed significant variation among progenies in total root length, root volume, average diameter and the number of fine roots. The analysis showed high heritability and genetic variation, indicating that high genetics gains are possible to be obtained by means of mother-tree selections.

  16. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Priscila Laís C.; Silva, Mara R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Gr...

  17. Evaluation of gastroprotective activity of Passiflora alata

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    André Wasicky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPassiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae, is a liana popularly known in Brazil as ‘maracujá-doce’ that has been used for treating different illnesses. Its leaves are described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, but the gastroprotective activity has never been investigated. In the present study a freeze-dried crude 60% ethanol–water extract of P. alata aerial parts was prepared. Total flavonoid content, expressed as vitexin, was 0.67% ± 0.01. The hemolytic activity was 32 units for P. alata, using Saponin (Merck® as reference. P. alata presented EC50 of 1061.2 ± 8.5 µg/ml in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl assay and 1076 ± 85 µmol Trolox/g in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay. P. alata, its solvent fractions and a P. alatananopreparation were investigated for gastroprotective activity. The test samples exhibited gastroprotective activity on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. P. alata at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using the necrotizing agent at 150 mmol/l, inhibited 100% of ulcer formation (compared to the negative control, while lansoprazole (30 mg/kg 77%. When tested against a more concentrated necrotizing agent (300 mmol/l, fractions of P. alata at 100 mg/kg reduced 57% (n-hexane, 34% (ethyl acetate and 72% (aqueous fraction the ulcer formation. In this assay, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg inhibited 47%. When encapsulated, P. alata inhibited ulcer formation at 55%, 94% and 90% for dosages of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. These results suggest the potential use of P. alata as a gastroprotective herbal medicine.

  18. Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. AND Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild. CHARCOAL ANATOMY

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    Francielli Rodrigues Ribeiro Batista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Species discrimination by charcoal analysis is possible, because the wood anatomical structure remains almost intact after carbonization process. Studies in this area are rare and directed to paleoecology and paleoetnobotany. Thus, this study aimed to characterize anatomically the carbonized wood of Copaifera cf. langsdorfii Desf. and Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Wild., proceeding from north region of Mato Grosso state, in order to provide information to manage its illegal commerce. From each species were carbonized ten samples with dimensions of 2 x 2 x 5 cm in muffle furnace, in stage program and highest temperature of 450°C for 30 minutes, for seven hours. Final temperature applied does not change anatomical structure from both species, allowing its differentiation. The crystals formatremained without alterations, being visible little split.

  19. Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability; Biodiesel metilico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparacao, caracterizacao e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade a oxidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Moura, Carla Veronica Rodarte de; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 {+-} 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm) antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively. (author)

  1. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. PMID:24553052

  2. Aprovechamiento de semillas de Dipteryx odorata (Aublet. Willd. (Shihuahuaco como producto alimenticio

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    Aparicio Limache Alonzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la necesidad de contribuir a la diversificación de insumos alimenticios mediante el aprovechamiento masivo de las partes no maderables de las especies forestales tropicales con énfasis en la región Ucayali - Perú, se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar a las semillas o almendras del Dipteryx odorata como producto alimenticio de consumo humano. Para ello, se sometió a un análisis nutricional, determinación de contenido de minerales y se complementó con una investigación bibliográfica para identificar los antecedentes de uso y exigencias que implica su conversión en un bionegocio. Así, se determinaron la materia seca, extracto etéreo, fibra cruda y proteína cruda en 88,89 %, 19 %, 16,75 % y 1,51 % respectivamente. Al cuantificar los oligoelementos como el zinc, hierro, cobre, sodio, plomo, magnesio se encontraron valores de 39,29; 25,86; 12,36; 4,79; 3,04; 1,31 ppm respectivamente. La investigación bibliográfica, demostró que en áreas rurales dichas almendras son utilizadas en la dieta alimenticia de la población. En Europa, son consideradas gourmet básico para la coctelería e ideal para repostería exótica. Se concluye indicando que por su contenido nutricional y de minerales las almendras de shihuahuaco en cantidades pequeñas, son aptas para consumo humano. Como limitante para su aprovechamiento en bionegocio, es el contenido de plomo que requiere desarrollo de estudios previos para neutralizar su efecto nocivo que genera problemas gastrointestinales por exceso de consumo.

  3. The microbial Phyllogeography of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Margaret M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2011-05-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants host diverse microbial communities. This plant-microbe association provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary processes that influence the spatial diversity of microbial communities. Using next-generation sequencing of environmental samples, we surveyed microbial communities from 29 pitcher plants (Sarracenia alata) and compare community composition with plant genetic diversity in order to explore the influence of historical processes on the population structure of each lineage. Analyses reveal that there is a core S. alata microbiome, and that it is similar in composition to animal gut microfaunas. The spatial structure of community composition in S. alata (phyllogeography) is congruent at the deepest level with the dominant features of the landscape, including the Mississippi river and the discrete habitat boundaries that the plants occupy. Intriguingly, the microbial community structure reflects the phylogeographic structure of the host plant, suggesting that the phylogenetic structure of bacterial communities and population genetic structure of their host plant are influenced by similar historical processes. PMID:21431933

  4. DRYING KINETICS OF TWO YAM (Dioscorea alata VARIETIES

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    RAMIRO TORRES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue la evaluación de la cinética y condiciones de secado, a escala de laboratorio, de dos variedades del ñame (D. alata 9506-021 y 9506-027 del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia. Dos geometrías (circular y cuadrada fueron utilizadas para el estudio; la temperatura del aire fue variada en un rango entre 40 a 70 °C y la velocidad de aire fue de 0.7 m.s-1. Los datos experimentales se ajustaron apropiadamente a los modelos de Fick, Page y Logarítmico. La transferencia de masa del ñame fue descrita usando el modelo de difusión de Fick's, que fue el modelo que mejor se ajustó. El secado ocurrido principalmente en la fase de decreciente. La relación de Arrhenius describió satisfactoriamente la dependencia de la difusividad de la humedad con la temperatura. Entre el rango de temperatura evaluado, las difusividades de la humedad variaron de 1.70 x 10-9 a 6.84 x 10-10 m2/s, y 1.33 x 10-9 a 6.30 x 10-10 m2/s para D. alata 9506-21 y 9506-27, respectivamente. La energía de activación para el secado de D. alata 9506-21 y 9506-27 varió de 23.19 a 25.72 y 16.03 a 17.82 kJ/mol, respectivamente.

  5. Estudo fitoquímico de Senna alata por duas metodologias Phytochemical study of Senna alata using two methodologies

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    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata, mais conhecida como mata-pasto na região Norte do Brasil, é uma planta utilizada pela medicina popular em várias partes do mundo e considerada espécie problemática em pastagens do Estado do Pará. No presente estudo, compararam-se duas metodologias distintas para a determinação das principais classes de constituintes potenciais aleloquímicos das diferentes frações (caules, flores, folhas, raízes, sementes e vagens de S. alata. O material vegetal foi seco e sofreu extração exaustiva com solvente hidrometanólico, para obtenção dos extratos brutos; uma pequena parte dele foi solubilizada em metanol para obtenção das soluções utilizadas nos testes fitoquímicos. As metodologias utilizadas foram: testes por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD para determinação do perfil cromatográfico qualitativo; e ensaios para detecção preliminar dos diferentes constituintes químicos, com base na extração destes com solventes apropriados e na aplicação de testes de coloração. Os resultados em ambos os métodos demonstraram pouca semelhança, sendo o CCD o mais simples, barato, rápido e adequado para análise preliminar de compostos químicos derivados de plantas, embora seja um método qualitativo. Este método foi mais sensível para a detecção de flavonoides, porém, para detecção de alcaloides, o reativo de Bouchardat foi mais sensível do que o de Dragendorff, assim como o hidróxido de amônia 10% foi mais sensível às antraquinonas do que o hidróxido de potássio. O estudo comprovou a alta diversidade de compostos químicos presentes em Senna alata, justificando sua ampla utilização na medicina popular e indicando ainda o potencial alelopático para a sua utilização.Senna alata, known as mata-pasto in northern Brazil, is a plant used in popular medicine in several parts of the world, and considered harmful to pastures in the state of Pará. In this study, two different methodologies are compared to

  6. Anatomia e histoquímica das folhas de Senna alata Anatomy and histochemistry of Senna alata leaves

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    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata é uma espécie daninha frequente em pastagens da região amazônica, cujas folhas apresentam propriedades medicinais. Indivíduos dessa espécie foram cultivados e coletados no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém-PA, para a realização de análises anatômica e histoquímica das folhas, com a finalidade de fornecer elementos para a taxonomia, identificação microscópica de aleloquímicos e caracterização ecofisiológica da espécie. As folhas apresentaram duas formas de tricomas: tectores e glandulares. Outras características foliares encontradas na espécie foram: lâmina foliar anfiestomática, mesofilo dorsiventral e epiderme abaxial papilosa. Algumas dessas características sugerem um mecanismo de adaptação a ambientes com excesso de calor. As folhas são ricas em cristais de oxalato de cálcio, ao longo de suas nervuras - característica da subfamília Caesalpinioideae. Compostos fenólicos, como flavonoides e antraquinonas, foram encontrados em células epidérmicas, da base de tricomas, e células dispersas no parênquima paliçádico, especialmente nas proximidades da nervura mediana. Este estudo confirmou a presença de conhecidas classes de aleloquímicos em diferentes tipos de células do mesofilo de Senna alata.Senna alata is one of the most frequent weed species in the Amazonian region pastures. Its leaves present medicinal properties. Individuals of this species were cultivated and collected in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, to carry out anatomical and histochemical analyses to provide taxonomy information, microscopic identification of allelochemicals and ecophysiological characterization of the species. Leaves presented two forms of trichomes: tector and glandular. Other foliar characteristics of the species were: amphistomatic leaf, dorsiventral mesophyll and abaxial epidermis papillose. Some of these suggest an adaptation mechanism to excessive warm

  7. Biodiesel metílico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparação, caracterização e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade à oxidação Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo; Carla Verônica Rodarte de Moura; Mariana H. Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 ± 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm) antioxidants in the ...

  8. Redescription of Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheryl; Bentlage, Bastian; Yanagihara, Angel; Gillan, William; Blerk, Johan Van; Keil, Daniel P; Bely, Alexandra E; Collins, Allen G

    2013-01-01

    Here we establish a neotype for Alatina alata (Reynaud, 1830) from the Dutch Caribbean island of Bonaire. The species was originally described one hundred and eighty three years ago as Carybdea alata in La Centurie Zoologique-a monograph published by René Primevère Lesson during the age of worldwide scientific exploration. While monitoring monthly reproductive swarms of A. alata medusae in Bonaire, we documented the ecology and sexual reproduction of this cubozoan species. Examination of forty six A. alata specimens and additional archived multimedia material in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC revealed that A. alata is found at depths ranging from surface waters to 675 m. Additional studies have reported it at depths of up to 1607 m in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. Herein, we resolve the taxonomic confusion long associated with A. alata due to a lack of detail in the original description and conflicting statements in the scientific literature. A new cubozoan character, the velarial lappet, is described for this taxon. The complete description provided here serves to stabilize the taxonomy of the second oldest box jellyfish species, and provide a thorough redescription of the species. PMID:25112765

  9. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

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    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARγ and upregulating PPARα. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  10. Análise dos transientes da fluorescência da clorofila a de plantas jovens de Carapa guianensis e de Dipteryx odorata submetidas a dois ambientes de luz Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients of young plants of Carapa guianensis and Dipteryx odorata submitted to two light environments

    OpenAIRE

    José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves; Carlos Eduardo Silva; Diogo Gato Guimarães; Regiane Sablina Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Espécies arbóreas tropicais estão quase sempre sob alta irradiância na Amazônia. O elevado fluxo energético pode ser decisivo para o sucesso ou fracasso no estabelecimento inicial das plantas no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as respostas de plantas jovens de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl) e cumaru (Dipteryx odorata (Aublet) Willd) expostas a dois ambientes de luz (sombra e sol). O experimento foi conduzido em Manaus-AM, Brasil (3º8'S, 59º52'W). As análises dos transientes...

  11. Biodiesel metílico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparação, caracterização e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade à oxidação Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 ± 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively.

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of the antioxidant constituent from Cassia alata L. leaves

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    Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using DPPH radical scavenging assay to investigate the antioxidant activity of crude methanol extracts from the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata L. found that the leaf extract exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts from the flowers and pods. On the basis of DPPH radical scavenging assay-guided isolation, the methanol extract of C. alata leaves was separated by silica gel vacuum chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography afford a light yellowish powder (CA1, which was identified as kaempferol. This compound exhibited antioxidant activity (ED50 9.99 μM that was six times stronger than that of BHT (ED50 57.41 μM and fifty eight times stronger than that of emodin (ED50 578.87 μM.

  13. Optimization and technological development strategies of an antimicrobial extract from Achyrocline alata assisted by statistical design.

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    Daniel P Demarque

    Full Text Available Achyrocline alata, known as Jateí-ka-há, is traditionally used to treat several health problems, including inflammations and infections. This study aimed to optimize an active extract against Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria that causes caries. The extract was developed using an accelerated solvent extraction and chemometric calculations. Factorial design and response surface methodologies were used to determine the most important variables, such as active compound selectivity. The standardized extraction recovered 99% of the four main compounds, gnaphaliin, helipyrone, obtusifolin and lepidissipyrone, which represent 44% of the extract. The optimized extract of A. alata has a MIC of 62.5 μg/mL against S. mutans and could be used in mouth care products.

  14. Optimization and technological development strategies of an antimicrobial extract from Achyrocline alata assisted by statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarque, Daniel P; Fitts, Sonia Maria F; Boaretto, Amanda G; da Silva, Júlio César Leite; Vieira, Maria C; Franco, Vanessa N P; Teixeira, Caroline B; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica C; Carollo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Achyrocline alata, known as Jateí-ka-há, is traditionally used to treat several health problems, including inflammations and infections. This study aimed to optimize an active extract against Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria that causes caries. The extract was developed using an accelerated solvent extraction and chemometric calculations. Factorial design and response surface methodologies were used to determine the most important variables, such as active compound selectivity. The standardized extraction recovered 99% of the four main compounds, gnaphaliin, helipyrone, obtusifolin and lepidissipyrone, which represent 44% of the extract. The optimized extract of A. alata has a MIC of 62.5 μg/mL against S. mutans and could be used in mouth care products.

  15. CONSTITUYENTES NO POLARES DE LA CORTEZA DE Esenbeckia alata Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA

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    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanonaaislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina,la amida pellitonina y sitosterol.La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, UV, RMN 1H y 13C y EM.Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto de éter de petróleo de E. alata, de algunas fracciones de ésta, y del lignano obtenido, presentando resultados significativos frente algunas cepas bacterianas Gram positivas y Gram negativas.

  16. Toxicology and safety of the tincture of Operculina alata in patients with functional constipation

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    Luciana Kelly Ximenes dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tincture of Operculina alata, popularly known as "tincture of jalapa", is used in Northeast Brazil to treat constipation and encephalic vascular accident, but it has not yet been adequately tested for safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicology and safety of the tincture of O. alata in patients with functional constipation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study consisted of three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment, each phase with duration of seven days. Arterial pressure, heart rate, body weight, adverse events, hematological, metabolic, liver and kidney functions were monitored. Forty patients were randomized to receive tincture of O. alata and 43 patients to receive placebo. There were statistical differences in the clinical aspects between groups, but these changes were not considered clinically significant. Adverse events were considered not serious and of mild intensity, especially dizziness, headache, abdominal pain and nausea. This clinical trial confirmed the safety of the tincture of O. alata in the pharmaceutical form and dosage tested, allowing the product to be safely used in a larger population for the assessment of its clinical efficacy.A tintura de Operculina alata, popularmente conhecida como "tintura de jalapa", é usada no Nordeste do Brasil para tratar constipação intestinal e acidente vascular encefálico, mas sua eficácia e segurança ainda não foram confirmadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicologia e segurança da tintura de O. alata em pacientes com constipação intestinal funcional. Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, randomizado e controlado por placebo. O estudo consistiu de três fases: pré-tratamento, tratamento e pós-tratamento, cada fase com duração de sete dias. Foram monitorizados a pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, peso corporal, eventos adversos e funções hematológica, metab

  17. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  18. Floral morphology and anatomy of Dalechampia alata Klotzsch ex Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), with emphasis on secretory structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F M; Cunha-Neto, I L; Pereira, T M

    2016-02-01

    The morphology and anatomy of the flower of Dalechampia alata, as well as the chemical nature of the exudates secreted in the inflorescence were studied using light microscope. This is the first report showing the presence of colleters in the genus Dalechampia. In the staminate flower occur a group of small secretory glands. The histochemical results indicate that the substance secreted from the glands is lipidic and resinuous in nature, while in the colleters it consists of polysaccharides and lipid-rich substances. The ovule of D. alata are anatropous, subglobose and bitegmic. It presents obturator, micropyle occluded by nucellar beak and meristematic activity in the ovary wall. The secretion produced in the stigmatic and transmitting tissue consists of polysaccharides.

  19. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  20. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  1. Dioscorea alata L. Reduces Body Weight by Reducing Food Intake and Fasting Blood Glucose Level

    OpenAIRE

    Helen, Olubobokun Titilope; Olusola, Aluko Esther; Eghosa E, Iyare; Bond, Anyaehie Ugochukwu

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes may be most likely linked to obesity and its prevalence appears to have increased as the prevalence of obesity increased. Dioscorea alata L. has been observed to possess flavonoids which induce antidiabetic effect and phenolic compounds which could help in weight management. It has been postulated that any therapeutic regimes that can limit weight gain while simultaneously controlling blood glucose levels will be effective in managing diabetes. This stu...

  2. KARAKTERISASI DAN JARAK KEMIRIPAN UWI (Dioscorea alata L.) BERDASARKAN PENANDA MORFOLOGI UMBI

    OpenAIRE

    Trimanto Trimanto

    2012-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) is a potential local crop for supporting food security program in Indonesia.  Inventory and characterization of yam have been conducted in scattered population at Nganjuk region - East Java.  The research was aimed to identify the characteristic of Nganjuk’s yam, based on the tuber morphology and to determine its similarity distance value.  The characterisation were analyzed using interval similarity function, based on NTSys DICE coefficient programme. The result show...

  3. Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of Cassia alata against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated in our study. Worms were maintained between rat model and beetle. Air-dried leaves of C. alata were subjected to ethanol extraction. Different concentrations (10-80 mg/ml) of the extract were prepared in phosphate buffer saline and tested on the parasite in vitro. Parasites treated with C. alata showed a decrease in motility with an increase in concentrations and complete immobilization took lesser time compared to control. The paralyzed parasites were further processed for electron microscopic studies. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface throughout the body accompanied with destruction of microtriches and changes such as shrinkage in the scolex region. Depletion of parenchyma cells and destruction in the connective tissues along with sparsely cytoplasmic cytons were also observed, and these observations are similar with worms treated with a known drug praziquantel. These results may suggest that the plant leaves could be considered for controlling helminth infection and can represent a step forward in the search for alternative anthelmintic drug.

  4. Dipteryx lacunifera seed oil: characterization and thermal stability Óleo de sementes de fava de morcego: caracterização e estabilidade térmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Queiroga Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke is an oleaginous legume with high oil and protein content that can be used in human nutrition. The specie is a native of the Piauí and Maranhão state in the north east of Brazil. The measure physico-chemical properties of the oil are specific density, refractive index, acid, peroxide, iodine and saponification values of 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% oleic acid, 2.81, 70.80 and about 179, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil showed the presence of 20.6% saturated, 65.1% monounsaturated and 14.3% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C17:0 were present in trace (A Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke (fava de morcego é uma leguminosa oleaginosa com elevado conteúdo em proteínas e óleo podendo ser usada na nutrição humana. A espécie é nativa dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão do nordeste do Brasil. Mensurações das propriedades físico-químicas do óleo densidade especifica, índice de refração, acidez, peróxidos, iodo e saponificação foram 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% ácido oléico, 2.81, 70.80 e 179, respectivamente. A análise do óleo por cromatografia gasosa mostrou a presença de 20.6% de ácidos graxos saturados, 65.1% de monoinsaturados e 14.3% poliinsaturados. Os ácidos graxos C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 e C17:0 estão presentes em quantidades de traços (<0.01% enquanto os C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0 e C24:0 estão em concentrações de 10.3, 5.4, 3.4, 0.9 e 0.6%, respectivamente, dos ácidos graxos totais. O conteúdo dos ácidos graxos insaturados C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 e C22:2 foram 65.1, 14.1, 0.3% e traço (0.01%, respectivamente. A análise térmica (TG/DTG revelou que a decomposição térmica do óleo ocorre em dois estágios correspondentes aos ácidos graxos insaturados e saturados. O óleo quando aquecido na temperatura de 180º C por 400 min mostrou menor perda massa que o óleo comercial de soja, girassol e milho. A curva DSC indicou um evento endotérmico com

  5. Dobivanje ISO 9001 certifikacije za razvoj softvera uporabom Scrum procesa open source alata: studija slučaja

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Tomo

    2015-01-01

    Članak predstavlja studiju praktičnog usvajanja Scrum procesa za razvoj softvera u Java programskom jeziku uz uporabu open source alata. Opisani pristup se fokusira na mala i srednja softverska preduzeća koja se u praksi najčešće opiru formalizaciji razvojnog procesa i implementaciji sustava za upravljanje kvalitetom. Ovaj članak opisuje agilni razvoj softvera, Scrum proces i izbor open source alata za razvoj na Java platformi. Izabrani alati su stavljeni u kontekst Scrum procesa i implementa...

  6. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  7. Study on The Starch Granules Morphology of Local Varieties of Dioscorea hispida and Dioscorea alata

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah; Shofiyatul Mas'udah; Hendrian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is regarded as vital in the food industry, where granule size and shape determine its function and uses. One plant taxon that is widely known as a starch source is Dioscorea (Dioscoreaceae), whose starch and protein content make it as healthy food. As the initial step to identify which varieties possess potential as starch sources, we conducted the study on starch granule morphology of some local varieties of D. hispida and D. alata. The aim of this study was to determine the shape and...

  8. The combination of Passiflora alata and Valeriana officinalis on memory tasks in mice: comparison with diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvo Slomp Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a compound combining Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata extracts was tested on two mouse memory models: habituation and step-through inhibitory avoidance. Diazepam (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Acute diazepam (2.5 mg/kg before training impaired the habituation and performance in the inhibitory avoidance. On the other hand, acute phytotherapeutic compound (40-160 mg/kg, also before the training session, did not alter mouse behavior in these models. Repeated (15 days treatment with the compound also did not impair the habituation. At the doses used, no locomotor effect was found. Taken together, the results suggest that, contrary to diazepam, the anxiolytic Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata compound did not induce amnesia.Avaliou-se o efeito de um composto fitoterápico de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata em dois modelos de memória em camundongos: habituação e esquiva inibitória tipo step-trough. Diazepam (1,0 e 2,5 mg/kg foi empregado como controle positivo. Agudamente, a administração de diazepam (2,5 mg/kg antes do treino prejudicou o desempenho na habituação e na esquiva inibitória. Por outro lado, a administração aguda do composto fitoterápico (40-160 mg/kg antes do treino não alterou o comportamento dos camundongos nestes modelos. Tratamento com o composto fitoterápico por 15 dias também não alterou o comportamento dos animais. Nas doses empregadas não se observou alteração da atividade motora. Os dados sugerem que, diverso do diazepam, este fitoterápico ansiolítico composto de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata não causa amnésia.

  9. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-03

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate.

  10. Arabinogalactan-Proteins of the Female Sexual Tissue of Nicotiana alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Andrew C.; Bacic, Antony; Clarke, Adrienne E.

    1986-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), isolated from the pistils of Nicotiana alata, an ornamental tobacco, are developmentally regulated. Both the total amount and concentration of AGP in the stigma increase during flower development, reaching 10 micrograms AGP/stigma at maturity. In contrast, AGP concentration in the style remains constant throughout the maturation period reaching 12 micrograms AGP/style at maturity. The classes of AGP present in the stigma and style during flower development, separated according to their charge by crossed-electrophoresis, are different and change during development. Pollination of flowers of N. alata with compatible or incompatible pollen results in a significant and reproducible increase in the amount of AGPs in the stigma, but not the style, compared with control unpollinated pistils. Pollination with ethanol vapor inactivated pollen also results in an increase in the amount of AGP in the stigma, but this is less than half that observed following pollination with viable pollen. There are no significant differences in the classes of AGP, based on crossed-electrophoresis, present in the pistil following pollination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16665162

  11. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  12. Deep phylogeographic structure and environmental differentiation in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Amanda J; Hanes, Margaret M; Hird, Sarah M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2012-10-01

    We collected ~29 kb of sequence data using Roche 454 pyrosequencing in order to estimate the timing and pattern of diversification in the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia alata. Utilizing modified protocols for reduced representation library construction, we generated sequence data from 86 individuals across 10 populations from throughout the range of the species. We identified 76 high-quality and high-coverage loci (containing over 500 SNPs) using the bioinformatics pipeline PRGmatic. Results from a Bayesian clustering analysis indicate that populations are highly structured, and are similar in pattern to the topology of a population tree estimated using *BEAST. The pattern of diversification within Sarracenia alata implies that riverine barriers are the primary factor promoting population diversification, with divergence across the Mississippi River occurring more than 60,000 generations before present. Further, significant patterns of niche divergence and the identification of several outlier loci suggest that selection may contribute to population divergence. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing to investigate intraspecific genetic variation in nonmodel species. PMID:22556200

  13. A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Jason T; Sato, Renee L; Ahern, Reina M; Snow, Joanne L; Kuwaye, Todd T; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2002-11-01

    The objective of the study was to compare cutaneous treatments (heat, papain and vinegar) for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings. Healthy adult volunteer subjects received a single-tentacle jellyfish sting on each forearm. One forearm was treated with hot-water immersion (40-41 degrees C). This was compared with the other forearm, which was randomized to a comparison treatment of papain meat tenderizer or vinegar. Pain was measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 minutes using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). For 25 subject runs, the average VAS scores at t = 0 were 3.6 cm (hot water) and 3.7 cm (comparison treatment). At t = 4 minutes (2 minutes after treatment had started), the differences between hot-water and comparison group VAS scores were 2.1 cm versus 3.2 cm, respectively. The mean difference between hot-water and comparison treatments was 1.1 cm (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.6). At t = 20 minutes (the end of the study period), the differences between hot-water and comparison group VAS scores were 0.2 cm versus 1.8 cm, respectively. The mean difference between hot-water and comparison treatments was 1.6 cm (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 2.3). This study suggests that the most efficacious initial treatment for C alata jellyfish envenomation is hot-water immersion to the afflicted site. PMID:12442242

  14. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  15. Distribution, management and diversity of yam local varieties in Brazil: a study on Dioscorea alata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M V B M; Nascimento, W F; Silva, L R G; Ferreira, A B; Silva, E F; Ming, L C; Veasey, E A

    2014-02-01

    Widely spread in the tropics, yams were introduced into Brazil during the colonial period and are currently grown throughout the country. Despite its importance as a pharmacological and food source, there is a lack of studies describing how and where this tuber is grown in Brazil. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the cultivation and distribution of Dioscorea alata in different Brazilian regions. A total of 63 farmers were visited in different municipalities and communities in four regions in the country: South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect socio-economic, use, management and diversity data for this crop. The majority of interviewers were men, married, with children, using retirement benefits and agriculture as income and family labour as the main support in the yam cultivation. A wide distribution of this species was found, with the occurrence of D. alata in the four sampled regions. A variety of vernacular names for this species was collected, differing according to the region where it is cultivated. Most farmers cultivate yams in fields, however an increased usage of home gardens for the cultivation of this tuber was found. Also, most farmers cultivate yams in association with other crops in areas of different sizes and slash and burn practices, although mostly disappearing, are still being used by many farmers. The results of this study provide more concrete data on the distribution and diversity of this important crop. PMID:25055086

  16. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  17. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  18. Caracterização de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS S. L. MENDEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma análise comparativa da qualidade de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis, além de descrever esse processo. O extrato líquido foi obtido por refluxo utilizando água como solvente em proporção 1:10. A preparação líquida foi submetida à secagem em spray dryer utilizando aerosil® e fosfato de cálcio como adjuvantes tecnológicos. A eficiência de extração foi avaliada através da determinação do resíduo seco e do teor de flavonoides totais por técnica de espectrofotometria no UV. O extrato seco foi avaliado quanto à viabilidade tecnológica a partir da determinação das características de granulometria e da estabilidade em ambientes de umidade relativa controlada. O teor de flavonoides totais para o extrato seco apresentou redução quando comparado à solução extrativa, indicando possível influência do processo de secagem na composição do material. Os resultados de caracterização tecnológica demonstraram que o processo de secagem utilizado garante uma uniformidade de tamanho particular, embora seja observada uma tendência de higroscopicidade do material em ambientes de elevada umidade relativa. As técnicas empregadas se mostraram viáveis para uso em ensaios quali-quantitativos aplicados à determinação da qualidade dos extratos desenvolvidos. Palavras-chave: Passiflora alata Curtis; Preparações extrativas; Spray-drying; Flavonoides totais; Caracterização tecnológica. ABSTRACT Characterization of extracts prepared from Passiflora alata Curtis This paper describes a process to prepare liquid and dried aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Passiflora alata Curtis (sweet passionfruit and reports a comparative analysis of the extractive preparations obtained. The extractive solution was obtained by refluxing the plant material with water in the proportion 1:10 (w/v. The aqueous extract was dried in a spray-dryer, with Aerosil® and calcium

  19. Procjena trodimenzijskog trošenja alata u obradi odvajanjem čestica uporabom stereo-fotogrametrije i obrade oblaka točaka

    OpenAIRE

    Vučina, Damir; Bajić, Dražen; Jozić, Sonja; Pehnec, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Procjena trošenja alata ima značajan utjecaj na kvalitetu proizvoda, kao i na učinkovitost proizvodnog procesa. Primijenjena je procjena trošenja alata temeljena na iskustvu i ukupnom vremenu trajanja obrade. Taktilni mehanički uređaji i optički mikroskop su također primijenjeni. Predlaže se i primjenjuje inovativna optička metoda mjerenja trošenja alata koja se zasniva na 3D skeniranju uporabom stereo-fotogrametrije i triangulacije. Metodom je moguće točno izmjeriti trodimenzionalne devijaci...

  20. Análise dos transientes da fluorescência da clorofila a de plantas jovens de Carapa guianensis e de Dipteryx odorata submetidas a dois ambientes de luz Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients of young plants of Carapa guianensis and Dipteryx odorata submitted to two light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies arbóreas tropicais estão quase sempre sob alta irradiância na Amazônia. O elevado fluxo energético pode ser decisivo para o sucesso ou fracasso no estabelecimento inicial das plantas no campo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as respostas de plantas jovens de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl e cumaru (Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd expostas a dois ambientes de luz (sombra e sol. O experimento foi conduzido em Manaus-AM, Brasil (3º8'S, 59º52'W. As análises dos transientes da fluorescência da clorofila a e os parâmetros relacionados foram obtidos em folhas intactas e saudáveis no período entre 10:00 e 12:00h. A curva OJIP indicou que ambas as espécies expostas à alta irradiância apresentaram fotoinibição após 45 dias de experimento. Plantas de andiroba e cumaru expostas ao sol exibiram menores valores de TRo/ABS (7,17 e 20,4%, respectivamente, ETo/TRo (14,5 e 27,2%, respectivamente e ETo/ABS (20,6 e 42,2%, respectivamente e maiores valores de DIo/ABS (26,9 e 43,0%, respectivamente, comparadas com plantas exposta à sombra. Quanto ao fluxo fenomenológico, para a maioria dos parâmetros, menores valores foram observados para ambas as espécies expostas ao sol. Plantas de andiroba e cumaru expostas ao sol exibiram valores menores de PI ABS (63,3 e 78,7%, respectivamente comparadas com plantas expostas à sombra no final do experimento. Apesar de ambas as espécies terem sofrido com o estresse por alta irradiância, plantas de andiroba apresentaram melhores desempenhos do que plantas de cumaru, sendo, portanto, melhor indicadas para uso em plantio de produção ou de recuperação de áreas degradadas.Tropical tree species are almost always under high irradiance in the Amazonian. The high energy flux can be decisive for the success or not in the initial establishment in the field. The objective of this study was to investigate the answers of young plants of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl and cumaru (Dipteryx

  1. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Paul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was also recorded against those bacteria by serial dilution technique. Kanamycin was used as positive control. Results showed that 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  2. KARAKTERISASI DAN JARAK KEMIRIPAN UWI (Dioscorea alata L. BERDASARKAN PENANDA MORFOLOGI UMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimanto Trimanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea alata L. is a potential local crop for supporting food security program in Indonesia.  Inventory and characterization of yam have been conducted in scattered population at Nganjuk region - East Java.  The research was aimed to identify the characteristic of Nganjuk’s yam, based on the tuber morphology and to determine its similarity distance value.  The characterisation were analyzed using interval similarity function, based on NTSys DICE coefficient programme. The result showed that 22 accession numbers which comprises of 13 variants of yam were found in Nganjuk region. The same variants of yams indicated by their close similarity distance although they were originated from different areas.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of hydro-methanol extract of underground tuber of Dioscorea alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Priyankar; Roy Chowdhuri, Sumedha; Sarkar, Mousumi Poddar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Context The underground edible tuber of Dioscorea alata L. (Dioscoreaceae) is a functional food with high nutritive value and therapeutic potential. The tuber is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties in traditional medicine. Objective The present study explores the anti-inflammatory activity and standardisation of D. alata tuber hydromethanol extract. Materials and methods Hydromethanol extract (70%) of D. alata tuber was chemically characterised using HPLC and GC-MS techniques. Murine lymphocytes were cultured for 48 h with six different concentrations (0-80 μg/mL) of the extract. The expression of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, COX-1, COX-2, and PGE2 were evaluated using colorimetric and ELISA methods. Results Dioscorea alata extract inhibited the expression of NO and TNF-α with an IC50 value of 134.51 ± 6.75 and 113.30 ± 7.44 μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of total COX, COX-1, COX-2 activities and PGE2 level were 41.96 ± 3.07, 141.41 ± 8.99, 32.50 ± 1.69, and 186.34 ± 15.36 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibition of PGE2 level and COX-2 activity was positively correlated (R(2) = 0.9393). Gallic acid (GA), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4HBA), syringic acid (SYA), p-coumaric acid (PCA), and myricetin (MY) were identified and quantified using HPLC. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 13 different phytocompounds such as hexadecanoic acid, methyl stearate, cinnamyl cinnamate, and squalene. Conclusion The D. alata extract significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory signals in a gradual manner compared with control (0 μg/mL). Different bioactive phytocompounds individually possessing anti-inflammatory activities contributed to the overall bioactivity of the D. alata tuber extract. PMID:26864460

  4. Efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis Effect of plant regulators on Passiflora alata seedlings development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator limitante à produção de mudas enxertadas de maracujazeiro é o elevado tempo para a sua formação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis, a serem empregadas como porta-enxerto, visando a reduzir o tempo para atingir o ponto de enxertia. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 reguladores vegetais x 5 concentrações, com 4 repetições de 25 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 0,0 mg L-1 (testemunha; 25 mg L-1; 50 mg L-1; 75 mg L-1, e 100 mg L-1 de Benziladenina (BA, GA4+7 + Fenilmetil-aminopurina (GA4+7+CK, Ácido giberélico (GA3 e Cloreto de chlormequat (CCC. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas, o comprimento e a fitomassa seca de raíz, do caule, das folhas e total. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial, sendo realizado desdobramento quando houve efeito significativo da interação.Os reguladores não promoveram respostas significativas para o comprimento e a massa seca de raiz, do caule, de folhas e total. Porém, GA4+7+Fenilmetil-aminopurina foi o regulador que incrementou o comprimento do caule, o diâmetro e o número de folhas, promovendo maior desenvolvimento às mudas e reduzindo o tempo para a formação do porta-enxerto, de três a oito meses, para dois meses (63 dias.The limiting main factor to the passion flower grafted seedlings production is the long time necessary for its formation. So, this work aimed, to evaluate the effects of vegetal regulators, at Passiflora alata Curtis seedlings development, aiming to reduce time for the seedling to reach the grafting point. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a 4 x 5 (plant growth regulator x concentrations factorial and four replicates, with 25 seedlings per parcel. The treatments were as follow: Benzyladenine, GA

  5. Studies on Labisia pumila var. alata extract with phytoestrogenic effects: impact on biological activities and gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor, Fazliana

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) has been used by women for generations. Traditionally, the plant is boiled, either alone or in decoction with other herbs. It is claimed to have health benefits such as to contract the uterus after childbirth, allay painful menstruation and irregular periods and to generally alleviate fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the scientific basis of LPva phytoestrogenic activities in different animal models and cell lines. In Pape...

  6. Determination of Pharmacologically Active Compounds in Root Extracts of Cassia alata L. by use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fernand, Vivian E.; Dinh, David T.; Washington, Samuel J.; FAKAYODE, SAYO O.; Losso, Jack N.; van Ravenswaay, Rick O.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of six phenolic compounds, five anthraquinones (rhein, aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) and a flavonoid (kaempferol), in root extracts from Cassia alata L. Solid-phase extraction, using C18 cartridges, was used to remove interfering substances from the root extracts. The extracts were analyzed on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase which consisted of acetonit...

  7. Mutability of the self-incompatibility locus and identification of the S-bearing chromosome in Nicotiana alata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ rays, X rays, fast neutrons and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were used for inducing mutations at the self-incompatibility locus of Nicotiana alata. Chronic gamma irradiation and EMS treatment neither induced self-compatability mutations nor led to changes from one S allele to another. X rays and fast neutrons induced many self-compatibility mutations, but did not generate new self-incompatibility alleles. (Auth.)

  8. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura. PMID:26319522

  9. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  10. Continuous directional water transport on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Liwen; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Deyuan; Han, Zhiwu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the ‘peristome’—the rim of the pitcher—because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic ‘design’ principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.

  11. Effect of Blanching on Properties of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata Flour

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    Harijono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of flour from blanched tubers of two water yam (Dioscorea alata cultivars were compared with those from the non blanched ones. The results showed that the proximate composition of flours from the yellow cultivar was different from that of the purple cultivar. Steam blanching (97±2°C, 7 min on the purple cultivar resulted in more significant reduction on yield and the Lightness (L value. However, it had significant effect on some components of the flours such as protein, ash, amylose and fiber. Results of proximate composition showed crude fat yellow and purple water yam ranging from 0.4 to 0.55%, crude protein 5-8%, dietary fiber 16-26% and starch 41-76%. Starch granule size between 20-40 &mum. Blanched yellow water yam flour has the highest water and oil absorption which is 2.02 and 1.18 g/g. Dioscorine and water soluble polysaccharides, bioactive components from Dioscorea, of purple water yam flour are larger than the yellow flour. Purple water yam flour is better to be proceed as a functional food because it has a high peak viscosity, more stable to heat and has greater content of bioactive compounds. Steam blanching decrease the yield of dioscorine and water soluble polysaccharide.

  12. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  13. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  14. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo. Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG values.

  15. Extrato etanólico de Senna alata no controle de Fusarium oxysporum, causador da murcha-de-fusarium do meloeiro Ethanolic extract of Senna alata in control of Fusarium oxysporum responsible for fusarium wilt in melon

    OpenAIRE

    Erika V. de Medeiros; Viana Marcelino G.; Cynthia C. de Albuquerque; Francisco A. Viana; Kathia M. B. e Silva

    2012-01-01

    A murcha-de-fusarium, causada pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum, vem-se tornando uma doença importante no meloeiro devido às grandes perdas em áreas de produção no Brasil e no mundo, razão pela qual o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de extratos etanólicos de partes de Senna alata no controle do crescimento micelial de F. oxysporum isolado de plantas de meloeiro. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, distribuído em esquema fatorial 4 x 6 + 1, sendo o primei...

  16. Cryopreservation of asian Dioscorea bulbifera l. and D. alata l. by vitrification: importance of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Papiya; Mandal, B B; Bhat, K V; Biswas, A K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cryopreservation protocols for Asian races of Dioscorea bulbifera and D. alata with high survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. Using a vitrification procedure, survival of shoot tips postcryopreservation of up to 89% in D. bulbifera and up to 82% in D. alata were recorded when excised shoot tips were pretreated overnight with 0.3 M sucrose in MS medium, followed by loading with 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degrees C, exposure to PVS2 solution for 90 min at 0 degrees C, immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 h, rewarming at 40 degrees C for 2 min, unloading in medium with 1.2 M sucrose for 20 min and culturing on growth recovery medium. During growth recovery, 58% shoot regeneration was obtained in D. bulbifera when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on MS medium with 1.5 mg/L BAP, 0.15 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing on a medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/ L NAA. However, a maximum of 39% shoot regeneration was recorded in D. alata when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on medium M2 (MS containing 1/5 NH4NO3 and 40 g/L sucrose) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L zeatin, 0.15 mg/L IAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Subsequently, the regenerating shoots were cultured for 30 days on medium M2 with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.3 mg/L zeatin, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing for another 30 days on medium with 0.5 mg/L BAP, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Finally, transfer onto medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/L NAA stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. Alteration of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators and their application at various stages of growth recovery was crucial for regeneration of shoot tips and formation of plantlets in D. alata.

  17. POBOLJŠANJE UČINKOVITOSTI PRODAVAČA U VELEPRODAJNIM TVRTKAMA PUTEM ALATA ZA AUTOMATIZACIJU PRODAJE

    OpenAIRE

    Berisha Qehaja, Albana; Kutllovci, Enver; Mihane BERISHA NAMANI

    2016-01-01

    Glavna svrha ovog rada je doprinos raspravi o tome dolazi li do poboljšanja učinkovitosti prodavača kroz upotrebu alata za automatizaciju prodaje. Obavljeno je istraživanje na uzorku od tri lokalne tvrtke u Republici Kosovo, koje se bave distribucijom robe široke potrošnje (FMCG, fast-moving consumer goods). Ispitano je 58 zaposlenika lokalnih tvrtki „X“, „Y“ i „Z“. Ova je tema izabrana jer veleprodajne tvrtke koje se bave distribucijom robe široke potrošnje na Kosovu prolaze kroz tranziciju ...

  18. In vitro antitumor properties of an isolate from leaves of Cassia alata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Elizabeth Iglesias; Herrera, Annabelle Aliga; Villaseñor, Irene Manese; Jacinto, Sonia Donaldo

    2013-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Cassia alata L (akapulko), traditionally used for treatment of a variety of diseases, were evaluated for their potential antitumor properties in vitro. MTT assays were used to examine the cytotoxic effects of crude extracts on five human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, derived from a breast carcinoma, SK-BR-3, another breast carcinoma, T24 a bladder carcinoma, Col 2, a colorectal carcinoma, and A549, a non- small cell lung adenocarcinoma. Hexane extracts showed remarkable cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 in a dose-dependent manner. This observation was confirmed by morphological investigation using light microscopy. Further bioassay-directed fractionation of the cytotoxic extract led to the isolation of a TLC-pure isolate labeled as f6l. Isolate f6l was further evaluated using MTT assay and morphological and biochemical investigations, which likewise showed selectivity to MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 cells with IC50 values of 16, 17, and 17 μg/ml, respectively. Isolate f6l, however, showed no cytotoxicity towards the non-cancer Chinese hamster ovarian cell line (CHO-AA8). Cytochemical investigation using DAPI staining and biochemical investigation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-a method used to detect DNA fragmentation-together with caspase assay, demonstrated apoptotic cell death. Spectral characterization of isolate f6l revealed that it contained polyunsaturated fatty acid esters. Considering the cytotoxicity profile and its mode of action, f6l might represent a new promising compound with potential for development as an anticancer drug with low or no toxicity to non-cancer cells used in this study.

  19. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  20. Androgenesis Induced in Nicotiana alata and the Effect of Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata anthers cultured on different modified media based on MS, MT and N were used to obtain haploid plants through direct and indirect ways. The haploid plants resulting on MS medium ranged from 52% - 80%, on MT medium ranged from 32% - 52% and on N medium ranged from 28% - 44%. Accordingly, the best medium used for haploid induction was MS supplemented with 0.2 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN. On the other hand, MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN or 1.0 mgl-l BAP + 0.5 mgl-l NAA were the best mediums for callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively. Morphologically, the leaf size, stem highest and diameter, flower size and diameter, anther length and number were about 67% of the diploid plants growth. Irradiated anthers with doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy caused reducing the number of haploid plants with increasing gamma radiation dose. For the haploid plants irradiated with same doses, the mortality percentage of bud survival was increasing with increasing gamma radiation dose. The irradiated callus with doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy was affected negatively on growth rate and morphology. Proline content in irradiated plantlets increased with increasing gamma radiation dose. As well, total soluble protein content was increased with gamma irradiation up to 10 Gy. However, the higher doses caused a severe decrease of total soluble proteins. The production of proline and total soluble proteins in haploid plants were 48.6% and 69.5%, respectively comparing with diploid plants.

  1. Understorey Regeneration of Lophira alata as Affected by Seed Tree Size and Growing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongjoh, CA.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic pressure and slash and burn practices are two factors which reduce the number of Lophira alata plants in its natural range where it is more represented by young plants. The hypothesis that its understorey regeneration may be affected by seed tree size and growing conditions was investigated in the tropical moist forest in southern Cameroon using mature trees of various diameter classes for a sustainable management of the species. Biomass partitioning was also examined in regenerating seedlings growing in loading bays and forest understorey. Seedling density was highest when seed tree diameter at breast height (dbh was 100 cm or more. A strong positive correlation was found between seed tree diameter dbh and crown size expressed as mean diameter of projected crown area, but crown size correlated much better with seedling density. Compared with their counterparts of the same height growing in loading bays in full sunlight but devoid of litter and topsoil, seedlings found in understorey exhibited lower root: shoot ratio, indicating that soil-derived resources were more limiting in loading bays than on undisturbed forest floor. Leaf weight per area (leaf dry weight/leaf area (LWA and leaf packing (leaf number/cm shoot height were almost 2-fold greater in loading bays than in understorey. As seedlings seldom grew taller than 50 cm in the latter environment, it may be inferred that root: shoot ratio, LWA, and leaf packing can be used to assess the sustainability of growth and development of this pioneer species at the seedling stage.

  2. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

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    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  3. Optimización de un medio de cultivo para plantas micropropagadas de Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Optimization of a culture medium for micropropagated plants of  Dioscorea alata L. Resumen La propagación de material de ñame de buena calidad es esencial para incrementar la producción sostenible de este cultivo. El presente trabajo tuvo como propósito optimizar el medio de cultivo de micropropagación de Dioscorea  alata L. clon Caraqueño a través de los siguientes objetivos: determinar el efecto de diferentes antioxidantes (carbón activado 0,5 g/L-1 ; carbón activado 1,0 g/L-1; cisteína 10 mg/L-1, 20 mg/L-1 y 30 mg/L-1 y concentraciones de sales de Murashige y Skoog (MS (25, 50, 75 y 100 % en el medio de cultivo durante el establecimiento y la multiplicación de las plantas in vitro, y evaluar la utilización de distintas combinaciones de ácido naftalenacético (0,01; 0,1 mg/L-1 y bencilaminopurina (0,01; 0,1 mg/L-1 en el mejor medio de cultivo de multiplicación obtenido en el experimento anterior. A los 35 días se seleccionaron 40 plantas in vitro, a las cuales se les determinaron las siguientes variables: longitud en cm del vástago; número de nudos de novo por explantes; número de hojas por explante y porcentaje de fenolización. Se evaluó además, en el experimento con los reguladores de crecimiento, el número   de raíces y longitud de la raíz de mayor tamaño. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio con análisis de varianza bifactorial y clasificación simple. Se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para un nivel de significación del 5%. Los resultados  obtenidos mostraron que las sales MS al 75%  de su concentración, el carbón activado (0,5 g/L-1 o la cisteína (10 mg/L-1, en combinación con los reguladores de crecimiento ANA/BAP (0,01/0,01 mg/L-1 en el medio de cultivo MS, incrementaron los indicadores de desarrollo de las plantas in vitro tales como número de nudos de novo (3

  4. Effect of plant growth regulators on indices of growth analysis for sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of GA3 + IBA + cinetina on the growth of Passiflora alata Curtis plants through growth analysis. The experiment was carried out by completely randomized block design, with six treatments and four replications. The plant growth regulators, gibberellin (GA3, auxin (IBA and cytokinin (kinetin, were applied to leaves at concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125mL.L-1. The applications were performed at 48, 55, 52, 69, and 76 days after the emergence of the plants and the growths were evaluated five times at 7-day intervals. The first evaluations were accomplished 55 days after plant emergence. The leaf area ratio (RAF, specific leaf area (AFE, liquid assimilation rate (TCA, and relative growth rate (TCR were analyzed. The following data were also analyzed for P. alata Curtis plants: leaf area, leaf lamina dry mass and total leaves dry mass. The growth analysis, which employed the ANACRES computer program, indicated that the growth regulators increased plant productivity.

  5. Distribution of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in Cassia alata and the factors affecting the quality of the raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwan Intaraksa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses have been carried out on the content of hydroxyanthracene derivatives of the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata, which had been collected at different harvesting times and different leaf-positions. It was found that when the leaves had been harvested in March, June or September, the hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the leaf-positions 1-3 (1.82, 1.25, 1.63 %w/w, respectively and 4-6 (1.39, 1.58, 1.09 %w/w, respectively. In December (the flowering and fruiting season, hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the flowers (2.21%w/w and the pods (1.82 %w/w, respectively. The method and temperature of drying markedly affected the hydroxyanthracene derivative content. Drying of the leaves in a hot air oven at 50ºC gave a higher hydroxyanthracene derivative content (1.43 %w/w than drying in a hot air oven at 80ºC (0.44 %w/w or drying in the sun (0.95 %w/w. Study on the stability of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in C. alata leaf powder, which was kept in tight container at room temperature, found that the hydroxyanthracene derivative content did not decrease within 9 months.

  6. Study on Senna alata and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiana, M. A.; Mazura, M. P.

    2011-04-01

    Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN PROBOSCIA ALATA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT AND CO2 CONDITIONS OF THE MODERN SOUTHERN OCEAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, Astrid; Timmermans, Klaas R.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of different light and aqueous CO2 conditions were assessed for the Southern Ocean diatom Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundstrom in laboratory experiments. Selected culture conditions (light and CO2(aq)) were representative for the natural ranges in the modern Southern Ocean. Li

  8. Asada-Halliwell pathway maintains redox status in Dioscorea alata tuber which helps in germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2016-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important regulatory molecules governing physiological processes. In the present study a biochemical and proteome level comparison of two contrasting growth stages of Dioscorea alata tuber namely germinating and mature tuber was performed in order to understand the tuber physiology and biochemistry. Existence of all the component enzymes [APx (ascorbate peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase), DHAR (dehydroascorbate reductase), MDHAR (mono-dehydroascorbate reductase)] and major products [ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH)] of the cycle showed an operational Asada-Halliwell cycle in the tuber. A 2.65 fold increase in ASC content & a 3.8 fold increase in GR activity fortified the redox milieu during germination. In contrast a 5 fold higher H2O2 content (due to 3.08 fold lower APx activity) and accumulation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO, 2.4-fold) and S-nitrosothiol (SNO, 2.08 fold) contributed to overall oxidative conditions in the mature tuber. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, 7.5 fold), DHAR (5.31 fold) and MDHAR (7 fold) activities were higher in the germinating tuber in comparison with the mature tuber. GSNO negatively regulated the CA (3.6 & 3.95 fold), MDHAR (7.5 & 1.5 fold) and APx (2.3 & 1.81 fold) while another NO donor, CysNO negatively regulated the DHAR (2.24 & 1.32 fold) activity in the mature and germinating stages respectively indicating again that the lesser inhibition by NO (via nitrosylation) may be because of overall reducing environment in the germinating tuber. Increased SNO leading to S-nitrosylation of dioscorin was confirmed by Biotin switch assay. This is the first report showing dioscorin nitrosylation. The present analysis showed differential redox regulation and also suggests the physiological relevance of CA, DHAR, MDHAR, APx & GR in tuber germination for the first time. These enzymes may be used as potential markers of tuber germination in future. PMID:27457980

  9. Avaliação da potencialidade fisiológica de sementes de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander) submetidas ao armazenamento Evaluation of physiological potentiality of sweet passion-fruit seeds (Passiflora alata Dryander) submitted to storage

    OpenAIRE

    Elisete Aparecida Fernandes Osipi; João Nakagawa

    2005-01-01

    Averiguou-se a influência de três condições ambientais na capacidade de armazenamento da semente do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander): ambiente não controlado (embaladas em saco de papel), câmara seca (embaladas em saco de papel) e câmara fria (embaladas em saco de polietileno). Nesses tratamentos, avaliaram-se o teor de água e as porcentagens de germinação, de plântulas anormais, de sementes dormentes e a de mortas, no decorrer de seis meses e após um ano. A germinação não diferiu en...

  10. Maracujá-doce: o autor, a obra e a data da publicação de Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae) Sweet-passion-fruit: the autor, data and publication of the scientific name of Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Carlos Bernacci; Laura Maria Molina Meletti; Marta Dias Soares-Scott

    2003-01-01

    O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul, especialmente do Brasil, cujo cultivo tem se expandido em função do preço alcançado pelos frutos. Vários trabalhos de pesquisa foram realizados com esta espécie, quase todos com imprecisões na citação do nome científico. Com o objetivo de avaliar a extensão desses equívocos e identificar a forma cientificamente correta de citar a espécie, foram investigados o autor e a data de publicação do nome científico ...

  11. Avaliação da potencialidade fisiológica de sementes de maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander submetidas ao armazenamento Evaluation of physiological potentiality of sweet passion-fruit seeds (Passiflora alata Dryander submitted to storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Aparecida Fernandes Osipi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Averiguou-se a influência de três condições ambientais na capacidade de armazenamento da semente do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander: ambiente não controlado (embaladas em saco de papel, câmara seca (embaladas em saco de papel e câmara fria (embaladas em saco de polietileno. Nesses tratamentos, avaliaram-se o teor de água e as porcentagens de germinação, de plântulas anormais, de sementes dormentes e a de mortas, no decorrer de seis meses e após um ano. A germinação não diferiu entre os ambientes de conservação durante os seis meses iniciais de armazenamento. Após doze meses, contudo, a conservação favoreceu as sementes com grau de umidade próximo a 10%, embaladas em sacos de polietileno e mantidas a 10 º C.It was studied the influence of three environment conditions on storage capacity of sweet passion-fruit (Passiflora alata Dryander seeds: not controled ambient (in paper bags, dry chamber ( in paper bags and cold chamber (in plastic bags. It was evaluated water contents and germination percentage, abnormal seedlings, dormancy and died seeds, during six months and after one year. Germination has no difference among conservation ambients during the initial six months of storage. After twelve months, however, seeds with humidity close to 10% and aconditioned in plastic bags, showed better conservation, when maintained at 10 º C.

  12. Growth and Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae During Culture in Liquid Medium Crecimiento y Desarrollo de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae durante su cultivo en medios líquidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera M. Blanca L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristics known as virulence factors for Colletotrichum sp. genus, like: weight of the produced mycelium, sporulation, poligalacturonase activity and pH medium were evaluated during the growth of C. gloeosporioides f. alatae in three liquid medium commonly used for fungi culture (Czapeck, Martin broth and potato broth and additionally (Czapeck with yam extract as the only source of carbon. After of 17 days of growth, maximum values were obtained for the above parameters in the last medium, compared with others growth media evaluated. The implemented medium with yam extract, supply nutritional requirements of the pathogen for the development of characteristic factors related with mechanism of infections that may play a role in the pathogenesis.Algunas características descritas como factores de virulencia para el género Colletotrichum sp. tales como la masa del micelio producido, la esporulación, la actividad poligalacturonasa y el pH del medio, fueron evaluadas durante el cultivo de C. gloeosporioides f. alatae en tres medios líquidos (Czapeck, caldo Martin y caldo papa, utilizados comúnmente para el desarrollo de hongos y en el medio de cultivo Czapeck adicionado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame como única fuente de carbono. Al cabo de 17 días de crecimiento, se obtuvieron los niveles máximos de los parámetros mencionados, al utilizar este último medio, respecto a los otros medios de cultivo evaluados. El medio de cultivo implementado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame, suministró los requerimientos nutricionales del hongo para el desarrollo de factores relacionados con los mecanismos de infección que pueden participar en su patogenicidad.

  13. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuca-Suarez, Luis Enrique; Barrera, Ericsson David Coy [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Quimica; Alvarez Caballero, Juan Manuel [Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta DTCH (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}D, {sup 2}D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  14. Genetic Diversity in Haploid Nicotiana alata Induced by Gamma Irradiation, Salt Tolerance and Detection of These Differences by RAPD

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    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haploid plants of Nicotiana alata were cultured in vitro on MS medium with IAA + KIN. The resulting plantlets were irradiated using gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. Single node pieces were cut and transferred onto fresh MS medium. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 9% and up to 28% of explants. NaCl concentrations caused the death of 8% up to 36% of explants, while the combined effect between gamma radiation doses and salinity had an impact suffused on the percentage of survival. The combined effect of gamma radiation doses 20 Gy and 25 Gy on NaCl concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mM were deadly. Even more, the combined effect of gamma radiation doses and salinity had a severe negative impact on both the proline content and total soluble protein. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different haploid plantlets treated were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from plantlets irradiated with doses of 15, 20 and 25 Gy, with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%. The total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%. However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl were 270, with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%. High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA based on RAPD data.

  15. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  16. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. in rats = Efeito ansiolítico e sedativo do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV in rats under going elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field test (OFT. No effects were detected after acute or repeated (3 or 7-days treatment with EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, by gavage, on the EPM or the OFT. However, rats treated for 15 day (20 mg/kg with EPV showed increased percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms on the EPM without alter locomotor activity in the OFT compared to control group. Acute or a 15 day administration of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.,increased the same parameters on the EPM and OFT. Acute treatment with 300 or 600 mg/kg of EPV, decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Results suggest anxiolytic and sedative effects for the EPV and reveal a wide dose range for the anxiolytic effect.Este trabalho investigou o efeito do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV em ratos submetidosaos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE e campo aberto (TCA. Nenhum efeito foi detectado após o tratamento agudo ou repetido por 3 ou 7 dias com EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, gavagem no LCE e TCA. Entretanto, ratos tratados por 15 dias com EPV (20 mg/kg mostraram aumento na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertosno LCE, sem alterar a atividade locomotora no TCA, comparado ao controle. Diazepan (droga de referência, i.p., aumentou os mesmos parâmetros analisados no LCE e OFT após o tratamento agudo ou por 15 dias. O tratamento agudo com 300 ou 600 mg/kg do EPV diminuiu significativamente a atividade locomotora no TCA. Estes resultadosmostram que EPV produz efeito ansiolítico e sedativo, com ampla margem de segurança para o efeito ansiolítico.

  17. Astragalin from Cassia alata induces DNA adducts in vitro and repairable DNA damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Samuel; Silva, Givaldo; Santos, Regineide Xavier; Gosmann, Grace; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reverse phase-solid phase extraction from Cassia alata leaves (CaRP) was used to obtain a refined extract. Higher than wild-type sensitivity to CaRP was exhibited by 16 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA repair and membrane transport. CaRP had a strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 2.27 μg mL(-1) and showed no pro-oxidant activity in yeast. CaRP compounds were separated by HPLC and the three major components were shown to bind to DNA in vitro. The major HPLC peak was identified as kampferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin), which showed high affinity to DNA as seen by HPLC-UV measurement after using centrifugal ultrafiltration of astragalin-DNA mixtures. Astragalin-DNA interaction was further studied by spectroscopic methods and its interaction with DNA was evaluated using solid-state FTIR. These and computational (in silico) docking studies revealed that astragalin-DNA binding occurs through interaction with G-C base pairs, possibly by intercalation stabilized by H-bond formation.

  18. 傣药芽拉勐龙(Cassia alata L.)的最佳采收时间探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝蓉; 刀红英

    2009-01-01

    傣药芽拉勐龙(Cassia alata L.)是傣医药史籍中有记载且傣医临床中最常用的药材之一,它在泰国应用同样广泛多见,是已开发应用得较为成熟的药用植物,相关研究也较多.在西双版纳,民间傣医常在夏秋季节采收芽拉勐龙,认为这期间的芽拉勐龙叶才有更好的疗效,但尚未发现相关的理论依据支持这种说法,因此笔者在2008年7月到11月间,采集每个月份的芽拉勐龙叶进行其乙醇提取物的含量测定,以找到它的最佳采集使用期.通过其采收季节中有效成分含量的比较结果显示,有效成分最高的时间是11月份,故在采收芽拉勐龙时,应掌握时机,在11月份采收为佳.

  19. [Chemical evaluation of morro or jícaro (Crescentia alata) flours prepared by ensilaging and/or dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R A; Contreras, I; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1980-06-01

    The chemical composition, nutritive value and potential use of the morro fruit (Crescentia alata) has received little attention. The purpose of the present study was: a) to determine appropriate conditions for processing and conservation of the morro fruit without hulls, since a significant part of the production is lost due to inadequate storage conditions, and b) to evaluate, by means of chemical analysis, the whole fruit and its products. For the preparation of dehydrated meals, the content of the fruit was subjected to sun drying and tray drying dehydration with two air temperatures, 60 degrees and 90 degrees C. The method used for the storage of the whole fruit was anaerobic fermentation achieved by ensilaging the fruit in small concrete experimental silos for 90, 145 and 180 days. At the end of each period, the silos were opened. The ensilaged material was of very good appearance and apparently free from unfavorable contaminations; it was dehydrated in tray dryers at an air temperature of 60 degrees C. Independent of processing, the chemical analysis showed the meals to contain on the average 17% crude fat, 11% crude fiber and 18% crude protein. From the amino acid content and using the 1973 FAO/WHO scoring pattern it was found that such flours were limiting in their sulfur amino acid, lysine and threonine content in the order.

  20. DNA fingerprinting of water yam (Dioscorea alata cultivars in Brazil based on microsatellite markers Diversidade genética de cultivares de inhame (Dioscorea alata no Brasil utilizando microssatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos VBM Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to fingerprint 36 water yam (Dioscorea alata accessions using microsatellite markers. Ten accessions were collected in local markets from several municipalities in Brazil, eight were obtained from the 'Instituto Agronômico de Campinas' (IAC germplasm collection and eighteen were collected directly from growers from São Paulo state. A total of nine microsatellite loci were used in the analysis. Loci revealed high polymorphism verified by elevated PIC values (0.57-0.77, and by high gene diversity and Shannon-Wiener indices (0.69 and 1.29 on average, respectively. The accessions were classified into two groups based on clustering analysis. One group contained mostly accessions from the IAC collection, including a commercial cultivar acquired in a market in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso state. The second group was composed of most accessions, including those collected directly from growers and markets in São Paulo, a few accessions from the IAC collection, and an accession from Puerto Rico, named 'Florida', which is the most cultivated in Brazil. Several duplicates were identified in this study, including accessions obtained from two farmers in Mogi Guaçu and Mogi Mirim, São Paulo state. However, some of these accessions were allocated in different sub-groups, within this second group. Results suggested the hypothesis of different origins for accessions currently cultivated in Brazil. Similar accessions obtained from different municipalities revealed the commercialization of the same accessions at different locations.Este estudo teve como objetivo a análise genética de 36 acessos de inhame (Dioscorea alata utilizando marcadores microssatélites. Dez acessos foram coletados em mercados locais de vários municípios no Brasil, oito foram obtidos no banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, e dezoito foram coletados diretamente com os agricultores no estado de São Paulo. Um total de nove locos de

  1. MULTIPLICACIÓN Y TUBERIZACIÓN in vitro DE ÑAME (Dioscorea alata L. EN SISTEMA DE INMERSIÓN TEMPORAL MULTIPLICATION AND in vitro TUBERIZATION OF YAM (Dioscorea alata L. IN TEMPORARY IMMERSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Salazar Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la estandarización de la multiplicación y tuberización in vitro de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. utilizando el sistema de inmersión temporal conocido como RITA®. Se evaluó inicialmente el porcentaje de brotación de segmentos nodales en medio de cultivo semisólido utilizando dos tipos de citoquininas (BAP y Kinetina. Las plantas obtenidas fueron subcultivadas cada cuatro semanas y luego utilizadas para la obtención de meristemos y plántulas para llevar a cabo los diferentes experimentos en sistema de inmersión temporal. Se obtuvo un mayor porcentaje de explantes brotados al utilizar Kinetina. Con el sistema RITA® se evaluó el efecto de la densidad de explantes sobre la tasa de multiplicación y sobre la inducción, formación y desarrollo de microtubérculos, no encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las densidades evaluadas. De igual manera, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes frecuencias y tiempos de inmersión sobre la tasa de multiplicación, encontrándose que a una frecuencia de inmersión cada 12 horas y durante 10 minutos se obtenía la formación de mayor número de nudos y mayor tamaño de las plantas a las cuatro semanas de cultivo. Al utilizar el sistema de inmersión temporal se alcanzaron mayores tasas de multiplicación y tuberización in vitro comparadas con el sistema de cultivo convencional. Demostrándose así, el potencial de estos sistemas para implementar un programa de producción de semillas de ñame.Multiplication rate and in vitro tuberización of yam (Dioscorea alata L. was made using the temporary immersion system RITA®. Shoot percentage of nodal segments was initially evaluated in semisolid medium using two cytokinin types ((BAP and Kinetin. The obtained plants were subcultured every four weeks and then used to obtain meristems and plantlets to carry out different experiments in temporary immersion system. A higher sprouted explants percentage was obtained when using

  2. Enxertia de mesa de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre Passiflora alata Curtis, em ambiente de nebulização intermitente Bench graft of Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. on Passiflora alata Curtis, in intermittent misty atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Matos Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro é uma cultura típica de países tropicais, sendo estes responsáveis por cerca de 90% da produção mundial. A propagação vegetativa do maracujazeiro permite a obtenção de pomares uniformes, bem como de porta-enxertos altamente produtivos ou resistentes a doenças. O experimento teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da enxertia de mesa do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre o maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis, conduzido em telado com 50% de sombreamento, dotado de sistema de nebulização intermitente. Foi conduzido de agosto de 2001 a maio de 2002, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP - Câmpus de Ilha Solteira, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, totalizando quatro tratamentos (T1 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T2 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T3 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos; T4 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos, cinco repetições e 25 estacas enxertadas por parcela. Foram avaliados: a porcentagem de sobrevivência das estacas enxertadas; b porcentagem de estacas enxertadas enraizadas; c número de brotos emitidos por estaca enxertada; d número de folhas emitidas por estaca enxertada; e massa da matéria seca da raiz, caule, folha e planta. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que: a técnica de enxertia de mesa, quando aplicada ao maracujazeiro, mostrou-se viável, com excelente porcentagem de sobrevivência e enraizamento.The passion fruit plant is a typical culture of tropical countries, which are responsible for about 90% of the world production. The vegetative propagation of the passion fruit plant allows the obtainment of uniform orchards, as well as of rootstocks highly productive or resistant to

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae and Lophira alata Banks (Ochnaceae, Identified from the Ethnomedicine of the Nigerian Middle Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Falade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum requires that new drugs must be developed. Plants are a potential source for drug discovery and development. Two plants that used to treat febrile illnesses in Nigeria were tested for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii and Lophira alata were active in in vitro assays against P. falciparum NF54 (sensitive and K1 (multiresistant strains. Hexane extracts of F. thonningii and L. alata were the most effective extracts in in vitro assays with IC50 of 2.7±1.6 μg/mL and 2.5±0.3 μg/mL for NF54 and 10.4±1.6 μg/mL and 2.5±2.1 μg/mL for K1 strain. All extracts were nontoxic in cytotoxicity assays against KB human cell line with IC50 of over 20 μg/mL, demonstrating selectivity against P. falciparum. In vivo analysis shows that hexane extracts of both plants reduced parasitaemia. At the maximum dose tested, L. alata had a 74.4% reduction of parasitaemia while F. thonningii had a reduction of 84.5%, both extracts prolonged animal survival in mice infected with P. berghei NK65 when compared with vehicle treated controls. The antiplasmodial activity observed justifies the use of both plants in treating febrile conditions.

  4. Multiplicación y tuberización in vitro de ñame (dioscorea alata l.) en sistema de inmersión temporal.

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Díaz, Robinson; Hoyos Sánchez, Rodrigo Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó la estandarización de la multiplicación y tuberización in vitro de ñame (Dioscorea alata L.) utilizando el sistema de inmersión temporal conocido como RITA®. Se evaluó inicialmente el porcentaje de brotación de segmentos nodales en medio de cultivo semisólido utilizando dos tipos de citoquininas (BAP y Kinetina). Las plantas obtenidas fueron subcultivadas cada cuatro semanas y luego utilizadas para la obtención de meristemos y plántulas para llevar a cabo los diferentes experimento...

  5. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Dianita; Ibrahim Jantan; Athirah Z. Amran; Juriyati Jalil

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after t...

  6. Inhibition of cereal rust fungi by both class I and II defensins derived from the flowers of Nicotiana alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Carroll, Kate T; Johnson, Elizabeth D; Plummer, Kim M; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Defensins are a large family of small, cysteine-rich, basic proteins, produced by most plants and plant tissues. They have a primary function in defence against fungal disease, although other functions have been described. This study reports the isolation and characterization of a class I secreted defensin (NaD2) from the flowers of Nicotiana alata, and compares its antifungal activity with the class II defensin (NaD1) from N. alata flowers, which is stored in the vacuole. NaD2, like all other class I defensins, lacks the C-terminal pro-peptide (CTPP) characteristic of class II defensins. NaD2 is most closely related to Nt-thionin from N. tabacum (96% identical) and shares 81% identity with MtDef4 from alfalfa. The concentration required to inhibit in vitro fungal growth by 50% (IC50 ) was assessed for both NaD1 and NaD2 for the biotrophic basidiomycete fungi Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca) and P. sorghi (Ps), the necrotrophic pathogenic ascomycetes Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov), F. graminearum (Fgr), Verticillium dahliae (Vd) and Thielaviopsis basicola (Tb), and the saprobe Aspergillus nidulans. NaD1 was a more potent antifungal molecule than NaD2 against both the biotrophic and necrotrophic fungal pathogens tested. NaD2 was 5-10 times less effective at killing necrotrophs, but only two-fold less effective on Puccinia species. A new procedure for testing antifungal proteins is described in this study which is applicable to pathogens with spores that are not amenable to liquid culture, such as rust pathogens. Rusts are the most damaging fungal pathogens of many agronomically important crop species (wheat, barley, oats and soybean). NaD1 and NaD2 inhibited urediniospore germination, germ tube growth and germ tube differentiation (appressoria induction) of both Puccinia species tested. NaD1 and NaD2 were fungicidal on Puccinia species and produced stunted germ tubes with a granular cytoplasm. When NaD1 and NaD2 were sprayed onto susceptible oat

  7. Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki. The analgesic effect of sting-aid, Adolph's meat tenderizer and fresh water on their stings: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

    2001-08-01

    The study measured the analgesic effects of three popular Hawaii remedies for stings from the box jellyfish, Carybdea alata. Analysis of data showed that aerosol sprays of Sting-Aid (an aluminum sulfate solution), Aldolph's meat tenderizer dissolved in water, and fresh water neither increased nor decreased the pain of box jellyfish stings more than the control (seawater). PMID:11573317

  8. Uso de distintos tratamientos de desinfección en el cultivo in vitro de Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo in vitro, como técnica, consiste en cultivar asépticamente una porción aislada de la planta bajo condiciones de ambiente controlado, para que las células expresen su potencial intrínseco e inducido. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio en el establecimiento in vitro de explantes primarios de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño. Las variantes de desinfección consistieron en la utilización de diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio (1,5; 2 y 2,5% durante distintos tiempos de inmersión (10; 20 y 30 min. A los 7 días se evaluó el porcentaje de contaminación de bacterias y hongos respectivamente, y a los 40 días el número de nudos de novo, la longitud del vástago, el número de hojas, y el porcentaje de explantes establecidos y necrosados. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con análisis de varianza bifactorial y clasificación simple. Se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para un nivel de significación del 5%. Los resultados obtenidos arrojaron que el tratamiento de desinfección de segmentos uninodales de ñame con hipoclorito de sodio al 1,5% durante un tiempo de inmersión 30 min es el de mayor efectividad para el establecimiento in vitro de explantes primarios del ñame (D. alata L. clon caraqueño con altos porcentajes de supervivencia en condiciones ex vitro. Palabras clave: ñame; cultivo de tejidos vegetales; hipoclorito de sodio; establecimiento in vitro. Abstract The in vitro culture technique consists of aseptically culturing an isolated plant portion in controlled environmental conditions for the cells to express their intrinsic and induced potential. This work was aimed at determining the effect of different sodium hypochlorite concentrations and immersion times on in vitro establishment of yam (Dioscorea alata L. “caraqueño” clone primary

  9. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  10. In vitro and genetic diversity studies of twelve accessions of aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) are usually among the dioscoreaceae, in that they are cultivated not only for their tubers but also for the bulbils that develop at the leaf axils of the vine. Twelve accessions collected from five geographic regions were evaluated for morphological characteristics. The results indicate that the 12 accessions exhibited similarity with respect to 11 traits but were variable with respect to 5. Bulbils from the twelve accessions of aerial yams collected from the experimental field, were analysed for proximate composition including moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate content using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method. Elemental composition of the bulbils was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Accession S recorded the highest crude protein (6.77 %), crude fibre (3.38 %) and carbohydrate (25.39 %) contents. Bulbils from D, G and T recorded the highest crude fat (0.56 %), moisture (72.97 %) and crude ash (7.96 %) content respectively. Accession V recorded the highest amount of magnesium (143.43 mg/100g), potassium (2644.4 mg/100g), chlorine (3272.2 mg/100g) and copper (1.116 mg/100g). Bulbils from accession F also recorded the highest amount of aluminum (5.26 mg/100g) and manganese (0.43 mg/100g), while accession B, C, E and R also recorded highest percentages of vanadium (0.037 mg/100g), sodium (26.63 mg/100g), calcium (333.5 mg/100g) and zinc (4.53 mg/100g) respectively. Nodal explants of 12 accessions of the aerial yam were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kinetin with or without activated charcoal, as assessed for ability to regenerate plantlets with distinct shoots, leaves and roots. The highest regeneration of plantlets was achieved at kinetin concentration of 2.0 mg/l with activated charcoal. Kinetin concentration beyond 2.0 mg/l proved to be phytotoxic and

  11. Maracujá-doce: o autor, a obra e a data da publicação de Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernacci Luís Carlos; Meletti Laura Maria Molina; Soares-Scott Marta Dias

    2003-01-01

    O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis) é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul, especialmente do Brasil, cujo cultivo tem se expandido em função do preço alcançado pelos frutos. Vários trabalhos de pesquisa foram realizados com esta espécie, quase todos com imprecisões na citação do nome científico. Com o objetivo de avaliar a extensão desses equívocos e identificar a forma cientificamente correta de citar a espécie, foram investigados o autor e a data de publicação do nome científico ...

  12. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  13. Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from the Leaves of Dioscorea alata L.%超声辅助提取参薯叶黄酮的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张航航

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study on the ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of flavonoids from the leaves of Dioscorea alata L.. [ Meth-ods ] Taking the leaves of D. Alata as the raw materials, single factor test of extraction temperature, extraction time, ultrasonic power and sol-id-liquid ratio was conducted. Based on this, L9 (34) orthogonal test was conducted in order to determine the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extrac-tion technology for the flavonoids from D. Alata leaves. [Results] The optimal extraction technology was as follows :60% ethanol, 50 min ex-traction time, 65 ℃ extraction temperature, and 1:30(g/ml) solid-liquid ratio. Under this condition, the extraction rate of flavonoids from D.Alata leaves was 5.17%. [ Conclusion] The optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of flavonoids from D. Alata leaves was selected,which provided new approach for the processing and utilization of D. Alata leaves.%[目的]研究参薯叶黄酮的超声辅助提取工艺条件.[方法]以参薯叶为原料,选取提取温度、提取时间、超声波功率和料液比4个因素进行单因素试验,并在单因素试验基础上进行L9(34)正交试验,确定参薯叶黄酮的最佳超声提取工艺条件.[结果]优选的最佳提取工艺条件为:乙醇浓度60%,超声提取时间50min,提取温度65℃,料液比为1:30(g/ml);在此条件下,薯叶黄酮的提取率为5.17%.[结论]该方法优选出了薯叶黄酮的最佳超声提取工艺条件,为参薯叶资源的加工利用开辟新的途径.

  14. Terpenes and fatty acids from Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke; Terpenos e acidos graxos de Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Bittencourt, Thais Chaves; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Simone, Carlos Alberto de [Universidade Federal do Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the isolation of the furanocassane-type diterpene, named vinhaticoic acid, along with b-farnesene and spatulenol from fruit shells of D. lacunifera. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The fatty portion was extracted from the fruit kernels, transesterfied and analysed by HRGC/MS. Oleic acid (75.8 +- 4.3%) was the major component. Essential oil extracted from the fruit shells of D. lacunifera was analysed by HRGC/MS and nine sesquiterpenes were identified; beta-farnesene (48.6%) and spatulenol (21.61%) were the major constituents. (author)

  15. The 1.55 A resolution structure of Nicotiana alata S(F11)-RNase associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K; Norioka, S; Yamamoto, M; Kumasaka, T; Yamashita, E; Newbigin, E; Clarke, A E; Sakiyama, F; Sato, M

    2001-11-16

    The crystal structure of Nicotiana alata (ornamental tobacco) S(F11)-RNase, an S-allelic glycoprotein associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility, was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.55 A resolution. The protein has a tertiary structure typical of members of the RNase T(2) family as it consists of a variant of the (alpha+beta) fold and has eight helices and seven strands. A heptasaccharide moiety is also present, and amino acid residues that serve as the catalytic acid and base can be assigned to His32 and His91, respectively. Two "hypervariable" regions, known as HVa and HVb, are the proposed sites of S-allele discrimination during the self-incompatibility reaction, and in the S(F11)-RNase these are well separated from the active site. HVa and HVb are composed of a long, positively charged loop followed by a part of an alpha-helix and short, negatively charged alpha-helix, respectively. The S(F11)-RNase structure shows both regions are readily accessible to the solvent and hence could participate in the process of self/non-self discrimination between the S-RNase and an unknown pollen S-gene product(s) upon pollination. PMID:11724536

  16. New Star of garden greening plant: Cassia alata%园林绿化植物新秀--翅荚决明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫辉

    2006-01-01

    @@ 翅荚决明(Cassia alata L.)又名蜡烛花,为豆科多年生常绿灌木.翅荚决明高1.5~3m,羽状复叶长30~50cm,叶柄和叶轴有狭翅,小叶6~12对,倒卵状长圆形或长椭圆形,长8~15cm,总状花序顶生或腋生,花蕾挺直、腊质,花冠黄色,荚果带形长10~20cm、有翅,果宽1.2~1.5cm,果瓣中央有直贯的纸质翅,翅缘有圆钝齿,种子三角形或稍扁.花期7月至翌年1月,果期10月至翌年3月.

  17. Protective effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on biochemical and histopathological alterations of cardiac muscle cells in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Amran, Athirah Z; Jalil, Juriyati

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p rats. There were significant rises (p rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats. PMID:25786162

  18. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  19. Rapid recovery of photosynthesis and water relations following soil drying and re-watering is related to the adaptation of desert shrub Ephedra alata subsp. alenda (Ephedraceae) to arid environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gorai, M; Laajili, W; Santiago, LS; Neffati, M

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Ephedra alata subsp. alenda is the most important pioneer plant of the moving and semi-stable sand dunes in the deserts and steppes of south Tunisia and occurs naturally in the Grand Erg Oriental, one of the most extreme habitats for plant growth on the planet. A new analysis of physiological performance of this medically important and internationally threatened xerophytic shrub was conducted to assess possible mechanisms of drought tolerance and how these relate to its e...

  20. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Nele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scapula alata (SA is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT. Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9% had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009, 6.1 (P = 0.016, and 6.1 (P = 0.005, respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036 and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046 among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.

  1. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Dianita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight prior to ISO (85 mg/kg-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05 in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05 in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.

  2. Efeito ansiolítico e sedativo do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. em ratos - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1379 Anxiolytic and sedative effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. in rats - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Andreatini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o efeito do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV em ratos submetidos aos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE e campo aberto (TCA. Nenhum efeito foi detectado após o tratamento agudo ou repetido por 3 ou 7 dias com EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, gavagem no LCE e TCA. Entretanto, ratos tratados por 15 dias com EPV (20 mg/kg mostraram aumento na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos no LCE, sem alterar a atividade locomotora no TCA, comparado ao controle. Diazepan (droga de referência, i.p., aumentou os mesmos parâmetros analisados no LCE e OFT após o tratamento agudo ou por 15 dias. O tratamento agudo com 300 ou 600 mg/kg do EPV diminuiu significativamente a atividade locomotora no TCA. Estes resultados mostram que EPV produz efeito ansiolítico e sedativo, com ampla margem de segurança para o efeito ansiolíticoThis work investigated the effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV in rats under going elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field test (OFT. No effects were detected after acute or repeated (3 or 7-days treatment with EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, by gavage, on the EPM or the OFT. However, rats treated for 15 day (20 mg/kg with EPV showed increased percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms on the EPM without alter locomotor activity in the OFT compared to control group. Acute or a 15 day administration of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p., increased the same parameters on the EPM and OFT. Acute treatment with 300 or 600 mg/kg of EPV, decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Results suggest anxiolytic and sedative effects for the EPV and reveal a wide dose range for the anxiolytic effect

  3. Définition du profil écologique de l'azobé, Lophira alata, une espèce ligneuse africaine de grande importance : synthèse bibliographique et perspectives pour des recherches futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwolé, AB.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of the ecological profile of Lophira alata (ekki, a major important African timber species: literature review and perspectives for future studies. Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber species are no more studied, this complicates long-term sustainable forest management. This literature review related to the ecology and silviculture of ekki, Lophira alata Banks ex C.F.Gaertn. (Ochnaceae, a main African timber species recorded as "vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List, will serve as a study's case. The planned literature review reveals the doubt about its taxonomy, as well as the lack of understanding concerning its reproductive biology, growth conditions, population dynamics parameters, and the spatial distribution of its genetic diversity. The deficiency of knowledge about its ecological needs and the factors which have historically influenced its population dynamics explain why most silvicultural trails provide hazardous and uncertain results. Remedying these gaps in order to improve its ecological characterization and innovative silvicultural trails, would be a significant contribution to the sustainable management of its populations.

  4. Influência de métodos de remoção do arilo na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Aparecida Fernandes Osipi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de remoção do arilo, na germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis. Sementes extraídas de frutos maduros foram submetidas aos métodos de remoção do arilo: manual com fricção sobre malha de arame; manual com fricção de areia grossa sobre malha de arame; mecânico com liquidificador; biológico com fermentação à temperatura de 24ºC, por cinco dias; químico com imersão em solução de cal virgem a 10%; químico com imersão em solução de ácido clorídrico a 37% (1:2, ambos sob agitação por 30 minutos, e sementes sem a extração do arilo. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. A remoção do arilo com friccão em malha de arame apresentou a maior eficiência de germinação em laboratório. Os métodos com fricção de areia em malha de arame, imersão em solução com cal, imersão em solução com ácido clorídrico, fermentação e a não remoção do arilo conferiram melhor desempenho às sementes em condições de viveiro. A remoção do arilo com liquidificador prejudicou a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. As condições de viveiro proporcionaram percentuais de emergência em plântulas, que superaram os resultados obtidos em condições de laboratório.

  5. Influência do processo de secagem e condição de armazenamento de extratos secos de Bauhinia forficata e Passiflora alata sobre seu perfil de dissolução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.F. SOUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os produtos fitoterápicos são considerados medicamentos, sendo necessário o estabelecimento de estudos que assegurem a manutenção dos requisitos de qualidade durante o processamento e o armazenamento. Testes de dissolução podem ser empregados para se estimar a biodisponibilidade de um fármaco, sendo uma análise rotineira no desenvolvimento e controle de qualidade de medicamentos alopáticos. A determinação do perfil de dissolução de fitoterápicos também pode ser um importante critério para avaliação da sua qualidade lote-a-lote, bem como para os estudos de desenvolvimento e de estabilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a influência dos métodos de secagem e da condição de armazenagem sobre os perfis de dissolução dos flavonoides totais de extratos secos de duas plantas medicinais bastante difundidas no Brasil, a Bauhinia forficata e a Passiflora alata. Os extratos secos foram produzidos pelo processo de secagem em leito de jorro e em spray drying, sendo submetidos a condições de armazenagem aceleradas (temperatura de 40 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 75 ± 5%, por um período de 90 dias. Os perfis de dissolução foram obtidos para amostras de extratos secos antes e após o período de armazenamento. O teor de flavonoides totais foi quantificado por espectrofotometria. Os extratos secos de B. forficata e P. alata apresentaram adequada liberação de flavonoides nos ensaios de dissolução. Os extratos secos de Passiflora alata apresentaram completa dissolução dos flavonoides, 92% e 98% dos teores originais após 60 minutos de ensaio, respectivamente para o extrato seco em leito de jorro e em spray drying.

  6. Terpenos e ácidos graxos de Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke Terpenes and fatty acids from Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke

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    Gerardo Magela Vieira Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the isolation of the furanocassane-type diterpene, named vinhaticoic acid, along with beta-farnesene and spatulenol from fruit shells of D. lacunifera. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The fatty portion was extracted from the fruit kernels, transesterfied and analysed by HRGC/MS. Oleic acid (75.8 ± 4.3% was the major component. Essential oil extracted from the fruit shells of D. lacunifera was analysed by HRGC/MS and nine sesquiterpenes were identified; beta-farnesene (48.6% and spatulenol (21.61% were the major constituents.

  7. 参薯DaANS基因克隆及表达差异分析%Cloning and Analysis of Differential Expression of DaANS Gene in Dioscorea alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃华; 许云; 吴文嫱; 刘林娅; 黄小龙; 黄东益

    2015-01-01

    通过研究参薯块茎花青素合成途径中DaANS基因的功能以为参薯分子育种打下基础。利用RT-PCR与RACE技术从参薯块茎中扩增得到1320 bp的花青素合成酶cDNA序列,其编码356个氨基酸,命名为DaANS (登录号为KP729182)。基因组序列全长1534 bp,具有一个内含子。使用荧光定量PCR技术对参薯不同组织及其块茎不同发育时期的DaANS基因相对表达量进行测定。结果表明: DaANS基因具有明显的组织特异性和时空性,不同组织中块茎表达量最高,且在块茎生长的前期具有很高的表达量,在8月份到顶峰,随后急剧降低。%The function of DaANS gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway was studied to lay the founda-tion for molecular breeding of Dioscorea alata. In this paper, the cDNA sequence of DaANS gene (1 320 bp) was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques from the tuber of D. alata. The gene was named as DaANS (accession number:KP729182) encoding a protein of 356 amino acids. The full-length of DNA sequence was 1 534 bp, containing one intron. The relative expression of DaANS was determined by real-time quantitative PCR in six different organizations and different developmental stages of tubers. The results showed the expres-sion of DaANS gene had obvious characters of space and time. The expression of tuber was the highest in dif-ferent tissues. And the early stage of tuber growth had a high amount of expression, in August to the peak, and then decreased sharply.

  8. Effects of leaf-sprayed salicylic acid on sucrose to starch conversion in underground tuber of yam (Dioscorea alata L.)%叶喷水杨酸对山药(Dioscorea alata L.)地下块茎蔗糖-淀粉转化影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生茂; 曹家树; 王玲平; 班美玲; 尚小红; 郭元元; 黄皓; 俊丽; 梁任繁; 黄如葵

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Effects of leaf-sprayed salicylic acid ( SA ) on the conversion of sucrose to starch in yam underground tuber was elucidated in order to provide references on knowing the mechanism of sucrose transformation and enhancing starch formation of yam. [Method]Four treatments of SA with 0.0(i.e. the control), 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mmol/L were respectively sprayed thoroughly on leaves of Dioscorea alata L. cv. Baibian both at early and later of tuber forma-tion stages. Underground tuber was periodically sampled to determine the contents of predominant carbohydrates and the activities of enzymes related to sucrose cleavage and starch biosynthesis . [Result]With the exception of the sharp in-creases of total soluble sugar (TSS) content at later stage for 5.0 mmol/L SA treatment, the contents of TSS, sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch, amylose (AM), amylopectin(AP), and cellulose among the other treatments had the same pro-files of general change during the sampled period. Compared with the control , 0.5 and 5.0 mmol/L SA presented op-posed effects on underground tuber development , the former not only significantly increased activities of sucrose synthase (SuSase), soluble acid invertase (SAInv), cell wall-bound acid invertase (CWBAInv), and neutral invertase(NInv), but also significantly enhanced activities of adenosine diphosphate pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthase (SSS), grain-bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme(SBE). But 1.0 mmol/L SA treatment had slight-ly positive effects on these measured enzymes only at middle stage. In all treatments , although sucrose content showed insignificantly positive correlations with activities of both SuSase and related starch-synthesized enzymes, the ratio of su-crose to total soluble sugar was significantly and positively correlated with activities of SuSase, SAInv, CWBAInv, NInv, AGPase, SSS, GBSS, SBE and starch content. The contents of glucose, fructose and their ratios in total soluble

  9. Can we trust mass spectrometry for determination of arsenic peptides in plants: comparison of LC-ICP-MS and LC-ES-MS/ICP-MS with XANES/EXAFS in analysis of Thunbergia alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A; Charnock, John M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2008-04-01

    The weakest step in the analytical procedure for speciation analysis is extraction from a biological material into an aqueous solution which undergoes HPLC separation and then simultaneous online detection by elemental and molecular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/ES-MS). This paper describes a study to determine the speciation of arsenic and, in particular, the arsenite phytochelatin complexes in the root from an ornamental garden plant Thunbergia alata exposed to 1 mg As L(-1) as arsenate. The approach of formic acid extraction followed by HPLC-ES-MS/ICP-MS identified different As(III)-PC complexes in the extract of this plant and made their quantification via sulfur (m/z 32) and arsenic (m/z 75) possible. Although sulfur sensitivity could be significantly increased when xenon was used as collision gas in ICP-qMS, or when HR-ICP-MS was used in medium resolution, the As:S ratio gave misleading results in the identification of As(III)-PC complexes due to the relatively low resolution of the chromatography system in relation to the variety of As-peptides in plants. Hence only the parallel use of ES-MS/ICP-MS was able to prove the occurrence of such arsenite phytochelatin complexes. Between 55 and 64% of the arsenic was bound to the sulfur of peptides mainly as As(III)(PC(2))(2), As(III)(PC(3)) and As(III)(PC(4)). XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) measurement, using the freshly exposed plant root directly, confirmed that most of the arsenic is trivalent and binds to S of peptides (53% As-S) while 38% occurred as arsenite and only 9% unchanged as arsenate. EXAFS data confirmed that As-S and As-O bonds occur in the plants. This study confirms, for the first time, that As-peptides can be extracted by formic acid and chromatographically separated on a reversed-phase column without significant decomposition or de-novo synthesis during the extraction step.

  10. Effect of Purple Yam(Dioscorea alata L.) on Nutritional and Physiological Functions of Growing Rats%紫山药对生长中大鼠营养生理功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋曙辉; 刘庞源; 赵霖; 丛涛; 李珍; 王文琪

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察紫山药(Dioscorea alata L.)对大鼠营养生理功能的影响。[方法]生长期SD大鼠40只随机分为4组,每组10只,饲喂添加了10%山药熟粉的人工半合成饲料,以酪蛋白组作为对照组,3个试验组分别为紫山药组、铁棍山药组和普通怀山药组。各组饲料的能量、蛋白质、脂肪含量均保持一致。采用对喂法喂养60d,观察有关营养生理指标的变化。[结果]紫山药组大鼠体重、食物转化率及脏器指数均与对照组无显著差异。平均血红蛋白显著低于对照组,但血红蛋白含量与对照组无差异;嗜酸性粒细胞低于对照组。紫山药组大鼠低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、总胆固醇(TC)和致动脉硬化指数(AI)低于其他3个组,而抗动脉硬化指数(AAI)最高,但无显著差异。甘油三酯(TG)低于对照组。抗氧化指标中,紫山药组大鼠血清中过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性都高于对照组,丙二醛(MDA)含量低于对照组。肝组织中,紫山药组大鼠总抗氧化能力、CAT、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、SOD活性都高于对照组,而MDA含量低于对照组。[结论]紫山药具有降低大鼠血糖、胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白、甘油三酯、MDA含量,提高GSH-Px、SOD、CAT活性的趋势,具有一定的抗氧化作用。%[Objective] This study was to explore the effect of purple yam on the nutritional and physiological functions of rats.[Method] Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group which were reared with artificial semisynthetic feed added with 10% steamed yam powder.The four groups,the casein(CK) group which was used as the control,the purple yam(PY) group,the Tiegun yam(TY) group and common Huai yam(HY) group,were supplied with feed of equal content of energy,protein and fat.The rats were pair-fed for 56 days to observe changes of relevant nutritional and physiological indices

  11. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

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    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  12. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  13. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial qualities of Boutou Yam (Dioscorea alata varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billard C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yam crop is highly susceptible to Anthracnose; various research projects have been carried out into the development of anthracnose-resistant varieties. Boutou yam is one example of a disease-resistant variety; it gives high yields and thus is of high economic interest. The present study aims to optimize growing conditions and the harvesting stage of production in Martinique (F.W.I. Furthermore, the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory qualities of the harvested product are analysed. Results of the study indicate that the optimum harvesting time for Boutou is the ninth month after sowing. Harvesting at this stage gave the highest values for energy, carbohydrates and dry matter. The influence of fertilization on the physicochemical, nutritional and organoleptic qualities of Boutou was also analysed. In addition, new cultivars (of Boutou yam were compared with the five already established cultivars – this comparison led to the conclusion that cultivars AL56 and Boutou are the best cultivars for yam production. These varieties met the expectations and preferences of the local market and had recoverable nutritional characteristics.

  14. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  15. Kunda puitmassitehase ehitus võib alata / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    Norra kapitalil põhineval firmal Estonian Cell on kõik load Kundasse haavapuitmassitehase rajamiseks. Ehitus algab 2004. aasta alguses, selle kestuseks on planeeritud poolteist aastat. Lisa: Estonian Cell

  16. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  17. Production of baruzeiro seedling in different protected environments and substrates Produção de mudas de baruzeiro em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos

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    Edilson Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The high seedlings quality is essential for deployment of homogeneous orchards. This study evaluated the baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog seedlings formation on different substrates within protected environments. It was used substrates with100% of cattle manure; 100% of cassava stems; 100% of vermiculite; 50% of cattle manure + 50% of cassava stems; 50% of cattle manure + 50% of vermiculite; 50% of cassava stems + 50% of vermiculite; and + ⅓ of cattle manure + ⅓ of cassava stems + ⅓ of vermiculite. These substrates were tested in protected areas: greenhouse; black shade net of 50% shading; and aluminized thermo-reflective screen of 50% shading. A completely randomized experimental design with five replicates of four plants was adopted. Initially, data were submitted to analysis of individual variance of the substrates, in each environment of cultivation, then performing the evaluation of the residual mean square and the analysis of these environments together for comparison. The best substrate for baruzeiro seedlings was pure vermiculite. The substrates with 100% of manure and the substrate with 33.33% of the mixed studied materials can be used for seedlings formation. The environment with screen can be indicated for the production of baruzeiro seedlings, since it gave vigor to the seedlings.A qualidade da muda é fundamental para implantação de pomares homogêneos. Desta forma, avaliou-se a formação de mudas de baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog, em diferentes substratos, no interior de ambientes protegidos. Foram utilizados substratos com 100% de esterco bovino; 100% de ramas de mandioca; 100% de vermiculita; 50% de esterco bovino + 50% de ramas de mandioca; 50% de esterco bovino + 50% de vermiculita; 50% de ramas de mandioca + 50% de vermiculita e ⅓ de esterco bovino + ⅓ de ramas de mandioca + ⅓ de vermiculita. Estes substratos foram testados em ambientes protegidos: estufa agrícola; telado de tela preta com 50% de sombreamento e o

  18. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow. PMID:27353234

  19. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  20. Propiedades Mecánicas y Viscoelásticas del Ñame (Dioscórea alata Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Yam (Dioscórea Alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alvis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se midieron algunas de las principales propiedades mecánicas y características viscoelásticas de dos variedades de ñame, con el objetivo de obtener los datos necesarios para determinados cálculos de ingeniería de procesos, manipulación y almacenamiento del producto. Se utilizaron diferentes pruebas (penetración, compresión uniaxial y flexión o doblado, para calcular los parámetros: esfuerzo máximo de penetración, esfuerzo y deformación en la fractura, módulo de deformabilidad y las constantes “a” y “b” del modelo normalizado y linealizado de Peleg. Se concluye que la variedad Pico Botella presenta valores más elevados del esfuerzo de fractura (0.57 MPa que la Diamante 22 (0.31 MPa y que además la deformación a que debe someterse para provocar la fractura es también muy superior (32 % vs. 21 %. Sin embargo, en cuanto a las constantes del modelo viscoelástico de Peleg no existen prácticamente diferencias, alcanzando ambas variedades valores iguales del esfuerzo asintótico a = 0.43 y muy similares para la velocidad de relajación del esfuerzo, lo cual indica que la estructura de ambas es muy parecidas.In the present study were measured some of the major mechanical properties and viscoelastic characteristics of two different varieties of yams, with the objetive of obtaining the data needed for certain calculations of process engineering, handling and storage of the product. Using an Instron machine, some different tests has been applied: puncture, uniaxial compression and bending in order to calculate the parameters: maximum stress of penetration, stress and strain at fracture, deformability modulus and the constants “a” and “b” from the Peleg model. It is concluded that the Pico de Botella cultivar has a fracture stress higher (0.57 MPA than the Diamante 22cultivar (0.31 MPa and also the degree of deformation at fracture is higher (32 % versus 21 %. In relation with the constants from the Peleg viscoelasticity model, there are no differences between cultivars, both having the same value of the asintotic stress (a = 0.43 and very similar for the relaxation stress rates (Pico de Botella, b = 0.03 and Diamante 22, b = 0.02 meaning that their structures are quite the same.

  1. Crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (Glomeromycota Growth of seedlings of sweet-passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis associated to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre o crescimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-doce foi conduzido, em casa de vegetação, experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado usando cinco tratamentos de inoculação (200 esporos/planta de Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders e controle não inoculado, com sete repetições. A cada 20 dias foram avaliados altura e número de folhas e ao final do experimento (90 dias: diâmetro do caule, biomassa, área foliar, colonização micorrízica e densidade de esporos de FMA na rizosfera. A partir de 70 dias foram evidenciadas diferenças no número de folhas; aos 90 dias as plantas inoculadas com G. albida apresentaram maior altura que as demais, que não diferiram significativamente entre si. Plantas associadas com esse fungo apresentaram, em relação ao controle, incrementos de 2.138% e 1.430% nas biomassas fresca e seca da parte aérea, 1.937% na biomassa fresca da raiz e 2.671% na área foliar. Apesar de não existir especificidade de hospedeiro na associação micorrízica arbuscular, apenas G. albida promoveu respostas significativas no maracujazeiro-doce, indicando a existência de maior compatibilidade funcional entre esses simbiontes.In order to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on growth of seedlings of sweet-yellow passion fruit, a greenhouse experiment was performed, using 200 AMF spores/plant in a randomized design with five treatments of inoculation (Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck, Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith, Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd., Scutellospora heterogama (Nicol. & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, and a non inoculated control with seven replicates. Every 20 days height and leaf number and after 90 days shoot diameter, biomass, leaf area, root colonization and density of AMF spores in the rhizosphere were evaluated. After 70 days significant differences in number of leaves were observed. At the 90th day plants associated with G. albida were higher than those of the other treatments that do not differ among them. In comparison with the control, plants associated with G. albida presented increment of 2,138% and 1,430% on fresh and dry biomass of the aerial part, 1,937% on fresh biomass of roots and 2,671% on leaf area. Although host specificity does not exist in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations, only G. albida promoted significant responses on growth of sweet-yellow passion fruit, what indicates that higher functional compatibility may exist between these partners.

  2. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  3. The effect of gamma radiation on in vitro cultured explants of yam (Dioscorea alata L.) cv. Kinampay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various explants of yam were irradiated with gamma rays at doses ranging from 5-50 Gy. Induction of callus was obtained in tuberous root and other vegetative explants: petiole, node, internode and shoot apex. Callus induction was observed in the irradiated and unirradiated fleshy or tuberous root explants grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) ranging from 2-6 ppm. Stimulation of callus growth was obtained from tuberous root explants irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy and grown in MS medium supplemented with 2 ppm BA in combination with 6ppm NAA. Similar callus growth (as indicated by their weight) was observed at higher doses of 30 and 40 GY, provided that higher levels of 4 ppm BA and 6 ppm NAA were incorporated into the MS medium. Similarly, induction of callus was enhanced in tuberous root sections of putative mutant lines (for dwarfness and earliness) that were cultured in higher levels of BA and NAA in MS medium. Regeneration of plantlets was obtained from callus-derived shoot apex irradiated with 40 Gy and from calli-derived unirradiated nodal and tuberous root explants. (author). 40 refs.; 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Growth response of Pterocarpus soyauxii and Lophira alata seedlings to host soil mycorrhizal inocula in relation to land use types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Ngonkeu, L.E.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in mycorrhizal inoculum in soils due to land use types (LUT) can be alleviated by quantity and quality inoculum addition. A bioassay was carried out to determine how host soil mycorrhizal inoculum influenced mycorrhizal colonization, carbon allocation and partitioning of seedlings of two

  5. Točnost savijanja čeličnog lima HC260Y u različitim konfiguracijama V-alata

    OpenAIRE

    Cumin, Josip; Stoić, Antun; Duspara, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Karoserija automobila je izrađena zavarivanjem različitih dijelova koji su prethodno izrađeni tehnologijama oblikovanja lima deformiranjem. Trendovi u automobilskoj industriji pokazuju kako sve vise proizvođača koristi lake, visokočvrste materijale. Glavni razlozi ovom trendu su minimizacija korištenog materijala i bolja ekonomičnost automobila u vidu potrošnje goriva i manje emisije ispušnih plinova. Takvi visokočvrsti materijali imaju, kako naziv govori visoku vlačnu čvrstoću i granicu razv...

  6. Protocolo para la formación de microtubérculos de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. en sistema de inmersión temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabrera Jova

    2010-08-01

    Con el empleo de 15 min de inmersión y una frecuencia de inmersión cada 6 horas, se alcanzaron los mejores resultados en cuanto al número de microtubérculos formados por planta. Con este tiempo y frecuencia de inmersión los microtubérculos presentaron la mayor masa fresca y seca, así como el mayor diámetro. Además, a las 18 semanas de cultivo se obtuvo el mayor número total de microtubérculos por sistema y el mayor número de microtubérculos aprovechables como material vegetal de propagación. En cuanto al volumen de medio de cultivo por planta, con 60 ml de medio de cultivo por planta in vitro se alcanzó el mayor número de microtubérculos aprovechables, los cuales presentaron el contenido más alto de materia seca. Los microtubérculos obtenidos en este tipo de sistema de inmersión temporal presentaron una masa fresca superior a 2,40 gMF, lo cual podría permitir su uso como material de plantación directo a campo. Palabras clave: microtubérculos, tiempo y frecuencia de inmersión, volumen de medio de cultivo. Abreviaturas: sistema de inmersión temporal (SIT, gramos de masa fresca (gMF, recipiente de inmersión temporal automatizado (RITA.

  7. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel A. Yanagihara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1 recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2 allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3 allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4 employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three experimental approaches designed to meet the above-stated criteria. Mechanistically overlapping, yet distinct, the three approaches comprised (1 direct application of test solutions on live tentacles (termed tentacle solution assay, or TSA with single image- and video-microscopy; (2 spontaneous stinging assay using freshly excised tentacles overlaid on substrate of live human red blood cells suspended in agarose (tentacle blood agarose assays, or TBAA; and (3 a “skin” covered adaptation of TBAA (tentacle skin blood agarose assay, or TSBAA. We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. TSA results included the potent stimulation of massive cnidae discharge by alcohols but only moderate induction by urine, freshwater, and “cola” (carbonated soft drink. Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™ containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea.

  8. Herida inciso-punzante y escápula alata: a propósito de un caso Sharp injury and winged scapula: about a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La peligrosidad de las heridas inciso-punzantes viene determinada por su situación y por la existencia de estructuras vitales subyacentes; alcanzando una mayor gravedad, las localizadas en tórax y cuello. Las lesiones cervicales adquieren un peor pronóstico vital cuando se afectan los grandes vasos o la vía aérea, pudiendo quedar secuelas incapacitantes por lesión de los nervios que discurren por la zona. En el siguiente artículo exponemos un caso de herida inciso-punzante laterocervical izquierda, con lesión (neurotmesis del nervio accesorio o espinal (XI par craneal, que determina la aparición de una escápula alada, signo característico de esta lesión.The danger of incised wounds is determined by their position and the underlying vital structures, and the ones localized in the torax are more serius. Cervical lesions get worse vital pronostic when they affect great vessels and the airway. This could result in the disability of the nerves which flow in this area. In the next article, we present one left lateral-cervical incised wound case, with an accesory nerve (spinal accesory nerve or XI C.N. disorder (neurotmesis, which determine the appearance of a winged scapula. The winged scapula is the characteristic sign of this lesion.

  9. Implicações nutricionais e sensoriais da polpa e casca de baru (Dipterix Alata vog. na elaboração de pães Use of peel and pulp of baru in the development of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Santana Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O interesse por novas fontes de nutrientes e a necessidade de preservação das espécies nativas do cerrado por meio de sua valorização motiva maiores esforços em investigar seu potencial para a suplementação de produtos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a viabilidade do uso da casca e polpa do baru no desenvolvimento de pães do tipo fôrma e suas consequentes implicações nutricionais e sensoriais. A partir da formulação de um pão de fôrma integral padrão, substitui-se o farelo de trigo por casca e polpa de baru em quatro proporções (25, 50, 75 e 100%. A análise da composição química da casca e polpa do baru resultou em 21,05% de umidade, 65,01% de carboidratos, 3,30% de lipídios, 4,45% de proteínas, 1,79% de cinzas e 4,39% de fibra bruta. Todas as amostras foram aceitas quanto aos atributos aparência, textura e sabor, foram consideradas com baixo teor de gorduras totais (2,18%, não apresentando diferença significativa entre si quanto ao teor de proteína (13,59% e de umidade (34,54%, e com teor médio de 41,90% de carboidratos e 1,76% de cinzas. Observou-se um acréscimo de até 58,20% no teor de fibra alimentar total com o aumento da proporção da casca e polpa do baru. A pesquisa realizada permite deduzir que a casca e polpa do baru são ingredientes viáveis para aplicação tecnológica em pão de fôrma integral, conferindo melhoria nas características nutricionais e atributos sensoriais.Interest in new sources of nutrients and the need of preserving native species of the savanna, through their valorization, motivates the study of their potential for supplementing products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the peel and pulp of the baru to develop sliced bread and the consequent nutritional and sensory implications. In the process of developing whole wheat sliced bread, oat bran was replaced for baru's peel and pulp using four proportions (25, 50, 75, and 100%. The analysis of the chemical composition of baru's peel and pulp resulted in 21.05% moisture, 65.01% carbohydrates, 3.30% lipids, 4.45% protein, 1.79% ash, and 4.39% crude fiber. All samples were accepted considering the attributes appearance, texture, and flavor. They were considered low in total fat (2.18%, showed no significant difference regarding the content of protein (13.59% and moisture (34.54%. It presented an average content of carbohydrate of 41.90 and 1.76% of ash. There was an increase of up to 58.20% in the total content of the dietary fiber with the increase of the proportion of baru's peel and pulp. The results indicate that the peel and pulp of baru viable ingredients in the technology application to prepare whole wheat sliced bread improving nutritional characteristics and sensory attributes.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Physico-chemical Characteristics of Flours from Steeped Tubers of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir, Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L. and Yellow Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha, CI.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined Yam Tuber Species (YTS, Tuber Steeping Duration (TSD and Flour Particle Size (FPS as factors of flour. Data were collected using white yam, water yam and yellow yam steeped in water (30 ± 2 °C, pH 6.78 and withdrawn, and the flour classified, and analyzed for each parameter. Results obtained showed that all the test parameters, Water Retention Capacity (WRC, Swelling Index (SI, Solubility (TSS and Iodine Affinity of Starch (IAS correlated very much better and significantly (Pr< 0.10 with FPS than with TSD. Inverse relationships were observed with all the parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA results indicated that no significance existed in the main factors for YTS (WRC and TSS. Otherwise, the study variables were found to be critical determinants for the magnitude and extent of the physicochemical properties of steeped yam flour pastes. The study also observed that white yam, steeped for up to 4 days at tropical ambient temperatures, and the resultant flour classified / pulverized into ≤ 125 m FPS will yield the optimum physicochemical features in the paste.

  11. Evaluación en campo de plantas de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. obtenidas de los microtubérculos formados en Sistema de Inmersión Temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabrera Jova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los microtubérculos en algunas especies de plantas constituyen una importante alternativa como material vegetal de plantación. Se definió como objetivo de trabajo evaluar en campo la respuesta morfoagronómica de las plantas obtenidas de los microtubérculos de ñame formados en Sistema de Inmersión Temporal (SIT. Como variantes experimentales se plantaron tres categorías de microtubérculos, clasificados según su masa fresca (I. de 0,5 a 0,9 g; II. de 1,0 a 2,9 g; III. igual o mayor de 3,0 g, plantas in vitro previamente aclimatadas y corona de tubérculo. Se evaluó el efecto de la masa fresca de los microtubérculos sobre su brote, supervivencia y posterior desarrollo de las plantas derivadas de ellos en campo. Con los microtubérculos de ñame, con una masa fresca igual o superior a 3,0 g, se alcanzó el más alto porcentaje de brotación (91,30% y supervivencia de las plantas (96,50%, así como las mejores respuestas en los caracteres cuantitativos que se evaluaron en campo. Estos resultados confirmaron la importancia de la masa fresca de los microtubérculos para ser empleados como material vegetal de plantación directo en campo. Palabras clave: microtubérculos, plantas in vitro, campo. Abreviaturas: SIT sistema de Inmersión Temporal, gMF gramos de masa fresca Abstract: The microtuber in some plant species are an important alternative crop planting material. Objective was defined as field work to evaluate the response of plants obtained morphoagronomic of yam microtubers formed in Temporary Immersion System. Experimental variants were planted microtubers three categories classified by fresh mass (I. 0.5 to 0.9 g; II. from 1.0 to 2.9 g; III. equal to or greater than 3.0 g , plants previously acclimated in vitro and crown of the tuber. The effect of the fresh weight of microtubers on their sprouting, survival and further development of the plants derived from them in the field. Microtubers were achieved with the yam with a fresh mass less than 3.0 g the highest sprouting percentage (91.30% and plant survival (96.50% and the best responses in quantitative traits were evaluated in the field. These results confirmed the importance of the fresh weight of microtubers for use as plant material in field planting. Key words: Microtubers, in vitro plant, field. Abbreviations: TIS temporary immersion system, gFW grams of fresh weight

  12. Contribución al conocimiento del árbol de cirián (Crescentia alata Kunth.) variabilidad, selección, morfología, citogenética y fitoquímica.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Valverde, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    El cirián es un árbol medicinal con frutos esféricos que contiene iridoides y polifenoles los que confieren propiedades anti-inflamatorias, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas. La presente investigación se realizó en la región de Tierra Caliente, Michoacán, México en la Depresión del Balsas, la cual es uno de los refugios pleistocénicos más extensos de Norteamérica y centro de origen y domesticación del maíz; el árbol de cirián, es una especie emblemática de esta región y probablemente constituyó...

  13. 连城宣和雪薯无公害高产栽培技术%High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Yam(Dioscorea alata L) in Xuanhe County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江兴福

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Xueshu in three years, which contained site selection, the high ridge ridge, selection of potato, plug hole planting, field management, harvest storage, etc.%总结了近3a来连城宣和雪薯无公害高产栽培技术,包括地块选择、高垄整畦、种薯选取、插洞定植、田间管理、收获储藏等。

  14. Metoda i uređaj za 3D prikaz mikrogeometrije rezne oštrice

    OpenAIRE

    Palubicki, Bartosz; Szulc, Michal; Sandak, Jakub; Sinn, Gerhard; Orlowski, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Vrlo korisna metoda skeniranja uspješno je primijenjena za istraživanje alata za obradu drva i kompozita na bazi drva. Metoda omogućuje skeniranje mikrogeometrije rezne oštrice u tri dimenzije i ponovni prikaz u virtualnom prostoru kao 3D površina. Primjena metode otvara nove mogućnosti istraživanja trošenja alata skeniranjem, uključujući izračun volumena gubitka materijala trošenjem alata ili druge analize geometrije alata uzdužno ili okomito na reznu oštricu. Učinkovitost metode i skener us...

  15. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  16. Sloveenia peaminister lihtsustaks Eesti eeskujul riigi maksusüsteemi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    Sloveenia peaministri Janez Jansha väitel takistab Sloveenia keeruline maksusüsteem juba firmade konkurentsivõimet. Maksureformi kavatsetakse alata 2007. aastal, ühe eeskujuna kaalutakse Eestiga sarnase proportsionaalse tulumaksu kehtestamist. Lisa: Sloveenia alandas bensiinihinda

  17. Biochemical and Immunological Studies on Eight Pollen Types from South Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora.

  18. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb 1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Hong Tnah; Chai Ting Lee; Soon Leong Lee; Chin Hong Ng; Kevin Kit Siong Ng

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48...

  19. Preferência alimentar de Dione juno juno (Cramer por genótipos de maracujazeiro e avaliação do uso de extratos aquosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Fernando Mesquita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência alimentar de lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer por genótipos de maracujazeiro, utilizando-se discos foliares, em condições de laboratório, e lagartas de primeiro e de quarto ínstar, em testes com e sem chance de escolha, com os seguintes materiais: Passiflora alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. cincinnata, P. nitida, e os híbridos P. edulis x P. giberti, P. edulis x P. alata e P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa. Usando-se extrato aquoso de folhas (liofilizado recomposto procurou-se determinar a presença de repelente, estimulante ou deterrente nos genótipos P. edulis e P. alata. Avaliou-se também a técnica de uso de extrato impregnado em discos de papel filtro e de ágar, em várias concentrações. Os resultados evidenciaram que P. alata, P. setacea, P. nitida e P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa são resistentes a D. juno juno e que essa resistência é do tipo não-preferência para alimentação; que folhas de P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa apresentam elevado poder de repelência ao inseto; no extrato de P. alata ocorre algum composto com forte ação repelente ou restringente de alimentação; que para a discriminação da preferência para alimentação de lagartas de D. juno juno por genótipos de maracujazeiro, pode ser utilizado ágar impregnado com 0,04 ml de extrato aquoso de folhas.

  20. The diatom genus Proboscia in subarctic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Kozo; Jordan, Richard; Priddle, Julian

    1994-01-01

    A study of modem pelagic subarctic Pacific phytoplankton has revealed the presence of three distinct species of Proboscia Sundstrom, including the type species P. alata and two new species with historical complications, P. subarctica (= Rhizosolenia alata f. curvirostris Gran) is markedly different in proboscis and valve morphology from the type species and in fact bears more resemblance to fossil members of the genus. P. eumorpha (= R. obtusa Hensen sensu Ostenfeld) resembles the austral spe...

  1. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  2. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  3. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp. Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp. especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N and potassium (K use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period than in D. rotundata. In all situations, the yields of D. alata were significantly higher, and fertilizers promoted growth of shoots, roots, tubers, and, thus, final yields especially in the low fertile savanna soil. The beneficial impact of fertilizer on yields was significantly lower in the fertile forest soils. The nutrient use agronomic efficiencies indicated the impact of both N and K in promoting yields especially under nonfertilized conditions.

  4. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Lee, Soon Leong; Ng, Chin Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. • Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. • Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling. PMID:25202631

  5. Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hong Tnah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

  6. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp.) Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby; Bi Tra Tie; Olivier Girardin; Ravi Sangakkara; Emmanuel Frossard

    2011-01-01

    Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp.) especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period...

  7. Problemi kod reparaturnog zavarivanja alatnog čelika sa duplex zaštitom

    OpenAIRE

    T. Muhič; J. Tušek; M. Pleterski; D. Bombač

    2009-01-01

    U radu su istraženi problemi kod laserskog zavarivanja alata za lijevanje u industriji tlačnog lijeva aluminija ili plastike. Za produženje života alata primjenjena su različita poboljšanja površine. Ovakva poboljšanja značajno smanjaju sposobnost materijala za zavarivanje. U radu se opisuje razvoj grešaka kod reparaturog zavarivanja alatnog čelika sa dupleks zaštitom. Nametnuta procedura nastoji smanjiti greške sa novom zavarivnom tehnikom. Proučeni su I efekti različitih parametra procesa i...

  8. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  9. ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Boopathi, C. Alagesa; Elango, V.

    1993-01-01

    The antipyretic activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall, were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in pyrogenic polysaccharide – induced hyperpyrexia in male albino rats. All the extracts were found to be effective in the inhibition of pyrexia. The maximal antipyretic activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  10. NOMENCLATURAL CONFUSION OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1995-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees, Andrographis alata Nees and Andrographis lineate Nees. (Acanthaceae) are important medicinal plants useful in the treatment of various human ailments. Nomenclatural confusion prevails with regards to these medicinal plants in India medical literature and vernacular nomenclature. This nomenclatural confusion has been clarified in the present paper.

  11. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  12. Revision of the genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarno, B.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Seven species are recognised. Several earlier described species are synonymous to L. pumila and reduced to varieties of that species: var. alata, var. lanceolata, var. neriifolia and var. sessilifolia. A new record of L. longistyla is mentioned. Labisia malouiana and L. obtusifolia are excluded from the genus.

  13. Ähvardav W / Rannar Vassiljev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vassiljev, Rannar, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti valitsuskoalitsiooni majandusproognoosid on liiga optimistlikud, kuna finantskriis euroalas ja võlgades USA on oluliselt suurendanud nn W-kujulise kriisist taastumise tõenäosust, mis tähendab, et kohe-kohe võib alata uus majanduskriis ka Eestis

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120054 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120054 J013000L05 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-148 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 7e-27 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111344 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111344 002-181-F12 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-15 ...

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102766 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102766 J033107E04 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-22 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103810 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103810 J033147A19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-179 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061639 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061639 001-036-B01 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 4e-49 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-61 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107881 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107881 002-134-D06 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 5e-51 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101487 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101487 J033042D19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-131 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-69 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067424 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067424 J013107C16 At1g02730.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-52 ...

  10. A review of the Oriental leafhopper genera Thampoa Mahmood and Guheswaria Thapa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jiao; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The genus Guheswaria Thapa is recorded for the first time from China; two new species, Thampoa quinquemaculata sp. nov. and Guheswaria brevicula sp. nov. are described; one species, Guheswaria linguplata rec. nov. is newly recorded from China; and one new combination, Thampoa alata (Dworakowska, 1994) comb. nov. (from Guheswaria) is proposed. A checklist and updated keys to species of Thampoa and Guheswaria are provided.

  11. SEB analüütik Ruta Arumäe: Eesti valitsus teeb majanduskriisiga võideldes Lätile ja Leedule silmad ette / Ruta Arumäe ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arumäe, Ruta, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    SEB analüütiku hinnangul jätkub majanduse langus järgmise aasta lõpuni, kuid see toimub senisest aeglasemalt; töötus võib kasvada selle aasta lõpuks 14 protsendini. Taastumine saab alata ekspordile suunatud majandusharudest, uus majanduskasv saab alguse välisnõudluse taastumisest

  12. Pollen irradiation and possible gene transfer in Nicotiana species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1985-01-01

    , and Petunia parodii with irradiated pollen from N. alata and Petunia hybrida showed no evidence of gene transfer, nor did experiments with irradiated mentor pollen. This indicates that gene transfer with irradiated pollen between non-crossing species or between species giving sterile hybrids is probably...

  13. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  14. The antibacterial activity of selected plants towards resistant bacteria isolated from clinical specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratiwi Wikaningtyas; Elin Yulinah Sukandar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which are the most prevalent causes of in-fections in inpatients. Methods: The antibacterial activity was calculated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration using Mueller–Hinton broth in a microdilution method. Results: The best antibacterial activity, calculated as minimum inhibitory concentration values, against MRSA was shown by the Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb) (K. pandurata) extract (256 mg/mL) and the Senna alata (S. alata) extract (512 mg/mL). Phytochemical screening of dried S. alata leaf and its extract showed the presence of flavonoids, alka-loids, saponins, quinones, tannins and sterols, while dried K. pandurata and its extract only showed the presence of flavonoids and sterols/triterpenoids. Conclusions: K. pandurata and S. alata have the potential to be developed as antibac-terial agents, especially against MRSA strain, but further in vivo research and discovery of the mode of its action are still needed to shed light on the effects.

  15. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  16. Expressing foreign genes in the pistil: a comparison of S-RNase constructs in different Nicotiana backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfett, J; McClure, B A

    1998-06-01

    Transgenic plant experiments have great potential for extending our understanding of the role of specific genes in controlling pollination. Often, the intent of such experiments is to over-express a gene and test for effects on pollination. We have examined the efficiency of six different S-RNase constructs in Nicotiana species and hybrids. Each construct contained the coding region, intron, and downstream sequences from the Nicotiana alata S(A2)-RNase gene. Among the six expression constructs, two utilized the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter with duplicated enhancer, and four utilized promoters from genes expressed primarily in pistils. The latter included promoters from the tomato Chi2;1 and 9612 genes, a promoter from the N. alata S(A2)-RNase gene, and a promoter from the Brassica SLG-13 gene. Some or all of the constructs were tested in N. tabacum, N. plumbaginifolia, N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(c10) hybrids, N. langsdorffii, and N. langsdorffii x SC N. alata hybrids. Stylar specific RNase activities and S(A2)-RNase transcript levels were determined in transformed plants. Constructs including the tomato Chi2;1 gene promoter or the Brassica SLG-13 promoter provided the highest levels of S(A2)-RNase expression. Transgene expression patterns were tightly regulated, the highest level of expression was observed in post-anthesis styles. Expression levels of the S(A2)-RNase transgenes was dependent on the genetic background of the host. Higher levels of S(A2)-RNase expression were observed in N. plumbaginifolia x SC N. alata hybrids than in N. plumbaginifolia.

  17. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and phytotoxic potential of non-polar and polar fractions of seeds of Dioteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. from Venezuelan regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de J. Oliveros-Bastidas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx odorata (Aubl. Willd. is a tall arboreal species native to Central and Northern South America. This paper describes the chemical characterization and phytotoxic potential of polar and non-polar extracts from D. odorata seeds. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and analyzed by GC/MS. The chemical composition of the non-polar fraction (hexane and dichloromethane presented fatty acids as major constituent. Medium polar and polar fractions (ethyl acetate and ethanol: water contained carboxylic acid and high 6,7-Dyhidroxycoumarin-β-D-glucopyranoside content, not previously reported for seeds of D. odorata. Extracts showed a significant level of phytotoxic activity, correlated to the content of coumarin derivatives, predominantly in the polar fraction.

  18. 粤东地区三种薯蓣植物营养品质比较%Comparison of Nutritional Quality of Three Edible Dioscorea in Eastern Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉忠; 陈贵豪; 叶静鹏; 郑莉; 张振霞

    2013-01-01

      淮山(Dioscorea opposita Thunb.)、姜薯(Dioscorea alata L.)、参薯(Dioscorea alata L. var. purpurea(Roxb.) M. Pouch)同为薯蓣科植物中常见的药食两用植物,在粤东地区有广泛的种植与应用。为了比较这3种薯蓣在营养品质上的差异,本研究采用国家标准食品检测法对它们食用部位的多个理化性质进行测定,包括水分、还原糖、淀粉、可溶性总糖、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、VC、多酚类物质、黄酮类物质以及多酚氧化酶活性等10个指标。结果表明3种薯蓣主要由糖类物质、蛋白质以及少量脂肪构成,干物质中淀粉占很高比例。三者的营养品质存在一定的差异。从干物质方面来看,淮山>姜薯>参薯,其中,淮山含有的淀粉、可溶性总糖、粗脂肪的含量比另外两种高;在粗蛋白含量方面,姜薯>参薯>淮山。同时本文还检测了多酚类物质、黄酮类物质、VC等的含量以及多酚氧化酶的酶活力,参薯的均高于其他两种。从总体上看,这3种薯蓣均具备良好的营养价值,其中姜薯部分营养价值以及抗氧化活性等药用价值方面均优于淮山和参薯。这表明姜薯是一种具有良好开发前景的植物资源。%Dioscorea opposita Thunb., Dioscorea alata L. and Dioscorea alata L. var. purpurea (Roxb.) M. Pouch are the popular medicine and food dual-purpose plants in Eastern Guangdong. In order to reveal the difference of nutritional quality, several physicochemical properties of three Dioscorea were tested according to National Standards for food detection method, including the content of tissue water, reducing sugar, starch, soluble sugar, crude fat, crude protein, vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids substances and the enzyme activity of polyphenol oxidase. The results showed that there were some differences in nutritional quality of three Dioscorea. In dry weight, D. alata L.>D. var. purpurea (Roxb.) M. Pouch

  19. Microenxertia interespecífica ex vitro em maracujazeiros Ex vitro interspecific micrografting in passionflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Vicente Souza Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da espécie de Passiflora usada como porta-enxerto no pegamento e desenvolvimento da microenxertia interespecífica ex vitro e caracterizar anatomicamente a região em que ela é realizada. Ápices caulinares de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa foram enxertados em hipocótilo de porta-enxertos de P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis e P. setacea. Foram avaliados o desenvolvimento da microenxertia, a ocorrência de brotações adventícias do porta-enxerto e o percentual de microenxertos com folhas expandidas. Os porta-enxertos foram submetidos à avaliação anatômica e histoquímica. O desenvolvimento dos microenxertos e o número de brotações adventícias foram maiores quando se utilizou porta-enxertos de P. edulis e menores com porta-enxertos de P. setacea e P. alata. Porta-enxertos de P. edulis, P. cincinnata, P. alata e P. setacea proporcionaram, respectivamente, 30,3, 10, 1,6 e 0% de microenxertos com folhas expandidas. As avaliações histológicas evidenciaram maior espessura da região cortical em porta-enxertos de P. edulis, enquanto em P. setacea foi observado menor número de camadas corticais, maior quantidade de fibras floemáticas e de alcaloides, características que influenciaram negativamente o resultado da microenxertia.This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Passiflora species used as rootstocks on the success and development of ex vitro interspecific micrografting, and at anatomically characterizing the region where it is done. Stem apices of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa were grafted onto the hypocotyl of P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, and P. setacea seedlings. The micrografting development, the occurrence of adventitious shoots in rootstocks and the percentage of micrografts with expanded leaves were evaluated. The rootstocks were subjected to anatomical and histochemical evaluation. Micrograft development and adventitious shoot number were higher when P. edulis

  20. Desenvolvimento, produtividade e sobrevivência de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado e cultivado em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas Growth, yield and survival of yellow passion fruit grafted and cultived in area with description of premature death of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produtividade e a sobrevivência do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertado sobre três porta-enxertos, em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de maio de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007, adotando-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertii, utilizando-se da enxertia convencional por garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o comprimento do entrenó e dos ramos secundários, o número de ramos terciários e o de frutos, a massa média, o diâmetro e o comprimento médio dos frutos, a produtividade e a sobrevivência de plantas. Os resultados demonstraram que o uso da enxertia no maracujazeiro é uma opção viável como meio de propagação vegetativa, assim como forma de controle de alguns patógenos habitantes do solo, um dos problemas que têm limitado a expansão da cultura. As plantas enxertadas sobre P. edulis apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento inicial, seguido de P. gibertii e de P. alata. A menor produtividade ocorrreu em plantas sobre P. alata. Mesmo com a presença de Fusarium solani e Rotylenchulus reniformis nos solos, 91% das plantas enxertadas sobre P. gibertii sobreviveram após 12 meses de plantio no campo, enquanto em P. alata e P. edulis, esses índices foram de 60% e 8,6%, respectivamente, mostrando assim a maior tolerância às doenças causadas por patógenos habitantes do solo por P. gibertii.The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative growth, yield and survival of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims grafted on the three rootstocks in area with description of premature death of plants. The experiment was carried out in Adamantina, SP, Brazil, from May 2006 to February 2007

  1. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae Nectar production and bee visits in two cultivated species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Galarda Varassin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solutos no néctar aumentaram durante o período de antese, associados com o aumento da temperatura. Em P. edulis, o volume aumentou durante o período diurno da antese, e decresceu após as 18 horas. A concentração de solutos no néctar permaneceu constante. A taxa média de visitação de Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier em P. alata foi de 1,7 visitas/100flores/hora e em P. edulis foi de 6,6 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo constante durante a antese. A taxa média de visitação de Bombus morio (Swederus em P. alata foi de 5,8 visitas/100flores/hora, sendo mais alta no início da antese. A constância das visitas de X. frontalis deve estar associada à produção contínua de néctar em ambas as espécies de maracujazeiros. Como as espécies são xenogâmicas, a manutenção das visitas é importante para propiciar o fluxo de pólen entre indivíduos e assim garantir boa produção de frutos.Pollinator activity is affected by resource availability. Flowers that produce more nectar are visited more, which results in a greater fruit set. The effect of nectar production on pollinator activity was tested in two cultivated species of passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis and Passiflora edulis Sims, in Morretes, Paraná. Flower buds were bagged and the accumulated nectar of flowers was collected hourly. The volume and concentration of nectar of P. alata increased during anthesis, which was associated with rising temperatures. The volume of nectar of P

  2. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  3. Effects of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts as Inhibitors of Egg Hatch in Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbite, Ayodele Adesina

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of some indigenous plant extracts as inhibitors of egg-hatch in rootknot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2) were carried out in the Plant Protection Laboratory of Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Azadirachta indica (Neem); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco); Carica papaya (Pawpaw); Cannabis sativa (Hemp); Cassia alata (Asunwon) and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf...

  4. Kofi Annan tahab kõnelusi Kosovo lõppstaatuse üle / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    Kuni pole selge, milline staatus Kosovot tulevikus ootab, ei ole välisettevõtted huvitatud pikaajaliste investeeringute tegemisest selles piirkonnas. ÜRO eriesindaja Kai Eide raporti kohaselt on Kosovo teinud märkimisväärseid edusamme, kõnelused Kosovo tulevase staatuse üle võiksid alata juba sel aastal. Lisa: Läbirääkijate kolm tingimust

  5. A new species of Amphictene ( Annelida , Pectinariidae ) from the northern South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang,Jinghuai; Zhang, Yanjie; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pectinariids are a family of polychaetes commonly found in shallow coastal waters around the world, but their diversity is poorly known along the coasts of Asia. Here we describe Amphictene alata sp. n. ( Pectinariidae ), based on 15 specimens collected from the coastal waters of Guangdong in the northern South China Sea. This new species can be distinguished from all other 13 described species and one described subspecies of Amphictene by having a pair of dorsolateral lobes on segme...

  6. Detection of Antimicrobial Compounds by Bioautography of Different Extracts of Leaves of Selected South African Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Suleimana, MM; McGaw, LJ; Naidoo, V.; Eloff, JN

    2009-01-01

    The hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Combretum vendae A.E. van Wyk (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae) and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh. Ex C. Krauss) Engl. (Anacardiaceae) were screened for their antimicrobial activity. The test organisms included bacteria (Enterococcu...

  7. Biodiversity through Domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-01-01

    It is not widely known that Melanesia became a centre of horticulture and arboriculture about 8,000 years ago: taro (Colocasia esculenta, Cyrtosprema chamissonis, Alocasia macrorrhiza); sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum), a close relative called sayur lilin in Bahasa Indonesia, respectively pitpit in Neomelanesian Pidgin (Saccharum edule) of which the young inflorescence is eaten; yams (Dioscorea bulbifera and possibly other species like D. alata); banana (Musa spp., comprising Australimusa a...

  8. METONIMIJA TEMELJENA NA KULTUROLOŠKOM ZNANJU I PRAGMATIČKA INFERENCIJA U GOVORNOM DISKURSU

    OpenAIRE

    Krišković, Arijana; Tominac, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Poimanje metonimije kao konceptualnog alata za inferenciju u jeziku otvorilo je novo područje proučavanja u kognitivnoj lingvistici i pragmalingvistici. Kako bi se shvatila vrijednost metonimije pri pragmatičkoj inferenciji, funkciju metonimije treba sagledati šire od njene prototipne referencijalne funkcije. Metonimijska preslikavanja odvijaju se u govornim činovima na razini referencije, predikacije, rečenice i ilokucije. Ovaj rad bavi se ulogom metonimije u pragmatičkoj infe...

  9. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL. (ACANTHACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The anti – inflammatory activities of the alcoholic extracts of three species of Andrographis Wall. were assayed at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight in Male albino rats using carrageenin induced rat paw edema. All the extracts were screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in Carrageenin induced inflammation in rats. The maximal anti-inflammatory activity was found with the alcoholic extract of Andrographis alata Nees.

  10. In vitro Antioxidant Activity between Bioactive Compounds from Nine Species of Passiflora

    OpenAIRE

    DAV Montero; LC Ming; MG Borguini; Cavalcante, M.; GPP Lima; Fabian, S; LMM Meletti

    2015-01-01

    Main bioactive substances identified from the genus Passiflora include polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and other natural antioxidants that are critical factors for maintaining optimum health. Polyphenols mainly C-glycosides are present in well studied species such as P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. alata. However, most Passiflora species remains little explored and it’s for this reason that we address our work at the comparison between species. Three experiments with complet...

  11. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Mohd Effendy; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several ...

  12. Time and dose-dependent effects of Labisia pumila on the bone strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Abdullah, Shahrum; Yunoh, Mohd Faridz Mod; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Me...

  13. Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling....

  14. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

  15. TQM – PUT DO DIFERENCIJACIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Šuman, Sabrina; Pavletić, Duško

    2008-01-01

    Upravljanje kvalitetom obuhvaća sustavno korištenje različitih metoda, smjernica, tehnika i alata kako bi se, kroz postizanje visoke kvalitete proizvoda i procesa, zadovoljili zahtjevi korisnika i postigla konkurentna prednost te poslovni uspjeh. Buđenje svijesti o kvaliteti u svim poslovnim procesima osnovni je cilj TQM-a, a pretpostavlja orijentaciju na korisnika, kontinuirana poboljšanja i inovacije, timski rad, procesni pristup i dr. Tvrtka u kojoj su uspostavljeni takvi uvjeti poslovanja...

  16. The importance of plant diversity in maintaining the pollinator bee, Eulaema nigrita (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in sweet passion fruit fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cláudia Inês; Bordon, Natali Gomes; da Rocha Filho, Léo Correia; Garófalo, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    The euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita plays an important role for the pollination of native and economically important plants, such as the sweet passion-fruit Passiflora alata. E. nigrita uniquely collects the nectar from the flowers of P. alata, nevertheless, it needs to visit other plants to collect pollen, nectar and other resources for its survival. There are two methods to identify the species of plants used by bees in their diet: by direct observation of the bees in the flowers, and through identification of pollen grains present in brood cells, feces, or in the bees' body. In order to identify the other plants that E. nigrita visits, we analyzed samples of pollen grains removed from the bee's body in the course of the flowering period of P. alata. Among our results, the flora visited by E. nigrita comprised 40 species from 32 genera and 19 families, some of them used as a pollen source or just nectar. In spite of being a polyletic species, E. nigrita exhibited preference for some plant species with poricidal anthers. P. alata which has high sugar concentration nectar was the main source of nectar for this bee in the studied area. Nonetheless, the pollinic analysis indicated that others nectariferous plant species are necessary to keep the populations of E. nigrita. Studies such as this one are important since they indicate supplementary pollen-nectar sources which must be used for the conservation of the populations of E. nigrita in crops neighbouring areas. In the absence of pollinators, growers are forced to pay for hand pollination, which increases production costs; keeping pollinators in cultivated areas is still more feasible to ensure sweet passion fruit production. PMID:23342510

  17. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contrib...

  18. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  19. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

  20. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxi...

  1. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%...

  2. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin; Jamia Azdina Jamal; Noraini Talip; Nur Ain M. Hamsani; Mohd Ruzi A. Rahman; Carla W. Sabandar; Kartiniwati Muhammad; Khairana Husain; Juriyati Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume) Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill), Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff.) Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control....

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

  4. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1). No varietal differences w...

  5. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

  6. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  7. Constituyentes no polares de la corteza de esenbeckia ahita y actividad antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanona aislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina, la amida pellitonina y sitosterol. La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR. UV. RMN 1H y 13C y EM.

  8. Efficacy of Thai Traditional Herb Extracts against Fish and Shrimp Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Direkbusarakom, S.; Ezura, Y.; Yoshimizu, M.; Herunsalee, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen species of Thai traditional herbs were selected for this study. They were Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Clinacanthus nutans, Eclipta alba, Momordica charantia, Phyllanthus acidus, P. amarus, P. debilis, P. pulcher, P. reticulatus, P. urinaria, Psidium guajava, Tinospora cordifolia, T. crispa and white and red strains or Ocimum sanctum. Using an agar plate dilution method, they were tested for antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria: Aeomonas hydrophila, a Strep...

  9. Interactive Effects of Imazapyr plus Triclopyr ester and Imazapyr plus Glyphosate Mixtures on Woody Weed Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Nespeca, Mathew C.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid primary herbicide screening experiment was conducted to determine if synergism or antagonism occurs with imazapyr(Arsenal®) plus triclopyr ester (Garlon 4®) and imazapyr plus glyphosate(Accord®) mixtures applied to woody weed seedlings. Using a booth sprayer, 66 herbicide treatments were applied to greenhouse grown black cherry (Prunus serotina), winged elm (Ulmus alata), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), red maple (Acer rubrum), black ...

  10. 江西省入侵植物茜草科2种新记录%Two Newly Recorded Invasive Plants of Rubiaceae in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 邱贺媛

    2013-01-01

    对2012年采自江西省寻乌县的植物标本进行鉴定和查阅相关资料发现:茜草科的盖裂果(Mitracarpus hirtus)和阔叶丰花草(Spermacoce alata)为江西省外来入侵植物新记录.标本存放于华南农业大学林学院植物标本室(CANT).

  11. Confirmation of cross-fertilization using molecular markers in ornamental passion flower hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, L D H C S; Belo, G O; Souza, M M; Santos, S F; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Corrêa, R X

    2011-01-11

    Several interspecific Passiflora hybrids are produced in the northern hemisphere for the ornamental plant market. In Brazil, production of passion flower hybrids is limited to the introgression of genes into the main cultivated species, yellow passion fruit, to be used as rootstocks. Confirmation of hybridization in the initial developmental stage is important for breeding perennial and sub-perennial plants, such as passion flowers, reducing time and costs in plant stock maintenance. In order to obtain F₁ hybrids with ornamental potential, four species of Passiflora (P. alata, P. gardneri, P. gibertii, and P. watsoniana) from the Active Germplasm Bank at UESC were hybridized. Flower buds, in pre-anthesis, of the genitors were previously protected, and the female buds were emasculated. To confirm hybridization, the genomic DNA of the genitor species and the supposed hybrids was extracted and RAPD primers were used to obtain molecular markers and select passion flower interspecific hybrids. Eight primers were used to confirm hybrids derived from P. gardneri with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. gardneri, and P. gardneri with P. gibertii; 75, 50, 45, and 46% of the informative bands, respectively, confirmed the hybrid nature of these plants. The RAPD technique was effective in the early identification of hybrids; this will be useful for development of hybrid Passiflora progeny.

  12. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  13. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume, one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

  14. The relationship of nitrogen and C/N ratio with secondary metabolites levels and antioxidant activities in three varieties of Malaysian kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity. PMID:21716173

  15. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  16. Uso de câmara úmida em enxertia convencional de maracujazeiro-amarelo sobre três porta-enxertos Use of humid chamber in conventional grafting of yellow passion fruit on three rootstocks

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    Luiz de Souza Corrêa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A propagação do maracujazeiro através da enxertia poderá ser a solução para o controle de doenças do sistema radicular. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência de plantas enxertadas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims em três porta-enxertos, utilizando-se de câmara úmida, instalou-se este experimento em um viveiro de mudas no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de dezembro de 2005 a abril de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições e 10 plantas/parcela. Os fatores avaliados foram três porta-enxertos (Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertiiem dois ambientes (com e sem câmara úmida. Foi utilizada a enxertia convencional pelo método de garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência e a altura dos enxertos, o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o número de folhas e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Verificaram-se melhores resultados com os porta-enxertos P. edulis e P. gibertii, superiores ao P. alata em todas as variáveis estudadas. Os maiores índices de sobrevivência foram observados em P. edulis e P. gibertii, com 100% e 98,8%, respectivamente. Apesar de o P. alata ter-se mostrado inferior, é viável o uso deste material como porta-enxerto para o maracujazeiro-amarelo. O uso da câmara úmida favoreceu o pegamento dos enxertos em P. alata.The grafting of passion fruit might be the solution for the control of diseases of roots. Thus, with the objective of evaluating the development and survival of yellow passion fruit plants grafted on three rootstocks during the nursery phase, one experiment was carried in Adamantina, SP, Brazil, from December 2005 to April 2006. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with four replications. The studied factors were three rootstocks (P. edulis, P. alata and P.gibertii in two environment (with

  17. Dureza Rockwell da madeira de três espécies amazônicas submetidas a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado Rockwell hardness of the wood of three Amazon species submitted to decay accelerated tests

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    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o emprego de ensaios de dureza Rockwell na caracterização da biodeterioração das madeiras de Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru, submetidas ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor (podridão branca e Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda. Para tanto, corpos de prova de cada espécie amazônica foram submetidos a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado, de acordo com a ASTM D2017 (2005, durante 20 semanas. A caracterização da dureza Rockwell foi realizada semanalmente até a 4ª semana e, posteriormente, a cada duas semanas, até a 20ª semana. Adicionalmente, foram determinadas as perdas de massa, conforme critérios estabelecidos pela ASTM D2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, destaca-se que a dureza Rockwell pode ser empregada como ferramenta principal na caracterização da biodeterioração da madeira, sendo sensível na predição dos estágios iniciais. Dentre as madeiras amazônicas, o cumaru apresentou a maior resistência natural aos fungos apodrecedores. Com relação aos fungos, a podridão parda atacou mais intensamente as três madeiras amazônicas.This study aimed to evaluate the use of Rockwell hardness in the characterization of the biodeterioration of Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru woods, which were submitted to decay fungi Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot. For this purpose, specimens of each Amazon species were submitted to decay fungi, according to ASTM D2017 (2005. The characterization of the Rockwell hardness was performed weekly until the fourth week, and then every two weeks until the twentieth week. Additionally, it was determined the mass loss, according to criteria established by ASTM D2017 (2005. The results indicated that the Rockwell hardness can be used as a primary tool in the characterization of the biodeterioration of wood, being sensitive in

  18. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP Genetic diversity intra and inter-specific yam (Dioscorea spp. from the colombian caribbean region by AFLP markers

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    Hernando Javier Rivera-Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alata, D. rotundata, D. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.Knowing the genetic variability of yams, Dioscorea spp., is a good tool to support development and conservation strategies of this plant as genetic resource. The aim of this study was to carried out the molecular characterization of 20 accessions of Dioscorea spp. using the AFLP molecular technique to determine how genetic variation is distributed intra-and inter-specifically. Using multiple correspondence analysis and level of reliability of the genetic groups by resampling, the results showed high genetic variability among the accessions studied

  19. Variabilidade genética de acessos obtidos de populações cultivadas e silvestres de maracujazeiro-doce com base em marcadores rapd Genetic diversity obtained from cultivated population and native accesses of seewt passion fruit based on rapd markers

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    Graciele Bellon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis, devido a preços diferenciados, vem ganhando importância dentro do mercado de frutas in natura. O melhoramento genético é fundamental para elevar a qualidade e a produtividade da cultura. Os marcadores moleculares do DNA têm sido muito úteis por permitirem a obtenção de um número praticamente ilimitado de polimorfismo genético sem influência do ambiente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a variabilidade genética de 17 acessos de maracujá-doce, com base em marcadores moleculares RAPD. Um acesso de P. quadrangularis e um de P. edulis foram utilizados como outgroups. Amostras de DNA genômico de cada acesso foram extraídas e 11 iniciadores decâmeros (OPD 04; 07; 08 e16; OPE 18 e 20; OPF 01 e 14; OPG 08; OPH 12 e 16 foram utilizados para a obtenção dos marcadores. Os marcadores obtidos foram convertidos em uma matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Do total de marcadores, considerando-se apenas os acessos de P. alata, observaram-se 87 (62,12% bandas polimórficas, evidenciando a grande variabilidade intraespecífica. A análise de agrupamento realizada com base nas distâncias genéticas permitiu subdividir os 17 acessos de P. alata em, pelo menos, cinco grupos de similaridade genética. Os acessos silvestres foram os que mais contribuíram para a ampliação da base genética dos materiais estudados, abrindo perspectivas para o uso desses materiais em programas de melhoramento.Sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Curtis is gaining importance in the in natura fruit market due to differential value. Genetic breeding is crucial to improve crop quality and productivity. Molecular markers of DNA have been very useful by allowing obtaining a virtually unlimited number of genetic polymorphism without environment influence. This work's objective was to study the

  20. Desenvolvimento de plantas de maracujazeiro-amarelo produzidas por enxertia hipocotiledonar em cinco porta-enxertos de passifloras silvestres Development of yellow passion fruit plant produced by hypocotyledonary grafting on five rootstocks of wild passiflora in Araguari-MG

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    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em área de pequeno produtor fornecedor da Maguari (Kraft Foods do Brasil em Araguari - MG, e teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo propagado por enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre cinco porta-enxertos de passifloráceas nativas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram cinco porta-enxertos: P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea, P. alata, P. gibertii e P. cincinnata, e o maracujazeiro-amarelo de pé-franco como controle, totalizando seis tratamentos. Para todos os tratamentos, a variedade-copa utilizada foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo Cv. FB 200. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de uma fileira de 20 metros de comprimento contendo quatro plantas. A condução foi realizada conforme os tratos culturais recomendados para a cultura. As características avaliadas foram: altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro da região da enxertia, diâmetro do enxerto, diâmetro do porta-enxerto, relação enxerto/porta-enxerto. As plantas de P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea e pé-franco apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Já as plantas sobre o porta-enxerto P. alata não desenvolveram bem. Embora as plantas de pé-franco tenham superado numericamente o desenvolvimento das enxertadas sobre P. cincinnata e P. gibertii, não houve diferenças significativas entre eles. O porta-enxerto P. alata influenciou negativamente na altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro da região da enxertia, diâmetro do enxerto, diâmetro do porta-enxerto e na relação enxerto/porta-enxerto.The experiment was carried out in an area of a small producer supplier of Maguari (Kraft Foods of Brazil in Araguari-MG, and aimed to assess the development of yellow passion fruit plant grafted on five rootstocks of native passifloraceas using the hypocotyledonary grafting method. The treatments used as rootstocks were P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  3. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

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    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  4. Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Li; Shenglei Fu; Hongting Zhao; Hanping Xia

    2011-01-01

    We report on the effects of forest management practices of understory removal and N-fixing species (Cassia alata) addition on soil CO2 fluxes in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation (EUp), Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp), 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp), and 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) using the static chamber method in southern China. Four forest management treatments, including (1) understory removal (UR); (2) C. alata addition (CA); (3) understory removal and replacement with C. alata (UR+CA); and (4)control without any disturbances (CK), were applied in the above four forest plantations with three replications for each treatment.The results showed that soil CO2 fluxes rates remained at a high level during the rainy season (from April to September), followed by a rapid decrease after October reaching a minimum in February. Soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in EUp (132.6 mg/(m2·hr)) and ACp (139.8 mg/(m2·hr)) than in Tp (94.0 mg/(m2·hr)) and THp (102.9 mg/(m2·hr)). Soil CO2 fluxes in UR and CA were significantly higher (P < 0.01) among the four treatments, with values of 105.7, 120.4, 133.6 and 112.2 mg/(m2·hr) for UR+CA,UR, CA and CK, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature (P < 0.01), soil moisture (P < 0.01),NO3--N (P < 0.05), and litterfall (P < 0.01), indicating that all these factors might be important controlling variables for soil CO2 fluxes. This study sheds some light on our understanding of soil CO2 flux dynamics in forest plantations under various management practices.

  5. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  6. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Javier Rivera-Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alata, D. rotundata, D. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.

  7. Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings: A 345 Year Record of Precipitation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Evans, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon basin is one of the world's key centers of atmospheric convection and acts as an engine for global hydrologic circulation. Despite its importance, a paucity of high resolution climate data exists for this region, in large part due to a poor instrumental record. The oxygen isotopic measurement of meteoric water has been used extensively to reconstruct past temperatures derived from ice cores, corals, and tree rings but is only recently recognized as a precipitation proxy in the tropics. Here we present a continuous, highly resolved (intra-annual), 345 year oxygen isotopic record from the Madre de Dios department in Southeastern Peru. Using tropical hardwood species Dipteryx micrantha, we present oxygen (and carbon) isotopic data from digested tree ring cellulose. We also present some of the first intra-annual (early wood versus late wood) isotopic data on this old growth tropical species. We demonstrate the utility of Amazon tropical tree rings to accurately record rainfall. We also identify that this meteoric water was delivered to the region via the South American Low-level Jet (SALLJ), which develops over the Atlantic and is the major water source during the South American Summer Monsoon.

  8. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  9. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  10. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  11. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  12. Atratividade e preferência alimentar de Epicauta atomaria (Ger. em algumas espécies de maracujá Attractivity and feeding preference of Epicauta atomaria (Ge. in some passion fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em laboratório, a não-preferência para alimentação de Epicauta atomaria em diferentes espécies de maracuja, em teste com e sem chance de escolha. Verificou-se a melhor densidade de insetos que proporcionam a discriminação quanto aos graus de resistência. Para avaliação, utilizaram P. setacea, P. alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata e P. laurifolia. Para os testes com e sem chance de escolha, a não-preferência para alimentação foi avaliada através da atratividade, onde foi contado o número de insetos atraídos por espécie, em placa de Petri. As espécies P. laurifolia e P. alata foram resistentes a E. atomaria, expressando o tipo de resistência à não-preferência para alimentação. As densidades de E. atomaria que melhor discriminaram as espécies de maracujazeiro, são três e cinco (teste com chance de escolha e dois (teste sem chance de escolha. P. edulis, P. setacea e P. cincinnata são suscetíveis a E. atomaria.The no preference for feeding of Epicauta in different species of passion fruit in free choice and no choice tests was evaluated under laboratory conditions. It was verified the best density of insects that provides the discrimination of resistance degrees. P. setacea, P. alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata and P. laurifólia were evaluated. For the tests with and without possibility of choice, the preference for no feeding was evaluated through the attractiveness, where the number of insects attracted by species in Petri dishes was counted. The species P. laurifolia e P. alata had been resistant to E. atomaria, expressing the type of resistance of no preference for feeding. The densities of E. atomaria that better discriminated the species of passion fruit are three and five (test with and without choice and two (test without possibility of choice P. edulis, P. setacea e P. cincinnata are susceptible to E. atomaria.

  13. Remarks, on six species of Heterakid Nematodes parasites of brazilian Tinamid birds with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Vicente

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes representing five species of the genus Heterakis, namely: H. inglisi n. sp., H. alata, H. gallinarum, H. spiculatus and one species of the genus Odontoterakis, O. multidentata, were studied. Heterakis inglisi n. sp. closely resembles H. spiculatus, differing from it by smaller size of spicules, precloacal sucker and terminal spike of the tail in the males. Heterakis arquata and H. brasiliana are only listed, for they were not found during the present study. Odontoterakis multidentata is reported in Brazil for the first time. New host records are estabilished for most of the species. These species are fully illustrated.

  14. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  15. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Monrad, J.;

    2006-01-01

    , T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Nor-them Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one...... and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark....

  16. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  17. ULOGA ZNANJA U IZGRADNJI SUSTAVA UPRAVLJANJA KVALITETOM

    OpenAIRE

    Baković, Tomislav

    2009-01-01

    Kvaliteta i znanje često se navode kao izvori konkurentskih prednosti te stoga služe istom cilju, a isto tako se i istodobno primjenjuju u organizacijama. Kad se razmotri činjenica da se sustavi upravljanja kvalitetom temelje na sustavnom pristupu i nizu alata za rješavanje problema koji uzrokuju kontinuirana poboljšanja i neprekidno učenje veza kvalitete i znanja postaje više nego očita. Temeljni ciljevi sustava upravljanja kvalitetom i znanjem su isti: stvaranje više organizacijskog znanja ...

  18. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Daniela BACIU; Lucica MIHALTE; Adriana F. SESTRAS; Radu E. SESTRAS

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz) cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.). The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6) and the large...

  19. METONIMIJA KAO STRATEGIJA PREVOĐENJA KULTUROLOŠKIH POJMOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Omazić, Marija; Šoštarić, Blaženka

    2005-01-01

    Metonimija i metafora u kognitivnoj se lingvistici smatraju osnovnim poveznicama jezika i misli, kognitivnim mehanizmima koji nam pomažu pretočiti misli u riječi. Cilj je ovog rada u prvom dijelu ilustrirati univerzalnost i sveprisutnost metonimije kao kognitivnog mehanizma u različitim jezicima i ilustrirati njezinu moguću primjenu kao translatološkog alata. Analizom odabranih primjera prijevoda s engleskoga na hrvatski jezik pokazat ćemo da kod određenih semantičkih skupina kulturol...

  20. UTJECAJ KOMUNIKACIJE UPRAVNIH MENADŽERA NA SIGURNOST I ZDRAVLJE NA RADU

    OpenAIRE

    Markič, Mirko; Kolenc, Igor; Miklavčič Šumanski, Martina

    2009-01-01

    SAŽETAK: U menadžerskoj praksi upotrebljava se mnogo preventivnih alata (npr. najbolje prakse, usporedna ocjenjivanja, ocjenjivački modeli itd.) kojima se neprekidno poboljšava stanje na području sigurnosti i zdravlja na radu. Budući da je komuniciranje jedno od ključnih sastavnih dijelova, koji utječu na kulturu sigurnosti i uspješnosti preventivnih djelovanja, zanimalo nas je kako slovenski upravni menadžeri komuniciraju i kako, glede sigurnosti i zdravlja na radu, stupanj komunikacije utje...

  1. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ahmad, Syahida

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila ...

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2010 - 31 July 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I; Arnau, G; Audzijonyte, Asta; Bess, Emilie C; Bonadonna, Francesco; Bourdel, G; Bried, Joël; Bugbee, Gregory J; Burger, P A; Chair, H; Charruau, P C; Ciampi, A Y; Costet, L; Debarro, Paul J; Delatte, H; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Eldridge, Mark D B; England, Phillip R; Enkhbileg, D; Fartek, B; Gardner, Michael G; Gray, Karen-Ann; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Hanley, Steven J; Havil, Nathan; Hereward, James P; Hirase, Shotaro; Hong, Yan; Jarne, Philippe; Jianfei, Qi; Johnson, Rebecca N; Kanno, Manami; Kijima, Akihiro; Kim, Hyun C; Kim, Kwan S; Kim, Woo-Jin; Larue, Elizabeth; Lee, Jang W; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Li, Chunhong; Liao, Minghui; Lo, Nathan; Lowe, Andrew J; Malausa, Thibaut; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Marko, Michelle D; Martin, Jean-François; Messing, Russell; Miller, Karen J; Min, Byeong-Wha; Myeong, Jeong-In; Nibouche, S; Noack, Ann E; Noh, Jae K; Orivel, Jérôme; Park, Choul-Ji; Petro, D; Prapayotin-Riveros, Kittipath; Quilichini, Angélique; Reynaud, B; Riginos, Cynthia; Risterucci, A M; Rose, Harley A; Sampaio, I; Silbermayr, K; Silva, M B; Tero, N; Thum, Ryan A; Vinson, C C; Vorsino, Adam; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Walzer, C; White, Jason C; Wieczorek, Ania; Wright, Mark

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 205 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bagassa guianensis, Bulweria bulwerii, Camelus bactrianus, Chaenogobius annularis, Creontiades dilutus, Diachasmimorpha tryoni, Dioscorea alata, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, Gmelina arborea, Haliotis discus hannai, Hirtella physophora, Melanaphis sacchari, Munida isos, Thaumastocoris peregrinus and Tuberolachnus salignus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Halobaena caerulea, Procellaria aequinoctialis, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Camelus ferus, Creontiades pacificus, Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea praehensilis, Dioscorea abyssinica, Dioscorea nummularia, Dioscorea transversa, Dioscorea esculenta, Dioscorea pentaphylla, Dioscorea trifida, Hirtella bicornis, Hirtella glandulosa, Licania alba, Licania canescens, Licania membranaceae, Couepia guianensis and 7 undescribed Thaumastocoris species. PMID:21565125

  3. Usporedba vrijednosti vlastitih frekvencija lista kružne pile određenih različitim metodama

    OpenAIRE

    Svoreň, Ján; Javorek, Ľubomír; Droba, Adam; Paulíny, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Tijekom rezanja drva kružnim pilama vrlo se često primijenjuje velika brzina rezanja, što uzrokuje oscilacije lista kružne pila te katkad može rezultirati uništavanjem alata odnosno stroja ili dovesti do ozljede radnika. Cilj je ovoga rada prikazati mogućnosti primjene različitih metoda za određivanje vrijednosti vlastitih frekvencija lista kružne pile. U članku se prikazuje primjena triju metoda za određivanje vrijednosti vlastitih frekvencija lista kružne pile. Prva je metoda modalna analiz...

  4. A new species of Paraphaenodiscus Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae from India parasitizing Coccus sp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Singh sp. nov., has been described and illustrated with automontaged photographs of both male and female. Species parasitized scale insects on the leaves of Pterygota alata which were weaved into nest of red weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Species is compared with P. chrysocomae Prinsloo and P. pedanus Prinsloo & Mynhardt. Key to world species of Paraphaenodiscus except European species is also given. Types are deposited with National Forest Insect Collection, Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India (NFIC-FRI.

  5. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. Okorie; E.C. Okoli; E.C. Ndie

    2011-01-01

    The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fracti...

  6. Assessing Allometric Models to Predict Vegetative Growth of Yams in Different Environments

    OpenAIRE

    CORNET, Denis; Sierra, Jorge; Tournebize, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Yams are a neglected crop, grown mostly in West Africa by resource-poor farmers. Little is known about the physiology of the crop, and researchers lack practical and efficient tools to conduct growth analysis. The objective of this study was to develop allometric models able to predict yam leaf area and leaf and stem dry mass with acceptable accuracy. The models were calibrated using a data set comprising 10 cultivars belonging to the two main specks ([i]Dioscorea alata[/i] L. and [i]D. rotun...

  7. Aspectos vegetativos de combinações copa/porta-enxerto em maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro tem-se destacado entre as principais frutíferas do País. Porém, a vida útil vem sendo reduzida principalmente devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular, sendo que a enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças pode solucionar o problema. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho vegetativo das mudas enxertadas de combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa/Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. As sete variedades estudadas foram o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG, UFAC 07; 25; 38; 64 e 70 (Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao caso, com 12 repetições. Os tratamentos foram 35 combinações copa/porta-enxerto constituídas por 5 portas-enxertos combinados com 7 copas. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a altura de plantas, o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas e de entrenós como valores de desenvolvimento das plantas. As combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo para o diâmetro e o número de entrenós foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, UFAC 07 sobre P. serrato-digitata e P. quadrangularis, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis. Já para a altura de plantas e o número de folhas, as combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, bem como FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. serrato-digitata, UFAC 38 sobre P. alata

  8. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  9. Unapređenje procesa tlačnog lijevanja primjenom SMED metode

    OpenAIRE

    M. Perinić; M. Ikonić; S. Maričić

    2009-01-01

    Proces tlačnog lijevanja složenih dijelova u mnogim granama industrije danas koristi strojeve visoke produktivnosti. Oslobađanje kapaciteta strojeva je glavni cilj u postizanju minimuma utroška vremena izrade. Postupak izmjena alata kod procesa tlačnog lijevanja područje je moguće vremenske uštede. Primjenjena je i dodatnim koracima unaprijeđena SMED metoda, uz istovremenu primjenu 5S procedura. Doprinos se očituje u prepoznavanju unutarnjih i vanjskih aktivnosti, pretvaranju što većeg broja ...

  10. Optimizacija postupka postavljanja opreme u poduzećima

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowska, K.; Gajdzik, B.

    2012-01-01

    Brzo postavljanje opreme i alata u stroj na proizvodnoj liniji je ključni preduvjet za povećanje fl eksibilnosti proizvodnje. Metodologija SMED Izmjena opreme u jednoznamenkastom broju minuta) je primjer koji omogućava smanjenje vremena postavljanja gotovo na minimum. U članku se predstavljaju teoretske osnove i pravila koje je potrebno poštivati, kao i studija slučaja koji je proveden u izabranom poduzeću. Ovaj rad također odgovara na pitanja da lije SMED metodologija primjenjiva u metaluršk...

  11. Desenvolvimento, produtividade e sobrevivência de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado e cultivado em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo, a produtividade e a sobrevivência do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertado sobre três porta-enxertos, em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de maio de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007, adotando-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertii, utilizando-se da enxertia convencional por garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o comprimento do entrenó e dos ramos secundários, o número de ramos terciários e o de frutos, a massa média, o diâmetro e o comprimento médio dos frutos, a produtividade e a sobrevivência de plantas. Os resultados demonstraram que o uso da enxertia no maracujazeiro é uma opção viável como meio de propagação vegetativa, assim como forma de controle de alguns patógenos habitantes do solo, um dos problemas que têm limitado a expansão da cultura. As plantas enxertadas sobre P. edulis apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento inicial, seguido de P. gibertii e de P. alata. A menor produtividade ocorrreu em plantas sobre P. alata. Mesmo com a presença de Fusarium solani e Rotylenchulus reniformis nos solos, 91% das plantas enxertadas sobre P. gibertii sobreviveram após 12 meses de plantio no campo, enquanto em P. alata e P. edulis, esses índices foram de 60% e 8,6%, respectivamente, mostrando assim a maior tolerância às doenças causadas por patógenos habitantes do solo por P. gibertii.

  12. Uso de câmara úmida em enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro-amarelo sobre três porta-enxertos Use of humid chamber in hypocotyledonary grafting of yellow passion fruit on three rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência de plantas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertadas sobre três porta-enxertos com uso de câmara úmida, instalou-se este experimento em um viveiro de mudas no município de Adamantina - SP, no período de dezembro de 2005 a abril de 2006. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores avaliados foram três porta-enxertos (Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertii em dois ambientes (com e sem câmara úmida. Foi utilizada a enxertia hipocotiledonar pelo método de garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o número de folhas, o comprimento do entrenó, a porcentagem de sobrevivência das plantas e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Observou-se que o método de enxertia utilizado foi bem-sucedido para as três espécies de porta-enxertos estudadas. P. gibertii e P. edulis proporcionaram melhores resultados como porta-enxertos. O porta-enxerto P. alata proporcionou menor altura de planta, menor diâmetro do enxerto e do porta-enxerto e menor índice de sobrevivência. O uso da câmara úmida não favoreceu nenhuma das variáveis estudadas.The experiment was installed in Adamantina, SP, Brazil, from December 2005 to April 2006, aiming to evaluate yellow passion fruit plants (Passiflora edulis Sims development and survival, when they were grafted on three rootstocks during the nursery phase. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in a factorial scheme 3 x 2, with four replications. The studied factors were three rootstocks (Passiflora edulis, P. alata and P. gibertii in two environments (with and without humid chamber. Seedlings were grafted by the cleft grafting method. The variables evaluated were: grafts height, rootstocks and grafts stem diameter, leaf number, internode length, survival percentage, aerial portion and

  13. Estimação da área foliar por método não destrutivo, utilizando medidas lineares das folhas de espécies de Passiflora

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antonio Dell'Orto Morgado; Claudio Horst Bruckner; Luciana Domiciano Silva Rosado; Welberth Assunção; Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, desenvolver uma equação confiável, que possibilite calcular a área foliar de forma rápida e não destrutiva, utilizando medidas lineares da folha, para as diferentes espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. coccinea, P. gibertii, P. ligularis, P. misera, P. mucronata, P. nitida, P. setacea). Foram coletadas trezentas folhas, de diferentes tamanhos, de cada espécie. Realizaram-se análises de regressão da área foliar versus comprimento da nervura principal, maior lar...

  14. SIGURNOST CMS-A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluža, Marin; Vukelić, Bernard; Rojko, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Za razvoj web-sjedišta danas se često koriste CMS-ovi. Web-sjedišta meta su raznim malicioznim napadačima, stoga je potrebno poznavati razinu sigurnosti web-sjedišta i postaviti maksimalnu moguću razinu sigurnosti. U radu su prikazane osnovne značajke poznatijih CMS-ova u otvorenom pristupu Wordpress, Joomla i Drupal. Objašnjeno je deset najčešćih web-ranjivosti. Izvršeno je testiranje web-ranjivosti pomoću različitih programskih alata. Testirane su osnovne instalacije CMS-ova. Nakon ...

  15. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Bakteri Endofit dari Tanaman Binahong dan Katepeng China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani .

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakBakteri endofit merupakan mikroorganisme menguntungkan yang berinteraksi dengan tanaman inang tanpa menyebabkan gangguan atau kerusakan pada tanaman.Beberapa studi menunjukkan bahwa bakteri endofit tertentu dapat memproduksi senyawa kimia yang memiliki efek bagi kesehatan, terutama bakteri endofit yang diisolasi dari tanaman obat.Binahong (Anredera cordifolia dan Ketepeng Cina (Cassia alata merupakan tanaman obat yang telah diketahui memiliki beberapa khasiat.Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi bakteri endofit dari kedua tanaman tersebut melalui uji antibakteriterhadap tiga jenis bakteri patogen manusia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, dan Bacillus cereus. Metode: Jumlah bakteri endofit yang berhasil diisolasi dari dua tanaman tersebut berjumlah 73 isolat (37 isolat dari Binahong dan 36 isolat dari Ketepeng Cina. Hasil: Berdasarkan uji antibakteri terhadap tiga bakteri patogen diperoleh 16 isolat bakteri endofit yang memiliki aktivitas potensial (ditandai dengan terbentuknya zona hambat, yaitu 1 isolat dari Ketepeng Cina (terhadap Pseudomonas aeruginosa dan 15 isolat dari Binahong. Pembahasan: Terbentuknya zona hambat mengindikasikan kemungkinan adanya senyawa kimia yang memiliki efek antibakteri.Kata kunci: bakteri endofit, Anredera cordifolia, Cassia alata, antibakteri.AbstractEndophytic bacteria is a beneficial microorganism that interacts with plant without causing any harm to the host. Most studies showed that certain endophytic bacteria can produce chemical compound which have medical effect, especially endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal plant. Binahong (Anrederacordifolia and KetepengCina (Cassia alata are several of medicinal plants potential to be used for medical purpose. Methods: The objective of this study was to isolate and to characterize endophytic bacteria from both plants through antibacterial activity test against to three kinds of human pathogenic bacteria

  16. Model upravljanja kompetencijama vodstva u metalurškim tvrtkama

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, A.; M. Ikonić; S. Doboviček

    2011-01-01

    Svrha predstavljenog istraživanja bila je razvoj ostvarivog modela upravljanja kompetencijama vodstva u metalurškim tvrtkama. Rezultati istraživanja predstavljeni su u obliku strukturirane procedure razvoja kompetencija vodstva i prosudbe izvršenja. Analiza ulaznih zahtjeva pri zapošljavanju u metalurškim kompanijama sintetizirala je predstavljeni set kompetencija vodstva te je razvijene matrica izračuna uspjeha vodstva. Korištenjem navedenih alata moguće je kvantificirati prosudbu izvršenja ...

  17. DESENVOLVIMENTO, PARÂMETROS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE SOBREMESAS LÁCTEAS PRODUZIDAS COM DIFERENTES VARIEDADES DE MARACUJÁ COM E SEM SORO DE LEITE

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Ribeiro Henrique; Jessimara Ribeiro Henrique; Leonardo Milani Avelar Rodrigues; Marcel Gomes Paixão; Sheyla Anália Pinto; Sônia De Oliveira Duque Paciulli

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho teve o objetivo de desenvolver e caracterizar os atributos físico-químicos e sensoriais de sobremesas lácteas (flan) produzidas com diferentes variedades de maracujá na sua forma integral (casca, semente e polpa) sendo estes maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener) e maracujá doce (Passiflora alata Curtis), com e sem a casca do maracujá e soro de leite. Para as duas espécies foram elaborados três formulações, sendo T1: sem adição da casca do maracujá (formulaçã...

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E QUANTIDADE DE NUTRIENTES EM FRUTOS DE MARACUJÁ DOCE

    OpenAIRE

    VASCONCELLOS MARCO ANTONIO DA SILVA; SAVAZAKI EDSON TADASHI; GRASSI FILHO HÉLIO; BUSQUET RUBENS NEI BRIANÇON; MOSCA JOSÉ LUIZ

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar algumas características físicas e a distribuição dos nutrientes nos frutos de maracujá doce (Passiflora alata Dryand.), segundo sua classificação. Os frutos classificados como tipo 8 foram maiores e mais pesados que os dos tipos 9 e 12, apresentando maior peso de casca e de polpa. Independentemente da classificação dos frutos, o N, P, B, Cu, Fe e Zn estão distribuídos em maior quantidade na polpa do que na casca dos frutos. O K, Ca, ...

  19. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Josseara Beraldo; Edna Tomiko Myiake Kato

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edu...

  20. Maracujá: um alimento funcional? Passion fruit: a functional food?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza Zeraik; Cíntia A. M. Pereira; Vânia G. Zuin; Janete H. Yariwake

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as espécies brasileiras de Passiflora (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg., P. alata Curtis e P. edulis fo. edulis). A maioria dos artigos da literatura focaliza somente as folhas de Passiflora, enquanto que esta revisão contém informações sobre a polpa, cascas e sementes dos frutos do maracujá, com destaque para a composição química, estudos nutricionais e farmacológicos. O enfoque nos frutos do maracujá fundamenta-se no amplo consumo do suc...

  1. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumentoPassiflora edulis Sims, vegetal species employed in the Brazilian traditional medicine and broadly cultivated across its territory, has its leaves and stems often used as an adulterant for commercial samples of the crude drug Passiflora alata Curtis, officially known in Brazil as "maracujá". Morphoanatomic data from leaves and stems in P. edulis were described and documented. Amongst these characteristics, the shape of the foliar blade, the shape of the midrib in transverse section, the number and the location of the extrafloral nectaries and the indumentum are all emphasized.

  2. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  3. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. PMID:22991574

  4. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro Grafting sucess in different combinationsof species and varieties used as scion and the rootstock of passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  5. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noor Fathilah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized control (OVXC, ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin (ERT. The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis.

  6. The dynamics of ant mosaics in tropical rainforests characterized using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved.

  7. The dynamics of ant mosaics in tropical rainforests characterized using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved. PMID:25684460

  8. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  9. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  10. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  11. [Predation, removal and seed dispersal in a wetland dominated by palms (Arecaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero floodplains, Costa Rica, a significant number of trees such as Carapa guianensis, Pentaclethra mnacroloba and the palm Manicaria saccifera have floating seeds adapted to hydrocory, while others, such as the almendro Dipteryx oleifera and the raffia palm Raphia taedigera have heavy seeds that do not float. These species have differential distributions, and while C. guianensis, P macroloba and D. oleifera also grow on slopes away from the flood, the palms M saccifera and R. taedigera hardly occur outside the swamps, where they stand as the dominant species. To understand the differences in the micro-distribution of these tree species in waterlogged environments and differences in their seed adaptations, I did a series of experiments to compare the loss and germination of their seeds in the slope forest and in palm swamps in the region. Overall, seeds in the forest slope have higher removal rates than those in the M. saccifera and R. taedigera swamps. This last one exhibits the lowest seed loss of all three habitats. Also, differences in seed predation/removal were noticed between the two species of palms studied. Thus, seeds of M saccifera disappeared rapidly, regardless of density aggregation and location in the swamp. Removal rates in R. taedigera seeds were low in the raffia dominated swamp, where apparently, seed losses are slightly higher in the mounds of palm clumps than in the swamp floor. These observations suggest that both: flooding and microtopography determine, directly or indirectly, the fate of tree species within these wetlands. Restrictions on seed dispersal and the slow germination confine R. taedigera marshes and flooded places, whereas flooding and predators mediate in the distribution of the other tree species. PMID:24459753

  12. Relative importance of photosynthetic physiology and biomass allocation for tree seedling growth across a broad light gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rebecca

    2004-02-01

    Studies of tree seedling physiology and growth under field conditions provide information on the mechanisms underlying inter- and intraspecific differences in growth and survival at a critical period during forest regeneration. I compared photosynthetic physiology, growth and biomass allocation in seedlings of three shade-tolerant tree species, Virola koschynii Warb., Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell and Brosimum alicastrum Swartz., growing across a light gradient created by a forest-pasture edge (0.5 to 67% diffuse transmittance (%T)). Most growth and physiological traits showed nonlinear responses to light availability, with the greatest changes occurring between 0.5 and 20 %T. Specific leaf area (SLA) and nitrogen per unit leaf mass (N mass) decreased, maximum assimilation per unit leaf area (A area) and area-based leaf N concentration (N area) increased, and maximum assimilation per unit leaf mass (A mass) did not change with increasing irradiance. Plastic responses in SLA were important determinants of leaf N and A area across the gradient. Species differed in magnitude and plasticity of growth; B. alicastrum had the lowest relative growth rates (RGR) and low plasticity. Its final biomass varied only 10-fold across the light gradient. In contrast, the final biomass of D. panamensis and V. koschynii varied by 100- and 50-fold, respectively, and both had higher RGR than B. alicastrum. As light availability increased, all species decreased biomass allocation to leaf tissue (mass and area) and showed a trade-off between allocation to leaf area at a given plant mass (LAR) and net gain in mass per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). This trade-off largely reflected declines in SLA with increasing light. Finally, A area was correlated with NAR and both were major determinants of intraspecific variation in RGR. These data indicate the importance of plasticity in photosynthetic physiology and allocation for variation in tree seedling growth among

  13. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Soto Andres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alataD. rotundataD. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.

  14. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Nicholas S; Zhu, Junwei; Coats, Joel R

    2012-06-01

    Since its introduction into the United States in the past 10 yr, soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. During 2008 and 2009, fields in central and north central Iowa experienced pockets of high soybean aphid populations. Electroantennograms have shown that soybean aphid alatae are capable of detecting host plant volatiles and sex pheromones. Here, we evaluated baited pan traps as a potential soybean aphid attractant. Yellow pan traps were placed in soybean fields after planting along with lures that contained plant volatiles and sex pheromones in 2008 or sex pheromones only in 2009. Pan trap contents were collected weekly, and plant counts also were conducted. Aphids were identified, and soybean aphids were counted to determine whether one chemical lure was more attractive to spring migrants than other lures. In both years, soybean aphids collected in pan traps with lures were not significantly different from the other products tested. PMID:22812127

  15. Plant regeneration from protoplast fusion inPassiflora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, M C; Tavares, F C; de Oliviera, J C; Vieira, M L

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaf explants ofPassiflora edulis var.flavicarpa (the yellow passion fruit) and from cell suspensions of fivePassiflora species. Chemical fusion was performed using polyethylene glycol and the microcolonies obtained were transferred to growth medium to produce calli. Electrophoresis of soluble proteins and analysis of isoenzymes from calli produced from the fusion experiments were performed to select somatic hybrids. Specific polypeptide bands allowed the identification of somatic hybrids betweenP. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. alata, P. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. amethystina, P. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. cincinnata, P. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. giberti andP. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. coccinea. An average of 3 to 5% hybrid calli were obtained. With the exception of theP. edulis var.flavicarpa (+)P. coccinea, whole plants were recovered from all hybrids. These somatic hybrids showed 4n=36 chromosomes, which represents a further evidence of their hybridity. PMID:24185665

  16. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  17. Supplementary descriptive notes of the Sinella and Coecobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae) species from North America, Hawaii and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yan, Qibao; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Many known collembolan species lack sufficient descriptive details so that further taxonomical comparison cannot be achieved. When sorting documents and materials from Prof. Jian-Xiu CHEN, Nanjing University, we found many old but valuable drafts on Sinella and Coecobrya species from North America, Hawaii and Japan. Supplementary descriptions, particularly chaetotaxy, were provided for the following species: S. agna Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. alata Christiansen, 1960, S. baca Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980, S. barri Christiansen, 1960, S. hoffmani Wray, 1952, S. sexoculata (Schött, 1896), S. straminea (Folsom, 1899), S. yosiia Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. akiyoshiana Yosii, 1956, C. borerae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. ishikawai Yosii, 1956, C. kukae Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. lua Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. nupa Christiansen & Bellinger, 1992, C. tibiotarsalis Yosii, 1964. Sinella cavernarum (Packard, 1888) was redescribed based on topotypes and more additional materials. PMID:27394318

  18. Računalo u istraživačkom radu učenika u nastavi matematike

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelanović Dijanić, Željka

    2012-01-01

    Suvremena nastava prirodnih predmeta naglašava važnost aktivnosti i samostalnog učenja učenika te zahtijeva uvođenje učenika u istraživačku nastavu. U nastavi matematike to se može realizirati korištenjem računala i specijaliziranih programa. U radu su prikazana tri modela korištenja računala i programa dinamične geometrije GeoGebra kao alata za istraživanje učenika u nastavi matematike: učenje otkrivanjem, istraživački usmjerena nastava i projektna nastava. Istraživanjem u nastavi učenicima ...

  19. Genetic relationship among Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae) species based on ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, E; Jaafar, H Z E; Aziz, M A; Taheri, S; AzadiGonbad, R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. PMID:24841662

  20. 矿山迹地引种下层树种生长情况比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞维峰; 古锦汉; 冯光钦; 梁亦肖; 罗振炯

    2009-01-01

    在矿山迹地上引种油甘子(P.enblica Linn.)、俏蒲桃[Acmem acuminatissina (B1.)Merr.et Perry]、红木(Bixa orellana)、山毛豆(Tephrosia congolensis A.chev)、翅革决明(Cassia alata.L.)等五种小乔木类树种,营造植被恢复试验林.结果表明,五个树种都表现出较强的生长适应性,植被恢复效果好,油甘子、山毛豆、翅革决明生长速度最快,而红木、俏蒲桃次之.

  1. 海南蕨类植物新记录(Ⅱ)%New Records of Ferns from Hainan Island, China(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严岳鸿; 秦新生; 王发国; 张荣京; 邢福武

    2006-01-01

    报道了海南岛9种新记录蕨类植物,包括狭翅短肠蕨 Allantodia alata(Christ) Ching、褐柄短肠蕨Allantodia petelotii(Tard.-Blot) Ching、广叶星蕨Microsorum steerei(Harr.) Ching、多羽凤尾蕨Pteris decrescens Christ、硕大凤尾蕨Pteris majestica Ching ex Ching et S.H.Wu、斜羽凤尾蕨Pteris oshimensis Hieron.、小笠原卷柏Selaginella boninensis Bak.、贯众Cyrtomium fortunei J.Sm.、广东耳蕨Polystichum kwangtungense Ching等.引用的标本全部存放在中国科学院华南植物园标本馆(IBSC).

  2. Nest plant selection of the Andaman Crake Rallina canning, Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ezhilarasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the nesting preference of Andaman Crake, a rare and endemic bird of the Andaman Island, on 151 plants belonging to 21 species and 12 families during the year 2004-2005, at Pathilevel, North Andaman. A total of 155 nests was recorded. Four plant species contributed 72.12%of the nest trees, the rest 27.88%. The Andaman Crake preferred five species, namely Tetrameles nudiflora (E = 0.84, Pterocarpus dalbergioides (E = 0.63, Terminalia bialata (E = 0.53, Pterygota alata (E = 0.83, and Celtis timorensis (E = 0.68, of which the first two were most preferred. It is possible that the Andaman Crake may prefer the architectural disposition of the trees with large buttresses to locate their nests.

  3. Severidade da podridão-verde em inhames e especialização fisiológica em Penicillium sclerotigenum Severity of green rot in yellow and water yams and the physiological specialization of Penicillium sclerotigenum

    OpenAIRE

    Idjane S. Oliveira; Edna Dora. M. N. Luz; José Luiz Bezerra; Romero M. de Moura; Gustavo R. C. Torres; Leonor C. Maia

    2006-01-01

    Estudaram-se as reações do inhame Dioscorea alata cv. São Tomé e D. cayennensis cv. Da Costa em relação à severidade da podridão-verde, causada pelo fungo Penicillium sclerotigenum. Ao mesmo tempo, foi pesquisada à ocorrência de especialização fisiológica do agente causal, em relação à patogenicidade, nas mencionadas espécies de inhame. Para complementar esse estudo, analisou-se, in vitro, o crescimento micelial de P. sclerotigenum em três meios de cultura semi-sintéticos, sendo dois à base d...

  4. Avaliação de Passifloraceas, fungicidas e Trichoderma para o manejo da Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro, causada por Nectria haematococca Evaluation of Passifloraceas, fungicides and Trichoderma for passion fruit collar rot handling, caused by Nectria haematococca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo é devida, muitas vezes, a problemas fitossanitários, sendo a Podridão-do-colo, causada por Nectria haematococca, um dos principais problemas na maioria dos Estados produtores do Brasil. O controle desta doença é basicamente preventivo, evitando a introdução do agente patogênico na área. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos: a avaliar o comportamento do maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' e 'Maguary', do tipo pé-franco, e 'Afruvec' enxertado em cinco espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata e P. suberosa, em pomar com histórico de Podridão-do-colo; e b avaliar a eficiência de produtos químicos (oxicloreto de cobre, procloraz e tiabendazol e biológicos (Trichoderma harzianum e Trichoderma sp. no controle da Podridão-do-colo em maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', sob condições de campo. As espécies P. maliformis, P. suberosa e P. alata, empregadas como porta-enxerto, apresentaram maior resistência à Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro em relação às plantas não enxertadas. Os produtos químicos e biológicos, aplicados em intervalos mensais ou quinzenais no colo da planta (500 mL de calda, não foram eficientes no controle da doença.The low productivity of yellow passion fruit is due often to the phytosanitary problems, being the Collar rot caused by Nectria haematococca, one of the main problems in the majority of the producing States of Brazil. The disease control is basically preventive, avoiding the introduction of the pathogen in the area. So, the present work aimed at: a evaluating the behavior of ungrafted yellow passion fruit cultivars 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' and 'Maguary' and 'Afruvec' passion fruit grafted on five Passiflora species (Passiflora alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata and P. suberosa in orchard where the disease is frequent; and b evaluating the efficiency of chemical (copper oxychloride

  5. Sewage impact on the composition and distribution of Polychaeta associated to intertidal mussel beds of the Mar del Plata rocky shore, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete composition and distribution within mussel beds were studied in order to assess organic pollution due to domestic sewage in a rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina during 1997. Four stations and a control site were randomly sampled around the local effluent. Quantitative data on polychaetes, as well as sediment accumulated among mussels and its organic carbon content were measured. Polychaete distribution patterns are related to the organic matter gradient, being Capitella cf. capitata, Neanthes succinea (Frey & Leuckart, 1847 and Boccardia polybranchia (Haswell, 1885 the dominant indicator species close to the effluent. At medial distances, the cirratulids Caulleriella alata (Southern, 1914 and Cirratulus cirratus (Müller, 1776 are very important in abundance. The syllids Syllis prolixa Ehlers, 1901 and S. gracilis Grube, 1840 are distributed along the study area, but dominate at the medial stations and at the control site. The orbiniid Protoariciella uncinata Hartmann-Schröder, 1962 is subdominant at the control station.

  6. GIS u AutoCAD Map 3D-u

    OpenAIRE

    Glasinović, Frane

    2011-01-01

    AutoCAD Map 3D prvenstveno je CAD alat s dodatnim mogućnostima za izradu GIS sustava. Čine ga skup alata koji omogućavaju jednostavniji rad do vrlo dinamične i interaktivne karte i to s već ugrađenim prostornim analizama. AutoCAD Map se oslanja na snagu CAD-a pri uređivanju podataka, što je ujedno i njegova najveća prednost u odnosu na ostale GIS programe na tržištu. Pripremanje podataka te njihova distribucija i vizualizacija u istoj aplikaciji čine ga idealnim izborom. Rad sa različitim izv...

  7. Programiranje u AutoCAD-u (C#)

    OpenAIRE

    Glasinovic, Frane

    2011-01-01

    Programski paket AutoCAD ima veliki broj ugrađenih alata pa biste pomislili da u AutoCAD-u postoje funkcije za sve što vam padne na pamet. To je donekle i istina, ali ponekad ćete se naći u situaciji da ugrađeni alati jednostavni nisu ono što tražite. Nekada ćete poželjeti automatizirati ponavljajući proces ili pristupiti rješavanju problema na način koji više odgovara specifičnim okolnostima. U ovakvim slučajevima znanje iz programiranja biti će više nego dobrodošlo. U samo par linija ...

  8. Réaction de deux espèces d’igname (Dioscorea spp. traitées avec du vin de palme (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., aux champignons responsables des pourritures d’igname

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    A. Tschannen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Dioscorea alata var. bete-bete and D. cayenensis-rotundata var. krengle treated with palm wine obtained from oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. to seven fungi isolated from yam rots was assessed. Yam tubers were collected from two markets in Abidjan and also from storage sites in Bringakro (at 180 km from Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Pathogenecity tests showed that Penicillium oxalicum was the most pathogenic among all fungi isolated. Krengle was more susceptible than bete-bete. In vitro, fermented palm wine totally inhibited mycelial growth of all fungi isolated with the exception of P. oxalicum and Aspergillus niger. Inhibition percentage of mycelial growth of all fungi was more important for krengle than bete-bete. Regardless the yam species, in vivo tests showed that fermented palm wine was more effective than non fermented palm wines when used as a preventive treatment.

  9. RNA-seq analysis for plant carnivory gene discovery in Nepenthes × ventrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Zakaria, Wan Nor Adibah; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2016-03-01

    Carnivorous plants have the ability to capture and digest insects for nutrients, which allows them to survive in land deprived of nitrogenous nutrients. Nepenthes spp. are one of the carnivorous plants, which uniquely produce pitcher from the tip of an elongated leaf. This study provides the first transcriptome resource from pitcher of a Nepenthes ventricosa × Nepenthes alata hybrid, Nepenthes × ventrata to understand carnivory mechanism in Nepenthes spp., as well as in other carnivorous species. Raw reads and the transcriptome assembly project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession numbers SRX1389337 (day 0 control), SRX1389392 (day 3 longevity), and SRX1389395 (day 3 chitin-treated). PMID:26981352

  10. RNA-seq analysis for plant carnivory gene discovery in Nepenthes × ventrata

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    Wan Nor Adibah Wan Zakaria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants have the ability to capture and digest insects for nutrients, which allows them to survive in land deprived of nitrogenous nutrients. Nepenthes spp. are one of the carnivorous plants, which uniquely produce pitcher from the tip of an elongated leaf. This study provides the first transcriptome resource from pitcher of a Nepenthes ventricosa × Nepenthes alata hybrid, Nepenthes × ventrata to understand carnivory mechanism in Nepenthes spp., as well as in other carnivorous species. Raw reads and the transcriptome assembly project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession numbers SRX1389337 (day 0 control, SRX1389392 (day 3 longevity, and SRX1389395 (day 3 chitin-treated.

  11. Palyno-taxonomic study of some plant taxa of Fabaceae from Arambagh region of Hooghly district, West Bengal, eastern India

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    Pritha Bhattacharya (Sasmal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to study different pollen parameters such as shape, size, colpa and exine ornamentation for the taxonomic assessment of the groups of plants. The pollen morphology of some plant taxa of the family Fabaceae growing in the area of Arambagh of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India were studied using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM during the period of September 2012 to July 2013. The pollen grains of Cassia sophera, Cassia alata, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Cassia siamea, Butea monosperma, Bauhinia purpurea, Crotalaria retusa, Delonix regia, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Sesbania grandiflora and Tamarindus indica are 3-colporate type. The polyad types of pollen grains consisting of 12 cells were observed in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia arabica. The polyad type of pollen grain consisting of 16 cells is observed in Albizzia lebbek. The flowering period of the investigated taxa are recorded.

  12. GROWING DOMINANT SPECIES OF MICROALGAE IN NORTH EASTERN BLACK SEA

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    Lifanchuk A. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the effect of addition of mineral nutrition elements in the structure of the phytoplankton community in the north-eastern part of the Black Sea in the different seasons. Experimental studies have shown that the increase in biomass of microalgae occurs at the simultaneous addition of nitrogen and phosphorus in the accumulative cultures. In the spring can get biomass Emiliania huxleyi, P.pseudodelicatissima, Chaetoceros curvisetus and Skeletonema costatum, in the summer – E. huxleyi, C. curvisetus, P.pseudodelicatissima, S.costatum, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Leptocylindrus danicus, Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Proboscia alata, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, in the autumn - C. curvisetus, S.costatum, Th. nitzschioides, L. danicus, D. fragilissimus

  13. Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

    2011-07-01

    A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given. PMID:22315822

  14. New and little known Orthoptera (Ensifera and Caelifera) from the Ñambí River Natural Reserve, Nariño, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Bacca, Tito

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the Orthopterans from the Ñambí River Natural reserve is presented. A total of 26 species were studied, five new species are herein described: Championica nambiensis n. sp., Cocconotus awa n. sp., Cocconotus levyi n. sp. (Tettigoniidae: Pseudophyllinae), Antillicharis kwaiker n. sp. (Gryllidae) and Brachybaenus nariniensis n. sp. (Gryllacrididae). Three species are recorded from Colombia for the first time (Legua crenulata, Uvaroviella (Holacla) nebulosa and Anabropsis alata) and seven species are new records for Nariño department (Allotettix peruvianus, Ripipteryx ecuadoriensis, Neoconocephalus affinis, Anaulacomera poculigera, Orophus conspersus, Orophus tessellatus and Neocurtilla hexadactyla). Further comments on species distribution and taxonomy are given. PMID:27615970

  15. Alterações nas características físicas do maracujá-doce submetido à imersão em solução de cloreto de cálcio

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA Alessandra Pereira da; Rogério Lopes VIEITES

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da imersão em solução de cloreto de cálcio nas características físicas do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander), durante seu armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, após desinfecção com o fungicida thiabendazol (1g/l) foram imersos, por duas horas, nas seguintes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio: testemunha (0% de CaCl2), 1% de CaCl2, 2% de CaCl2, 3% de CaCl2 e 4% de CaCl2. Após os tratamentos, todos os frutos foram ...

  16. Conservação de maracujá-doce pelo uso de cera e choque a frio

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Alessandra Pereira da; Vieites Rogério Lopes; Cereda Ede

    1999-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito do choque a frio e da cera, na conservação pós-colheita do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander), verificando as principais alterações físicas e químicas durante o armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, foram desinfetados com hipoclorito de sódio e em seguida, submetidos aos tratamentos: testemunha; cera Sta fresh (1:2); choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas) + cera Sta fresh (1:2); choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas). Os frutos foram avaliados a cada 6 dias...

  17. Conservação de maracujá-doce pelo uso de cera e choque a frio Conservation of sweet passion fruit using wax and cold shock

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Pereira da Silva; Rogério Lopes Vieites; Ede Cereda

    1999-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito do choque a frio e da cera, na conservação pós-colheita do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander), verificando as principais alterações físicas e químicas durante o armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, foram desinfetados com hipoclorito de sódio e em seguida, submetidos aos tratamentos: testemunha; cera Sta fresh (1:2); choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas) + cera Sta fresh (1:2); choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas). Os frutos foram avaliados a cada 6 dias...

  18. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23458881

  19. Detection of antimicrobial compounds by bioautography of different extracts of leaves of selected South African tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimana, M M; McGaw, L J; Naidoo, V; Eloff, J N

    2010-01-01

    The hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Combretum vendae A.E. van Wyk (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae) and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh. Ex C. Krauss) Engl. (Anacardiaceae) were screened for their antimicrobial activity. The test organisms included bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus), and fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum canis and Sporothrix schenckii). A simple bioautographic procedure, involving spraying suspensions of the bacteria or fungi on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates developed in solvents of varying polarities was used to detect the number of antibacterial and antifungal compounds present in the extracts. All the extracts had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. This activity was denoted by white spots against a red-purple background on the TLC plates after spraying with tetrazolium violet. Twenty seven TLC plates; 9 for each solvent system and 3 different solvent systems per organism were tested in the bioautographic procedure. Of the bacteria tested, S. aureus was inhibited by the most compounds separated on the TLC plates from all the tested plants. Similarly, growth of the fungus C. neoformans was also inhibited by many compounds present in the extracts. Loxostylis alata appeared to be the plant extract with the highest number of inhibition bands when compared with other plants tested against both bacteria and fungi. This species was selected for in depth further study. PMID:21304615

  20. In vitro Antioxidant Activity between Bioactive Compounds from Nine Species of Passiflora

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    DAV Montero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Main bioactive substances identified from the genus Passiflora include polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and other natural antioxidants that are critical factors for maintaining optimum health. Polyphenols mainly C-glycosides are present in well studied species such as P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. alata. However, most Passiflora species remains little explored and it’s for this reason that we address our work at the comparison between species. Three experiments with completely randomized designs were performed in order to compare the total amount of flavonoids, phenols and in vitro free radical DPPH scavenger activity (%DPPH of nine species of Passiflora (P. edulis, P. alata, P. incarnata, P. ligularis, P. tripartite, P. coccinea, P. gardneri, P. laurifólia and P. mucronata. Non parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (for flavonoids, parametric analyses of variances (Anova and the last significant differences (LSD tests (for phenols and free radical scavenger activity were performed to compare the studied species and then a correlation analysis was carried out to assess the interaction between the variables using RStudio statistical software. Results showed significant differences between the studied passionflowers for the total amount of flavonoids (p=4.4e-5, total amount of phenols (p=2.2e-16 and scavenger activity of the free radical DPPH (p=2.2e-16. Also, we found a positive correlation between %DPPH scavenging activity and the total content of polyphenols (Pearson’s coefficient=0.706 and a negative one between flavonoid (Pearson’s coefficient=-0.485. The results suggest that in passionflower leaf samples the scavenging activity of the free radical DPPH is more related with polyphenols rather than flavonoids.

  1. Home gardens and Dioscorea species – A case study from the climatic zones of Sri Lanka

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    Ravi Sangakkara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are considered as vital units for enhancing food security particularly in developing nations of South Asia, such as Sri Lanka. Although the yam crop Dioscorea spp. constitute a popular but still minor component in Sri Lankan home gardens, they have the potential of producing large quantities of edible material with minimal inputs. However, their real value in South Asian home gardens is not yet reported. Hence, this study was carried out to get insights into home garden characteristics, gardener demography as well as current management practices within 300 Sri Lankan home garden systems that are located along a climatic gradient. By using interviews and field observations, gardeners, who cultivated in particular Dioscorea species, were studied within 10 of the 25 administrative districts distributed in the wet, intermediate and dry climatic zone of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, current management practices of yams cultivation were analyzed on local scale and compared afterwards with management recommendations published in the year 2006 by the Department of Agriculture. Dioscorea species were found in a majority of home gardens, especially in wet and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. D. alata was the most prominent species and was managed at a subsistence level and not as per recommendations developed by the Department of Agriculture. Our results revealed that Dioscorea alata is an essential component of Sri Lankan home gardens in rural areas and can yield substantial quantities of edible tubers with low input, especially during times of food scarcities, and has therefore the potential to enhance food security and rural development.

  2. Variability of decorative traits, response to the Aphis fabae attack and RAPD diversity in different genotypes of Calendula

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    Adriana Daniela BACIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify cultivars with special decorative value and potential genitors for breeding process, 45 genotypes of Calendula genera were analyzed, belonging to six species: C. officinalis, C. alata, C. arvensis, C. stellata, C. suffruticosa and C. tripterocarpa. The average height of plants varied strongly, from 22.0 cm (C. officinalis cv. Rozovyi Sjurpriz cm to 84.1 cm (C. tripterocarpa Rupr.. The lowest number of branches per plant was recorded on C. arvensis F. (4.6 and the largest one on C. officinalis LDA (16.4. The average number of flowers per plant ranged from 98.0 (C. suffruticosa Valh. to 2.0 (C. officinalis UK. From among all genotypes, aphids (Aphis fabae have attacked 19 (42.2%, and the results showed that AD% (Attack Degree depend significantly on genotypes. RAPD analysis and phylogenetic dendrogram illustrated the relationship between genotypes and DNA polymorphism exists between the six species. Were found not only close phylogenetic links among cultivars apart of the same specie, but also between different species. C. officinalis A., C. alata UK and C. suffruticosa formed a subgroup similar to the molecular level, but also confirming some phenotypic similarities, these species having the smallest number of petals in the corolla and the highest sensitivity to Aphis fabae attack. The large variability identified in Calendula genotypes allows the selection of potential genitors for new breeding works, with appropriate decorative characteristics and resistance to aphids attack. RAPD analyses and phenotypic study allows hypothesis regarding the success of intra- and inter-specific hybridization, thus facilitating Calendula breeding processes.

  3. Florescimento e produção de maracujazeiro-amarelo obtido por enxertia hipocotiledonar em Jaboticabal-SP e Araguari-MG

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    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no ripado e na área de Fruticultura do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal-SP, e em área de pequeno produtor fornecedor da Maguari (Kraft Foods do Brasil em Araguari-MG, tendo por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado por enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre seis espécies de Passifloraceas. Foram utilizados sete tratamentos, sendo seis tratamentos com as espécies: P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea, P. alata, P. gibertii, P. coccinea, P. cincinnata e um tratamento com pé-franco de P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Para todos os tratamentos, a variedade-copa utilizada foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 200'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de uma linha de quatro plantas (20m lineares. A condução foi realizada conforme os tratos culturais recomendados para a cultura. As características avaliadas foram florescimento, produção, número e peso médio de frutos. Em Jaboticabal-SP, o pé-franco apresentou melhor desenvolvimento e maior produção que as plantas enxertadas. Em Araguari-MG, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea e pé-franco apresentaram melhor produção. Não houve diferença significativa no número de frutos, e o P. alata diminuiu, em relação aos outros porta-enxertos, o peso dos frutos.

  4. Molecular linkage mapping and marker-trait associations with NlRPT, a downy mildew resistance gene in Nicotiana langsdorffii

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    Shouan eZhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana langsdorffii is one of two species of Nicotiana known to express an incompatible interaction with the oomycete Peronospora tabacina, the causal agent of tobacco blue mold disease. We previously showed that incompatibility is due to the hypersensitive response (HR, and plants expressing the HR are resistant to P. tabacina at all stages of growth. Resistance is due to a single dominant gene in N. langsdorffii accession S-4-4 that we have named NlRPT. In further characterizing this unique host-pathogen interaction, NlRPT has been placed on a preliminary genetic map of the N. langsdorffii genome. Allelic scores for five classes of DNA markers were determined for 90 progeny of a modified backcross involving two N. langsdorffii inbred lines and the related species N. forgetiana. All markers had an expected segregation ratio of 1:1, and were scored in a common format. The map was constructed with JoinMap 3.0, and loci showing excessive transmission distortion were removed. The linkage map consists of 266 molecular marker loci defined by 217 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs, 26 simple-sequence repeats (SSR, 10 conserved orthologous sequence (COS markers, nine inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers, and four target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP markers arranged in 12 linkage groups with a combined length of 1062 cM. NlRPT is located on linkage group 3, flanked by four AFLP markers and one SSR. Regions of skewed segregation were detected on LGs 1, 5 and 9. Markers developed for N. langsdorffii are potentially useful genetic tools for other species in Nicotiana section Alatae, as well as in N. benthamiana. We also investigated whether AFLPs could be used to infer genetic relationships within N. langsdorffii and related species from section Alatae. A phenetic analysis of the AFLP data showed that there are two main lineages within N. langsdorffii, and that both contain populations expressing dominant resistance to P

  5. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  6. Static winging of the scapula caused by osteochondroma in adults: a case series

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    Orth Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although palsy of the long thoracic nerve is the classical pathogenesis of winging scapula, it may also be caused by osteochondroma. This rare etiopathology has previously been described in pediatric patients, but it is seldom observed in adults. Case presentation We describe three cases of static scapular winging with pain on movement. Case 1 is a Caucasian woman aged 35 years with a wing-like prominence of the medial margin of her right scapula due to an osteochondroma originating from the ventral omoplate. Histopathological evaluation after surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis. The postoperative course was unremarkable without signs of recurrence on examination at 2 years. Case 2 is a Caucasian woman aged 39 years with painful scapula alata and neuralgic pain projected along the left ribcage caused by an osteochondroma of the left scapula with contact to the 2nd and 3rd rib. Following surgical resection, the neuropathic pain continued, demanding neurolysis of the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerve after 8 months. The patient was free of symptoms 2 years after neurolysis. Case 3 is a Caucasian woman aged 48 years with scapular winging due to a large exostosis of the left ventral scapular surface with a broad cartilaginous cap and a large pseudobursa. Following exclusion of malignancy by an incisional biopsy, exostosis and pseudobursa were resected. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative course without signs of recurrence 1 year postoperatively. Based on these cases, we developed an algorithm for the diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of scapula alata due to osteochondroma. Conclusions Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of this uncommon condition in the differential diagnosis of winged scapula not only in children, but also in adult patients.

  7. Chemical composition of various Ephedra species

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    Saida Ibragic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal significance of Ephedra is based on the sympathomimetic properties of ephedrine (E alkaloids. Pharmacological effects depend on the phytocomposition of individual Ephedra species. The aim of this study was to measure the total alkaloids content (TAC, total phenolics content (TPC, and total flavonoids content (TFC and determine their relationship in dry herb of Ephedra major, Ephedra distachya subsp. helvetica, Ephedra monosperma, Ephedra fragilis, Ephedra foeminea, Ephedra alata, Ephedra altissima and Ephedra foliata. Nowadays, medicinal use of Ephedrae herba is limited, but the abuse of its psychostimulants is rising. In this study, TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using spectrophotometric methods. For the first time, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV was used for separation and quantification of E-type alkaloids of various Ephedra species. The highest TPC and TFC were found in E. alata (53.3 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, 2.8 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight, respectively. The total content of E and pseudoephedrine determined by UPLC-UV varied between 20.8 mg/g dry weight (E. distachya subsp. helvetica and 34.7 mg/g dry weight (E. monosperma. The variable content and ratio between secondary metabolites determined in different Ephedra species reflects their metabolic activities. Utilization of UPLC-UV unveiled that this technique is sensitive, selective, and useful for separation and quantification of different alkaloids in complex biological matrixes. The limit of detection was 5 ng. Application of UPLC-UV can be recommended in quick analyses of E-type alkaloids in forensic medicine and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations. 

  8. “Datamining” dos genes da celulose sintase relacionados com ESTs de Eucalyptus spp. (Nota Científica. Cellulose synthase genes dataming related with Eucalyptus spp. expressed sequence tags. (SCIENTIFIC NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo ZIMBACK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo sobre “datamining”envolvendo genes ligados ao crescimento decontrole não hormonal, utilizando o banco dedados de ESTs de eucalipto, efetuado atravésdo Projeto Genoma do Eucalipto (FORESTscomparados ao nível de aminoácidos. Foramidentificados os clusters de ESTsEGBGFB1211D01.g, EGEZRT6201E10.g,EGCCFB1220G07.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQST2006A06.g, EGRFCL1206E01.g,EGEQRT3001H05.b e EGBFRT3106G11.g,similares às proteínas de celulose sintase e suassubunidades controlando o crescimento emArabidopsis thaliana, Gossipium hirsutum,Populus tremuloides, Zea mays e Nicotiana alata,registradas no National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI, informação valiosa parafuturos programas de melhoramento genético dogênero Eucalyptus.This is a study about data mining ofexpressed sequence tags (ESTs involved withcellulose synthase growth effect genes resultedfrom the Eucalyptus ESTs Genome Project(FORESTs compared at aminoacids level. Using asequencing of derived from cDNAs librariesinduced and not induced by bacteria, wereidentified EST clusters EGBGFB1211D01.g,EGEZRT6201E10.g, EGCCFB1220G07.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQST2006A06.g,EGRFCL1206E01.g, EGEQRT3001H05.b, andEGBFRT3106G11.g, similar to cellulose synthaseproteins controlling growth effect in Arabidopsisthaliana, Gossipium hirsutum, Populustremuloides, Zea mays, and Nicotiana alata,registered on National Center of BiotechnologiesInformation - NCBI. These mining results areimportant to improve Eucalyptus breeding programs.

  9. Porta-enxertos e fixadores de enxerto para enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro azedo

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    Carlos Henrique Barbosa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Avaliou-se a enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro azedo em porta-enxertos de Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata e P. gibertii utilizando-se, como fixadores para envolvimento da região da enxertia, fita adesiva tipo crepe, grampo metálico de cabelo e grampo de enxertia a mola. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (porta-enxerto x fixador, com 12 tratamentos, três repetições e oito plantas na parcela. Utilizou-se a enxertia hipocotiledonar pelo método de garfagem de topo em fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se diâmetro de caule, altura de planta e número de folhas do porta-enxerto no momento da enxertia, percentagem de sobrevivência da enxertia, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e altura do enxerto aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. A sobrevivência do enxerto de maracujazeiro azedo foi elevada, em geral, sendo equivalente para todos os porta-enxertos avaliados, demonstrando a eficiência da técnica. O uso dos fixadores de enxertia resultou em elevada percentagem de sobrevivência dos enxertos sem se verificarem diferenças entre os fixadores. Aos 90 dias após a enxertia, o maracujazeiro azedo, enxertado em P. alata apresentou menor crescimento em relação àqueles enxertados em P. edulis e P. gibertii.

  10. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  11. Natural variability in acyl moieties of sugar esters produced by certain tobacco and other Solanaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroumova, Antoaneta B M; Zaitlin, Dave; Wagner, George J

    2016-10-01

    A unique feature of glandular trichomes of plants in the botanical family Solanaceae is that they produce sugar esters (SE), chemicals that have been shown to possess insecticidal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Sugar esters of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) provide pest resistance, and are important flavor precursors in oriental tobacco cultivars. Acyl moieties of SEs in Nicotiana spp., petunia, and tomato are shown to vary with respect to carbon length and isomer structure (2-12 carbon chain length; anteiso-, iso-, and straight-chain). Sugar esters and their acyl groups could serve as a model to explore the basis of phenotypic diversity and adaptation to natural and agricultural environments. However, information on the diversity of acyl composition among species, cultivars, and accessions is lacking. Herein, described is the analysis of SE acyl groups found in 21 accessions of Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco), six of Nicotiana occidentalis subsp. hesperis, three of Nicotiana alata, two of N. occidentalis, four modern tobacco cultivars, five petunia hybrids, and one accession each of a primitive potato (Solanum berthaultii) and tomato (Solanum pennellii). A total of 20 different acyl groups was observed that were represented differently among cultivars, species, and accessions. In Nicotiana species, acetate and iso- and anteiso-branched acids prevailed. Straight-chain groups (2-8 carbons) were prominent in petunias, while octanoic acid was prominent in N. alata and N. × sanderae. Two unexpected acyl groups, 8-methyl nonanoate and decanoate were found in N. occidentalis subsp. hesperis. Longer chain groups were found in the petunia, tomato, and potato species studied. PMID:27262877

  12. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

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    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  13. Optimización de la conservación in vitro de germoplasma de Dioscorea spp por crecimiento mínimo

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    Lucía Candelaria Díaz Narváez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: “Optimización de la conservación in vitro de ñame”Título en ingles: Optimization of  in vitro conservation of Dioscorea spp germplasm by minimal growth.Título corto en ingles:  “Optimization of in vitro conservation of yam”Resumen:  El ñame Criollo (Dioscorea alata y el ñame Espino (Dioscorea rotundata se constituyen como las dos especies mayormente cultivadas en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Por esta razón en la Universidad de Sucre se han implementado técnicas para lograr su conservación mediante la propagación in vitro, sin embargo esta metodología conserva las accesiones por un periodo no mayor a los 4 meses, provocando continuos subcultivos, aumento de costos y mano de obra. Por ello la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo establecer medios de cultivo óptimos para la conservación in vitro por crecimiento mínimo de diferentes accesiones (D. alata y D. rotundata pertenecientes al banco de germoplasma de la Universidad de Sucre, durante un periodo de 8 meses. Esto mediante la modificación del medio de cultivo base MS; con los siguientes osmolitos: sacarosa, manitol y sorbitol. Se avaluaron 8 tratamientos (T en los siguientes porcentajes T1 (control(3:0:0, T2 (0:1,5:0, T3 (0:0:2, T4 (0:1,5:2, T5 (0:0:1 y T6 (0:0:3, T7 (0:1,5:1 y T8 (0:1,5:3. Cada 30 días se evaluó: supervivencia (%, hojas expandidas (%, longitud del tallo y raíz, número de nudos y raíces, oxidación (%, senescencia foliar (% y callo (%. Los resultados mostraron que las especies D. alata y D. rotundata, se conservan de forma óptima, en la combinación T4 (0:1,5:2, donde se evidencia un alto porcentaje de supervivencia, un mínimo porcentaje de senescencia foliar y un desarrollo restringido en el resto de variables. Garantizando así la disponibilidad y el desarrollo normal de las accesiones en un periodo superior a 4 meses.Palabras clave: ñame, manitol, sorbitol, sacarosa.Abstract: Dioscorea alata   cv.

  14. Precisiones histológicas y bioquímicas acerca de los ejemplares de Frenelopsis procedentes de Torrelaguna (Madrid

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    Álvarez Ramis, C.

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Different morphological features of the Frenelopsis from a Torrelaguna bassin (Madrid, Spain are described and compared with F. alata and F. oligostomata , studied by other authors. The Frenelopsis rests present, in the studied deposit, a remarkable polymorphism with respect 10 the dimensions of the leaves, but all the specimens studied are greatiy related to F. oligostomata . The chemical study of the organic constituents of the cutic1es shows a heterogeneous composition, being the major constituents an alkali-insoluble cutinized residue and a likehumic acid polyphenolic extractable fraction, Cuticles contains a certain proportion of a highly alterated lignin-like polymer, and minimal amounts of fulvic acids, nitrogenated compounds, free hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. KEY WORDS: Hystology, Biochemistry, Frenelopsis, Upper cretaceous, Palaeobotany, Humic substances.

    Son descritos diferentes aspectos morfológicos de los Frenelopsis del yacimiento de Torrelaguna, comparándose sus características con las descritas por otros autores para las especies F. alata y F. oligostomata . Los restos de Frenelopsis presentan, en el yacimiento estudiado, un notable polimorfismo respecto a las dimensiones del fronde; pero todos los ejemplares descritos poseen características muy similares a las de F. oligostomata . El estudio químico de los constituyentes orgánicos de las cutículas muestra una composición compleja, siendo los componentes mayoritarios un residuo cutinizado insoluble en álcalis y una fracción polifenólica extraíble de características similares a los ácidos húmicos. Los restos presentan una cierta proporción de polímeros similares a la lignina, aunque muy alterada, así como pequeñas cantidades de ácidos fúlvicos, compuestos nitrogenados, hidrocarburos libres y carbohidratos.

  15. Características físicas e químicas de frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado em três porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de frutas frescas do maracujá-amarelo valoriza a qualidade interna e externa dos frutos. Assim, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do porta-enxerto e do tipo de enxertia na qualidade dos frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2007, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram: P. edulis (maracujá-amarelo, P. alata (maracujá-doce e P. gibertii (maracujá-giberti, em dois tipos de enxertia: hipocotiledonar e convencional por garfagem tipo fenda cheia e um tratamento adicional, sem enxertia. Utilizou-se como copa o maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Avaliaram-se o comprimento, o diâmetro, a massa fresca e a classificação dos frutos no período de novembro de 2006 a abril de 2007, a massa e a espessura da casca dos frutos, o rendimento do suco, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e o ratio (SST/ATT dos frutos no mês de dezembro de 2006. O diâmetro e a massa fresca de frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas sobre P. gibertii foram inferiores em relação aos de plantas pé-franco e aos de plantas enxertadas sobre P. alata. Os maiores comprimentos de frutos foram encontrados em plantas não enxertadas. Os porta-enxertos utilizados não influenciaram no teor de SST, na ATT e no ratio. O método de enxertia não interfere no diâmetro, no comprimento, na massa fresca dos frutos, na massa e na espessura da casca, no rendimento do suco e no teor de SST.

  16. 国产决明属生理生化特性与系统分类的关系%Relationship between Biochemistry Characteristics and System Classification of Cassia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡静; 何家庆; 汪学敏; 舒畅; 吴玲

    2011-01-01

    以国产决明属(Cassia)4种植物为实验材料,采用愈创木酚法和聚丙烯酰胺垂直板凝胶电泳对其抗逆指标和过氧化物酶(POD)同工酶进行测定,分析其系统树与传统决明属系统分类之间的差异.结果表明:发芽1天的过氧化物酶活性和3天的MDA含量差异显著,可作为探讨其亲缘关系的指标之一.发现POD同工酶带12条,4种决明没有共同拥有的条带,决明属植物的特征性酶带主要分布在b区和a区.与传统分类不同,抗逆指标和同工酶分析结果都表明,槐叶决明(Cassia sophera)与豆茶决明(C.nomame)亲缘关系最近,翅荚决明(C.alata)次之,决明(C.tora)与其他种亲缘关系最远,属于另一支.%In order to draw a phylogenetic tree of 4 species of Cassia in China, the study used guaiacol method and polyacrylamide vertical slab gel electrophoresis to test the resistance indicators and peroxidase isozyme, and analyzed the differences between the result and traditional systematics. Peroxidase activity of 1 day, MDA of 3 days significantly differed among species, so it can be used as one of the indicators to explore their genetic relationship. 12 POD enzyme bands were found, characteristic enzyme bands were mainly in b-zone and a-zone. Differed from traditional systematics, both resistance indicators and POD zymogram revealed that Cassia sophera was closer to C. nomame than C. alata in systematics, while C. tora belonged to another branch.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of some Nigerian indigenous medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Obuotor, Efere M; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of 10 selected Nigerian medicinal plants-Psidium guajava, Alstonia boonei, Cassia alata, Newbouldia laevis, Spondias mombin, Globimetula cupulatum, Chromolaena odorata, Securidaca longepedunculata, Ocimum gratissimum, and Morinda lucida-widely used in ethnomedicine, were assessed for phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using seven different antioxidant assay methods. Phytochemical screening gave positive tests for steroids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids contained in the extracts. P. guajava contained the highest amount of total phenolics (380.08 +/- 4.40 mg/L gallic acid equivalents), and the highest amounts of total flavonoids were found in the leaf extracts of C. alata (275.16 +/- 1.62 microg/mL quercetin equivalents [QE]), C. odorata (272.12 +/- 2.32 microg/mL QE), and P. guajava (269.72 +/- 2.78 microg/mL QE). Percentage 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was highest in S. mombin (88.58 +/- 3.04%) and P. guajava (82.79 +/- 2.84%) and compared with values obtained for ascorbic acid and gallic acid. All the extracts, generally, had low nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, and G. cupulatum had the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (63.84 +/- 0.97%). The extracts in general demonstrated high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, with only M. lucida (38.74 +/- 1.99%) and A. boonei (47.16 +/- 0.59%) being exceptions. The reductive potential was highest in P. guajava (0.79 +/- 0.04) and least in S. longepedunculata (0.26 +/- 0.00). DPPH assay correlated well with total phenolic contents (r(2) = 0.76) and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.81) and fairly with lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2) = 0.51). There was a good correlation between total phenolic contents and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.79) and a fair correlation between total phenolic contents and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2

  18. 我国海域常见有毒水母的分类检索%Taxonomy Key of the Venomous Jellyfishes in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 张学雷; 宋洪军; 庞敏

    2013-01-01

    综合现有资料编制了我国海域常见的19种有毒水母种类的分类检索表.我国常见有毒水母分属于3纲8目14科17属,包括水螅水母类3种、管水母类2种、立方水母类2种、钵水母类12种,其中钵水母纲旗口水母目和根口水母目种类较多(各5种),其它目每目含1~2科且每科仅1属1种.对我国现有的水母分类体系中部分与国际通用体系不统一之处进行了厘正,如:火水母拉丁文种名应由Tamoya alata Uchida,1929厘正为Tamoya gargantua Haeckel,1880,建议将灯罩水母[Linuche draco (Haeckel,1880)]命名厘正为爪罩水母[Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz,1788)]等.%A taxonomy key for 19 species of common venomous jellyfishes in China sea was constructed based on the morphologic characteristics of different classes,orders,families,genera and species.There were 3 hydromedusa,2 siphonophore,2 cubomedusae and 12 scyphomedusae.More species belonged to the orders Semaeostomeae (5 species) and Rhizostomeae (5 species) of class Scyphozoa,and fewer (1 or 2 species) per the other orders.Some inconsistency of jellyfish taxonomy being used in China was detected and clarified,e.g.the abandoned name of Tamoya alata (Uchida,1829) should be replaced with Tamoya gargantua (Haeckel,1880),and the name of Linuchedraco (Haeckel,1880) was suggested to be replaced with the currently accepted name Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz,1788) following WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species).

  19. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

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    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  20. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs. PMID:1795521

  2. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health. PMID:27279259

  3. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  4. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  5. Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages along the Pondicherrye Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pitchai SAMPATHKUMAR; Mookapillai GOPINATH; Sekar JAYASUDHA; Amalanathan AROKIYASUNDRAM; Thiruvarasan LENIN; Thangavelu BALASUBRAMANIAN; Srinivasan BALAKRISHNAN; Krishnamoorthy KAMALAKANNAN; Rethinavelu SANKAR; Lakshmanan RAMKUMAR; Subramani RAMESH; Neelamegam KABILAN; Thambusamy SURESHKUMAR; Chellam THENMOZHI

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages were determined along the Pondicherry, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India. All the hydrographical parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients like nitrate, nitrite, inorganic phosphate and reactive silicate, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton assemblages were studied for a period of five months (May, August, September 2010, March and November 2011). Over 121 species of phytoplankton represented by 93 species of diatoms, 16 species of dinoflagellates, 9 species of blue-green algae, 2 species of greens and 1 species of silicoflagellate were recorded. High phytoplankton species diversity was found in March 2011 when salinity and nitrate concentrations were low and reactive silicate and inorganic phosphates were moderate. Species diversity was low during May 2010 when increased sea surface temperature, salinity and low nutrients availability were observed. Coscinodiscus centralis, Diatoma vulgaris and Proboscia alata were dominant, especially Coscinodiscus sp. distributed in all stations whereas Skeletonema costatum, Odontella sinensis and Ditylum brightwellii were abundant in August and September 2010. From principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, it is evident that variables like sea surface temperature and dissolved oxygen are the most important factors influencing the seasonal pattern of phytoplankton population.

  6. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  8. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Payne, Jennifer; Di Pietro, Antonio; Anderson, Marilyn A; Plummer, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An) O-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (KO) mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC). An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2. PMID:27598152

  9. Profitability of yam production in Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asala S. W.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yam production is a component of farming activities by most farmers in the Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. However, many farmers do not seem to find farming a financially rewarding exercise. This study therefore aimed to find out the profit margin of yam production by farmers in this zone. A survey of farmers’ fields was carried out in 2013 in five major yam producing areas in Nigeria, namely; Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Niger Nassarawa States and Abuja Federal Capital Territory. Fifty four (54 respondents were recruited into the study sample using structured questionnaire and interview method. The farmers cultivated mainly Dioscorea rotundata Poir (white or guinea yam for commercial purposes while D. alata L. (water yam, D. cayenensis Lam (yellow yam, D. dumetorum Kunth (bitter yam and D. bulbifera L. (aerial yam are intercropped with D. rotundata for home consumption only. Yam production includes cultural operations such as heap preparation, staking and weed control. Some of the major constraints identified by the farmers were high cost of input such as planting materials (yam seed or setts, unreliable source of credit and unpredictable weather conditions. Net income benefit analysis revealed a positive return per hectare of land under yam production. The production of yam on one hectare of farm field will translate to a net profit of ₦450,000.00 equivalent to US $2,000.00. It was recommended that yam production could be a financially profitable endeavor if cost-reducing steps are engaged.

  10. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  11. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-10-17

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum).

  12. Larvicidal activity of metabolites from the endophytic Podospora sp. against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasyoh, Josphat C; Dittrich, Birger; Schueffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    In a screening for natural products with mosquito larvicidal activities, the endophytic fungus Podospora sp. isolated from the plant Laggera alata (Asteraceae) was conspicuous. Two xanthones, sterigmatocystin (1) and secosterigmatocystin (2), and an anthraquinone derivative (3) 13-hydroxyversicolorin B were isolated after fermentation on M(2) medium. These compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis and examined against third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. The results demonstrated that compound 1 was the most potent one with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 13.3 and 73.5 ppm, respectively. Over 95% mortality was observed at a concentration 100 ppm after 24 h. These results compared farvorably with the commercial larvicide pylarvex® that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. Compound 3 was less potent and had an LC(50) of 294.5 ppm and over 95% mortality was achieved at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Secosterigmatocystin (2) revealed relatively weak activity and therefore LC values were not determined.

  13. EFEITOS DA ESPESSURA DAS FATIAS E PRÉ-COZIMENTO NA QUALIDADE DE SALGADINHOS FRITOS (CHIPS DE TUBEROSAS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. ROGÉRIO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O consumo de alimentos fritos e pré-fritos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. As culturas de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, taro (Colocasia esculenta e inhame (Dioscorea alata apresentam potencial significativo de crescimento como matérias-primas industriais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos da espessura das fatias e pré-cozimento na qualidade de salgadinhos fritos dessas tuberosas tropicais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a espessura das fatias é um fator determinante sobre a absorção de gordura e aceitação do produto em todas as tuberosas analisadas, sendo que com a espessura de dois milímetros ocorreu uma menor absorção de gordura para todas as tuberosas. O pré-cozimento das fatias interfere no rendimento do processo. O processamento das tuberosas levou á alterações de cor nos produtos finais.

  14. The influence of conventional heating and microwave irradiation on the resolution of (RS)-sec-butylamine catalyzed by free or immobilized lipases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilissao, Cristiane; Nascimento, Maria da Graca, E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis,SC (Brazil); Carvalho, Patricia de Oliveira [Curso de Farmacia, Universidade Sao Francisco, Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The lipases CAL-B, PSL, PSL-C, PSL-D, and A. niger lipase, free or immobilized in starch (obtained from two types of yam, known in Brazil as 'cara' (Discorea alata L.) and 'inhame' (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) or gelatin films, were used in the acylation of (RS)-sec-butylamine with different acyl donors in various organic solvents applying conventional heating (CH) or microwave (MW) irradiation. In the case of free A. niger lipase, the conversion degrees were three times higher using MW irradiation when compared to conventional heating at 35 deg C. Using free A. niger lipase, the (R)-amide was obtained with a conversion degree of 21%, resulting in ee{sub p}> 99% and E-value (enantioselectivity value) > 200, in 1 min of reaction under MW irradiation. When the A. niger lipase was immobilized in yam starch films, the (R)-amide was obtained in moderate conversions of 8-25% after 3 or 5 min of reaction under MW irradiation, but with higher selectivity (eep > 99% and E > 200) in comparison with the free form (conversion degree of 45%, eep 81% and E value of 18). (author)

  15. 基因测序技术在中药质量研究中的应用(Ⅱ)——山药基原的DNA测序鉴别%Application of gene technology in quality control of Chinese materia medica Ⅱ.Identification of Chinese Rhizoma Dioscoreae by DNA sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍; 何报作; 曹晖

    2001-01-01

    目的分析正品山药Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.与地方习用品广山药D.persimilis Prain et Burkill、土山药D.japaonica Thunb.和方山药D.alata L.的核基因组18S rRNA基因序列,为山药基原鉴别及品质评价提供分子依据.方法采用PCR直接测序技术测定山药及其地方习用品的18S rRNA基因核苷酸序列并作序列同源性分析.结果山药、广山药和土山药的18S rRNA序列长度均为1 810 bp,而方山药为1 807 bp.根据排序比较,广山药与正品山药的18S rRNA序列完全相同,而与土山药和方山药的序列同源性分别为99.89%和97.51%.结论 DNA测序技术可成为山药基原鉴定准确而有效的分子方法.

  16. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  17. Conservação de maracujá-doce pelo uso de cera e choque a frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Alessandra Pereira da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do choque a frio e da cera, na conservação pós-colheita do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander, verificando as principais alterações físicas e químicas durante o armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, foram desinfetados com hipoclorito de sódio e em seguida, submetidos aos tratamentos: testemunha; cera Sta fresh (1:2; choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas + cera Sta fresh (1:2; choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas. Os frutos foram avaliados a cada 6 dias quanto a perda de peso, textura, rendimento de suco, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável. Após 30 dias a 9°C e 85-90% UR, pode-se concluir que o tratamento mais adequado à conservação do maracujá-doce foi o que utilizou a cera Sta Fresh. Os tratamentos com choque a frio e com choque a frio + cera não foram eficientes para manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita do maracujá-doce.

  18. Labisia pumila extract down-regulates hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression and corticosterone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazliana, Mansor; Gu, Harvest F; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of a standardized Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) extract on body weight change, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) expressions and corticosterone (CORT) level in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The decoction of LPva has been used for generations among Malay women in Malaysia to maintain a healthy reproductive system.Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley OVX rats were treated orally with LPva extract (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg/day) or estrogen replacement (ERT) for 30 days. Sham operated rats were used as controls. Compared to untreated OVX rats, LPva-treated rats showed less weight gain and had significantly down-regulated HSD11B1 mRNA in liver tissues. HSD11B1 mRNA in adipose tissues increased by 55% (p rats but normalized in rats treated with LPva. Similarly, there was significant down-regulation (p rats. This is the first study ever conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of LPva in relation to weight gain caused by estrogen insufficiency. Results implied that the bioactive components in LPva extract affect not only HSD11B1 expressions in both adipose and liver tissues but also decrease circulating CORT. The extract should be explored for its potential use as a natural remedy for weight management. PMID:21833773

  19. Species diversity and regeneration of old-growth seasonally dry Shorea robusta forests following gap formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indra Prasad Sapkota; Mulualem Tigabu; Per Christer Odén

    2009-01-01

    Diversity and regeneration of woody species were investigated in two ecological niches viz. gap and intact vegetation in old-growth seasonally dry Shorea robusta (Gaertn. f.) forests in Nepal. We also related varieties of diversity measures and regeneration attributes to gap characteristics. Stem density of tree and shrub components is higher in the gap than in the intact vegetation. Seedling densities of S. robusta and Terminalia alata (B. Heyne ex Roth.) are higher in the gap than in the intact vegetation, while contrary result is observed for T. bellirica (Gaertn. ex Roxb.) and Syzigium cumini (L. Skeels) in term of seedling density. The complement of Simpson index, Evenness index, and species-individual ratio in the seedling layer are lower in the gap than the intact vegetation. Gap size can explain species richness and species establishment rate. Gaps created by multiple tree falls in different years have higher seedling density of S. robusta than gaps created by single and/or multiple tree falls in the same year. In conclusion, gaps maintain species diversity by increasing seedling density, and favor regeneration of Sal forests. In addition to gap size, other gap attributes also affect species diversity and regeneration.

  20. Intrafloral differentiation of stamens in heterantherous fowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Lei GU; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Flowers that have heteromorphic stamens (heterantherous flowers) have intrigued many researchers ever since the phenomenon was discovered in the 19th century. The morphological differentiation in androecia has been suggested as a reflection of "labor division" in pollination in which one type of stamens attracts pollina-tors and satisfies their demand for pollen as food and the other satisfies the plant's need for safe gamete dispersal. The extent and patterns of stamen differentiation differ notably among taxa with heterantherous flowers. Seven species with heteromorphic stamens in three genera were sampled from Leguminosae and Melastomataceae, and the morphological difference of androecia, pollen content, pollen histochemistry and viability, pollen micro-morphology, as well as the main pollinators were examined and compared. Pollen number differs significantly between stamen sets of the same flower in most species investigated, and a correlation of pollen number and anther size was substantiated. Higher pollen viabilities were found in the long (pollinating) stamens of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. and S. bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Dimorphic pollen exine ornamentation is reported here for the first time in Fordiophytonfaberi Stapf. The height of stigma and anther tips of the long stamens in natural conditions was proved to be highly correlated, supporting the hypothesis that they contact similar areas of the pollinator's body.

  1. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  2. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  3. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  4. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

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    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  5. Enhancement of leaf gas exchange and primary metabolites under carbon dioxide enrichment up-regulates the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21544039

  6. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

  7. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  8. Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  9. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  10. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants. PMID:21954355

  11. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  12. EVALUATION OF VEGETABLE EXTRACTS FROM THE SEMI-ARID AS NATURAL pH INDICATOR

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    Sebastiana Estefana Torres Brilhante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the various difficulties to expose the contents of the subject of chemistry is a constant search for alternative materials to facilitate learning. This may partly be due to chemical science to be a significant practical character. However, due to professional educational institutions and material limitations ends up being passed on to the student of predominantly theoretical way, requiring a high degree of abstraction and consequently in their disinterest the same. In this context , we investigated the use of ethanol extracts of various plants, such as: Jitirana (Ipomoea glabra , Íxora (Ixora coccínea, Centro (Centrosema brasilianum and Candlebush (Senna alata flowers, Beet (Beta vulgaris L. fruit and Urucum (Bixa orellana seeds as an acids and bases natural indicator, from laboratory tests capable of identifying properties demonstrate the pH. Initially we evaluated the variation in the coloration of extracts using for this buffer solutions at pH 3, 7 and 12. Among the cited vegetable flowers Jitirana, ixora and Centro presented activities relevant indicator as staining variants between pH 2:13. The extracts of plants were further added in glass tubes containing buffer solutions with a pH ranging from 2 to 13. The change in color of the extracts showed good activity has the same pH indicator.

  13. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  14. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  15. Helminth fauna of Falconiform and Strigiform birds of prey in Galicia, Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, M L; Alvarez, F; Barreiro, G; Leiro, J

    2004-02-01

    This is a survey of the helminth fauna of 285 individuals of 14 species of birds of prey (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) from Galicia (northwest Spain), namely Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, A. gentilis, Milvus migrans, M. milvus, Pernis apivorus, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, F. peregrinus, F. subbuteo, Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus and Athene noctua. A total of 15 helminth species were detected, namely 8 nematodes ( Eucoleus dispar, Capillaria tenuissima, Synhimantus laticeps, Microtetrameres sp., Physaloptera alata, Procyrnea leptoptera, Hovorkonema variegatum and Porrocaecum angusticolle), 4 cestodes ( Cladotaenia globifera, Paruterina candelabraria and Mesocestoides sp.), 2 trematodes ( Neodiplostomum attenuatum and Strigea falconis), and 1 acanthocephalan ( Centrorhynchus globocaudatus). The helminth communities observed were basically similar, although there were marked differences in species richness, which was higher in falconiforms (except for A. gentilis) than in strigiforms. More specifically, species richness was highest in B. buteo (13 species), followed by A. nisus (11 species). In the falconiforms, the helminth species present generally exhibited a clear relationship with host diet. In the strigiforms, by contrast, species richness was lower than expected given the host's diet, suggesting that a different explanation is needed. PMID:14714181

  16. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  17. Decline of Indigenous Crop Diversity in Colonial and Postcolonial Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global influence of the wealthiest countries drives trends in crop diversity in the developing countries. In many countries, European colonization resulted in cultural disintegration and erosion of indigenous knowledge that made citizens lose interest in their own cultural heritage and adopt imperial know-how. During the same time, native biodiversity that was once maintained by the tradition it shaped declined. Alien crops prospered and finally dominated landscapes. In this paper, I looked at the apparent decline of indigenous crop diversity in Rwanda in the light of the “cultural disturbance” that occurred in the shadow of the European colonization. An integrated research methodology that combined desk-based, socioeconomic, and vegetation surveys was used. Indigenous crops now on the fringe of extinction and, thus, requiring immediate attention from conservation policy makers and managers were identified. These include Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. “inkoli” (Leguminosae, Coleus dysentericus Bak. “impombo” (Labiatae, Dioscorea alata Linn. “ibikoro” (Araceae, a sweet cultivar of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl. “bunure” (Cucurbitaceae, white cultivar of Sorghum bicolor (Linn. Moench “nyiragikori” (Gramineae, Amaranthus graecizans Linn. “inyabutongo” (Amaranthaceae, Eleusine coracana (Linn. Gaertn. “uburo” (Gramineae, and traditional cultivars of Zea mays Linn. “nyakagori” (Gramineae and Solanum tuberosum Linn. “kandore” (Solanaceae.

  18. Food plants and life histories of sawflies of the families Argidae and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera in Costa Rica, a supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food plants and information on life history are presented for six species of Argidae and four species of Tenthredinidae in Costa Rica. The Argidae include cocoons of Atomacera josefernandezi Smith, sp. n., found on Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae and likely feeding on its leaves before pupation, and larvae of Eriglenum tristum Smith feeding on Machaerium seemanii Benth. Ex Seem. (Fabaceae, Ptenos leucopodus (Cameron feeding on Inga oerstediana Benth. and I. vera Willd. (Fabaceae, Ptilia peleterii (Gray feeding on Cnestidium rufescens (Connaraceae, and Scobina lepida (Klug and S. notaticollis (Konow feeding on Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae. The Tenthredinidae include larvae of Dochmioglene crassa (Cameron feeding on the fern Lomariopsis vestita E. Fourn. (Lomariopsidaceeae, Dochmiogleme Smith03 feeding on Blechnum occidentale L. (Blechnaceae, Waldheimia laeta (Cameron feeding on Cissus alata Jacq. (Vitaceae, and Waldheimia lucianocapellii Smith, sp. n., feeding on Davilla nitida (Vahl Kubitzki (Dilleniaceae. Waldheimia lucianocapellii is described from specimens from both Panama and Costa Rica. Selandria crassa Cameron, 1883 is a comb. n. in Dochmioglene.

  19. The influence of conventional heating and microwave irradiation on the resolution of (RS)-sec-butylamine catalyzed by free or immobilized lipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipases CAL-B, PSL, PSL-C, PSL-D, and A. niger lipase, free or immobilized in starch (obtained from two types of yam, known in Brazil as 'cara' (Discorea alata L.) and 'inhame' (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) or gelatin films, were used in the acylation of (RS)-sec-butylamine with different acyl donors in various organic solvents applying conventional heating (CH) or microwave (MW) irradiation. In the case of free A. niger lipase, the conversion degrees were three times higher using MW irradiation when compared to conventional heating at 35 deg C. Using free A. niger lipase, the (R)-amide was obtained with a conversion degree of 21%, resulting in eep> 99% and E-value (enantioselectivity value) > 200, in 1 min of reaction under MW irradiation. When the A. niger lipase was immobilized in yam starch films, the (R)-amide was obtained in moderate conversions of 8-25% after 3 or 5 min of reaction under MW irradiation, but with higher selectivity (eep > 99% and E > 200) in comparison with the free form (conversion degree of 45%, eep 81% and E value of 18). (author)

  20. A Sequence-Independent Strategy for Amplification and Characterisation of Episomal Badnavirus Sequences Reveals Three Previously Uncharacterised Yam Badnaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bömer, Moritz; Turaki, Aliyu A; Silva, Gonçalo; Kumar, P Lava; Seal, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are potentially hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species (genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae), but their detection is complicated by the existence of integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. To date, only two badnavirus genomes have been characterised, namely, Dioscorea bacilliform AL virus (DBALV) and Dioscorea bacilliform SN virus (DBSNV). A further 10 tentative species in yam have been described based on their partial reverse transcriptase (RT)-ribonuclease H (RNaseH) sequences, generically referred to here as Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs). Further characterisation of DBV species is necessary to determine which represent episomal viruses and which are only present as integrated badnavirus sequences in some yam genomes. In this study, a sequence-independent multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) method was evaluated for selective amplification of episomal DBV genomes. This resulted in the identification and characterisation of nine complete genomic sequences (7.4-7.7 kbp) of existing and previously undescribed DBV phylogenetic groups from Dioscorea alata and Dioscorea rotundata accessions. These new yam badnavirus genomes expand our understanding of the diversity and genomic organisation of DBVs, and assist the development of improved diagnostic tools. Our findings also suggest that mixed badnavirus infections occur relatively often in West African yam germplasm. PMID:27399761

  1. Application of biotechnology and mutation techniques for anthracnose resistance and compactness in Dioscorea sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High quality yam corms (Dioscorea alata), clone 5969, were collected so they would germinate in a greenhouse to obtain nodal segments to be tested in vitro. For regeneration, the medium used Murashige and Skoog, modified with Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and activated charcoal. LD-50 was determined to be between 10 and 20 Gy, and one hundred explants were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy and were multiplied up to M1V6. Then, three different acclimatization tests were carried out. Throughout these tests, attention was focused on survival, number of leaves, and initial and final height. Meanwhile, leaves infected with anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides) were collected. The fungus was isolated, and acervulum and mycelium were produced to obtain conidia. Later, single spore cultures underwent a molecular analysis. The acclimated and irradiated plants were inoculated with 0.5x106/ml of Colletotrichum gloesporioides conidia. These plants were placed within a humid chamber for 48 hours, and survival and the percentage of damaged plants were observed for two months. (author)

  2. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y-H [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Tseng, C-Y [300 University Road, Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Chen Wenlung [Department of Chemistry, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. {approx}33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. {approx}31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in {alpha}-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel {beta}- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  3. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  4. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ∼33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ∼31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B

  5. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  6. Amazonian dark Earth and plant species from the Amazon region contribute to shape rhizosphere bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lima, Amanda; Cannavan, Fabiana Souza; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-05-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) or Terra Preta de Índio formed in the past by pre-Columbian populations are highly sustained fertile soils supported by microbial communities that differ from those extant in adjacent soils. These soils are found in the Amazon region and are considered as a model soil when compared to the surrounding and background soils. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ADE and its surrounding soil on the rhizosphere bacterial communities of two leguminous plant species that frequently occur in the Amazon region in forest sites (Mimosa debilis) and open areas (Senna alata). Bacterial community structure was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and bacterial community composition by V4 16S rRNA gene region pyrosequencing. T-RFLP analysis showed effect of soil types and plant species on rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Differential abundance of bacterial phyla, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes, revealed that soil type contributes to shape the bacterial communities. Furthermore, bacterial phyla such as Firmicutes and Nitrospira were mostly influenced by plant species. Plant roots influenced several soil chemical properties, especially when plants were grown in ADE. These results showed that differences observed in rhizosphere bacterial community structure and composition can be influenced by plant species and soil fertility due to variation in soil attributes. PMID:25103911

  7. Relapsing and remitting scapular winging in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A; Alexander, James R

    2010-06-01

    Scapular winging (scapula alata) is a condition in which the scapula is rotated or displaced away from the body. The nature of this rotation or displacement can vary depending on the origin. There are many different causes of scapular winging including neurogenic, structural, muscular, and bursal (Frontera, Silver, Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Philadelphia, Hanley and Belfus, 2002, pp 99-102). Structural causes are not frequently at the top of a clinician's differential diagnosis, but they must always be considered. We review the case of a teenage boy who developed intermittent scapular winging after tackling his brother in a backyard football game. His symptoms resolved and recurred over a period of 9 mos. Approximately 1 yr after the initial episode of winging, during a recurrence of his symptoms, a repeat shoulder x-ray was ordered. This study revealed a previously undetected osteochondroma. The patient subsequently underwent resection of the inferior angle of his right scapula and had complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:20357648

  8. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  9. A suggested local regions in the Southern Gulf of Mexico using a diatom database (1979-2002) and oceanic hidrographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licea, Sergio; Zamudio, Ma E; Moreno-Ruiz, J L; Luna, R

    2011-07-01

    A diatom data-base of 255 species obtained from 14 oceanographic cruises (14801 entries of 647 sampling sites) together with the analysis of oceanic features were used to establish four local regions in the southern Gulf of Mexico. In addition, common species for each region were designated. This study is based on the application of cluster analysis and the species frequency data. Material for this undertaking consisted of water and net samples obtained between June 1979 and December 2002. Results show that the most frequent species (> 40%) were: Asterionellopsis glacialis, Bacteriastrum delicatulum, B. hyalinum, Chaetoceros affinis, C. coarctatus, C. compresus, C. curvisetus, C. danicus, C. decipiens, C. diversus, C. lorenzianus, C. pelagicus, C. peruvianus, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Guinardia flaccida, Hemiaulus hauckii, H. membranaceus, H. sinensis, Leptocylindrus danicus, Neocalyptrella robusta, Nitzschia bicapitata, Pleurosigma diverse-striatum, Proboscia alata, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, Rhizosolenia imbricata, R. setigera, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema bacillare, T frauenfeldii, T nitzschioides and Thalassiosira eccentrica. The species composition for each region and season are discussed. Itis concluded that sampling site assemblages are related to oceanographic conditions. A total list of species composition is given, forty-seven species taxa being new records for this area. PMID:22315823

  10. Enraizamento de estacas de espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. no inverno e no verão Cutting rooting of passion fruit plant species (Passiflora spp. in the winter and in the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro está entre as principais frutíferas cultivadas no País, mas apresenta limitações no cultivo, ocasionando baixa produtividade, que pode ser superada através do uso da estaquia, clonando as melhores matrizes de alta produtividade. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas no inverno e no verão, utilizando as espécies comerciais (P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener e P. alata Dryander e os porta-enxertos (P. giberti N.E.Brown, P. nitida H.B.K. e P. setacea D.C.. Este experimento foi realizado no período de julho de 2001 a março de 2002, em câmara de nebulização intermitente, sob condições de telado (50% de sombreamento. As estacas foram coletadas de plantas adultas oriundas do Banco de Germoplasma Ativo (BAG do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP (FCAV/UNESP e de pomares comerciais, em julho de 2001 e em janeiro de 2002. A estaquia foi feita com a coleta da parte intermediária de ramos em estádio de crescimento vegetativo, no inverno e no verão. As estacas herbáceas tinham aproximadamente 15cm de comprimento, três nós e duas meias - folhas. As estacas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 500; 1.000 e 2.000mg.L-1, por cinco segundos, e plantadas em bandejas plásticas (40x30x10cm com vermiculita de textura média, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. Houve influência do AIB e da época do ano no enraizamento, variando de acordo com a espécie. Sendo assim, P. giberti obteve o melhor desempenho em relação às demais espécies, com 73% de enraizamento no verão. A percentagem de enraizamento foi melhor para P. alata (58% e para P. nitida (40% no inverno e sem AIB. P. edulis f. flavicarpa enraizou apenas 23% no inverno, e P. setacea não enraizou. O número e o comprimento de raízes foram maiores no inverno. A sobrevivência de plantas n

  11. Produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo por enxertia hipocotiledonar sobre sete espécies de passifloras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. é a principal Passifloraceae cultivada no Brasil, e seu cultivo tem encontrado algumas dificuldades, principalmente no que concerne à longevidade dos pomares, a qual tem sido reduzida devido à incidência de doenças e nematoides que atacam o seu sistema radicular. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer tecnologias para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, através da enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre sete porta-enxertos. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: P. edulis f. flavicarpa; P. caerulea; P. alata; P. gibertii; P. coccinea; P. cincinnata e P. setacea. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 36 repetições para cada porta-enxerto. As características avaliadas foram: percentual de sobrevivência dos enxertos, altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro do porta-enxerto. A metodologia de enxertia hipocotiledonar testada foi bem-sucedida para a maioria das espécies testadas. Destacaram-se os porta-enxertos: P. caerulea; P. gibertii; P. cincinnata e P. flavicarpa, tanto pelo alto índice de pegamento como pela precocidade na obtenção da muda.

  12. Irradiation effects on the active substances of Passiflora spp; Efeito da irradiacao nos principios ativos de Passiflora spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Rela, Paulo Rela; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Freitas, Paulo C. D.; Bacchi, Elfriede M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: lenach@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    Plants are used as medicines and foods since the old times, acting and influencing significantly in the men/vegetal relation. Nowadays it is increasing the interest for phytotherapic pharmaceuticals and natural active principles, as alkalis, flavonoids, essential oils, tanning barks and others. The concern with the microbe contamination of the vegetable raw material is object of studies as well as the development of appropriate techniques for the reduction of these microorganisms. Thus being, the irradiation process is recognized as safe for an enormous variety of products and applications. It is effective in the reduction of the growth of pathogenic organisms and in the increase of the useful life of the nourishing products, for example. With intention to observe the possible modifications in the chemical constituent of vegetal dyes of maracock (Passiflora edulis and P. alata) caused by the gamma radiation in the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy. After the extraction of the dust of the vegetal drug for the percolating process, the dye was submitted to the irradiation at a Gamma Cell source of {sup 60}Co and using its technique of chromatography in thin layer and the reading of the absorption in specter UV was possible to observe that they had not substantial alterations in the chromatographic profiles and specters UV of the solutions submitted to the different doses.

  13. Seasonal and spatial variations of macro- and megabenthic community characteristics in two sections of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xinzheng; Ma, Lin; Dong, Dong; Kou, Qi; Sui, Jixing; Gan, Zhibin; Wang, Hongfa

    2016-10-01

    In spring and summer 2011, the macro- and megabenthic fauna in two sections of the East China Sea were investigated using an Agassiz net trawl to detect the seasonal and spatial variations of benthic community characteristics and the relation to environmental variables. The total number of species increased slightly from spring (131 species) to summer (133) whereas the percentage of Mollusca decreased significantly. The index of relative importance (IRI) indicated that the top five important species changed completely from spring to summer. Species number, abundance and biomass in summer were significantly higher than in spring, but no significant difference was observed among areas (coastal, transitional and oceanic areas, divided basically from inshore to offshore). Species richness (d), diversity (H') and evenness (J') showed no significant seasonal or spatial variations. Cluster analysis and nMDS ordination identified three benthic communities from inshore to offshore, corresponding to the three areas. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the overall significant difference in community structure between seasons and among areas. K-dominance curves revealed the high intrinsic diversity in the offshore area. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the coastal community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in spring, but negatively in summer; oceanic community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in both seasons. Species such as Coelorhynchus multispinulosus, Neobythites sivicola, Lepidotrigla alata, Solenocera melantho, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Oratosquilla gonypetes and Spiropagurus spiriger occurred exclusively in the offshore oceanic area and their presence may reflect the influence of the offshore Kuroshio Current.

  14. Heterologous primer transferability and access to microsatellite loci polymorphism in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (Passiflora setacea DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primer pairs that access microsatellite loci, initially constructed through the genome of Passiflora edulis Sims flavicarpa and P. alata, were tested concerning their ability to access microsatellite loci in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (P. setacea individuals. Seven out of the thirty one primer pairs tested were able to access DNA polymorphism in the genome of this wild Passiflora species, by evaluating six natural populations, located in a transition area between the biomes Caatinga and Cerrado, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The number of alleles/loci was small, oscillating from 1 to 4. The average heterozygosity observed per locus in all populations ranged from 0.13 to 0.40. There was transference of heterologous microsatellite primer pairs from the Passiflora genus to ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree, constituting a new set of primers that access random co-dominant locus in this species, useful for conservationist purposes and pre-improvement of ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree.

  15. 黑河沿江地域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬寄生蠕虫区系调查%Investigation of parasitic helminth fauna in dog at Heihe river valley and Bulageweishensike city, Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑河沿江地域(爱辉区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维中斯克市寄生蠕虫调查结果,共剖检44只犬,经鉴定,寄生蠕虫的感染率为100%,分别属于3纲、9科、10属,其中吸虫4种为华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis ) .日本棘隙吸虫(Echinochasmus japonicus ) .横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai ) .有翼翼形吸虫(Alaria alata ) ;绦虫3种为泡状带绦虫(Taenia hydatigena ) .线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus ) ,犬复孔绦虫(Dipylidium caninum ) ;线虫3种为犬弓首蛔虫( Toxocara canis ) .犬钩口线虫(Ancylostoma caninum ) .旋毛形线虫( Trichinella spiralis ) .其中以犬弓首蛔虫感染率最高为68.18%,华枝睾吸虫27.27%,线中殖孔绦虫22.72%,旋毛形线虫13.64%.

  16. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections. PMID:27078664

  17. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  18. Screening of cassava and yam cultivars for resistance to anthracnose using toxic metabolites of colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, N A

    2001-01-01

    Collectotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis and C. gloeosporioides, causal agents of cassava (Manihot spp.) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) anthracnose diseases, respectively, produce toxic metabolites in culture that fluoresce at 254 nm and 366 nm, producing bands with Rf of 0.65 and 7.0, respectively. Symptoms induced on yam and cassava by the extracted metabolites were similar to those induced by the pathogens. Twenty-four clones of tropical D. rotundata (TDr), D. alata (TDa), D. esculenta (TDe), and D. cavenensis (TDc) were screened by applying toxic metabolites of C. gloeosporioides to their leaves and stems. Only TDr131, TDe179 and TDc750 were resistant. Other clones were susceptible to varying degrees. Nineteen of the 45 clones of M. esculenta were resistant to varying degrees of toxic metabolites of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. Results from in vitro screening of' cassava and yam clones using toxic metabolites compared favourably with field screening based on natural epidemics. Using toxic metabolites appears to be a more effective technique for screening for disease resistance than conventional inoculation with plant pathogens.

  19. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them. PMID:27447205

  20. Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages along the Pondicherry–Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India

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    Pitchai Sampathkumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages were determined along the Pondicherry, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India. All the hydrographical parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients like nitrate, nitrite, inorganic phosphate and reactive silicate, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton assemblages were studied for a period of five months (May, August, September 2010, March and November 2011. Over 121 species of phytoplankton represented by 93 species of diatoms, 16 species of dinoflagellates, 9 species of blue-green algae, 2 species of greens and 1 species of silicoflagellate were recorded. High phytoplankton species diversity was found in March 2011 when salinity and nitrate concentrations were low and reactive silicate and inorganic phosphates were moderate. Species diversity was low during May 2010 when increased sea surface temperature, salinity and low nutrients availability were observed. Coscinodiscus centralis, Diatoma vulgaris and Proboscia alata were dominant, especially Coscinodiscus sp. distributed in all stations whereas Skeletonema costatum, Odontella sinensis and Ditylum brightwellii were abundant in August and September 2010. From principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, it is evident that variables like sea surface temperature and dissolved oxygen are the most important factors influencing the seasonal pattern of phytoplankton population.

  1. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2007-11-01

    Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45 kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The amino acid sequences of mature CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 (436 and 445 residues, respectively) share significant homology with three known proteins: CqTX-A from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, CrTXs from Carybdea rastoni and CaTX-A from Carybdea alata, all of which are lethal, haemolytic box jellyfish toxins. Multiple sequence alignment of the five jellyfish proteins has identified several short, but highly conserved regions of amino acids that coincide with a predicted transmembrane spanning region, referred to as TSR1, which may be involved in a pore-forming mechanism of action. Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A. PMID:17688901

  2. Phytoplankton Assemblage of Yangtze River Estuary and the Adjacent East China Sea in Summer, 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Qingshan; SUN Jun; SHEN Zhiliang; SONG Shuqun; WANG Min

    2006-01-01

    A cruise was conducted from late August to early September 2004 with the intention of obtaining an interdisciplinary understanding of the Yangtze River Estuary including the biological, chemical and physical subjects. Water sample analysis indicated that total phytoplankton species richness was 137. Of them 81 were found in Bacillariophyta and 48 in Pyrrophyta, accounting for 59.1% and 35.0% respectively. The average cell abundance of surface water samples was 8.8 ×104 cells L-1, with the maximum, 102.9 × 104 cells L- 1, encountered in the area (31.75°N, 122.33°E) and the minimum, 0.2× 104 cells L-1, in (30.75°N, 122.17°E). The dominant species at most stations were Skeletonema costatum and Proboscia alata f. gracillima with the dominance of 0.35 and 0.27. Vertical distribution analysis indicated that obvious stratification of cell abundance and dominant species was found in the representative stations of 5, 18 and 33. Shannon-Wiener index and evenness of phytoplankton assemblage presented negative correlation with the cell abundance, with the optimum appearing in (30.75°N, 122.67°E). According to the PCA analysis of the environmental variables, elevated nutrients of nitrate, silicate and phosphate through river discharge were mainly responsible for the phytoplankton bloom in this area.

  3. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material.

  4. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  5. 决明查尔酮合成酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a Chalone Synthase Gene of Cassia tora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖海; 周嘉裕

    2008-01-01

    以决明(Cassia tora)为实验材料,利用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从决明嫩叶中克隆出查尔酮合成酶(Chal-one synthase,CHS)基因,其cDNA全长为1 459 bp,编码一个由390个氨基酸残基组成的多肽.氨基酸序列分析表明,决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中含有44.61%的中性疏水氨基酸,29.74%的中性亲水氨基酸,12.56%的酸性氨基酸和13.O8%的碱性氨基酸.决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中具有CHS家族酶系的氨基酸保守残基,包括结合底物CoA的结合残基及催化聚酮合成的催化残基,表明其可能参与聚酮化合物的合成.决明与其它植物CHS的氨基酸序列的进化分析表明,其与同为豆科决明属的翼叶决明(Cassia alata)的同源性较近,并且CHS家族可以分为CHS亚家族与非CHS亚家族.将得到的序列提交GenBank,登录号为EU430077.%Using Cassia tara as material,a cDNA encoding chalone synthase (CHS) was cloned from tender leaves of Cassia tara by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CHS from Cassia tara had 1 459 bp with an open reading frame encoding 390 amino acids of protein. There were 44.61% of neutral hydrophobic residues,29.74% of neutral hydrophilic residues,12.56% of acid residues,and 13.08% of alkaline residues in the CHS amino acid sequence. It was suggested that the CHS from Cassia tara might be involved with the biosynthesis of polyketide since it maintained the same functional regions involved with CoA binding site and catalytic residues conserved in the CHS-superfamily enzymes. Furthermore, phylogenic analysis on the amino acid sequence of CHS from Cassia tara with other plants showed that Cassia tara was closely related to Cassia alata,and CHS-superfamily enzymes. They could be grouped into CHS-subfamily and non CHS-subfamily. The accession number of CHS from Cassia tara in GenBank was EU430077.

  6. Crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes em função da calagem Growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings as a function of liming

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    Elda Bonilha Assis Fonseca

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as respostas em crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Dryand. propagado por sementes, quando cultivado sob diferentes níveis de saturação por bases em solos representativos das regiões produtoras de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos envolveram dois solos (LATOSSOLO VERMELHO AMARELO distrófico - LVAd e LATOSSOLO VERMELHO distrófico - LVd, quatro níveis de saturação por bases (40, 60, 80 e 100% mais dois tratamentos adicionais (LVAd sem calagem e LVd sem calagem. Aos 150 dias, determinaram-se o comprimento das hastes, número de folhas por haste, pesos de matéria seca de parte aérea e de raízes e relação raiz/parte aérea. Concluiu-se que, até 150 dias, o maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes apresentou maior crescimento vegetativo quando cultivado no LVd, em comparação ao LVAd, com ou sem calagem, e tolerou solos com baixos níveis de saturação por bases; o aumento do nível de saturação por bases no LVd reduziu o crescimento vegetativo do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes, enquanto no LVAd, não influenciou o crescimento vegetativo.ABSTRACT - The objective for this work was to evaluate the growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Dryand. under different base saturation levels in representative soils of Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried in the greenhouse of the Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The statistical design used was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 4 + 2, with four repetitions. The treatments involved two soil classes (Distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol - LVAd and Distrophic Red Latosol - LVd, four base saturation levels (40, 60, 80 and 100% and two more additional treatments

  7. Desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro propagadas por enxertia Passion fruit tree seedlings development propagated by grafting

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    Janaina Batista Lenza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 200'enxertadas em seis espécies e nela mesma como porta-enxerto. o trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda experimental da FAMEV/UFMT entre fevereiro e junho de 2006. o método de enxertia utilizado foi fenda cheia, realizada acima da terceira folha e a uma altura variando de 15 a 30 cm, dependendo do porta-enxerto. as espécies utilizadas como porta-enxerto foram: Passiflora edulis, P. quadrangularis,P. giberti,P. alata,P. nitida, P. coccinea e a 'FB 200', e como enxerto, a variedade FB 200. o desenvolvimento das plantas foi avaliado pelo critério de mensuração da altura e diâmetro, utilizando-se de fita métrica e paquímetro, respectivamente, e pela contagem do número de folhas e de entrenós, realizada aos 60; 75; 90; 105 e 120 dias após a enxertia. as mudas de 'FB 200' apresentam maior desenvolvimento nas condições da Depressão Cuiabana-MT, quando enxertada nos porta-enxertos Passiflora edulis e nele mesmo. Grande dificuldade encontrada para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiros, utilizando-se das espécies P. giberti, P. coccinea e P. nitida como porta-enxerto, é o pequeno e lento desenvolvimento do diâmetro do caule.The objective of this work was to evaluate the seedlings development of yellow passion fruit tree ' FB200' grafted in six species and in the plant itself as a rootstock. the work was developed on the experimental Farm of the FAMEV/UFMT between February and June /2006. the used method of grafting was the type full cleft grafting, carried out above the third leaf and to a changeable height depending on the species (from 15 to 30 cm of height. the species used as a rootstock were: Passiflora edulis, P. quadrangularis,P. giberti,P. alata,P. coccinea, P. nitida and the variety FB 200; and as grafting `FB200'. the following characteristics had been evaluated to measure the development of the plants: height, diameter, number of

  8. Índice de pegamento e precocidade de mudas da variedade FB200 enxertada em diferentes espécies silvestres e comerciais de maracujazeiro Index of establishment and precosity in seedlings of 'FB200' grafted in different species of passion fruits trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Batista Lenza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims., principal Passifloracea cultivada no Brasil, vem registrando diminuição na longevidade, dos pomares ao longo dos anos, devido à incidência de pragas e doenças que atacam o seu sistema radicular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o índice de pegamento e a precocidade na emissão de gavinhas da variedade 'FB200' enxertada nos porta-enxertos P. edulis, P. quadrangularis, P. giberti, P. coccinea, P. alata, P. nitida e na variedade 'FB200'. O experimento foi realizado em viveiro sob telado (50% de sombra, na Fazenda Experimental da FAMEV/UFMT. Os porta-enxertos e enxertos foram oriundos de sementes, do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG, UNESP/Jaboticabal-SP, e coletados na região. O método de enxertia foi de fenda cheia utilizando-se de porta-enxertos com três folhas e altura de 15 a 30 cm até o ponto de enxertia. As mudas apresentavam, no momento da enxertia, 30 a 90 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e três repetições, onde cada parcela foi formada por 15 mudas enxertadas. O índice de pegamento e a emissão de gavinhas foram avaliados em intervalos quinzenais, até os 60 e 120 dias, respectivamente. As mudas do maracujazeiro 'FB200', enxertadas em Passiflora edulis, P. quadrangularis e 'FB200', apresentam o melhor índice de pegamento da enxertia e precocidade na emissão de gavinhas, estando aptas para serem levadas ao campo entre 30 a 120 dias após a enxertia.The yellow passion fruit tree (Passiflora edulis Sims. main Passifloracea cultivated in Brazil, has been registering reduction in the longevity of the orchards throughout the years, due to the incidence of illnesses that attack its radicular system. The challenge is to search for mechanisms that make possible to extend the cycle of this culture. The objective of this work was to compare the index of establishment and precocity in the emission of tendril of the grafting

  9. Stability of arsenic peptides in plant extracts: off-line versus on-line parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometric detection for liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The instability of metal and metalloid complexes during analytical processes has always been an issue of an uncertainty regarding their speciation in plant extracts. Two different speciation protocols were compared regarding the analysis of arsenic phytochelatin (As(III)PC) complexes in fresh plant material. As the final step for separation/detection both methods used RP-HPLC simultaneously coupled to ICP-MS and ES-MS. However, one method was the often used off-line approach using two-dimensional separation, i.e. a pre-cleaning step using size-exclusion chromatography with subsequent fraction collection and freeze-drying prior to the analysis using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS and/or ES-MS. This approach revealed that less than 2% of the total arsenic was bound to peptides such as phytochelatins in the root extract of an arsenate exposed Thunbergia alata, whereas the direct on-line method showed that 83% of arsenic was bound to peptides, mainly as As(III)PC(3) and (GS)As(III)PC(2). Key analytical factors were identified which destabilise the As(III)PCs. The low pH of the mobile phase (0.1% formic acid) using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS/ES-MS stabilises the arsenic peptide complexes in the plant extract as well as the free peptide concentration, as shown by the kinetic disintegration study of the model compound As(III)(GS)(3) at pH 2.2 and 3.8. But only short half-lives of only a few hours were determined for the arsenic glutathione complex. Although As(III)PC(3) showed a ten times higher half-life (23 h) in a plant extract, the pre-cleaning step with subsequent fractionation in a mobile phase of pH 5.6 contributes to the destabilisation of the arsenic peptides in the off-line method. Furthermore, it was found that during a freeze-drying process more than 90% of an As(III)PC(3) complex and smaller free peptides such as PC(2) and PC(3) can be lost. Although the two-dimensional off-line method has been used successfully for other metal complexes, it is concluded here that the fractionation and

  10. Avaliação da ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em cinco espécies de maracujazeiro, utilizando dois métodos de amostragem Evaluation of seasonal stinkbug occurrence in five passion fruit species using two sampling methods

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    ANTONIO CESAR CAETANO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. através de dois métodos de amostragem: número de percevejos por 0,5 m² e em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar de maracujazeiro pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, entre setembro de 1997 e setembro de 1998. Foram utilizadas cinco espécies de maracujazeiro: P. alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti e P. laurifolia. Após as avaliações semanais pôde-se concluir que as espécies de percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra, L. zonatus, Holhymenia histrio e Anisoscelis foliacea marginella foram as mais abundantes em maracujazeiro. L. gonagra, H. histrio e A. foliacea marginella apresentaram maiores populações entre o final de dezembro e início de maio e L. zonatus ocorreu em maior população entre o final de março e o de julho. O método de 0,5 m² foi o mais adequado para avaliação de percevejos. P. laurifolia foi mais atrativo para L. gonagra, P. edulis f. flavicarpa mais atrativo para L. zonatus e P. giberti para A. foliacea marginella e H. histrio.Stinkbug population dynamics has been studying in passion fruit (Passiflora spp. under field conditions in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. Two sampling methods have been utilized: a countings of the number of insects occurring in a 0.5 m² wooden frame; b countings of the number of insects present in 1.5 linear meter, aside of a tutoring system. Five passion fruit species (Passiflora alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti and P. laurifolia have been checked as to insect occurrence throughout a year. Weekly, insect samples have been collected in 5 randomly choosen sites in the orchard, for each evolution method.The most frequent stinkbug species, considering all the passion fruit species, have been the following: Leptoglossus gonagra, L

  11. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  12. Identificación del agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, México

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    Ernesto Hernández Mendieta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification of the white rot agent in Morelos, MexicoTítulo corto: Agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, MéxicoResumen: Cepas aisladas de Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr. Pilát causando pudrición blanca en especies arbóreas de amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cirián o cuatecomate (Crescentia alata, guayaba (Psidium guajava y sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana en los municipios de Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla, Tepalcingo, Tlaltizapán, Tlaquiltenango y Zacatepec de Hidalgo en el estado de Morelos, México se desarrollaron en medio de cultivo agua-agar enriquecido con 2,4-D amina en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 y 5000 ppm, con el objetivo de conocer su desarrollo en esta sal. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en un intervalo de 50 a 1000 ppm con un óptimo de 500 a 1000 ppm.L, las concentraciones de 2000 a 5000 ppm inhiben el desarrollo del hongo. Se confirma que las cepas aisladas de T. versicolor pueden emplearse como herramienta potencial de biorremediación de aguas contaminadas por ácido 2,4-D que es empleado como herbicida para el control de malezas de hoja ancha en cultivos de maíz, arroz, caña de azúcar y sorgo en la región de estudio.Palabras clave: Trametes versicolor, identificación, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacetico, 2,4-D.Abstract: Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr Pilát was identified causing white rot of hardwood tree species of amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cuatecomate or cirián (Crescentia alata, guayava (Psidium guajava and sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana in municipalities of Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla Tepalcingo Tlaltizapan, Tlaquiltenango and Zacatepec de Hidalgo in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Collected strains were grown in water-agar culture medium with 2,4-D amine at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm with the aim of know their growth in this salt. The best results were found

  13. Colonização de plantas de alho por Neotoxoptera formosana no DF Colonization of garlic plants by Neotoxoptera formosana in Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    Péricles de A. Melo Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alho da cv. Amarante, cultivadas em casa de vegetação para detecção da ocorrência de viroses, foram naturalmente infestadas por afídeos de coloração escura durante a primavera de 2001. Com o objetivo de identificar a espécie em questão foram coletados indivíduos alados, capturados com armadilha constituída por bandeja amarela com água, além de formas ápteras. A identificação da espécie foi feita segundo a chave descritiva elaborada por Blackman & Eastop (1984 e por comparação com espécimes de Neotoxoptera formosana e N. oliveri da coleção do Depto. Fitopatologia da Universidade de Brasília. O afídeo encontrado em alho pertence à espécie Neotoxoptera formosana Takahashi, 1921.Garlic plants (cv. Amarante cultivated during the spring in the greenhouse for detection of viruses, were found to be naturally colonized by a dark aphid. For species identification, specimens of the few alatae individuals collected by pan yellow water traps and many apterae individuals were compared to the species descriptions in Blackman & Eastop (1984. The specimens were also compared with Neotoxoptera formosana and N. oliveri from the aphid collection of the Phytopathology Department of the University of Brasília. The aphid found in the garlic plants belongs to the species Neotoxoptera formosana Takahashi, 1921.

  14. Enzymatic, expression and structural divergences among carboxyl O-methyltransferases after gene duplication and speciation in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippauf, Frank; Michalsky, Elke; Huang, Ruiqi; Preissner, Robert; Barkman, Todd J; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-02-01

    Methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate have important roles in a variety of processes including pollinator attraction and plant defence. These compounds are synthesized by salicylic acid, benzoic acid and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferases (SAMT, BAMT and BSMT) which are members of the SABATH gene family. Both SAMT and BSMT were isolated from Nicotiana suaveolens, Nicotiana alata, and Nicotiana sylvestris allowing us to discern levels of enzyme divergence resulting from gene duplication in addition to species divergence. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Nicotiana SAMTs and BSMTs evolved in separate clades and the latter can be differentiated into the BSMT1 and the newly established BSMT2 branch. Although SAMT and BSMT orthologs showed minimal change coincident with species divergences, substantial evolutionary change of enzyme activity and expression patterns occurred following gene duplication. After duplication, the BSMT enzymes evolved higher preference for benzoic acid (BA) than salicylic acid (SA) whereas SAMTs maintained ancestral enzymatic preference for SA over BA. Expression patterns are largely complementary in that BSMT transcripts primarily accumulate in flowers, leaves and stems whereas SAMT is expressed mostly in roots. A novel enzyme, nicotinic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (NAMT), which displays a high degree of activity with nicotinic acid was discovered to have evolved in N. gossei from an ancestral BSMT. Furthermore a SAM-dependent synthesis of methyl anthranilate via BSMT2 is reported and contrasts with alternative biosynthetic routes previously proposed. While BSMT in flowers is clearly involved in methyl benzoate synthesis to attract pollinators, its function in other organs and tissues remains obscure.

  15. Comparing regional modeling (CHIMERE) and satellite observations of aerosols (PARASOL): Methodology and case study over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromatas, Stavros

    2010-05-01

    S. Stromatas (1), S. Turquety (1), H. Chepfer (1), L. Menut (1), B. Bessagnet (2), JC Pere (2), D. Tanré (3) . (1) Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS/IPSL, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, (2) INERIS, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, FRANCE, (3) Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique/CNRS Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille, 59650 - Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Atmospheric suspended particles (aerosols) have significant radiative and environmental impacts, affecting human health, visibility and climate. Therefore, they are regulated by air quality standards worldwide, and monitored by regional observation networks. Satellite observations vastly improve the horizontal and temporal coverage, providing daily distributions. Aerosols are currently estimated using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, a quantitative measure of the extinction of solar radiation by aerosol scattering and absorption between the point of observation and the top of the atmosphere. Even though remarkable progresses in aerosol modeling by chemistry-transport models (CTM) and measurement experiments have been made in recent years, there is still a significant divergence between the modeled and observed results. However, AOD retrievals from satellites remains a highly challenging task mostly because it depends on a variety of different parameters such as cloud contamination, surface reflectance contributions and a priori assumptions on aerosol types, each one of them incorporating its own difficulties. Therefore, comparisons between CTM and observations are often difficult to interpret. In this presentation, we will discuss comparisons between regional modeling (CHIMERE CTM) over Mexico and satellite observations obtained by the POLDER instrument embarked on PARASOL micro-satellite. After a comparison of the model AOD with the retrieved L2 AOD, we will present an alternative

  16. Desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado sobre maracujazeiro-doce em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Dominguez Nasser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio no desenvolvimento do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertado sobre o maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de abril de 2008 a junho de 2009, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de diferentes espaçamentos na linha de plantio: T1-1,0 m (3.125 plantas/ha; T2-1,5 m (2.083 plantas/ha; T3- 2,0 m (1.563 plantas/ha; T4-3,0 m (1.042 plantas/ha; T5- 4,0 m (781 plantas/ha, e T6- 5,0 m (625 plantas/ha. O espaçamento nas entrelinhas foi de 3,2 m de largura em todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto, o diâmetro do caule do enxerto, o comprimento de entrenó, o comprimento dos ramos secundários e o número de ramos terciários. O adensamento de plantas não favoreceu o desenvolvimento de plantas enxertadas.

  17. Flower-bud formation in explants of photoperiodic and day-neutral Nicotiana biotypes and its bearing on the regulation of flower formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.S.; Lang, A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1993-05-15

    The capacity to form flower buds in thin-layer explants was studied in Nicotiana of several species, cultivars, and lines of differing in their response to photoperiod. This capacity was found in all biotypes examined and could extend into sepals and corolla. It varied depending on genotype, source tissue and its developmental state, and composition of the culture medium, particularly the levels of glucose, auxin, and cytokinin. It was greatest in the two day-neutral plants examined, Samsun tobacco and Nicotiana rustica, where it extended from the inflorescence region down the vegetative stem, in a basipetally decreasing gradient; it was least in the two qualitative photoperiodic plants studied, the long-day plant Nicotiana silvestris and the short-day plant Maryland Mammoth tobacco, the quantitative long-day plant Nicotiana alata and the quantitative short-day plant Nicotiana otophora line 38-G-81, where it was limited to the pedicels (and, in some cases, the sepals). Regardless of the photoperiodic response of the source plants, the response was the same in explants cultured under long and short days. The capacity to form flow buds in explants is present in all Nicotiana biotypes studied supports the idea that it is regulated by the same mechanism(s), regardless of the plant's photoperiodic character. However, flower formation in the explants is not identical with de novo flower formation in a hitherto vegetative plant: it is rather the expression of a floral state already established in the plant, although it can vary widely in extent and spatial distribution. Culture conditions that permit flower-bud formation in an explant are conditions that maintain the floral state and encourage its expression; conditions under which no flower buds are formed reduce this state and/or prevent its expression. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  19. Integrated comparative metabolite profiling via MS and NMR techniques for Senna drug quality control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Porzel, Andrea; Mahrous, Engy A; El-Massry, Mo'men M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-03-01

    Senna alexandrina Mill (Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia) are used for the laxative medicine Senna. Leaves and pods from two geographically different sources were distinguished from each other via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously quantify and identify 107 metabolites including 21 anthraquinones, 24 bianthrones (including sennosides), 5 acetophenones, 25 C/O-flavonoid conjugates, 5 xanthones, 3 naphthalenes, 2 further phenolics, and 9 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. For sample classification based on tissue type (leaf and pod), both UPLC-MS and NMR were found to be more effective in separation than on geographical origin. Results reveal that the amounts of the major classes of bioactives in Senna, i.e., flavonoids and sennosides, varied significantly among organs. Leaves contained more flavonoids and ω-3 fatty acids but fewer benzophenone derivatives than pods. In contrast, pods were more enriched in bianthrones (sennosides). PCA analysis was found to be equally effective in predicting the origin of the commercial Senna preparation using NMR and/or UPLC-MS datasets. Furthermore, a selection of six so far uninvestigated Senna species were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Results revealed that the Senna alata leaf in terms of secondary metabolite composition is the most closely related species to S. alexandrina Mill, showing the highest levels of the anthraquinone "rhein" and flavonoid conjugates. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing both UPLC-MS and NMR to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences among Senna species.

  20. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Okorie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fractionated to 40, 60, or 80 mesh sizes. Another batch of the tubers were processed similarly, but they were not subjected to a blanching treatment. Swelling capacity, water absorption capacities, bulk density, solubility and pasting characteristics were evaluated. The result showed that the lesser known yam Ighu exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05 hot and cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities than the common yam varieties. Hot and Cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities of flour generally increased as particle size decreased in all the test samples. While the bulk density was not affected by the blanching treatment, it decreased with decrease in particle size. The yam starches generally showed weak stability,but starch of the lesser known variety Ona suffered the least share thinning . Rate of retrogradation was found to be high in all the yam varieties but more pronounced in the lesser known yams Ighu and Ona. Ighu starch which exhibited the highest cold and hot paste viscosity showed the highest setback and index of gelatinization values. Industrial and culinary applications of the test yam varieties were suggested.

  1. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

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    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  2. Living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa): Exploring ecology of deep-sea unicellular meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, C.; Garnier, E.; Brandily, C.; Dennielou, B.; Bichon, S.; Gayet, N.; Eugene, T.; Rovere, M.; Grémare, A.; Deflandre, B.

    2016-09-01

    Live (Rose-Bengal stained) deep-sea foraminiferal faunas have been studied at four stations between 530 and 3200-m depth in the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa) to understand how complex environmental conditions (e.g., organic matter, oxygenation) control their ecological structure (i.e., diversity, density, and microhabitats). Two upper-slope stations, located at 530- and 780-m depth off Madagascar, are bathed by well-oxygenated bottom waters. They are characterized by fine sediments enriched in highly degraded organic matter (low amino-acid bio-availability and reduced chlorophyllic freshness). Mineralization of organic compounds results in relatively moderate oxygen penetration depth (i.e., 15 and 30 mm) in sediment. Interestingly, foraminiferal species richness (S) is exceptionally high at both sites. The highest densities are observed in the 780-m deep station, where peculiar sedimentary facies of organic matter are recorded (OC >2.0% DW). Redox conditions and sedimentary organic matter control the composition and the vertical distribution (i.e. microhabitat) of benthic faunas at both upper-slope sites. Bolivina alata, Bulimina marginata, Haplophragmoides bradyi and Nouria compressa are relevant bio-indicators of enhanced burial of organic matter prevailing at the 780-m deep station (i.e., eutrophic conditions), whereas Uvigerina hispida and Uvigerina semiornata are dominant at the 530-m deep station (i.e., relatively mesotrophic conditions). Two other stations are located on well-ventilated terraces from the deep-sea canyons of Tsiribihina and Zambezi (>3000-m depth). They are characterized by carbonate ooze, which is depleted in degraded organic matter and, where oxygen penetration depth is relatively deep (i.e.,>80 mm). Because of food scarcity, S and densities are relatively low, and agglutinated and organic-walled taxa dominate foraminiferal faunas. Hospitella fulva, a foraminiferal species belonging to Allogromiida, occupies very deep infaunal

  3. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  4. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  5. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  6. Surveillance of multidrug resistance of 6 uropathogens in a teaching hospital and in vitro control by 25 ethnomedicinal plants used by an aborigine of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shakti Rath; Debasmita Dubey; Mahesh C Sahu; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial potencies of 25 plants with reports on ethnomedicinal uses for infectious ailments by the aborigine Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, Odisha state, India for urinary tract infections. Methods: Over a period of 6 months, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of 6 uropathogenic bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples in a teaching hospital; their antibiograms were ascertained. Concentrated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of plants were used for monitoring their antimicrobial potencies, by the agar-well diffusion method. Phytochemical analyses of plant parts were done. Results: All isolated bacterial strains were resistant to 15 antibiotics of 6 groups including β-lactams. From a surveillance of bacterial isolates, it was evident that the distribution of MDR strains of each was more in hospital acquired isolates than the community acquired ones. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and Withaniasomnifera Several plants were moderately effective during in vitro control of the pathogens. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba), Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Oroxylum indicum (O. indicum) were totally ineffective in the control of isolated MDR uropathogen. A. indica, T. arjuna and T. alata contained the full range of phytochemicals (alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids), which could be attributed to the significant anti-uropathogenic activities. Conclusion: Plants, A. indica, A. marmelos, Cassiafistula (W. somnifera) were highly effective against MDR isolates of all these pathogens. (C. fistula), T. arjuna, Salvadora persica (S. persica), W. somnifera and Vitex

  7. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  8. Osnovni principi, metodološki pristup CORINE Land Cover u BiH i analiza rezultata CLC2000 i CLC2006 : Basic principles, a methodological approach CORINE Land Cover in b&h and analysis of results CLC2000 and CLC2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Taletović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prikazani su osnovni principi, metodološki pristup CORINE Land Cover–revizija i korekcija CORINE land cover u BiH (prvi inventar i priprema CLC2006 baze podataka. Projekat CORINE Land Cover 2006 u Bosni i Hercegovini (CLC2000 i CLC2006 korišten je kao glavni izvor podataka u ovom radu. Posebna pažnja je usmjerena na metod identifikacije promjena u načinu korištenja zemljišta, odnosno na zemljišnom pokrivaču u periodu 2000-2006. Obzirom da su promjene načina korištenja zemljišta pripremljene u GIS-u, u ovom radu GIS je prikazan kao alat, kao i različite mogućnosti ovog alata u pogledu analize podataka. Predstavljena je mogućnost upotrebe CORINE 2006 u procesima planiranja korištenja zemljišta u BiH predstavljena. : Basic principles, methodological approach to the CORINE Land Cover database–revision and correction of the CORINE 2000 (the first inventory and preparation of the CLC2006 database are shown. The CORINE Land Cover 2006 project in Bosnia and Herzegovina (CLC2000 and CLC2006 is used as a main source of data in this paper. Special attention will be given to the metodological approach in identifying land use changes, land cover between 2000-2006. Bearing in mind that land use changes have been produced by using GIS technology, this work present GIS as a tool, while various possibilities of this tool regarding data analysis presented as well. The possibility of using the CORINE 2006 in land use planning processes in B&H is presented.

  9. New microsome-associated HT-family proteins from Nicotiana respond to pollination and define an HT/NOD-24 protein family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsuhiko Kondo; Bruce McClure

    2008-01-01

    HT-family proteins have been identified in Nicotiana, Solanum,and Petunia.HT-B-type proteins are implicated in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility,but the functions of other family members are unknown.Screening for cDNA sequences with an expression pattern similar to HT-B in Nicotiana alata revealed a new group of small HT-family proteins.designated HT-M.HT-M proteins resemble HT-B in several respects:their pistil-specific expression pattern iS indistinguish-able from HT-B,they pellet with a microsome fraction,and their abundance decreases after pollination.Unlike HT-B,there iS no S-specificity to this response,and RNAi experiments show that HT-M proteins are not necessary for self-incompatibility.Identification of a third group of pistil-specific HT-family proteins helps better define the characteristics of the family and allowed identification of putative new family members.By searching the databases with only the most conserved HT-family sequence elements,the signal sequence and cysteine motifs,we identified nodulin-24-1ike proteins and several small glycine-rich proteins as putative HT-family members.Like HT-M and HT-B,nodulin-24 iS membrane associated.We propose that the conserved features in HT-family proteins are important for targeting or modification and refer to the broader family that includes both HT-and nodulin-24-like proteins as the HT/NOD-24-family.

  10. Breeding and Application of a New Yam Cultivar “Minghuai No.1”%淮山药新品种“明淮1号”的选育及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芝华; 华树妹; 李丽红; 雷伏贵; 贺佩珍; 曹奕鸯; 莫智龙

    2016-01-01

    “明淮1号”是从福建当地品种上杭扫把薯的自然变异群体中通过单株选择和无性繁殖培育而成的粮菜兼用型山药新品种。该品种属于晚熟淮山药品种,为紫肉扁块状参薯,在连续两年的区域试验和生产试验中比对照“上杭扫把薯”增产显著,具有产量高、耐贫瘠、抗逆性强、适应性广和适合机械化栽培等特点,具有较高的开发应用前景。%“Minghuai No.1” was a new cultivar with double dual-purpose of staple food and vegetable yam, through which selection individual plant and asexual reproduction from a group of natural variation population of local broom yam in Shanghang city, Fujian province. The cultivar is a late maturity yam variety with purple lfeshed and lfat block, which belong to the speices ofDioscorea alata L.. In the two years of regional and production trials, the new cultivar had higher yield, poorer tolerance, stronger resistance, wider adaptability and better suitable for mechanical cultivation than the control. According to these, the new cultivar “Minghuai No.1” had a high development and application prospects.

  11. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

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    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  12. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al3+) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil

  13. Regeneração pós-fogo em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa, MG

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    Sebastião Martins Venâncio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a vegetação colonizadora seis meses após perturbação por fogo, em uma á rea do Campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa (20o 45’ S, 42o 51’ W , MG. A á rea total de floresta secundá ria atingida por incê ndio foi de 12 hectares, apresentando níveis diferenciados de destruição da vegetação. O estudo concentrou-se no trecho onde o efeito do fogo foi mais drá stico, com a destruição total da cobertura vegetal. Dentro da á rea de estudo, foram comparadas duas toposseqüê ncias de relevo: côncavo (ravina e convexo (crista. Em cada toposseqüê ncia, foram instaladas dezoito parcelas contíguas de 5x5 m, totalizando 36 parcelas, nas quais foram identificadas todas as plantas vasculares. No total, foram amostradas 75 espécies, pertencentes a 26 famílias. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram: Asteraceae (14, Poaceae (10, Malvaceae (7 e Fabaceae (6. Na toposseq üê ncia crista as espécies com maior valor de cobertura foram: Sida carpinifolia seguida de Melinis minutiflora, Diodia alata e Eupatorium laevigatum, e na ravina: Melinis minutiflora, Eupatorium laevigatum, Sida carpinifolia e Sidastrum paniculatum. Todas as parcelas apresentaram mais de 90% da á rea coberta por vegetação herbá cea e subarbustiva, destacando a importâ ncia dessa vegetação inicial na proteção do solo contra processos erosivos em relevos acidentados.

  14. Vascular Epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye: A Comparative Study, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia

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    Zeleke Assefa Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes comprise about 10% of the world’s total flora. However, the survival of these important elements of the global vegetation is recognized to be increasingly threatened, and surveys made to study them remain far from being complete. This study has focused on investigating the vascular epiphytes (true epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and accidental epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye forests of Gamo Gofa zone, southwest Ethiopia. A total of 40 (20 in each 25 m × 25 m quadrats were established along four line transects for vegetation data collection. A total of 35 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded in the two sites (22 and 14 species from Doshke and Kurpaye, resp.. Drynaria volkensii was the only species to be recorded from the two sites. Doshke and Kurpaye forests also varied in the number of phorophytes (17 and 10 phorophytes species, resp.. The richest epiphyte family of Doshke is Orchidaceae (5 species and that of Kurpaye is Polypodiaceae (3 species while Orchidaceae dominate the combined flora being represented by 7 species. In terms of vertical distribution, most species were located at the canopy area. Most vascular epiphytes showed no preference for host trees except for a few species which exhibited higher occurrence rates on the host plant species Syzygium guineense, Schrebera alata, and Acacia tortilis. Vascular epiphyte abundance and species richness were both significantly positively correlated with host tree size. Vascular epiphytes of the studied forests are under a serious pressure, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, and this may lead to their local extinction.

  15. Forest Structure, Composition and Above Ground Biomass of Tree Community in Tropical Dry Forests of Eastern Ghats, India

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    Sudam Charan SAHU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomass, structure and composition of tropical forests implies also the investigation of forest productivity, protection of biodiversity and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere via C-stocks. The hereby study aimed at understanding the forest structure, composition and above ground biomass (AGB of tropical dry deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats, India, where as a total of 128 sample plots (20 x 20 meters were laid. The study showed the presence of 71 tree species belonging to 57 genera and 30 families. Dominant tree species was Shorea robusta with an importance value index (IVI of 40.72, while Combretaceae had the highest family importance value (FIV of 39.01. Mean stand density was 479 trees ha-1 and a basal area of 15.20 m2 ha-1. Shannon’s diversity index was 2.01 ± 0.22 and Simpson’s index was 0.85 ± 0.03. About 54% individuals were in the size between 10 and 20 cm DBH, indicating growing forests. Mean above ground biomass value was 98.87 ± 68.8 Mg ha-1. Some of the dominant species that contributed to above ground biomass were Shorea robusta (17.2%, Madhuca indica (7.9%, Mangifera indica (6.9%, Terminalia alata (6.9% and Diospyros melanoxylon (4.4%, warranting extra efforts for their conservation. The results suggested that C-stocks of tropical dry forests can be enhanced by in-situ conserving the high C-density species and also by selecting these species for afforestation and stand improvement programs. Correlations were computed to understand the relationship between above ground biomass, diversity indices, density and basal area, which may be helpful for implementation of REDD+ (reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks scheme.

  16. Desenvolvimento e produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado em três porta-enxertos

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    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e a produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertado sobre três porta-enxertos em área sem histórico de morte prematura de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2007, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Os fatores avaliados foram três porta-enxertos: Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertii, em dois sistemas de enxertia, a hipocotiledonar e a convencional por garfagem tipo fenda cheia, e um tratamento adicional, sem enxertia. Utilizou-se como copa o maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto, o diâmetro do caule do enxerto, o comprimento de entrenó, o comprimento dos ramos secundários, o número de ramos terciários, o número de frutos, a massa média de frutos, a produtividade e as fitomassas verde e seca das plantas. Observou-se que as três espécies estudadas podem ser utilizadas como porta-enxertos para o maracujazeiro-amarelo, com diferentes níveis de compatibilidade. P. edulis demonstrou maior compatibilidade como porta-enxerto por apresentar-se superior aos demais na maioria dos parâmetros analisados. Plantas enxertadas sobre P. gibertii apresentaram menor vigor, menor crescimento vegetativo, frutos com menor massa e menor produtividade. A enxertia hipocotiledonar resultou em maior massa média de frutos e maior produtividade no maracujazeiro-amarelo.

  17. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

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    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  18. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  19. Specific Dioscorea Phytoextracts Enhance Potency of TCL-Loaded DC-Based Cancer Vaccines

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    Wei-Ting Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea tuber phytoextracts can confer immunomodulatory activities ex vivo and improve regeneration of bone marrow cells in vivo. In present study, we evaluated specific Dioscorea phytoextracts for use ex vivo as a bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell- (DC- based vaccine adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. Fractionated Dioscorea extracts (DsII were assayed for their effect on maturation and functions of DC ex vivo and antimelanoma activity of DC-based vaccine in vivo. The phytoextract from 50–75% ethanol-precipitated fraction of Dioscorea alata var. purpurea Tainung no. 5 tuber, designated as DsII-TN5, showed a strong augmentation of tumor cell lysate- (TCL- loaded DC-mediated activation of T-cell proliferation. DsII-TN5 stimulated the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and IL-1β in TCL-loaded DCs and downregulated the expression of TGF-β1. DC vaccines prepared by a specific schema (TCL (2 h + LPS (22 h showed the strongest antitumor activity. DsII-TN5 as a DC vaccine adjuvant showed strong antimelanoma activity and reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC population in tested mice. DsII-TN5 can also activate DCs to enhance Th1- and Th17-related cytokine expressions. Biochemical analysis showed that DsII-TN5 consists mainly of polysaccharides containing a high level (53% of mannose residues. We suggest that DsII-TN5 may have potential for future application as a potent, cost-effective adjuvant for DC-based cancer vaccines.

  20. ВЛИЯНИЕ СЕЗОННОСТИ НА ИНКУБИРОВАНИЕ ЯИЦ ТРЕМАТОД

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    ПОСТЕВОЙ А.Н.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Сезонность не влияет на инкубирование яиц трематод Alaria alata, Fasciola hepatica и выход мирацидиев в лабораторных условиях. Из яиц возбудителя фасциолеза отмечена вылупляемость мирацидиев несколько выше в весенний период года (0,24% по сравнению с остальными сезонами. Незначительно высокий выход мирацидиев из яиц алярий отмечен в зимний период (5,3%.

  1. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

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    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  2. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploid are dihaploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploid and doubled haploid (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploid and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these bio technologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploid and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used (Germana Maria 2011). Tissue culture techniques, particularly short-term culture procedures such as shoot-tip culture and regeneration from primary explants, have been proposed as methods for obtaining large numbers of plants identical to the plant used as an explant source( Evans et al., 1984). Nicotiana spp. are one of the most important commercial crops in the world ( Liu and Zhang, 2008). Nicotiana alata is member from family solanacea, it is ornamental plant and the diploid cells contains 18 chromosomes. Nitsch (1969) reported the first production of haploid plants through anther culture and regeneration of plants of Nicotiana alata, For these reasons they have been considered to suitable candidates for model species in somatic cell genetics research( Bourgin et al., 1979). Radiobiological studies on plant tissues in culture may provide information on the cell growth behavior, radiosensitivity and the induction of mutations. The radiosensitivity of plants and calli can be manifested mostly in three

  3. Nutritional status and specific leaf area of mahogany and tonka bean under two light environments Estado nutricional e área foliar específica de mogno e cumaru sob dois ambientes de luz

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    José Francisco de C. Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional status and leaf traits were carried out in two tropical tree species Swietenia macrophylla King (mahogany and Dipetryx odorata Aubl. Willd. (tonka bean planted under contrasting light environments in Presidente Figueiredo-AM, Brazil. Leaves of S. macrophylla and D. odorata were collected in three year-old trees grown under full sunlight (about 2000 µmol m-2 s-1 and natural shade under a closed canopy of Balsa-wood plantation (Ochroma pyramidale Cav. Ex. Lam.Urb about 260 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameters analysed were leaf area (LA, leaf dry mass (LDM, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf nutrient contents. It was observed that, S. macrophylla leaves grown under full sunlight showed LA 35% lower than those grown under shade. In D. odorata leaves these differences in LA were not observed. In addition, it was observed that S. macrophylla shade leaves, for LDM, were 50% smaller than sun leaves, while in D. odorata, there differences were not observed. SLA in S. macrophylla presented that sun leaves were three times smaller than those grown under shade. In D. odorata, no differences were observed. Nutrient contents in S. macrophylla, regardless of their light environments, showed higher contents for P and Ca than those found in D. odorata. The N, K, Fe and Mn contents in S. macrophylla leaves decreased under shade. Finally, we suggest that the decreasing in leaf nutrient contents may have a negative influence on leaf growth. The results demonstrated that the tested hypothesis is true for leaf traits, which D. odorata, late-successional species, showed lower plasticity for leaf traits than Swietenia macrophylla, mid-successional species.Estudou-se a nutrição mineral e as características foliares de duas espécies arbóreas tropicais Switenia macrophylla King (mogno e Dipteryx odorata Aubl Willd (cumaru plantadas sob dois ambientes de luz em Presidente Figueiredo - AM, Brasil. Folhas de S. macrophylla e de D. odorata, com três anos

  4. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  5. Pravci razvoja automatizacije informacionog sistema održavanja u vojsci Srbije i Crne Gore / Automatizacion development directions of maintenance information system in the military forces of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Veselinović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Postojeći informacioni sistem održavanja u Vojsci je, uz određene modifikacije, zadržan još iz perioda posle Drugog svetskog rata. Bilo je nekoliko pokušaja da se izvrši automatizacija, ali su svi pokušaji propali, bilo zbog pogrešnog pristupa ili pogrešnog izbora programskih alata. Reforme u Vojsci imaju značajan uticaj na organizaciju sistema održavanja, ali je uticaj na informacioni sistem održavanja neznatan. Prvi korak u automatizaciji predstavlja detaljna analiza procesa i tokova podataka čiju obradu treba automatizovati. Da bi automatizacija bila uspešna, analiza i deskripcija procesa i tokova podataka treba da bude rađena u nekom od suvremenih paketa za izradu informacionih sistema. Model informacionog sistema održavanja, opisan sa 19 potprocesa, nudi jedan od mogućih načina za automatizaciju, stoje i potvrđeno kroz program "Automatizovani informacioni sistem održavanja - trupni nivo". Ukoliko sistem odbrane naše zemlje teži međunarodnim integracijama, mora imati kompatibilne informacione sisteme, koji se mogu projektovati, kupiti ili ih mogu nametnuti međunarodne organizacije. / Available maintenance information system in the military forces is, with some modification, retained from the period after the World War П. There were several attempts of automatization of maintenance information systems, but all the attempts failed, whether because of the wrong approach or the wrong choice of program tools. A reform in military forces has got an important influence on organization of maintenance system, but the influence on the maintenance information system is minor. The first step in automatization is detailed analysis of processes and the dataflow that should be automated. For successful automatization, the analysis and process description ND dataflow should be made in some of the modern systems for information systems production. The model of maintenance information system, described with 19 sub-processes, offers

  6. Investigation of Net-Phytoplankton Community Structure in Liaodong Bay in Spring of 2009%2009年春季辽东湾网采浮游植物群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾莎; 宫相忠; 双秀芝; 高伟; 尹宝树; 邢永泽

    2012-01-01

    The species composition, distribution of cell abundance, community diversity and similarity of net-phytoplankon in Liaodong Bay in spring (May) of 2009 were analyzed. A total of 32 taxa which belong to 23 genera of 3 phyla were identified in the survey area. The majority of species were neritic and cosmopolitan in tem- perate coastal seas, while the minority were oceanic warm water or oceanic species. The phytoplankton community was mainly composed of Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta. The dominant species include Noctiluca scientillans, Proboscia alata, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus gigas and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens etc. The cell abun- dance of net-phytoplankton was nonuniform and the horizontal distribution showed a decline trend from the coastal areas to the center of the bay. The Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were low and the community structure was unsteady. The result of cluster analysis indicated that the phytoplankton community similarity was relatively high.%分析了2009年春季(5月)渤海辽东湾网采浮游植物物种组成,丰度分布,生物多样性指数及群落相似性。春季共鉴定出浮游植物3门23属32种,主要隶属硅藻门和甲藻门,生态类型多为温带近岸型和广布型种类,少部分为暖海性物种或大洋性物种。优势种有夜光藻(Noctilucascientillans)、翼鼻状藻(Probosciaalata)、旋链角毛藻(Chaetoceroscurvisetus)、巨圆筛藻(Coscinodiscusgigas)和尖刺伪菱形藻(Pseudo—nitzsehiapungens)等。浮游植物在各站位的细胞丰度分布不均匀,其平面分布呈现由沿岸海域向海湾中部海域递减的趋势。Shannon—Wiener指数、Pielou指数较低,群落结构简单,稳定性较差。聚类分析结果表明群落之间的相似性较高。

  7. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  8. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  9. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its

  10. In vitro techniques for mutation breeding of tropical root and tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To assist IAEA Technical Co-operation projects, the Agricultural Section of the IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf is developing techniques for in vitro mutation breeding of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea alata, D. rotundata). The first aim was to induce morphogenesis (plant regeneration) in tissue culture and establish techniques for in vitro propagation. Subsequently, the in vitro mutation breeding technology is being developed. (i) Cassava is one of the important staple food crops of tropical countries. Pest and disease resistance as well as low toxic cyanide content are among the objectives for genetic improvement. For in vitro mutation induction we use shoot-tip and node culture. Shoot apices (1 and 2 mm long) are aseptically dissected from cassava buds and cultured on MS medium with 1 mg/l thiamine, -naphthalene acetic acid, 6-benzyladenine and gibberellic acid. Elevated concentration of 6-benzyladenine is used for multiple shoot formation. The rapid multiplication was induced in liquid medium, when flasks were placed on a gyratory shaker with 60 rpm at 28 deg. C during 16/8 light/dark photoperiod. Nodes with axillary buds from in vitro growing plantlets were irradiated with gamma rays. Doses of 30 to 45 Gy allowed the survival of approx. 50 percent of explants and subsequent shoot proliferation from axillary buds. Radiosensitivity of cassava genotypes may be different and this will be investigated in future experiments. (ii) Yams are likewise important tuber crops, particularly in West Africa, South-East Asia and the Caribbean. The main breeding objectives are improved yield, shortened growth period, improved storability (resistance of tubers to fungal attack), shoot tip cultures have been utilized for clonal propagation, and germplasm preservation and exchange. At present, the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf is trying this technique for mutation induction. Somatic embryogenesis in cell and tissue culture is worked on to develop a

  11. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  12. Effects of "Chinese yam" on hepato-nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen in rats%山药保护对乙酰氨基酚诱导的大鼠肝肾损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世沧; 蔡金川; 陈荣洲; 林昭庚; 林俊清; 胡淼淋; 卢训

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of yam in Taiwan, which is a commonly used Chinese medicine, on hepato-nephrotoxicity in rars. METHODS: Crude water extract of yam ( Dioscorea alata L), was used to treat rats with an acute toxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP)challenge. RESULTS: The pharmacological and biochemical studies showed the extract of yam had the effect of kidney secureness and liver fortification (P<0.01). The pathologic sections showed good improvements in renal tubular degranulation changes,necrosis and disintegration. The extract of yam also possessed a good protection against the inflammation of central vein and necrosis of liver tissue. CONCLUSION: The liver and kidneys are originated from the same source. Pathologically, deficiency of the life essence in the kidney may lead to the blood deficiency in the liver. The results showed that the yam could prevent the damages of the liver and kidneys, thus preserving their functions. This could be the reason why the yam was commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, as seen in Liuwei Dihuang Wan be used in the case of deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin.%目的:研究台湾产的常用中药-山药对肝肾毒性的作用.方法:以对乙酰氨基酚诱导大鼠急性损伤方式进行山药水提取物之疗效评估.结果:山药显示突出的保肝护肾效果(P<0.01).病理组织学上发现山药对肾小管脱颗粒、坏死、崩溃伤等有良好的保护作用,并且对肝中央静脉发炎及实质组织坏死都有显著保护作用.结论:山药能同时对肝及肾细胞有益,而达保肝护肾效果.这是山药常常被使用如"六味地黄丸"之中的用于肝肾阴虚的机制.

  13. SEASONAL CHANGES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN 12 TREE SPECIES INTRODUCED ONTO OIL SHALE WASTE%油页岩废渣地12种木本植物光合作用的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 吴彤; 孔国辉; 陈志东; 张进忠

    2006-01-01

    研究了引种在油页岩工业废渣地12种木本植物冬、夏季光合作用特征,根据此评价引种植物的光合作用效率,测定的主要参数包括净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(Gs).结果表明:1)冬、夏季各项测定指标差异很大,Pn、Tr、Gs均是夏季高于冬季,而且,夏季平均Pn、Tr和Gs值要比冬季均值分别高60.9%、77.7%和85.7%,但水分利用效率(WUE)却是冬季高于夏季26.8%~77.2%.2)Pn日变化节律冬、夏季有异,夏季较多的种出现"双峰型",而冬季较多出现"单峰型".但也有例外,樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)冬、夏季均出现"单峰";油榄仁(Terminalia bellirica)、红胶木(Tristania conferta)和柚木(Tectona grandis)冬、夏季均出现"双峰";海南蒲桃(Syzy-gtum cumini)则冬季为"双峰",夏季为"单峰".3)若某一植物种在冬、夏季都表现出有较高的Pn日均值,相对于另一种植物其中有一季有较高的Pn,说明前者更适应当地环境生长.据此,以冬、夏季Pn日均值的平均值高低排序,评价参试植物在当地自然光照条件下的光合作用效率高低,树种的排序为:大叶相思(Acacia auriculiformis)、油榄仁、铁刀木(Cassia siamea)、云南石梓(Gmelina arborea)、柚木、红胶木、樟树、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、铁冬青(Ilexrotunda)、海南蒲桃、双翼豆(Peltophorum ptetocarpum)和海南翅萍婆(Pterygota alata).

  14. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  15. 温州地区茜草科植物的分类研究%A Study on the Classification of Rubiaceae in Wenzhou District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘媛媛; 陆厉芳; 范倩莹; 韩文源; 雷祖培; 陈贤兴; 丁炳扬

    2014-01-01

    在文献查阅的基础上,通过野外调查、标本采集和分类鉴定,研究了温州茜草科(Rubiaceae)的种类和分布.结果表明:温州已知有野生茜草科植物26属,48种,1亚种,2变种(不包括栽培种);其中墨苜蓿(Richardia scabra)为浙江分布新记录,硬毛四叶(Galium bungei var. hispidum)、狭叶栀子(Gardenia stenophylla)、金剑草(Rubia alata)等3种为温州分布新纪录;对近20个分类群进行了分类修订或学名改变,详细记录了温州野生茜草科植物的属、种组成和各区、县(市)的分布情况.%Based on the literature, the species of Rubiaceae and their distribution in Wenzhou district have been investigated through the field investigation, specimen collection, classification and identification. The results show that there exist 26 genera and 48 species, 1 subspecie, 2 variants (excluding cultivated species) in Wenzhou district. Richardia scabra is a new record to Zhejiang, Galium bungei var. hispidum, Gardenia stenophylla, and Rubia alata are new records to Wenzhou. Taxonomic revision has been made and nearly 20 taxa’s scientific names have been changed in our study. This study records in detail the composition of genera, species and the distribution of Rubiaceae wild plants at the district and county (city) level in Wenzhou, and discusses the classification and distribution issues of some species. The result can not only provide basic information for the studies of Rubiaceae in regard to taxonomy, but also can provide reference for the exploitation of plant resources in Wenzhou.

  16. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013. PMID:26407862

  17. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm-1, 0.165cm-1, 0.163cm-1, 0.156cm-1, 0.149cm-1, 0.143cm-1, 0.133cm-1, 0.132cm-1, 0.127cm-1, 0.124cm-1, 0.085cm-1, 0.123cm-1, 0.122cm-1, 0.113cm-1, 0.101cm-1, 0.088cm-1, 0.087cm-1, 0.086cm-1, 0.082cm-1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  18. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  19. Composição químico-bromatológica e degradabilidade In Situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da casca do fruto de três variedades de maracujá (Passiflora spp Chemical composition and In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of three varieties passion fruit (Passiflora spp shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Villela Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e as degradabilidades potenciais e efetivas da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do resíduo (casca das variedades de maracujá amarela (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener, roxa (Passiflora edulis Sims e doce (Passiflora alata e da mistura das variedades amarela e roxa. Calcularam-se, também, o consumo de MS e as concentrações de amônia, ácidos graxos voláteis e pH no líquido ruminal e a taxa de passagem das fases líquida e sólida da digesta no rúmen de bovinos. Os resíduos (casca in natura apresentaram grande quantidade de água, enquanto a variedade roxa apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca (17,01% e o amarelo, o menor (10,78%. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 9,82% na MS, para a variedade amarela, a 7,53%, para a doce. O teor de fósforo foi 0,13% na MS para a variedade doce, chegando a 0,09, para a roxo, e 0,08%, para a amarelo. Os teores de cálcio, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as variedades. Às 48 horas de incubação no rúmen, a degradabilidade atingiu ponto máximo para o teor de MS, PB e FDN. Houve interação de tempo e variedade na degradabilidade de MS, PB e FDN. As degradabilidades de PB e FDN foram influenciadas pelas variedades. A DE da FDN foi maior para a mistura (45,85% e menor para a doce (34,61%. O consumo médio de MS foi de 16,90 kg/animal, equivalente a 3,27% do peso vivo ou 156,11 g/kg0,75, quando se utilizou farelo de casca (resíduo com 90% de MS. As concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis mantiveram-se na faixa de 7,76 a 10,87 mmoles/100 mL. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,03 a 6,75 e o N-amoniacal, de 4,93 a 9,86 mg/100 mL.Chemical composition and the potential and effective degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of passion fruit residue (shelves were studied in the varieties yellow (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener

  20. Surface structure biomimetic design and performance testing of slippery trapping plate used for controlling agricultural insect%致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构仿生构建与性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 黄风山; 周强

    2015-01-01

    致灾农业昆虫光电诱导滑移捕集技术中,致使昆虫产生良好滑移行为的捕集滑板是获取该技术高效应用的关键.红瓶猪笼草(Nepenthes alata)叶笼滑移区依靠特殊形貌对昆虫附着系统表现出显著滑移功能,为致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板的研制提供了仿生原型.采用扫描电子显微镜(scanning electron microscope, SEM)与三维白光形貌干涉仪(scanning white light interferometer, SWLI)对滑移区表面微形貌进行观测分析并获取三维结构参数,据此构建了致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构的仿生模型;采用激光微纳加工技术和高压静电吸附技术实现捕集滑板的仿生制备.为验证仿生制备致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板功效,测试了蝗虫(Locusta migratoria manilensis)在捕集滑板和仿生原型的附着力,结果分别为(402.9±26.1)mN和(361.9±25.5)mN,相近的附着力预示研制的致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板具有与仿生原型类似的性能.%The technology of photoelectric inducing-trapping can kill agricultural insect (locust, ant, etc.) and protect the agricultural production from being destroyed effectively, and avoid the environment pollution caused by spraying pesticide. The key factor of this technology is to develop a kind of slippery trapping plate which can restrict insects' excellent attachment ability generated by rigid claw and adhesive pad. To obtain structural information for biomimetic developing the slippery trapping plate, surface morphology of bionic prototype (slippery zone ofNepenthes alata pitcher) was detailedly examined in August and September of 2013. Several sections (1 cm2) were cut from the slippery surface and rinsed in distilled water before being air-dried, then mounted on aluminum blocks and sputter coated, and observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fresh sample (2 cm2) was cut from slippery surface and glued to an aluminum block, and examined with a scanning white-light interferometer

  1. Efeito da calagem e de diversas adubações na batata-doce e no cará, em solos de baixa fertilidade, derivados do arenito Botucatu Fertilizer experiments with sweet potatoes and yams in "arenito botucatu" soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paes de Camargo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas duas experiências realizadas em Santa Rita do Passa-Quatro, para estudar o efeito da colagem e de algumas adubações sôbre a batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam e o cará (Dioscorea alata L., em solos pobres, derivados do arenito Botucatu. A primeira, conduzida por cinco anos consecutivos, foi instalada nas proximidades de uma baixada com solo arenoso, ácido, tendo elevado teor de matéria orgânico. Em números relativos, as respostas à colagem e à adubação com NPK foram enormes. Todavia, mesmo com o melhor tratamento (1,5 t/ha de calcário + NPK, as produções de batata-doce, nos quatro anos em que ela ocupou os canteiros, foram muito baixas, o que se atribui à imperfeita drenagem do terreno. No ano em que o cará figurou na experiência, porém, sua produção foi satisfatória, de sorte que o efeito daquele tratamento também foi grande em números absolutos. O solo da segunda experiência, conduzida por três anos em terreno de meia encosta, também era arenoso, mas, bem drenado, menos ácido e com teor normal de matéria orgânica. Sua vegetação espontânea era típico de cerrado. Com os melhores tratamentos as produções de batata-doce foram satisfatórias e, as de cará, muito boas. Na ausência do calcário, os efeitos de duos adubações normais com NPK (uma puramente mineral e outra organomineral e de uma terceira com 50 t/ha de estêrco, foram muito bons e pouco diferiram entre si, nas culturas de batata-doce; na de cará, porém, o estéreo se mostrou muito superior. Entretanto, na presença do calcário, os respostas e essas adubações, principalmente às duas primeiras, foram muito inferiores. Por sua vez, o calcário, que se mostrou benéfico na ausência das adubações, ficou, na presença destas, praticamente sem efeito. Um tratamento extra, sem calcário, de adubação verde com leguminoso, teve efeito equivalente ao do estêrco. Do estudo das produções e do solo concluíram os

  2. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de grandes lianas em três ambientes florestais de terra firme na Amazônia Central Floristic and ecological aspects of large lianas from three forest environments on terra firme in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As lianas, ou trepadeiras lenhosas são importantes componentes estruturais de muitos ambientes florestais. O estudo objetivou investigar os aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de grandes lianas em três ambientes florestais de terra firme na Amazônia Central (2º35' S e 60º12' W. Para o levantamento florístico, foram alocadas 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m em cada um dos ambientes florestais (platô, vertente e baixio, nas quais foram mensurados todos os espécimes lianescentes com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP > 10 cm. Na floresta de platô foram inventariados 17 indivíduos, pertencentes a nove famílias, dez gêneros e treze espécies. Fabaceae e Combretaceae foram as famílias com maior número de espécies, representando juntas mais de 46% do total amostrado. As espécies com os maiores Índices de Valor de Importância (IVI foram Doliocarpus brevipedicellatus Garcke (IVI = 55,2 e Abuta candollei Triana & Planch. (IVI = 33,3. Um total de doze espécimes, compreendendo quatro famílias, quatro gêneros e oito espécies foram registrados na floresta de vertente. Nesse ambiente florestal, Caesalpiniaceae foi a família mais rica, representando cerca de 38% das espécies identificadas. Abuta rufescens Aubl. (IVI = 68,8 e Bauhinia alata Ducke (IVI = 49,2 foram as espécies com os maiores valores de importância. Na floresta de baixio foram registrados quatro indivíduos, distribuídos em quatro famílias, quatro gêneros e quatro espécies. Nos três ambientes florestais estudados, sete indivíduos atingiram DAP > 20 cm. Quanto às espécies, a similaridade florística entre os ambientes florestais foi muita baixa, com a menor dissimilidaridade anotada entre as florestas de vertente e baixio (Is = 0,17. Nesse estudo, de acordo com os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, Simpson e alfa de Fisher, a floresta de platô mostrou-se mais diversa em lianas de maior porte que as florestas de vertente, o mesmo ocorrendo quando comparado com os

  3. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    2004-01-01

    material and rising on the use of these vegetables was done with the local population. The identified material is deposited in the Reference Collection of Medicinal Plants in UFMT Central Herbarium. It were registered 36 species used in the diseases treatment as infections, hurt and ulcers, erysipelas, labial herpes and warts. Highlight species as: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alata (l. Roxb., come in another. These vegetables are frequently used in baths and teas form. The used vegetable organ was to the leaves followed by the peel and of the stem, fruits, oil, root, the whole plant, sap and seeds. The advance of the agriculture in this state is an constant preoccupation of the botanists and communities who along decades use those medicinal potential.

  4. Structure,Evolution and Expression of a Full-Length cDNA Sequence of SuSy Gene from Yam%山药SuSy基因全长cDNA序列的结构、进化和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生茂; 曹家树; 王玲平; 向殉; 韦本辉; 李杨瑞; 方锋学; 李文嘉

    2009-01-01

    [目的]阐明山药蔗糖合成酶(SuSy,EC 2.4.1.13)基因家族的成员及其功能.[方法]利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从大薯(Dioscorea alata)地下块茎中分离到1个SuSy基因(DaSuSy1)全长cDNA序列,并用DANSTAR和Clastal W等软件分析该序列的结构特征和分子进化,采用RT-PCR和Northern杂交对该基因的时空表达进行分析.[结果]DaSuSy1全长cDNA序列大小为2 673 bp,其中最大开放阅读框(ORF)、5'端和3'端的非翻译区分别含有2 445 bp、7 bp和221 bp,而且3'端的非翻译区含1个24 nt的Poly(A+)尾;最大ORF可编码814个氨基酸,分子量为92.76 kD,等电点为6.42,含有蔗糖合成酶和葡糖基转移酶两个保守功能域及两个磷酸化位点,即N端的Ser10和C端的SNLDRRET781 RR(Ser774~Thr781).该基因在全长cDNA序列、编码区cDNA序列及其编码氨基酸序列的水平上与GenBank中所选已知物种SuSy基因相应序列的同源性分别达45.3%~71.3%、45.8%~74.8%和50%~84.7%,与禾本科植物SuSy基因家族中一些成员亲缘关系最近.DaSuSy1在非光合器官中表达,其中地下块茎表达最为强烈,而且从块茎形成初前期开始表达一直增强至盛中期,此后逐渐减弱.[结论]DaSuSy1是山药SuSy基因家族成员,归为单子叶植物SuSy基因的组别,仅在非光合器官中表达编码负责蔗糖-淀粉转化功能的SuSy同工型.

  5. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  6. 彩色马铃薯二氢黄酮醇4-还原酶(DFR)基因的克隆及生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatical Analysis of Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Gene from Pigmented Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖继坪; 王琼; 郭华春

    2011-01-01

    花色素苷是影响花色的主要色素,二氢黄酮醇4-还原酶(DFR)基因是花色素苷合成的关键酶基因.本研究以云南地方彩色马铃薯品种‘剑川红’和‘转心乌’,外引品种‘黑美人’为实验材料,通过RT-PCR方法从其块茎表皮中克隆到DFR基因的完整cDNA序列,并进行了生物信息学分析.分析结果显示供试的三个彩色马铃薯的DFR基因编码381个氨基酸,具有完整的开放式阅读框(ORF),DFR与NADPH的结合位点、底物特异性选择结合位点高度保守.同源比对表明,三个彩色马铃薯品种的核苷酸相似性为99.24%,氨基酸同源性为98.78%,与茄科的烟草、矮牵牛等的同源性均在86%以上.三个彩色马铃薯品种DFR都不具有信号肽,无明显跨膜区域,可能为亲水蛋白,定位于细胞质的可能性最高.α-螺旋和无规则卷曲是DFR的主要二级结构元件,DFR属于NADB-Rossmann superfamily.%The main pigment which affects flower colors is the anthocyanin, and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase(DFR) is a key enzyme in anthocyanin synthesis. In this study, the materials were 'Jianchuanhong' and 'Zhuanxinwu', native to the Yunnan province, and the normative black potato variety 'Heimeiren'. The complete cDNAs of DFR were isolated from their tubers (Solatium tuberosum L.) by RT-PCR and analyzed by tools of bioinformatics. According to sequence analysis, DFR cDNAs encoded an poly peptide composed of 381 amino acid residues and had a complete open reading frame. DFR of three colored potato varieties also had a highly conserved NADP(H) -binding site and substrate specificity site. Homologous alignment indicated that the nucleotide similarity and amino acid homology of three kind of colored potato species is 99.24%, 98.78%, respectively. The amino acid homology of these pigmented potatoes with other solanaceae plants, such as Nicotiana alata and Petunia χ hybrida, were more than 86%. Neither DFR of these pigmented potatoes had signal

  7. 马来西亚未尽利用热带水果概况%A review on underutilized tropical fruits in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱福荣; K. Nagendra PRASAD; 邝建荣; 赵丽仪; Azrina AZLAN; 孙健; Amin ISMAIL; Salma IDRIS

    2010-01-01

    未尽利用热带水果,即在当地消费和医用的非贸易热带水果,未普及化,生长于野外,季节性强,但富含多酚类化合物、类胡萝卜素、花青素、脂肪酸、矿物质和氨基酸,因而具有一定的开发潜力.在马来西亚,热带水果丰富多样,主要有普通水果、观赏水果、特有水果、野生水果和高地水果,但大部分水果都未能充分利用,其中,典型的有罗望子、巴杖果、砂拉越芒果、钮扣山竹、榴莲、莲雾、挂尼芒果、野红毛丹和蛇皮果.这些水果可以分为3个类型:具有贸易开发潜力的主要包括无花果(Ficus sp.)、罗望子(Garcinia atroviridis)、尖必达(Artocarpus integer)、鲜花木果(Lepisanthes alata)、野榴莲(Durio sp.)、橄榄木(Spondias cytherea)、菠萝蜜(Artocarpus heterophullus)、槟榔(Areca catechu)、野红毛丹(Nephelium ramboutan-ake)、蛇皮果(Salacca zalacca)和面包果(Artocarpus altilis);具有适于当地人们利用潜力的水果种类包括木胡瓜(Averrhoe bilimbi)、榔拜果(Baccaurea motteyana)、单贝果Baccaurea macrocarpa)、喃喃果属(Cynometra cauliflora)、西柚(Dialum indum)、黄肉榴莲(Durio kutejensis)、野生山竹(Garcinia hombroiniana)、野檬果(Garcinia parvifolia)、巴杖果(Mangifera feotida)、醋栗(Phyllanthus emblica)、蒲桃(Syzygium jambos);不具有经济利用开发潜力的水果种类包括哥露比(Salacca conferta)、青枣(Zizyphus mauritiana)、木奶果属(Baccaurea polyneura)、野檬果(Garcinia parvifolia)、番龙眼(Pometia sp.)、赤才果(Leppisanthes rubiginosa)、波漆果(Bouea microphylla)、蛋黄果(Pouteria campechiana)和仙都果(Sandoricum koetjape).目前,有关未尽利用水果研究仍处于初期阶段,有必要使这些水果更为普及并得到有效利用,因此,政府和私人组织须采取一些措施以促进这些水果的消费.今后需对这些水果的营养成分、抗氧化作用以及疗效进行深入研究.

  8. Passionflower supplementation in diets of Japanese qualis at rearing and laying periods Efeitos da utilização de passiflora em rações de codornas japonesas nas fases de recria e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Della Torre da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of passionflower (Passiflora alata in diets on performance, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L, corticosterone plasma levels (CPL and immune response of quails. The study was carried out using 192 birds, distributed in randomized blocks with 4 diets (0, 125, 250 and 375 and 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg of passionflower/kg of feed for the rearing and laying period, respectively, 8 replicates and 6 birds per experimental unit. The rearing period began when birds were 28 days of age and it lasted for 15 days. In this phase, it was evaluated daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and corticosterone plasma levels. Laying phase started when birds were 43 days of age and it finished when they were 140 days of age; it was compesed of six 14-day cycles in which it evaluated feed intake, feed conversion, egg production and quality, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, corticosterone plasma levels and immune response. In the rearing period, the use of passionflower in the diet of quails influenced the behavioral parameters, and the birds became calmer, mainly at the dosage of 375 mg/kg of ration. However, in the laying period, passionflower was efficient in reducing stress in the quails, and the most promising results are observed when higher dosages of the phytotherapic were applied. Nevertheless, the dose of 750 mg/kg of feeeding reduces egg production, though it does not influence quality of eggs neither immune response of the quails.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de passiflora na ração sobre o desempenho, o comportamento, a relação heterófilo/linfócito, a concentração plasmática de corticosterona e a imunidade de codornas. Foram utilizadas 192 aves, distribuídas em blocos casualizados com 4

  9. Yearly changes of phytoplankton in the ecological monitoring zone of Daya Bay%大亚湾生态监控区的浮游植物年际变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨; 林茂; 林更铭; 王春光; 项鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on a great deal of monitoring data and information obtained from National Oceanic Administration, the Third Institute of Oceanography and other authorities, the yearly changes and spatial variation of phytoplankton community in the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay were studied. To assess the current status and further trend, the phytoplankton composition, abundance, dominant species, diversity and harmful algae bloom events from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed. Results showed that the main principal phytoplankton ecotypes were changed from warm-water species to eurythermy species. The species and abundance were yearly degressive. The distribution of phytoplankton abundance kept a trend of higher in the west coast and lower in the east and southeast coast, and higher alongshore and lower offshore. It is presented that the rich nutrients and warm water discharge affected the phytoplankton abundance. In the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay the dominant species were mostly dia- tom with seasonal and yearly diversity and variability. Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillima was the predominant species in spring and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma was the predominant species in summer. Pyrrophyta started to be the ascendancy at the end of spring. The diversity of phytoplankton community was yearly decreased and the evenness of phytoplankton community was yearly increased. The unconventionality of phytoplankton multiplication led to lower diversity, species imbalance, monotony of community. Harmful algae bloom occurred frequently in spring and summer, and its frequency and classes were increased year by year. All of these indicated that the ecosystem of the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay was vulnerable and undergoing a rapid deterioration.%依据国家海洋局、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所等权威机构2004~2007年所获的数据和资料,对大亚湾生态监控区近4a长时间尺度的浮游植物群落年际变化进行分析,

  10. Forenzika elektronske pošte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available U najopštijem smislu digitalna forenzika može se definisati kao skup metoda za prikupljanje, analizu i prezentaciju digitalnih dokaza koji se mogu pronaći na računarima, serverima, u računarskim mrežama, bazama podataka, mobilnim uređajima i svim drugim elektronskim uređajima na kojima se čuvaju podaci. U ovom radu su opisane metode prikupljanja digitalnih dokaza u elektronskoj pošti i njihova analiza. Uvod Elektronska pošta se kao dokazni materijal pojavljuje u velikom broju kako građanskih tako i kriminalnih forenzičkih istraga. Elektronska pošta i elektronska pošta zasnovana na internet serverima  širi se veoma brzo, pa lako i brzo završi i na računaru korisnika kome nije namenjena. Prvu elektronsku poruku poslao je Ray Tomilson 1971. godine, a deset godina kasnije u kombinaciji sa personalnim računarima i internetom prerasta u globalni način komuniciranja i personalnog i poslovnog. Takođe se koristi i u svrhu zabave, načina razmene podataka, ali predstavlja i nezamenjiv izvor digitalnih dokaza, kada dodje do računarskog incidenta. Analiza elektronske pošte Svaka elektronska poruka sastoji se od dva dela: zaglavlja i teksta poruke. Iz zaglavlja je moguće saznati izvorišnu i odredišnu adresu, pošiljaoca i namenjenog primaoca, a telo poruke sadrži tekst poruke. Ekstenzije dokumenata elektronske pošte U slučajevima kada je potrebno otkriti samo dokumente potrebne za pregled elektronskih poruka, ili kopirati pojedinačni dokument sačuvan unutar elektronske pošte, moguće je koristiti sistem na istraživanom računaru ili specijalizovani softver kao što je Outlook Extract Pro ili Outlook Export. Mnogo ispravniji, sigurniji i jednostavniji način je korišćenje forenzičkih alata kao što su EnCase ili FTK, sa ugrađenim pregledačima koji omogućavaju pregled i snimanje sadržaja baze podataka kao i njihovo kopiranje na druge medije za dalju analizu. Forenzički alati automatizuju proces skidanja i kopiranja

  11. Osvrt na projektovanje glavnog rotora helikoptera / Review of the design of the helicopter rotor / Oбзор проектирования главного ротора вертолета

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor P. Petrović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazano projektovanje glavnog rotora helikoptera uz pomoć patentne dokumentacije, kao veoma korisnog alata za dolaženje do konkretnih ideja i konstrukcija, kako bi se na najekonomičniji način pronašlo kvalitetno rešenje za određeni tehnički problem koji je prisutan u postupku konstruisanja. Veliki broj tehničkih informacija prvo se pojavljuje u patentnim dokumentima, a oko dve trećine ovih informacija ne može se naći ni na kojem drugom mestu. Prikazana je struktura patentnih dokumenata sa težištem na delovima koji se odnose na tehničke informacije sa detaljnim objašnjenjem mogućnosti primene patentne dokumentacije u toku projektovanja glavnog rotora helikoptera. Na konkretnom primeru projektovanja rotora helikoptera prikazan je postupak i načini pretraživanja patentne dokumentacije. Korišćena je Espacenet baza patentne dokumentacije, kao najobuhvatnija i najčešće korišćena baza koja sadrži preko osamdeset miliona različitih patentnih dokumenata o pronalascima i tehničkim unapređenjima iz celog sveta. Težišni deo rada odnosi se na prikaz postupka pretraživanja patentne dokumentacije radi dolaženja do rešenja tehničkog problema konstrukcije glavnog rotora helikoptera, koji se odnosi na obezbeđivanje potrebnog zabacivanja i bržeg odziva promene smeštajnog ugla (koraka lopatice krutog rotora helikoptera. / This article - paper presents the design of the main rotor of the helicopter supported by the patent documents, as a very useful tool (instrument to reach the specific ideas and design in order to find the most economical way for the quality solution for a certain technical problem present in the process of design (construction. A large amount of technical information first appears in patent documents and about two thirds of this information cannot be found on any other site. The structure of patent documents is presented with an emphasis on the elements that relate to technical information with