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Sample records for barueiros dipteryx alata

  1. Características químicas de amêndoas de barueiros (dipteryx alata vog. de ocorrência natural no cerrado do estado de Goiás, Brasil Chemical characteristics of baru almonds (dipteryx alata vog. from the savannah of Goiás, Brazil

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    Rosângela Vera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a ampliar os conhecimentos sobre os teores nutricionais de frutos de barueiro, planta nativa do Cerrado, com a finalidade de subsidiar o manejo econômico da cultura, determinaram-se as características químicas de amêndoas de barueiros provenientes de diferentes regiões geográficas do Cerrado goiano. Onze regiões do Estado de Goiás com elevada ocorrência natural de barueiro foram selecionadas e em cada região foram escolhidas, aleatoriamente, doze plantas em plena produção. Coletaram-se aproximadamente 60 frutos e, após seleção, amostraram-se 20 frutos por árvore. As amêndoas foram retiradas dos frutos e, trituradas, constituindo uma amostra composta. Determinaram-se: umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo, minerais e perfil de ácidos graxos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os teores médios de umidade das amêndoas de baru variaram nas regiões estudadas entre 2,93-5,07 g (100 g-1, a proteína entre 25,16-27,69 g (100 g-1 e o teor de extrato etéreo de 32,42-37,36 g (100 g-1. Os teores médios de ácidos graxos saturados variaram de 19,93-25,74 g (100 g-1 e deácidos graxos insaturados de 73,47-79,19 g (100 g-1. Os ácidos graxos de maior ocorrência foram oleico e linoleico, seguidos pelos ácidos palmítico, lignocérico, esteárico, behênico, gadoleico e araquítico. Os macronutrientes minerais que apresentaram maiores teores, foram potássio, fósforo e enxofre. Com relação aos micronutrientes minerais, o ferro apresentou maior concentração.Aiming to broaden the knowledge about the nutritional content of baru fruits, a tree species from the Brazilian Savannah, in order to subsidize its economic management, it was determined the chemical characteristics of baru almonds from different geographical regions. In the state of Goiás eleven sites were chosen for their abundance of baru trees, and at each site twelve trees in full

  2. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of Dipteryx alata Vogel extract

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    Esteves-Pedro Natália

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipteryx alata Vogel popularly known as "baru" is an important commercial leguminous tree species from the Brazilian Cerrado, which possess medicinal properties, besides its fruits consumption by animals and humans. The use of the "naturally occurring plants" as herbal remedies and foods mainly from leaves, seeds, flowers and roots of plants or extracts require precautions before ensuring these are safe and efficacious. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of D. alata barks extract. Methods Vegetal drugs of D. alata barks were submitted to quality control assays and further to the safety assays under 1 in vitro parameter by Salmonella (Ames mutagenicity, and 2 in vivo parameter on the pregnancy of rats. Results The extract was non-mutagenic to any of the assessed strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 even after metabolic activation (+S9. All in vivo parameters (reproductive ability evaluation, physical development of rat offsprings, and neurobehavioral development assays showed no changes related to control group. Conclusion D. alata barks extract is neither mutagenic by the Ames test nor toxic in the pregnancy of rats, with no physical-neurobehavioral consequences on the rat offsprings development.

  3. Sincronização do ciclo celular em meristema radicular de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. Sinchronization of cell cycle in root meristem of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Giovana Augusta Torres

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma das dificuldades de se conduzir estudos citogenéticos em espécies vegetais nativas do cerrado é a ocorrência de baixos índices metafásicos no meristema radicular. O incremento dos índices mitótico e metafásico em células de pontas de raiz tem sido obtido em várias espécies com a sincronização do ciclo celular por meio de hidroxiuréia (HU. Neste trabalho foram determinadas as condições ótimas para a sincronização eficiente do ciclo em células meristemáticas de raízes de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de HU (0,00; 1,25; 2,50; 5,00 e 10,00 mM, três tempos de exposição das raízes (10, 15 e 20 h e dois tempos de recuperação do ciclo (5 e 10 h. As melhores respostas foram obtidas com exposição das raízes, de cerca de 1 cm, à solução de HU 3,5 mM, por 20 horas, com posterior recuperação do ciclo em água destilada por 5 horas. O índice de 45% de células em divisão representou um incremento de cerca de 5 vezes em relação à testemunha, ao passo que para células em metáfases, o índice de 22,6% foi cerca de 10 vezes superior. Portanto, o uso dessa estratégia mostrou-se bastante eficiente para a obtenção de grande quantidade de cromossomos para análise citogenética do baru.A major difficulty in cytogenetic studies of plant species from "cerrado" is the low metaphasic index in root tip cells. Cell cycle synchronization, by using hydroxyurea (HU, has been successfully used in order to obtain high mitotic and metaphasic index in several species. The goal of this work was to optimize conditions for efficient synchronization of Dipteryx alata root tip meristematic cells. Different levels of hydroxyurea (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, and 10.00 mM, periods of treatment (10, 15, and 20 h and periods of cell cycle recovery (5 and 10 h were tested. Best results were achieved by treating 10-mm long roots with 3.5 mM hydroxyurea, for 20 h and incubating for 5 h in distilled water. The

  4. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS) to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees. PMID:21637609

  5. High levels of genetic differentiation and selfing in the Brazilian cerrado fruit tree Dipteryx alata Vog. (Fabaceae

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    Roberto Tarazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx alata is a native fruit tree species of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna that has great economic potential because of its multiple uses. Knowledge of how the genetic variability of this species is organized within and among populations would be useful for genetic conservation and breeding programs. We used nine simple sequence repeat (SSR primers developed for Dipteryx odorata to evaluate the genetic structure of three populations of D. alata located in central Brazil based on a leaf sample analysis from 101 adults. The outcrossing rate was evaluated using 300 open-pollinated offspring from 25 seed-trees. Pollen dispersal was measured by parentage analysis. We used spatial genetic structure (SGS to test the minimal distance for harvesting seeds in conservation and breeding programs. Our data indicate that the populations studied had a high degree of genetic diversity and population structure, as suggested by the high level of divergence among populations . The estimated outcrossing rate suggested a mixed mating system, and the intrapopulation fixation index was influenced by SGS. We conclude that seed harvesting for genetic conservation and breeding programs requires a minimum distance between trees of 196 m to avoid collecting seeds from related seed-trees.

  6. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.

  7. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog. Propriedades térmicas de farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.Componentes de polpa e de semente de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., leguminosa do cerrado brasileiro, foram objetos de estudo neste trabalho. Análises térmicas, Termogravimetria (TG e Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas na investigação de proteínas em farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico. A extração do concentrado proteico foi em pH 10, seguida de precipitação no ponto isoelétrico para obter o isolado, o qual foi seco por atomização. As curvas termogravimétricas foram obtidas em atmosfera de nitrogênio em vazão de 100 mL/minutos. As temperaturas iniciais, finais e de pico foram analisadas, assim como a perda de massa. Na faixa de temperatura avaliada, a farinha desengordurada e o concentrado apresentaram quatro etapas de perda de massa, enquanto que o isolado apenas duas etapas. O conteúdo de proteína da farinha desengordurada da semente de Baru foi mais

  8. Study of the proteins in the defatted flour and protein concentrate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog Estudo das proteínas da farinha desengordurada e concentrado protéico de castanhas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog

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    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is an abundant legume in the Brazilian Savanna. Its nuts can be exploited sustainably using its protein and lipid fractions. This study aimed to analyze the proteins of the nuts present in the defatted flour and protein concentrate in terms of their functional properties, the profile of their fractions, and the in vitro digestibility. The flour was defatted with hexane and extracted at the pH of higher protein solubility to obtain the protein concentrate. The electrophoretic profile of the protein fractions was evaluated in SDS-PAGE gel. The functional properties of the proteins indicate the possibility of their use in various foods, like soybeans providing water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, and foamability. Globulins, followed by the albumins, are the major fractions of the flour and protein concentrate, respectively. Digestibility was greater for the concentrate than for the defatted flour.O baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. é uma leguminosa abundante no Cerrado brasileiro, cuja castanha pode ser explorada através do uso sustentável para o aproveitamento das frações proteicas e lipídicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as proteínas desta castanha, presentes na farinha desengordurada e no concentrado proteico, quanto as suas propriedades funcionais, ao perfil das frações proteicas e à digestibilidade in vitro. A farinha desengordurada com hexano foi submetida à extração no pH de maior solubilidade das proteínas, obtendo-se o concentrado proteico. O perfil eletroforético das frações proteicas foi avaliado em gel de SDS-PAGE. As propriedades funcionais indicaram a possibilidade de emprego em diversos alimentos, assim como a soja, conferindo capacidade de absorção de água, capacidade de absorção de óleo, propriedades emulsificantes e espumabilidade. As globulinas, seguidas das albuminas, são as frações majoritárias da farinha e do concentrado proteico

  9. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

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    Nabout, J C; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco Júnior, P; Telles, M P C; Naves, R V; Chaves, L J

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree), has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance) were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  10. RESÍDUOS ORGÂNICOS E FÓSFORO COMO CONDICIONANTES DE SOLO DEGRADADO E EFEITOS SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Dipteryx alata Vog.

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    Keila da Silva Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In northwestern São Paulo State, it was established, in 1965, the hydroelectric station of Ilha Solteira (CESP that produced extensive degraded areas, from where it was removed the soil superficial layers. For the re-establishment of the vegetation, in areas like these, it is necessary the addition of chemical inputs and organic material. Associating the presence in the area of macrophytes, to the need of recovery of degraded areas and the availability of seeds from native species of Cerrado, it was intended the development of this work, with the objective of evaluating the addition effects of organic residue and phosphorus on the material of degraded soil and on the initial growth of Dipteryx alata , arboreal species of ‘cerrado’. The soil material was collected in area of degraded soil by the construction of Ilha Solteira hydroelectric station. The experiment was conducted in two environmental conditions, greenhouse and plenty of sun. The treatments consisted of four phosphorus doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg dm -3 of P 2 O 5 , with or without macrophytes addition, with 16 treatments and 10 repetitions each one. The used macrophytes, collected at Jupiá hydroelectric station, in Mato Grosso do Sul state, were dried, sliced, incorporated to the soil material and incubated during 60 days. The seeds of Dipteryx alata , collected around of the area, were sowed in washed sand and after 60 days introduced in the treatments. The plants were appraised monthly for height, stem diameter and leaves chlorophyll. After 210 days, the plants were collected and evaluated for fresh and dry weight of aerial part and radicular system and the soil material was evaluated for fertility and microbial activity by the carbon of liberated CO 2 . The organic residue, incorporated to the material of soil degraded, positively affects the soil fertility and the soil microbial activity. The applied phosphorus doses influenced the behavior of Ca, SB, H+Al and CTC, when

  11. PHYSICAL CARACTERIZATION OF BARU FRUITS (Dipteryx alata VOG. IN THREE POPULATIONS IN CERRADOS FROM THE GOIÁS STATE CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DE BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. EM TRÊS POPULAÇÕES NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

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    This study was carried out with 150 plants of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. from three regions of Goiás State. It had 50 plants per region, and it were randomizes choiced at 1995. The purpose was to verify the occurrence and distribution of genetic variation among tested populations. Fruits were analysed about morphollogical characters. The experiment was planted as hierarchal model with regions level, plants within regions and fruits within plants. There was variation to all morphollogical characters in fruits at regions and plants within regions levels. The most variation proportion was founded at plants within regions level with high levels of transmission to all characters.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; cerrados; population.

    O estudo foi conduzido com 150 plantas de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., originárias de três regiões do Estado de Goiás, num total de 50 plantas por região, escolhidas, aleatoriamente, no ano de 1995. O objetivo foi verificar a ocorrência e distribuição da variabilidade genética das populações amostradas, através da avaliação dos caracteres morfológicos de frutos. Adotou-se, para o experimento, o modelo hierárquico com os níveis de regiões plantas dentro de regiões, e frutos dentro de plantas. Houve variação para todas as variáveis morfológicas de frutos, entre plantas de diferentes regiões e entre plantas dentro de regiões. Não houve variação entre frutos dentro de plantas para nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas. Maior proporção da variabilidade foi observada entre plantas dentro de regiões, com altos níveis de herdabilidade, no sentido amplo, para todas as variáveis estudadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baru; cerrados; população.

  12. Chemical quality of Baru almond (Dipteryx alata oil

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    Ana Paula Silva Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils are suitable for human consumption as part of a healthy diet and native fruits of the cerrado, such as almond baru, which are natural sources of these oils. This study informed about the quality of baru oil having as a basis for comparison, soybean oil and olive oil, usually consumed in human diet. Analyzes of acid value, peroxide and iodine for the three oils and fatty acid composition for the baru oil were performed according to official standard methodology. Baru oil has the potential to be part of the human consumption, in healthy diets similarly to soybean oil and olive oil.

  13. Cultivos celulares de Choibá Dipteryx oleifera Benth

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    Paola Andrea Murillo Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Cell cultures of Choiba Dipteryx oleifera BenthTítulo corto: Cultivos celulares de ChoibáResumen: Choibá (Dipteryx oleifera Benth es un árbol de la familia Fabaceae (Papilionoideae, con una distribución geográfica reportada desde Nicaragua  hasta Colombia a una altura de hasta 1000 msnm. Crece en bosque húmedo, muy húmedo o premontano húmedo. Esta especie es considerada vulnerable debido a la sobreexplotación de su madera, ya que es un árbol altamente apetecido por esta y por sus frutos. Su almendra almacena una buena cantidad de aceites con potencial para la industria alimentaria, lo que podría resultar en una nueva fuente alimenticia, por lo cual el cultivo in vitro de vegetales con el propósito de producir compuestos de interés, marca un punto de partida para reducir el uso del suelo y lograr componentes bioactivos bajo condiciones controladas. En este trabajo, como una primera etapa experimental, se evaluó el crecimiento celular en suspensiones,  a partir de callo inducido en explantes de cotiledón; se ensayaron 6 tratamientos diferentes, la mitad de estos con MS como medio basal y la otra mitad con B5, cada uno de los dos grupos con un control y la combinación hormonal de 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de BAP o kinetina, suplementado con adenina, biotina, glutamina y ácido pantoténico y 30 g/L de sacarosa, bajo completa oscuridad. Se encontró que dos tratamientos con MS en combinación con 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de kinetina o BAP fueron los mejores.Palabras clave: Biomasa, choibá, cultivos celulares, Dipteryx oleifera.Abstract: Choibá (Dipteryx olifera is a tree of the Fabaceae family, with a geographical distribution reported from Nicaragua to Colombia, nearly 1.000 msnm in a tropical rain forest. This species is a highlydesiredtreefor its timber andfruits, thekernelstore alot ofimportant oilsfor the food industry, resulting in a new possible food source,so we are making in vitro cultivation

  14. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. COMPONENTS FOR SHELF LIFE STUDY AVALIAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE COMPONENTES DO BARU (Dipteryx alata Vog. PARA ESTUDO DA VIDA DE PRATELEIRA

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    Márcio Caliari

    2010-08-01

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    Agroecology, a science that studies productive relations between man and nature, and whose goal is ecological, economic, social, cultural, political, and ethical sustainability, has been increasingly used as a tool for social and cultural transformation. Within that perspective, the Brazilian Cerrado provides fruits such as baru, which is highly genetically variable, but also widely used as a source of income by the regional population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and physical characteristics of baru pulp, along a 181-day storage period. For that purpose, weight and size analyses, centesimal analysis, monitoring of changes, and sensorial analysis of dry biscuits, in which 25% of the wheat flour was replaced by baru pulp, were carried out. Physical characteristics such as weight, length, and width did not present significant differences, during the storage period. The level of total sugars and reducers increased during the storage period, unlike the tannin level, which decreased. Baru pulp may be considered an important source of sugars and dietary fiber. In addition, the biscuits obtained satisfactory scores for both taste and appearance, on the acceptability test, and their nutritional quality increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Baru; pulp; physical and chemical analyses; kinetics; sensorial analysis.

    A Agroecologia, ciência dedicada ao estudo das relações produtivas entre homem e natureza, visando sempre à sustentabilidade ecológica, econômica, social, cultural, política e ética, vem sendo utilizada como ferramenta de transformação social e cultural. Nesta perspectiva, o Cerrado brasileiro possui frutos como o baru, que, apesar da alta variabilidade genética, é muito utilizado pela população regional, como fonte de renda familiar. Portanto, este trabalho acompanhou as características químicas e físicas da polpa do baru, durante 181 dias de armazenamento. Foram realizadas análises de peso, tamanho, composição centesimal, acompanhamento das alterações e análise sensorial de biscoitos formulados com 25% de substituição da farinha de trigo pela polpa de baru. Características como peso, comprimento e largura não apresentaram diferenças significativas, durante o período de estocagem. O teor de açúcares totais e redutores aumentou, durante o período de armazenamento, ao passo que o teor de taninos sofreu redução. A polpa do baru pôde ser considerada fonte importante de açúcares e fibra alimentar. Os biscoitos obtiveram notas satisfatórias no teste de aceitabilidade, tanto para sabor quanto para aparência, e verificou-se melhora na qualidade nutricional.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Baru; polpa; análises físico-químicas; cinética; análise sensorial.

  15. Evaluation of gastroprotective activity of Passiflora alata

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    André Wasicky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPassiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae, is a liana popularly known in Brazil as ‘maracujá-doce’ that has been used for treating different illnesses. Its leaves are described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, but the gastroprotective activity has never been investigated. In the present study a freeze-dried crude 60% ethanol–water extract of P. alata aerial parts was prepared. Total flavonoid content, expressed as vitexin, was 0.67% ± 0.01. The hemolytic activity was 32 units for P. alata, using Saponin (Merck® as reference. P. alata presented EC50 of 1061.2 ± 8.5 µg/ml in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl assay and 1076 ± 85 µmol Trolox/g in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay. P. alata, its solvent fractions and a P. alatananopreparation were investigated for gastroprotective activity. The test samples exhibited gastroprotective activity on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. P. alata at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using the necrotizing agent at 150 mmol/l, inhibited 100% of ulcer formation (compared to the negative control, while lansoprazole (30 mg/kg 77%. When tested against a more concentrated necrotizing agent (300 mmol/l, fractions of P. alata at 100 mg/kg reduced 57% (n-hexane, 34% (ethyl acetate and 72% (aqueous fraction the ulcer formation. In this assay, lansoprazole (30 mg/kg inhibited 47%. When encapsulated, P. alata inhibited ulcer formation at 55%, 94% and 90% for dosages of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. These results suggest the potential use of P. alata as a gastroprotective herbal medicine.

  16. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Laís C; Silva, Mara R

    2015-03-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Granola containing Cerrado fruits had high levels of protein content (117.4 g/kg), dietary fiber (115.3 g/kg) and iron (32.1 mg/kg) and had lower moisture (57.0 g/kg), water activity (0.3), sodium (577.7 mg/kg), lipids (150.2 g/kg) and energy value (3952.2 kcal/kg) than did the control. After storage for 100 days, the granola presented adequate microbiological conditions, with acceptability scores higher than 7 assigned by 85.5 % to 95.2 % of the judges and a crunchy texture. The high nutritional potential of granola containing Cerrado fruits, coupled with its stability over 100 days of storage, may contribute to the appreciation and consumption of these fruits and meet the growing demand for healthier, more natural foods.

  17. ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PHOSPHORUS AS CONDITIONERS OF DEGRADED SOIL AND EFFECTS ON THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Dipteryx alata Vog.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Keila da Silva [UNESP; Maltoni, Katia Luciene [UNESP; Santos, Cinthia Montibeller; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    In northwestern Sao Paulo State, it was established, in 1965, the hydroelectric station of Ilha Solteira (CESP) that produced extensive degraded areas, from where it was removed the soil superficial layers. For the re-establishment of the vegetation, in areas like these, it is necessary the addition of chemical inputs and organic material. Associating the presence in the area of macrophytes, to the need of recovery of degraded areas and the availability of seeds from native species of Cerrado...

  18. Aprovechamiento de semillas de Dipteryx odorata (Aublet.) Willd. (Shihuahuaco) como producto alimenticio

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Limache Alonzo

    2015-01-01

    Considerando la necesidad de contribuir a la diversificación de insumos alimenticios mediante el aprovechamiento masivo de las partes no maderables de las especies forestales tropicales con énfasis en la región Ucayali - Perú, se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar a las semillas o almendras del Dipteryx odorata como producto alimenticio de consumo humano. Para ello, se sometió a un análisis nutricional, determinación de contenido de minerales y se complementó con una investigación bibliográfi...

  19. Resíduos orgânicos e fósforo como condicionantes de solo degradado e efeitos sobre o crescimento inicial de Dipteryx alata Vog.

    OpenAIRE

    Keila da Silva Machado; Kátia Luciene Maltoni; Cinthia Montibeller Santos; Ana Maria Rodrigues Cassiolato

    2014-01-01

    In northwestern São Paulo State, it was established, in 1965, the hydroelectric station of Ilha Solteira (CESP) that produced extensive degraded areas, from where it was removed the soil superficial layers. For the re-establishment of the vegetation, in areas like these, it is necessary the addition of chemical inputs and organic material. Associating the presence in the area of macrophytes, to the need of recovery of degraded areas and the availability of seeds from native species of Cerrado...

  20. Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability; Biodiesel metilico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparacao, caracterizacao e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade a oxidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Moura, Carla Veronica Rodarte de; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 {+-} 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm) antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively. (author)

  1. Aprovechamiento de semillas de Dipteryx odorata (Aublet. Willd. (Shihuahuaco como producto alimenticio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio Limache Alonzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la necesidad de contribuir a la diversificación de insumos alimenticios mediante el aprovechamiento masivo de las partes no maderables de las especies forestales tropicales con énfasis en la región Ucayali - Perú, se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar a las semillas o almendras del Dipteryx odorata como producto alimenticio de consumo humano. Para ello, se sometió a un análisis nutricional, determinación de contenido de minerales y se complementó con una investigación bibliográfica para identificar los antecedentes de uso y exigencias que implica su conversión en un bionegocio. Así, se determinaron la materia seca, extracto etéreo, fibra cruda y proteína cruda en 88,89 %, 19 %, 16,75 % y 1,51 % respectivamente. Al cuantificar los oligoelementos como el zinc, hierro, cobre, sodio, plomo, magnesio se encontraron valores de 39,29; 25,86; 12,36; 4,79; 3,04; 1,31 ppm respectivamente. La investigación bibliográfica, demostró que en áreas rurales dichas almendras son utilizadas en la dieta alimenticia de la población. En Europa, son consideradas gourmet básico para la coctelería e ideal para repostería exótica. Se concluye indicando que por su contenido nutricional y de minerales las almendras de shihuahuaco en cantidades pequeñas, son aptas para consumo humano. Como limitante para su aprovechamiento en bionegocio, es el contenido de plomo que requiere desarrollo de estudios previos para neutralizar su efecto nocivo que genera problemas gastrointestinales por exceso de consumo.

  2. DRYING KINETICS OF TWO YAM (Dioscorea alata VARIETIES

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    RAMIRO TORRES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue la evaluación de la cinética y condiciones de secado, a escala de laboratorio, de dos variedades del ñame (D. alata 9506-021 y 9506-027 del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia. Dos geometrías (circular y cuadrada fueron utilizadas para el estudio; la temperatura del aire fue variada en un rango entre 40 a 70 °C y la velocidad de aire fue de 0.7 m.s-1. Los datos experimentales se ajustaron apropiadamente a los modelos de Fick, Page y Logarítmico. La transferencia de masa del ñame fue descrita usando el modelo de difusión de Fick's, que fue el modelo que mejor se ajustó. El secado ocurrido principalmente en la fase de decreciente. La relación de Arrhenius describió satisfactoriamente la dependencia de la difusividad de la humedad con la temperatura. Entre el rango de temperatura evaluado, las difusividades de la humedad variaron de 1.70 x 10-9 a 6.84 x 10-10 m2/s, y 1.33 x 10-9 a 6.30 x 10-10 m2/s para D. alata 9506-21 y 9506-27, respectivamente. La energía de activación para el secado de D. alata 9506-21 y 9506-27 varió de 23.19 a 25.72 y 16.03 a 17.82 kJ/mol, respectivamente.

  3. Estudo fitoquímico de Senna alata por duas metodologias Phytochemical study of Senna alata using two methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata, mais conhecida como mata-pasto na região Norte do Brasil, é uma planta utilizada pela medicina popular em várias partes do mundo e considerada espécie problemática em pastagens do Estado do Pará. No presente estudo, compararam-se duas metodologias distintas para a determinação das principais classes de constituintes potenciais aleloquímicos das diferentes frações (caules, flores, folhas, raízes, sementes e vagens de S. alata. O material vegetal foi seco e sofreu extração exaustiva com solvente hidrometanólico, para obtenção dos extratos brutos; uma pequena parte dele foi solubilizada em metanol para obtenção das soluções utilizadas nos testes fitoquímicos. As metodologias utilizadas foram: testes por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD para determinação do perfil cromatográfico qualitativo; e ensaios para detecção preliminar dos diferentes constituintes químicos, com base na extração destes com solventes apropriados e na aplicação de testes de coloração. Os resultados em ambos os métodos demonstraram pouca semelhança, sendo o CCD o mais simples, barato, rápido e adequado para análise preliminar de compostos químicos derivados de plantas, embora seja um método qualitativo. Este método foi mais sensível para a detecção de flavonoides, porém, para detecção de alcaloides, o reativo de Bouchardat foi mais sensível do que o de Dragendorff, assim como o hidróxido de amônia 10% foi mais sensível às antraquinonas do que o hidróxido de potássio. O estudo comprovou a alta diversidade de compostos químicos presentes em Senna alata, justificando sua ampla utilização na medicina popular e indicando ainda o potencial alelopático para a sua utilização.Senna alata, known as mata-pasto in northern Brazil, is a plant used in popular medicine in several parts of the world, and considered harmful to pastures in the state of Pará. In this study, two different methodologies are compared to

  4. Anatomia e histoquímica das folhas de Senna alata Anatomy and histochemistry of Senna alata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata é uma espécie daninha frequente em pastagens da região amazônica, cujas folhas apresentam propriedades medicinais. Indivíduos dessa espécie foram cultivados e coletados no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém-PA, para a realização de análises anatômica e histoquímica das folhas, com a finalidade de fornecer elementos para a taxonomia, identificação microscópica de aleloquímicos e caracterização ecofisiológica da espécie. As folhas apresentaram duas formas de tricomas: tectores e glandulares. Outras características foliares encontradas na espécie foram: lâmina foliar anfiestomática, mesofilo dorsiventral e epiderme abaxial papilosa. Algumas dessas características sugerem um mecanismo de adaptação a ambientes com excesso de calor. As folhas são ricas em cristais de oxalato de cálcio, ao longo de suas nervuras - característica da subfamília Caesalpinioideae. Compostos fenólicos, como flavonoides e antraquinonas, foram encontrados em células epidérmicas, da base de tricomas, e células dispersas no parênquima paliçádico, especialmente nas proximidades da nervura mediana. Este estudo confirmou a presença de conhecidas classes de aleloquímicos em diferentes tipos de células do mesofilo de Senna alata.Senna alata is one of the most frequent weed species in the Amazonian region pastures. Its leaves present medicinal properties. Individuals of this species were cultivated and collected in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, Belém-PA, to carry out anatomical and histochemical analyses to provide taxonomy information, microscopic identification of allelochemicals and ecophysiological characterization of the species. Leaves presented two forms of trichomes: tector and glandular. Other foliar characteristics of the species were: amphistomatic leaf, dorsiventral mesophyll and abaxial epidermis papillose. Some of these suggest an adaptation mechanism to excessive warm

  5. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  6. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Supaporn Wannasiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Senna alata(S. alata) leaf extracts on the regulation of lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.Methods: The obesity condition was induced in the male ICR mice by feeding them with high-fat diet(45 kcal% fat) for 12 weeks. At the 7th week of diet feeding, the obese mice were treated with the water extract of S. alata leaf at 250 and 500 mg/kg/day, respectively, that continued for six weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the biochemical parameters were determined. The hepatic histology and the gene and protein expressions were also examined.Results: In comparison with the obese control mice, the mice treated with S. alata showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood glucose levels and a decrease in the serum insulin and leptin levels. A reduction in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride,non-esterified fatty acid, and hepatic triglyceride levels were also observed. The histological examination of the obese mice treated with S. alata showed a reduced lipid accumulation in the liver tissue. Hepatic lipogenic gene expression showed that S. alata decreased the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase,and acetyl-Co A carboxylase. S. alata could suppress hepatic peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma(PPARg) protein. Moreover, the protein expression of PPARa in liver tissue was clearly increased by S. alata treatment.Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARg and upregulating PPARa. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  7. Anti-lipogenic effect of Senna alata leaf extract in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarinyaporn Naowaboot

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The treatment with S. alata could decrease several parameters of impaired lipid metabolism in the obese mice by downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and PPARγ and upregulating PPARα. This study is the first report on the role of S. alata leaf extract in alleviating the abnormal lipid metabolism in obese conditions.

  8. Microtuberisation in Yam (Dioscorea alata L. var. "Pico de Botella"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Salazar Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nodal “Pico de Botella” yam segments (Dioscorea alata L. were cultured in tuberisation médium (TM following Mantell and Hugo's technique (1989. This was supplemented with 0.1 mg/L thiamine, 100 mg/L myoinositol, 20 mg/L L-cystein, 1 g/L activated charcoal and 0.8% agar at pH 5.8 to evaluate the effects of the photoperiod (8 and 16 hours, sucrose (3, 6 and 9%, kinetin (0.0,1.5 and 2.5 μM and abscisic acid (0.0,1.0 and 2.0μM on micro-tuber production. A randomised split-plot experiment was carried out. Data analysed by ANOVA revealed that those factors evaluated had a substantial effect on micro-tuber induction, formation and development. The highest number of micro-tubers was obtained in an 8-hour photoperiod when treated with 1.5μM kinetin and 9% su- crose, whilst heavier micro-tubers were generally obtained in an 8-hour photoperiod with 9% sucrose in the absence of kinetin. The highest number of micro-tubers and greatest weight were presented by treatment involv ing an 8-hour photoperiod, 6% sucrose and 1.0 μM abscisic acid. Such treatment led to 235 micro-tubers being obtained, presenting 1.3 to 22.8 mm length and 2.3 to 217.4 mg weight. These results confirm the possibility of micro-tuber in vitro induction, representing great potential as commercial seed for yam growers and an additional tool for the cloned propagation of plants contributing to better handling and conservation of this cultivar´s germplasm.

  9. Micropropagation and hairy root culture of Ophiorrhiza alata Craib for camptothecin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-ut, Pornwilai; Chareonsap, Piyarat; Sukrong, Suchada

    2011-12-01

    An efficient system was developed for the in vitro micropropagation and hairy root culture of Ophiorrhiza alata Craib for camptothecin (CPT) production. Shoot multiplication on leaf and node explants from germinated seeds of O. alata was successful on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with varying amounts of kinetin and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Node explants grown in vitro were successfully infected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes TISTR 1450 for the establishment of hairy root culture. The amount of CPT in various parts of O. alata was analyzed by HPLC. The accumulation of CPT in transformed hairy roots was twice that in soil-grown plants (785 ± 52 and 388 ± 32 μg/g dry wt, respectively). In the presence of a polystyrene resin (Diaion HP-20) that absorbed CPT, the CPT content in the culture media increased sevenfold compared with controls (1,036 and 151 μg per 250 ml medium, respectively). These results enable the feasible production of CPT of O. alata by means of a cell culture strategy. These measures can help safeguard the plant from extinction.

  10. Biodiesel metílico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparação, caracterização e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade à oxidação Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 ± 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively.

  11. Ecological consequences of primary and secondary seed dispersal on seed and seedling fate of Dipteryx oleifera (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier; Boucher, Douglas H; Chaves, Luis F; Ingram-Flóres, Cherryl; Guillén, Delvis; Tórrez, René; Martínez, Oscar

    2010-09-01

    The relative contributions of primary and secondary seed dispersal to plant demography have received little investigation. Evidence on these seed dispersal types, on seed fate and seedling recruitment of the tropical rain forest tree Dipteryx oleifera, is presented. The study was conducted in a 6.37ha permanent plot where seeds and seedlings were located and tagged for the 2007 cohort. A total of 2 814 seeds were threaded and their fate was followed one year after germination. Primary seed dispersal by bats protected seeds from insect larval predation below the adult tree. Bats congregated seeds in bat seed piles located at a mean distance of 40.94 +/- 1.48m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. Terrestrial vertebrates congregated seeds in caches located 41.90 +/- 2.43m from the nearest adult individual of D. oleifera. The results of the fitted proportional hazard model suggested that primary seed dispersal decreased seed hazard probability by 1.12% for each meter from the adult conspecific (pseed dispersal decreased it by 23.97% (pseeds was a reduction in viable seed predation rate. For each unviable seed deposited by bats into the seed piles, the rate of seed predation by terrestrial vertebrates decreased 6% (pseed by terrestrial vertebrates in the seed piles, the rate of germination decreased 4% (pseed in the seed piles, the rate of recruitment increased 16% (p=0.001). Seedling survival of seeds that emerged after secondary seed dispersal events, showed no statistically significant difference in arthropod herbivory, in relation to seedlings that came from seeds that were dispersed only primarily by bats (F=0.153, p=0.697, df=1.98). Thus both primary and secondary dispersal contributed to higher seedling survival away from the nearest adult D. oleifera (r2=0.713, n=578, p=0.004). The distribution of D. oleifera seedlings is consistent with the Janzen-Connell Hypothesis and depends on primary dispersal by bats, secondary dispersal by terrestrial

  12. Floral morphology and anatomy of Dalechampia alata Klotzsch ex Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), with emphasis on secretory structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F M; Cunha-Neto, I L; Pereira, T M

    2016-02-01

    The morphology and anatomy of the flower of Dalechampia alata, as well as the chemical nature of the exudates secreted in the inflorescence were studied using light microscope. This is the first report showing the presence of colleters in the genus Dalechampia. In the staminate flower occur a group of small secretory glands. The histochemical results indicate that the substance secreted from the glands is lipidic and resinuous in nature, while in the colleters it consists of polysaccharides and lipid-rich substances. The ovule of D. alata are anatropous, subglobose and bitegmic. It presents obturator, micropyle occluded by nucellar beak and meristematic activity in the ovary wall. The secretion produced in the stigmatic and transmitting tissue consists of polysaccharides.

  13. Bioassay-guided isolation of the antioxidant constituent from Cassia alata L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using DPPH radical scavenging assay to investigate the antioxidant activity of crude methanol extracts from the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata L. found that the leaf extract exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts from the flowers and pods. On the basis of DPPH radical scavenging assay-guided isolation, the methanol extract of C. alata leaves was separated by silica gel vacuum chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography afford a light yellowish powder (CA1, which was identified as kaempferol. This compound exhibited antioxidant activity (ED50 9.99 μM that was six times stronger than that of BHT (ED50 57.41 μM and fifty eight times stronger than that of emodin (ED50 578.87 μM.

  14. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs.

  15. Optimization and technological development strategies of an antimicrobial extract from Achyrocline alata assisted by statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarque, Daniel P; Fitts, Sonia Maria F; Boaretto, Amanda G; da Silva, Júlio César Leite; Vieira, Maria C; Franco, Vanessa N P; Teixeira, Caroline B; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica C; Carollo, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Achyrocline alata, known as Jateí-ka-há, is traditionally used to treat several health problems, including inflammations and infections. This study aimed to optimize an active extract against Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria that causes caries. The extract was developed using an accelerated solvent extraction and chemometric calculations. Factorial design and response surface methodologies were used to determine the most important variables, such as active compound selectivity. The standardized extraction recovered 99% of the four main compounds, gnaphaliin, helipyrone, obtusifolin and lepidissipyrone, which represent 44% of the extract. The optimized extract of A. alata has a MIC of 62.5 μg/mL against S. mutans and could be used in mouth care products.

  16. Optimization and technological development strategies of an antimicrobial extract from Achyrocline alata assisted by statistical design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Demarque

    Full Text Available Achyrocline alata, known as Jateí-ka-há, is traditionally used to treat several health problems, including inflammations and infections. This study aimed to optimize an active extract against Streptococcus mutans, the main bacteria that causes caries. The extract was developed using an accelerated solvent extraction and chemometric calculations. Factorial design and response surface methodologies were used to determine the most important variables, such as active compound selectivity. The standardized extraction recovered 99% of the four main compounds, gnaphaliin, helipyrone, obtusifolin and lepidissipyrone, which represent 44% of the extract. The optimized extract of A. alata has a MIC of 62.5 μg/mL against S. mutans and could be used in mouth care products.

  17. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  18. CONSTITUYENTES NO POLARES DE LA CORTEZA DE Esenbeckia alata Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanonaaislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina,la amida pellitonina y sitosterol.La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, UV, RMN 1H y 13C y EM.Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto de éter de petróleo de E. alata, de algunas fracciones de ésta, y del lignano obtenido, presentando resultados significativos frente algunas cepas bacterianas Gram positivas y Gram negativas.

  19. Toxicology and safety of the tincture of Operculina alata in patients with functional constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kelly Ximenes dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The tincture of Operculina alata, popularly known as "tincture of jalapa", is used in Northeast Brazil to treat constipation and encephalic vascular accident, but it has not yet been adequately tested for safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicology and safety of the tincture of O. alata in patients with functional constipation. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The study consisted of three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment, each phase with duration of seven days. Arterial pressure, heart rate, body weight, adverse events, hematological, metabolic, liver and kidney functions were monitored. Forty patients were randomized to receive tincture of O. alata and 43 patients to receive placebo. There were statistical differences in the clinical aspects between groups, but these changes were not considered clinically significant. Adverse events were considered not serious and of mild intensity, especially dizziness, headache, abdominal pain and nausea. This clinical trial confirmed the safety of the tincture of O. alata in the pharmaceutical form and dosage tested, allowing the product to be safely used in a larger population for the assessment of its clinical efficacy.A tintura de Operculina alata, popularmente conhecida como "tintura de jalapa", é usada no Nordeste do Brasil para tratar constipação intestinal e acidente vascular encefálico, mas sua eficácia e segurança ainda não foram confirmadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a toxicologia e segurança da tintura de O. alata em pacientes com constipação intestinal funcional. Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, randomizado e controlado por placebo. O estudo consistiu de três fases: pré-tratamento, tratamento e pós-tratamento, cada fase com duração de sete dias. Foram monitorizados a pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, peso corporal, eventos adversos e funções hematológica, metab

  20. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis Imanningsih; Deddy Muchtadi; Tutik Wresdiyati; Nurheni Sri Palupi2); Komari

    2013-01-01

    Purple Dioscorea alata (DA) tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process ...

  1. Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of Cassia alata against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated in our study. Worms were maintained between rat model and beetle. Air-dried leaves of C. alata were subjected to ethanol extraction. Different concentrations (10-80 mg/ml) of the extract were prepared in phosphate buffer saline and tested on the parasite in vitro. Parasites treated with C. alata showed a decrease in motility with an increase in concentrations and complete immobilization took lesser time compared to control. The paralyzed parasites were further processed for electron microscopic studies. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface throughout the body accompanied with destruction of microtriches and changes such as shrinkage in the scolex region. Depletion of parenchyma cells and destruction in the connective tissues along with sparsely cytoplasmic cytons were also observed, and these observations are similar with worms treated with a known drug praziquantel. These results may suggest that the plant leaves could be considered for controlling helminth infection and can represent a step forward in the search for alternative anthelmintic drug.

  2. Applying design of experiments (DOE to flavonoid extraction from Passiflora alata and P. edulis

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    Peky Noriega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Passifloraceae family is extensively used in native Brazilian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases. The problem of flavonoid extraction from Passiflora was treated by application of design of experiments (DOE, as an experiment with mixture including one categorical process variable. The components of the binary mixture were: ethanol (component A and water (component B; the categorical process variable: extraction method (factor C was varied at two levels: (+1 maceration and (-1 percolation. ANOVA suggested a cubic model for P. edulis extraction and a quadratic model for P. alata.These results indicate that the proportion of components A and B in the mixture is the main factor involved in significantly increasing flavonoid extraction. In regard to the extraction methods, no important differences were observed, which indicates that these two traditional extraction methods could be effectively used to extract flavonoids from both medicinal plants. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the extract by ORAC method showed that P. edulis displays twice as much antioxidant activity as P. alata. Considering that maceration is a simple, rapid and environmentally friendly extraction method, in this study, the optimized conditions for flavonoid extraction from these Passiflora species is maceration with 75% ethanol for P. edulis and 50% ethanol for P. alata.

  3. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Cassia alata for skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Olaribigbe Majekodunmi; Akanimo Akpan Essien

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antifungal and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Cassiaalata(C. alata) and its formulations for skin diseases. Methods: Sundried leaves of C. alata Linn. were extracted using different solvents as follows:water, methanol, ethanol, n-hexane and lastly with acetone. The crude extract was investigated for antifungal and antibacterial activities using disc diffusion method against Coccidioidesimmitis, Exophilia dermatitidis, Aspergillus fumigatus and human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and a group of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the methanolic extract were determined using the agar dilution method. Herbal ointments were prepared by incorporating the methanol extract of C. alata into emulsifying ointment to obtain different concentrations of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL. Results:The methanol extraction gave the maximum extraction. The formulated C. alata ointment when compared with standard drugs nystatin and streptomycin in vitro was more effective against the microorganisms. Conclusions:This study showed that C. alata had antifungal and antibacterial activities when formulated as ointment for topical use and could, therefore, explained its folkloric use for the treatment of dermatitis.

  4. Morphological variation and isozyme diversity in Dioscorea alata L. landraces from Vale do Ribeira, Brazil

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    Eduardo de Andrade Bressan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional growers of the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, grow and make use of several D. alata landraces. This study assessed the genetic diversity of 16 landraces, using isozymatic and morphological markers and comparing them with 19 commercial varieties of D. alata. Their distribution in different levels of organization such as households and communities of the Vale do Ribeira was evaluated. Isozymatic analyses were performed with polyacrylamide (six systems and starch gels (one system, while the morphological analyses were carried out with 24 traits. Due to the polyploid nature of this species, the isozymatic bands were scored as binary data. Morphological traits were also scored as binary data. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses were conducted for both markers, using for the later the Jaccard´s similarity coefficient and UPGMA method. The separation of the landraces from the commercial varieties, which showed lower genetic diversity, was reported for both markers. No correlation between genetic and geographical distances was found for both data, which suggests that the observed variability is not spatially structured. Also, no correlation was found between both markers. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that genetic diversity was mainly found within households for both isozymatic (54% and morphological (70% markers. The results obtained for both markers revealed the importance of traditional agriculturists in the Vale do Ribeira in maintaining high diversity for D. alata, even higher than the varieties commercialized in São Paulo State, contributing for the in situ/on farm conservation of this crop.

  5. The combination of Passiflora alata and Valeriana officinalis on memory tasks in mice: comparison with diazepam

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    Helvo Slomp Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a compound combining Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata extracts was tested on two mouse memory models: habituation and step-through inhibitory avoidance. Diazepam (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg was used as a positive control. Acute diazepam (2.5 mg/kg before training impaired the habituation and performance in the inhibitory avoidance. On the other hand, acute phytotherapeutic compound (40-160 mg/kg, also before the training session, did not alter mouse behavior in these models. Repeated (15 days treatment with the compound also did not impair the habituation. At the doses used, no locomotor effect was found. Taken together, the results suggest that, contrary to diazepam, the anxiolytic Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora alata compound did not induce amnesia.Avaliou-se o efeito de um composto fitoterápico de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata em dois modelos de memória em camundongos: habituação e esquiva inibitória tipo step-trough. Diazepam (1,0 e 2,5 mg/kg foi empregado como controle positivo. Agudamente, a administração de diazepam (2,5 mg/kg antes do treino prejudicou o desempenho na habituação e na esquiva inibitória. Por outro lado, a administração aguda do composto fitoterápico (40-160 mg/kg antes do treino não alterou o comportamento dos camundongos nestes modelos. Tratamento com o composto fitoterápico por 15 dias também não alterou o comportamento dos animais. Nas doses empregadas não se observou alteração da atividade motora. Os dados sugerem que, diverso do diazepam, este fitoterápico ansiolítico composto de Valeriana officinalis e Passiflora alata não causa amnésia.

  6. Arabinogalactan-Proteins of the Female Sexual Tissue of Nicotiana alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Andrew C.; Bacic, Antony; Clarke, Adrienne E.

    1986-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), isolated from the pistils of Nicotiana alata, an ornamental tobacco, are developmentally regulated. Both the total amount and concentration of AGP in the stigma increase during flower development, reaching 10 micrograms AGP/stigma at maturity. In contrast, AGP concentration in the style remains constant throughout the maturation period reaching 12 micrograms AGP/style at maturity. The classes of AGP present in the stigma and style during flower development, separated according to their charge by crossed-electrophoresis, are different and change during development. Pollination of flowers of N. alata with compatible or incompatible pollen results in a significant and reproducible increase in the amount of AGPs in the stigma, but not the style, compared with control unpollinated pistils. Pollination with ethanol vapor inactivated pollen also results in an increase in the amount of AGP in the stigma, but this is less than half that observed following pollination with viable pollen. There are no significant differences in the classes of AGP, based on crossed-electrophoresis, present in the pistil following pollination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16665162

  7. Potential of Calendula alata for phytoremediation of stable cesium and lead from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza; Moogouei, Roxana

    2011-10-01

    Calendula alata plants were tested for their potential to remove stable cesium and lead from solutions in a 15-day period. The plants were grown hydroponically and placed in solutions containing CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ at different concentrations (0.6, 2 and 5 mg l⁻¹). When plants were incubated in CsCl solutions 46.84 ± 2.12%, 41.35 ± 1.59%, and 52.06 ± 1.02% cesium was found to be remediated after 15 days. Moreover, more than 99% lead was removed from the Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ solution in all three concentrations after 15 days during the same period. When both CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ were supplemented together in the solution, 9.92 ± 1.22%, 45.56 ± 3.52%, and 46.16 ± 1.48% cesium and 95.30 ± 0.72%, 96.64 ± 0.30%, and 99.02 ± 0.04% lead were removed after 15 days. The present study suggests that hydroponically grown C. alata could be used as a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of cesium and lead from solutions; however, plants were found to be more efficient for the remediation of lead than cesium.

  8. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-03

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate.

  9. Elaboration of a method for internal labelling of migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taimr, L.

    1982-03-01

    The average value of the effective half-life of /sup 32/P in migrantes alatae of Phorodon humuli (Schrank) was 3.794 days during 11 days following termination of feeding NaH/sub 2//sup 32/PO/sub 4/ in 20% sucrose solution on 'Parafilm' membranes under the given experimental conditions (temperature 20 +- 4/sup 0/C, imposed limitation of movement). During the first three days and partly also during 5 further days the aphids excreted non-assimilated /sup 32/P, while assimilated /sup 32/P was excreted during a further period of three days. Mainly birth-rate (34% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) determining the length of the effective and biological /sup 32/P half-lives of the mothers is responsible for the reduction of radioactivity in the alate females. Excretion of radioactive phosphorus in the honeydew (5% losses of the incipient /sup 32/P-activity of the females) proceeds more rapidly as follows from the effective half-life. The /sup 32/P-activity level of the migrantes alatae used (453 to 7979 counts per min) did not adversely affect fertility which amounted to 19.7 nymphs on the average during 11 days.

  10. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  11. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  12. Caracterização de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis

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    ANDREAS S. L. MENDEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma análise comparativa da qualidade de preparações extrativas obtidas de Passiflora alata Curtis, além de descrever esse processo. O extrato líquido foi obtido por refluxo utilizando água como solvente em proporção 1:10. A preparação líquida foi submetida à secagem em spray dryer utilizando aerosil® e fosfato de cálcio como adjuvantes tecnológicos. A eficiência de extração foi avaliada através da determinação do resíduo seco e do teor de flavonoides totais por técnica de espectrofotometria no UV. O extrato seco foi avaliado quanto à viabilidade tecnológica a partir da determinação das características de granulometria e da estabilidade em ambientes de umidade relativa controlada. O teor de flavonoides totais para o extrato seco apresentou redução quando comparado à solução extrativa, indicando possível influência do processo de secagem na composição do material. Os resultados de caracterização tecnológica demonstraram que o processo de secagem utilizado garante uma uniformidade de tamanho particular, embora seja observada uma tendência de higroscopicidade do material em ambientes de elevada umidade relativa. As técnicas empregadas se mostraram viáveis para uso em ensaios quali-quantitativos aplicados à determinação da qualidade dos extratos desenvolvidos. Palavras-chave: Passiflora alata Curtis; Preparações extrativas; Spray-drying; Flavonoides totais; Caracterização tecnológica. ABSTRACT Characterization of extracts prepared from Passiflora alata Curtis This paper describes a process to prepare liquid and dried aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Passiflora alata Curtis (sweet passionfruit and reports a comparative analysis of the extractive preparations obtained. The extractive solution was obtained by refluxing the plant material with water in the proportion 1:10 (w/v. The aqueous extract was dried in a spray-dryer, with Aerosil® and calcium

  13. KARAKTERISASI DAN JARAK KEMIRIPAN UWI (Dioscorea alata L. BERDASARKAN PENANDA MORFOLOGI UMBI

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    Trimanto Trimanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam (Dioscorea alata L. is a potential local crop for supporting food security program in Indonesia.  Inventory and characterization of yam have been conducted in scattered population at Nganjuk region - East Java.  The research was aimed to identify the characteristic of Nganjuk’s yam, based on the tuber morphology and to determine its similarity distance value.  The characterisation were analyzed using interval similarity function, based on NTSys DICE coefficient programme. The result showed that 22 accession numbers which comprises of 13 variants of yam were found in Nganjuk region. The same variants of yams indicated by their close similarity distance although they were originated from different areas.

  14. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

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    Barnali Paul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was also recorded against those bacteria by serial dilution technique. Kanamycin was used as positive control. Results showed that 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  15. Dipteryx lacunifera seed oil: characterization and thermal stability Óleo de sementes de fava de morcego: caracterização e estabilidade térmica

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    Vicente Queiroga Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke is an oleaginous legume with high oil and protein content that can be used in human nutrition. The specie is a native of the Piauí and Maranhão state in the north east of Brazil. The measure physico-chemical properties of the oil are specific density, refractive index, acid, peroxide, iodine and saponification values of 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% oleic acid, 2.81, 70.80 and about 179, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil showed the presence of 20.6% saturated, 65.1% monounsaturated and 14.3% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C17:0 were present in trace (A Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke (fava de morcego é uma leguminosa oleaginosa com elevado conteúdo em proteínas e óleo podendo ser usada na nutrição humana. A espécie é nativa dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão do nordeste do Brasil. Mensurações das propriedades físico-químicas do óleo densidade especifica, índice de refração, acidez, peróxidos, iodo e saponificação foram 0.91, 1.4651, 0.60 (% ácido oléico, 2.81, 70.80 e 179, respectivamente. A análise do óleo por cromatografia gasosa mostrou a presença de 20.6% de ácidos graxos saturados, 65.1% de monoinsaturados e 14.3% poliinsaturados. Os ácidos graxos C6:0, C8:0, C12:0 e C17:0 estão presentes em quantidades de traços (<0.01% enquanto os C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0 e C24:0 estão em concentrações de 10.3, 5.4, 3.4, 0.9 e 0.6%, respectivamente, dos ácidos graxos totais. O conteúdo dos ácidos graxos insaturados C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 e C22:2 foram 65.1, 14.1, 0.3% e traço (0.01%, respectivamente. A análise térmica (TG/DTG revelou que a decomposição térmica do óleo ocorre em dois estágios correspondentes aos ácidos graxos insaturados e saturados. O óleo quando aquecido na temperatura de 180º C por 400 min mostrou menor perda massa que o óleo comercial de soja, girassol e milho. A curva DSC indicou um evento endotérmico com

  16. Prospecção química de compostos produzidos por Senna alata com atividade alelopática Chemical prospecting of compounds produced by Senna alata with allelopathic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.C. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna alata é uma espécie daninha frequente em pastagens da região amazônica. Suas folhas apresentam propriedades medicinais capazes de influenciar a germinação e o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. Objetivou-se neste estudo a prospecção química e a avaliação da atividade alelopática dos compostos presentes nas folhas de S. alata. O material vegetal foi seco, triturado e submetido à extração exaustiva, com solução água:metanol (3:7. O extrato obtido foi então fracionado por coluna cromatográfica por via úmida. As frações mais puras foram submetidas à espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear, para determinação das fórmulas estruturais das moléculas. Na avaliação dos efeitos das substâncias químicas isoladas, utilizaram-se as concentrações de 50, 100, 150 e 200 ppm, tendo como eluente solução hidrometanólica (3:7 v/v. As frações foram adicionadas em placas de Petri e seus efeitos avaliados sobre a germinação de sementes e o alongamento da radícula e hipocótilo de três espécies daninhas de áreas de pastagens: Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia e a própria S. alata. Os compostos com atividade alelopática encontrados em folhas de S. alata pertencem à classe dos flavonoides glicosilados, cujo núcleo aromático é um kaempferol, e causaram maior inibição sobre o crescimento da radícula e sobre a germinação de S. obtusifolia e M. pudica. Já os efeitos autotóxicos desse composto são pouco significativos para o desenvolvimento da plântula e nulos sobre a germinação.Senna alata is a weed species frequently found in pastures of the Amazonian region and whose leaves have medicinal properties. This study aimed to carry out a chemical prospecting and evaluation of the allelopathic activity of the compounds present in S. alata leaves. The plant material was dried, ground, and submitted to exhaustive extraction with water/methanol (3:7 solution. The crude extract obtained was fractioned by wet

  17. Prospecção química de compostos produzidos por Senna alata com atividade alelopática Chemical prospecting of compounds produced by Senna alata with allelopathic activity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Senna alata é uma espécie daninha frequente em pastagens da região amazônica. Suas folhas apresentam propriedades medicinais capazes de influenciar a germinação e o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. Objetivou-se neste estudo a prospecção química e a avaliação da atividade alelopática dos compostos presentes nas folhas de S. alata. O material vegetal foi seco, triturado e submetido à extração exaustiva, com solução água:metanol (3:7). O extrato obtido foi então fracionado por coluna cromatogr...

  18. Scapula alata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gadsbøll, Janne

    2015-01-01

    to a physical therapy program at a university hospital. The program included (1) physical examination, (2) thoracic brace treatment, and (3) muscular rehabilitation. The treatment frequency and duration were determined individually. The effect was evaluated by a shoulder-specific quality-of-life questionnaire...... Index. CONCLUSIONS: This study described in detail a physical therapy program; the program showed significant benefit. Further research is needed before recommending the program as a potential treatment option....

  19. Efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis Effect of plant regulators on Passiflora alata seedlings development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator limitante à produção de mudas enxertadas de maracujazeiro é o elevado tempo para a sua formação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis, a serem empregadas como porta-enxerto, visando a reduzir o tempo para atingir o ponto de enxertia. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 reguladores vegetais x 5 concentrações, com 4 repetições de 25 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 0,0 mg L-1 (testemunha; 25 mg L-1; 50 mg L-1; 75 mg L-1, e 100 mg L-1 de Benziladenina (BA, GA4+7 + Fenilmetil-aminopurina (GA4+7+CK, Ácido giberélico (GA3 e Cloreto de chlormequat (CCC. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas, o comprimento e a fitomassa seca de raíz, do caule, das folhas e total. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial, sendo realizado desdobramento quando houve efeito significativo da interação.Os reguladores não promoveram respostas significativas para o comprimento e a massa seca de raiz, do caule, de folhas e total. Porém, GA4+7+Fenilmetil-aminopurina foi o regulador que incrementou o comprimento do caule, o diâmetro e o número de folhas, promovendo maior desenvolvimento às mudas e reduzindo o tempo para a formação do porta-enxerto, de três a oito meses, para dois meses (63 dias.The limiting main factor to the passion flower grafted seedlings production is the long time necessary for its formation. So, this work aimed, to evaluate the effects of vegetal regulators, at Passiflora alata Curtis seedlings development, aiming to reduce time for the seedling to reach the grafting point. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a 4 x 5 (plant growth regulator x concentrations factorial and four replicates, with 25 seedlings per parcel. The treatments were as follow: Benzyladenine, GA

  20. In vitro effects of extract of Senna alata (Ceasalpiniaceae on the polyamines produced by Leukaemia cells (L1210

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    C A Pieme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the effects of S. alata (Ceasalpiniaceae extract on the metabolism of polyamines resulting from the proliferation of leukaemia cells (L1210. The results established that the inhibition of cell proliferation was significantly increased with the concentration of extract from 28 to 32.80 % after 72 h. The percentage of cells viability changed significantly from 9.72 to 80 % when cells are treated with extract alone, in combination with DEMO or putrescine. The levels of the intracellular yield of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also reduced by the extract compared to the control. The DEMO-extract complex enhanced the inhibition of the production polyamines up to 95 %. In opposite, the complex S. alata- putrescine complex stimulated significantly its biosynthesis of polyamines. A significant reduction of the level of protein after 72 h of treatment was observed. This result corroborated with the reduction of polyamines resulting from inhibition cell proliferation.

  1. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles through green approach using Dioscorea alata and their characterization on antibacterial activities and optical limiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhendhi, S; Sathya, P; Palanisamy, P K; Gopalakrishnan, R

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized highly biocompatible and functionalized Dioscorea alata (D. alata) mediated silver nanoparticles with different quantities of its extract for the evaluation of proficient bactericidal activity and optical limiting behavior. The crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis and furthermore confirmed from SAED pattern of HRTEM Analysis. The Surface Plasmon Resonance band was measured and monitored by UV-Visible spectral studies. The functional groups present in the extract for the reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique. Surface morphology and size of particles were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis (HRTEM). The elemental analysis was made by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in colloidal form were found to exhibit third order optical nonlinearity as studied by closed aperture Z-scan technique and open aperture technique using 532nm Nd:YAG (SHG) CW laser beam (COHERENT-Compass 215M-50 diode-pumped) output as source. The negative nonlinearity observed was well utilized for the study of optical limiting behavior of the silver nanoparticles. D. alata mediated silver nanoparticles possess very good antimicrobial activity which was confirmed by agar well diffusion assay method.

  3. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  4. Conservación in vitro de Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño (Dioscoreaceae

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    Misterbino Borges García

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo establecer, para Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño, un método eficiente para la conservación in vitro de durante 9 y 12 meses basado en la modificación del medio de cultivo (MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 con distintos niveles de manitol y BAP. Los tratamientos consistieron en la adición en el medio de cultivo de manitol (0; 0,5 y 1,5% y BAP (0; 0,1 mg.L-1. A los 9 y 12 meses de conservación in vitro se realizaron las siguientes evaluaciones: supervivencia (%, senescencia foliar (%, numero de nudos, longitud del vástago, número de microtubérculos. A las 8 semanas de la regeneración de los segmentos nodales (procedentes de vitroplantas conservadas a 9 y 12 meses en el medio de cultivo (MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 se determinó la regeneración de plantas completas (%, número de nudos, número de hojas y longitud del vástago. A las 5 semanas durante la micropropagación convencional se determinó el número de nudos, número de hojas y la longitud del vástago. Las variantes de cultivo formadas por el medio MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 y el MS al 75% + vitaminas MS + sacarosa 30 g.L-1 + carbón activado 2 g.L-1 + BAP 0,1 mg.L-1 permitió de manera efectiva la conservación de vitroplantas a partir de segmentos uninodales de D. alata clon caraqueño durante 9 y 12 meses con altos porcentajes de supervivencia, un número significativo de microtubérculos, los menores porcentajes de senescencia foliar y 100% de regeneración en plantas completas con un crecimiento normal en condiciones de micropropagación.

  5. KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL FRAKSI PATI UWI UNGU (DIOSCOREA ALATA

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    Lula Nadia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSize fractionation of yam starch granule could be achieved through dry sieving Retsch Siever with 400 and 500 mesh. Although the fractionation was not completely separate the granule size, however it could provide a significant difference in average size of the fractions. Starch granule morphology, size distribution, amylose and phosphorus contents, crystal structure, thermal properties, and rheological characteristic of the starch fraction were evaluated. In this study, based on the average value of the granule size, significant effects of fraction were obtained on phosphorus content and relative crystallinity of the starch. The size fraction differences did not give a significant impact on its gelatinization character, while in the pasta formations the effect of the fraction was found in peak and final viscosity. In the bigger size fraction, the phosphorus content increased but the relative crystallinity decreased. These differences made the large size fraction of starch granule had the advantage in paste profiling than starches and fractions against stirring, heating and cooling for its potential use in food processing as thickner.Keywords: dioscorea alata, starch, size fractionation, size distribution, viscoelastisityABSTRAKFraksinasi ukuran granula pati uwi dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan pengayakan kering Retsch Siever 400 dan 500 mesh. Meskipun metode fraksinasi ini tidak sempurna memisahkan ukuran granula, tetapi dapat memberikan perbedaan yang signifikan dari nilai rerata ukuran fraksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi morfologi granula, distribusi ukuran, kandungan amilosa, kadar fosfor, struktur kristal dan kristalinitas relatif, sifat termal, serta karakteristik rheologi dari fraksi pati. Penelitian menunjukkan, berdasarkan nilai rerata ukuran granula, pengaruh signifikan dari fraksi diperoleh pada kandungan fosfor dan kristalinitas relatif pati. Perbedaan ukuran fraksi granula tidak cukup memberi pengaruh yang

  6. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae DURANTE SU CULTIVO EN MEDIOS LÍQUIDOS

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    LAURA E. CERÓN RINCÓN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunas características descritas como factores de virulencia para el género Colletotrichum sp. tales como la masa del micelio producido, la esporulación, la actividad poligalac- turonasa y el pH del medio, fueron evaluadas durante el cultivo de C. gloeosporioides f. alatae en tres medios líquidos (Czapeck, caldo Martin y caldo papa, utilizados común- mente para el desarrollo de hongos y en el medio de cultivo Czapeck adicionado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame como única fuente de carbono. Al cabo de 17 días de crecimiento, se obtuvieron los niveles máximos de los parámetros mencionados, al utili- zar este último medio, respecto a los otros medios de cultivo evaluados. El medio de cultivo implementado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame, suministró los requerimien- tos nutricionales del hongo para el desarrollo de factores relacionados con los meca- nismos de infección que pueden participar en su patogenicidad.

  7. Effect of Blanching on Properties of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata Flour

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    Harijono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of flour from blanched tubers of two water yam (Dioscorea alata cultivars were compared with those from the non blanched ones. The results showed that the proximate composition of flours from the yellow cultivar was different from that of the purple cultivar. Steam blanching (97±2°C, 7 min on the purple cultivar resulted in more significant reduction on yield and the Lightness (L value. However, it had significant effect on some components of the flours such as protein, ash, amylose and fiber. Results of proximate composition showed crude fat yellow and purple water yam ranging from 0.4 to 0.55%, crude protein 5-8%, dietary fiber 16-26% and starch 41-76%. Starch granule size between 20-40 &mum. Blanched yellow water yam flour has the highest water and oil absorption which is 2.02 and 1.18 g/g. Dioscorine and water soluble polysaccharides, bioactive components from Dioscorea, of purple water yam flour are larger than the yellow flour. Purple water yam flour is better to be proceed as a functional food because it has a high peak viscosity, more stable to heat and has greater content of bioactive compounds. Steam blanching decrease the yield of dioscorine and water soluble polysaccharide.

  8. Continuous directional water transport on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Liwen; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Deyuan; Han, Zhiwu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the ‘peristome’—the rim of the pitcher—because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic ‘design’ principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.

  9. Evaluation of the Bronchorelaxant, Genotoxic, and Antigenotoxic Effects of Cassia alata L.

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    M. Ouédraogo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cassia alata (AECal and its derived fractions obtained through liquid-liquid fractionation were evaluated for their bronchorelaxant, genotoxic, and antigenotoxic effects. Contractile activity of rats’ tracheas in the presence of tested materials, as well as its modifications with different inhibitors and blockers, was isometrically recorded. The antigenotoxic potential of AECal was evaluated on cyclophosphamide- (CP- induced genotoxicity in the rat. Animals were pretreated with the extract, then liver comet assay was performed. AECal and its chloroformic fractions (CF-AECal relaxed the contraction induced by Ach, but both were significantly less potent in inhibiting contraction induced by KCl (30 mM; 80 mM. Propranolol, indomethacin, L-NAME, methylene blue, and glibenclamide did not modify the relaxant effect of CF-AECal. TEA altered the response of trachea to CF-AECal. CF-AECal caused a rightward shift without affecting the Emax in cumulative concentration-response curves of Ach only at low concentrations. In animals pretreated with the extract, the percentage of CP-induced DNA damage decreased. Our results suggest that (1 muscarinic receptors contribute at least in part to the relaxant effects of CF-AECal; (2 CF-AECal interferes with membrane polarization; and (3 AECal is not genotoxic in vivo and contains chemopreventive phytoconstituents offering protection against CP-induced genotoxicity.

  10. POBOLJŠANJE UČINKOVITOSTI PRODAVAČA U VELEPRODAJNIM TVRTKAMA PUTEM ALATA ZA AUTOMATIZACIJU PRODAJE

    OpenAIRE

    Berisha Qehaja, Albana; Kutllovci, Enver; Berisha Namani, Mihane

    2016-01-01

    Glavna svrha ovog rada je doprinos raspravi o tome dolazi li do poboljšanja učinkovitosti prodavača kroz upotrebu alata za automatizaciju prodaje. Obavljeno je istraživanje na uzorku od tri lokalne tvrtke u Republici Kosovo, koje se bave distribucijom robe široke potrošnje (FMCG, fast-moving consumer goods). Ispitano je 58 zaposlenika lokalnih tvrtki „X“, „Y“ i „Z“. Ova je tema izabrana jer veleprodajne tvrtke koje se bave distribucijom robe široke potrošnje na Kosovu prolaze kroz tranziciju ...

  11. Cryopreservation of asian Dioscorea bulbifera l. and D. alata l. by vitrification: importance of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Papiya; Mandal, B B; Bhat, K V; Biswas, A K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cryopreservation protocols for Asian races of Dioscorea bulbifera and D. alata with high survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. Using a vitrification procedure, survival of shoot tips postcryopreservation of up to 89% in D. bulbifera and up to 82% in D. alata were recorded when excised shoot tips were pretreated overnight with 0.3 M sucrose in MS medium, followed by loading with 2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose for 20 min at 25 degrees C, exposure to PVS2 solution for 90 min at 0 degrees C, immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 h, rewarming at 40 degrees C for 2 min, unloading in medium with 1.2 M sucrose for 20 min and culturing on growth recovery medium. During growth recovery, 58% shoot regeneration was obtained in D. bulbifera when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on MS medium with 1.5 mg/L BAP, 0.15 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing on a medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/ L NAA. However, a maximum of 39% shoot regeneration was recorded in D. alata when cryopreserved shoot tips were initially cultured for 40 days on medium M2 (MS containing 1/5 NH4NO3 and 40 g/L sucrose) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L zeatin, 0.15 mg/L IAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Subsequently, the regenerating shoots were cultured for 30 days on medium M2 with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.3 mg/L zeatin, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3 followed by culturing for another 30 days on medium with 0.5 mg/L BAP, 0.02 mg/L NAA and 0.2 mg/L GA3. Finally, transfer onto medium with 0.05 mg/L BAP and 0.15 mg/L NAA stimulated production of fully grown plantlets. Alteration of post-thaw culture media with plant growth regulators and their application at various stages of growth recovery was crucial for regeneration of shoot tips and formation of plantlets in D. alata.

  12. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

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    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  13. Androgenesis Induced in Nicotiana alata and the Effect of Gamma Irradiation

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    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata anthers cultured on different modified media based on MS, MT and N were used to obtain haploid plants through direct and indirect ways. The haploid plants resulting on MS medium ranged from 52% - 80%, on MT medium ranged from 32% - 52% and on N medium ranged from 28% - 44%. Accordingly, the best medium used for haploid induction was MS supplemented with 0.2 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN. On the other hand, MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN or 1.0 mgl-l BAP + 0.5 mgl-l NAA were the best mediums for callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively. Morphologically, the leaf size, stem highest and diameter, flower size and diameter, anther length and number were about 67% of the diploid plants growth. Irradiated anthers with doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy caused reducing the number of haploid plants with increasing gamma radiation dose. For the haploid plants irradiated with same doses, the mortality percentage of bud survival was increasing with increasing gamma radiation dose. The irradiated callus with doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy was affected negatively on growth rate and morphology. Proline content in irradiated plantlets increased with increasing gamma radiation dose. As well, total soluble protein content was increased with gamma irradiation up to 10 Gy. However, the higher doses caused a severe decrease of total soluble proteins. The production of proline and total soluble proteins in haploid plants were 48.6% and 69.5%, respectively comparing with diploid plants.

  14. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

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    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  15. In vitro antitumor properties of an isolate from leaves of Cassia alata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Elizabeth Iglesias; Herrera, Annabelle Aliga; Villaseñor, Irene Manese; Jacinto, Sonia Donaldo

    2013-01-01

    Leaf extracts of Cassia alata L (akapulko), traditionally used for treatment of a variety of diseases, were evaluated for their potential antitumor properties in vitro. MTT assays were used to examine the cytotoxic effects of crude extracts on five human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, derived from a breast carcinoma, SK-BR-3, another breast carcinoma, T24 a bladder carcinoma, Col 2, a colorectal carcinoma, and A549, a non- small cell lung adenocarcinoma. Hexane extracts showed remarkable cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 in a dose-dependent manner. This observation was confirmed by morphological investigation using light microscopy. Further bioassay-directed fractionation of the cytotoxic extract led to the isolation of a TLC-pure isolate labeled as f6l. Isolate f6l was further evaluated using MTT assay and morphological and biochemical investigations, which likewise showed selectivity to MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 cells with IC50 values of 16, 17, and 17 μg/ml, respectively. Isolate f6l, however, showed no cytotoxicity towards the non-cancer Chinese hamster ovarian cell line (CHO-AA8). Cytochemical investigation using DAPI staining and biochemical investigation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-a method used to detect DNA fragmentation-together with caspase assay, demonstrated apoptotic cell death. Spectral characterization of isolate f6l revealed that it contained polyunsaturated fatty acid esters. Considering the cytotoxicity profile and its mode of action, f6l might represent a new promising compound with potential for development as an anticancer drug with low or no toxicity to non-cancer cells used in this study.

  16. Optimización de un medio de cultivo para plantas micropropagadas de Dioscorea alata L.

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    Misterbino Borges García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Optimization of a culture medium for micropropagated plants of  Dioscorea alata L. Resumen La propagación de material de ñame de buena calidad es esencial para incrementar la producción sostenible de este cultivo. El presente trabajo tuvo como propósito optimizar el medio de cultivo de micropropagación de Dioscorea  alata L. clon Caraqueño a través de los siguientes objetivos: determinar el efecto de diferentes antioxidantes (carbón activado 0,5 g/L-1 ; carbón activado 1,0 g/L-1; cisteína 10 mg/L-1, 20 mg/L-1 y 30 mg/L-1 y concentraciones de sales de Murashige y Skoog (MS (25, 50, 75 y 100 % en el medio de cultivo durante el establecimiento y la multiplicación de las plantas in vitro, y evaluar la utilización de distintas combinaciones de ácido naftalenacético (0,01; 0,1 mg/L-1 y bencilaminopurina (0,01; 0,1 mg/L-1 en el mejor medio de cultivo de multiplicación obtenido en el experimento anterior. A los 35 días se seleccionaron 40 plantas in vitro, a las cuales se les determinaron las siguientes variables: longitud en cm del vástago; número de nudos de novo por explantes; número de hojas por explante y porcentaje de fenolización. Se evaluó además, en el experimento con los reguladores de crecimiento, el número   de raíces y longitud de la raíz de mayor tamaño. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio con análisis de varianza bifactorial y clasificación simple. Se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para un nivel de significación del 5%. Los resultados  obtenidos mostraron que las sales MS al 75%  de su concentración, el carbón activado (0,5 g/L-1 o la cisteína (10 mg/L-1, en combinación con los reguladores de crecimiento ANA/BAP (0,01/0,01 mg/L-1 en el medio de cultivo MS, incrementaron los indicadores de desarrollo de las plantas in vitro tales como número de nudos de novo (3

  17. Distribution of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in Cassia alata and the factors affecting the quality of the raw material

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    Niwan Intaraksa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses have been carried out on the content of hydroxyanthracene derivatives of the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata, which had been collected at different harvesting times and different leaf-positions. It was found that when the leaves had been harvested in March, June or September, the hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the leaf-positions 1-3 (1.82, 1.25, 1.63 %w/w, respectively and 4-6 (1.39, 1.58, 1.09 %w/w, respectively. In December (the flowering and fruiting season, hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the flowers (2.21%w/w and the pods (1.82 %w/w, respectively. The method and temperature of drying markedly affected the hydroxyanthracene derivative content. Drying of the leaves in a hot air oven at 50ºC gave a higher hydroxyanthracene derivative content (1.43 %w/w than drying in a hot air oven at 80ºC (0.44 %w/w or drying in the sun (0.95 %w/w. Study on the stability of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in C. alata leaf powder, which was kept in tight container at room temperature, found that the hydroxyanthracene derivative content did not decrease within 9 months.

  18. Effect of plant growth regulators on indices of growth analysis for sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Curtis

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    Carmen Sílvia Fernandes Boaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of GA3 + IBA + cinetina on the growth of Passiflora alata Curtis plants through growth analysis. The experiment was carried out by completely randomized block design, with six treatments and four replications. The plant growth regulators, gibberellin (GA3, auxin (IBA and cytokinin (kinetin, were applied to leaves at concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125mL.L-1. The applications were performed at 48, 55, 52, 69, and 76 days after the emergence of the plants and the growths were evaluated five times at 7-day intervals. The first evaluations were accomplished 55 days after plant emergence. The leaf area ratio (RAF, specific leaf area (AFE, liquid assimilation rate (TCA, and relative growth rate (TCR were analyzed. The following data were also analyzed for P. alata Curtis plants: leaf area, leaf lamina dry mass and total leaves dry mass. The growth analysis, which employed the ANACRES computer program, indicated that the growth regulators increased plant productivity.

  19. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN PROBOSCIA ALATA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT AND CO2 CONDITIONS OF THE MODERN SOUTHERN OCEAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, Astrid; Timmermans, Klaas R.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of different light and aqueous CO2 conditions were assessed for the Southern Ocean diatom Proboscia alata (Brightwell) Sundstrom in laboratory experiments. Selected culture conditions (light and CO2(aq)) were representative for the natural ranges in the modern Southern Ocean. Li

  20. Growth and Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae During Culture in Liquid Medium Crecimiento y Desarrollo de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. alatae durante su cultivo en medios líquidos

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    Higuera M. Blanca L.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristics known as virulence factors for Colletotrichum sp. genus, like: weight of the produced mycelium, sporulation, poligalacturonase activity and pH medium were evaluated during the growth of C. gloeosporioides f. alatae in three liquid medium commonly used for fungi culture (Czapeck, Martin broth and potato broth and additionally (Czapeck with yam extract as the only source of carbon. After of 17 days of growth, maximum values were obtained for the above parameters in the last medium, compared with others growth media evaluated. The implemented medium with yam extract, supply nutritional requirements of the pathogen for the development of characteristic factors related with mechanism of infections that may play a role in the pathogenesis.Algunas características descritas como factores de virulencia para el género Colletotrichum sp. tales como la masa del micelio producido, la esporulación, la actividad poligalacturonasa y el pH del medio, fueron evaluadas durante el cultivo de C. gloeosporioides f. alatae en tres medios líquidos (Czapeck, caldo Martin y caldo papa, utilizados comúnmente para el desarrollo de hongos y en el medio de cultivo Czapeck adicionado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame como única fuente de carbono. Al cabo de 17 días de crecimiento, se obtuvieron los niveles máximos de los parámetros mencionados, al utilizar este último medio, respecto a los otros medios de cultivo evaluados. El medio de cultivo implementado con extracto de tubérculo de ñame, suministró los requerimientos nutricionales del hongo para el desarrollo de factores relacionados con los mecanismos de infección que pueden participar en su patogenicidad.

  1. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata kunt (Rutaceae

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    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, Γ-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data (¹H, 13C, 1D, 2D, IR, MS and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia.

  2. Quinoline alkaloids and friedelane-type triterpenes isolated from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata Kunt (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuca-Suarez, Luis Enrique; Barrera, Ericsson David Coy [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Quimica; Alvarez Caballero, Juan Manuel [Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta DTCH (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Basicas

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the phytochemical exploration of the ethanol extract from leaves and wood of Esenbeckia alata, leading to the isolation and identification of quinoline alkaloids 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one, N-methylflindersine, dictamine, kokusaginine, G-fagarine, flindersiamine, as well as the fridelane-type triterpenes, frideline, fridelanol and its acetate derivative. Identification of these compounds was based on full analyses of spectroscopic data ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 1}D, {sup 2}D, IR, MS) and comparison with data reported in literature. Compound 4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-but-2'-enyl)-N-methyl-quinolin-2(1 H)-one is reported for the first time for the genus Esenbeckia. (author)

  3. Genetic Diversity in Haploid Nicotiana alata Induced by Gamma Irradiation, Salt Tolerance and Detection of These Differences by RAPD

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    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Haploid plants of Nicotiana alata were cultured in vitro on MS medium with IAA + KIN. The resulting plantlets were irradiated using gamma radiation doses of 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. Single node pieces were cut and transferred onto fresh MS medium. Gamma radiation doses caused the death of 9% and up to 28% of explants. NaCl concentrations caused the death of 8% up to 36% of explants, while the combined effect between gamma radiation doses and salinity had an impact suffused on the percentage of survival. The combined effect of gamma radiation doses 20 Gy and 25 Gy on NaCl concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 mM were deadly. Even more, the combined effect of gamma radiation doses and salinity had a severe negative impact on both the proline content and total soluble protein. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to determine the degree of genetic variation in treated haploid Nicotiana alata plants. Total genomic DNAs from different haploid plantlets treated were amplified using five arbitrary primers. Two hundred and seventy bands were detected from plantlets irradiated with doses of 15, 20 and 25 Gy, with polymorphic band number 226 (83.7%. The total number of bands resulted from plant grew on 150 mM and 200 mM NaCl were 260 bands with polymorphic bands 185 (85.6%. However, the total number of bands produced from combined effects between gamma rays and salinity (20 Gy X 50 mM NaCl, 20 Gy X 100 mM NaCl and 25 Gy X 50 mM NaCl were 270, with polymorphic band number 231 (85.5%. High similarity between treatments was revealed. Treatments relationships were estimated through cluster analysis (UPGMA based on RAPD data.

  4. Atividade antioxidante e captora de radicais livres dos extratos de Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. em comparação com extratos de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the Achyrocline alata (Kunth DC. in comparison with the extracts of the Achyrocline satureioides (LAM. DC.

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    Rafaela F. Grassi-Zampieron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. e Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae, são utilizadas na medicina popular de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, como plantas sucedâneas. O presente trabalho teve com objetivo comparar os extratos obtidos dessas espécies através de ensaios químicos simples destinados a testar as atividades antioxidante e captora de radicais livres, utilizando como modelo β-caroteno e DPPH, respectivamente. Tais ensaios revelaram que os extratos de A. satureioides foram mais ativos como captores de radicais livres do que os extratos obtidos de A. alata. Todos os experimentos foram feitos em triplicata, utilizando quercetina como padrão.Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. and Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. are species belonging to the family Asteraceae widely used in the folk medicine of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, being considered substitute plants. The present work aimed to compare the obtained extracts of these species to simple chemical assays, in order to test the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, using β-carotene and DPPH as reference, respectively. With these assays it was observed that the obtained extracts of Achyrocline satureioides were more active, as free radical scavenging, than the same obtained extracts of Achyrocline alata. These chemical assays were compared to a known patterned, quercetin, and and they were dealt under triplicate basis.

  5. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus model in comparison to ketoconazole

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    Suleiman Mohammed M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus. Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis.

  6. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. in rats = Efeito ansiolítico e sedativo do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. em ratos

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    Fernanda Jacques Otobone

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV in rats under going elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field test (OFT. No effects were detected after acute or repeated (3 or 7-days treatment with EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, by gavage, on the EPM or the OFT. However, rats treated for 15 day (20 mg/kg with EPV showed increased percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms on the EPM without alter locomotor activity in the OFT compared to control group. Acute or a 15 day administration of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.,increased the same parameters on the EPM and OFT. Acute treatment with 300 or 600 mg/kg of EPV, decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Results suggest anxiolytic and sedative effects for the EPV and reveal a wide dose range for the anxiolytic effect.Este trabalho investigou o efeito do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV em ratos submetidosaos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE e campo aberto (TCA. Nenhum efeito foi detectado após o tratamento agudo ou repetido por 3 ou 7 dias com EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, gavagem no LCE e TCA. Entretanto, ratos tratados por 15 dias com EPV (20 mg/kg mostraram aumento na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertosno LCE, sem alterar a atividade locomotora no TCA, comparado ao controle. Diazepan (droga de referência, i.p., aumentou os mesmos parâmetros analisados no LCE e OFT após o tratamento agudo ou por 15 dias. O tratamento agudo com 300 ou 600 mg/kg do EPV diminuiu significativamente a atividade locomotora no TCA. Estes resultadosmostram que EPV produz efeito ansiolítico e sedativo, com ampla margem de segurança para o efeito ansiolítico.

  7. [Chemical evaluation of morro or jícaro (Crescentia alata) flours prepared by ensilaging and/or dehydration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R A; Contreras, I; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1980-06-01

    The chemical composition, nutritive value and potential use of the morro fruit (Crescentia alata) has received little attention. The purpose of the present study was: a) to determine appropriate conditions for processing and conservation of the morro fruit without hulls, since a significant part of the production is lost due to inadequate storage conditions, and b) to evaluate, by means of chemical analysis, the whole fruit and its products. For the preparation of dehydrated meals, the content of the fruit was subjected to sun drying and tray drying dehydration with two air temperatures, 60 degrees and 90 degrees C. The method used for the storage of the whole fruit was anaerobic fermentation achieved by ensilaging the fruit in small concrete experimental silos for 90, 145 and 180 days. At the end of each period, the silos were opened. The ensilaged material was of very good appearance and apparently free from unfavorable contaminations; it was dehydrated in tray dryers at an air temperature of 60 degrees C. Independent of processing, the chemical analysis showed the meals to contain on the average 17% crude fat, 11% crude fiber and 18% crude protein. From the amino acid content and using the 1973 FAO/WHO scoring pattern it was found that such flours were limiting in their sulfur amino acid, lysine and threonine content in the order.

  8. Astragalin from Cassia alata induces DNA adducts in vitro and repairable DNA damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Samuel; Silva, Givaldo; Santos, Regineide Xavier; Gosmann, Grace; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reverse phase-solid phase extraction from Cassia alata leaves (CaRP) was used to obtain a refined extract. Higher than wild-type sensitivity to CaRP was exhibited by 16 haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA repair and membrane transport. CaRP had a strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 2.27 μg mL(-1) and showed no pro-oxidant activity in yeast. CaRP compounds were separated by HPLC and the three major components were shown to bind to DNA in vitro. The major HPLC peak was identified as kampferol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (astragalin), which showed high affinity to DNA as seen by HPLC-UV measurement after using centrifugal ultrafiltration of astragalin-DNA mixtures. Astragalin-DNA interaction was further studied by spectroscopic methods and its interaction with DNA was evaluated using solid-state FTIR. These and computational (in silico) docking studies revealed that astragalin-DNA binding occurs through interaction with G-C base pairs, possibly by intercalation stabilized by H-bond formation.

  9. 傣药芽拉勐龙(Cassia alata L.)的最佳采收时间探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝蓉; 刀红英

    2009-01-01

    傣药芽拉勐龙(Cassia alata L.)是傣医药史籍中有记载且傣医临床中最常用的药材之一,它在泰国应用同样广泛多见,是已开发应用得较为成熟的药用植物,相关研究也较多.在西双版纳,民间傣医常在夏秋季节采收芽拉勐龙,认为这期间的芽拉勐龙叶才有更好的疗效,但尚未发现相关的理论依据支持这种说法,因此笔者在2008年7月到11月间,采集每个月份的芽拉勐龙叶进行其乙醇提取物的含量测定,以找到它的最佳采集使用期.通过其采收季节中有效成分含量的比较结果显示,有效成分最高的时间是11月份,故在采收芽拉勐龙时,应掌握时机,在11月份采收为佳.

  10. DNA fingerprinting of water yam (Dioscorea alata cultivars in Brazil based on microsatellite markers Diversidade genética de cultivares de inhame (Dioscorea alata no Brasil utilizando microssatélites

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    Marcos VBM Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to fingerprint 36 water yam (Dioscorea alata accessions using microsatellite markers. Ten accessions were collected in local markets from several municipalities in Brazil, eight were obtained from the 'Instituto Agronômico de Campinas' (IAC germplasm collection and eighteen were collected directly from growers from São Paulo state. A total of nine microsatellite loci were used in the analysis. Loci revealed high polymorphism verified by elevated PIC values (0.57-0.77, and by high gene diversity and Shannon-Wiener indices (0.69 and 1.29 on average, respectively. The accessions were classified into two groups based on clustering analysis. One group contained mostly accessions from the IAC collection, including a commercial cultivar acquired in a market in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso state. The second group was composed of most accessions, including those collected directly from growers and markets in São Paulo, a few accessions from the IAC collection, and an accession from Puerto Rico, named 'Florida', which is the most cultivated in Brazil. Several duplicates were identified in this study, including accessions obtained from two farmers in Mogi Guaçu and Mogi Mirim, São Paulo state. However, some of these accessions were allocated in different sub-groups, within this second group. Results suggested the hypothesis of different origins for accessions currently cultivated in Brazil. Similar accessions obtained from different municipalities revealed the commercialization of the same accessions at different locations.Este estudo teve como objetivo a análise genética de 36 acessos de inhame (Dioscorea alata utilizando marcadores microssatélites. Dez acessos foram coletados em mercados locais de vários municípios no Brasil, oito foram obtidos no banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC, e dezoito foram coletados diretamente com os agricultores no estado de São Paulo. Um total de nove locos de

  11. Enxertia de mesa de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre Passiflora alata Curtis, em ambiente de nebulização intermitente Bench graft of Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. on Passiflora alata Curtis, in intermittent misty atmosphere

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    Flávia Matos Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro é uma cultura típica de países tropicais, sendo estes responsáveis por cerca de 90% da produção mundial. A propagação vegetativa do maracujazeiro permite a obtenção de pomares uniformes, bem como de porta-enxertos altamente produtivos ou resistentes a doenças. O experimento teve como objetivo verificar a viabilidade da enxertia de mesa do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre o maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis, conduzido em telado com 50% de sombreamento, dotado de sistema de nebulização intermitente. Foi conduzido de agosto de 2001 a maio de 2002, na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP - Câmpus de Ilha Solteira, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, totalizando quatro tratamentos (T1 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T2 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo do ponteiro dos ramos; T3 - enxertia tipo fenda cheia, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos; T4 - enxertia tipo inglês simples, com o garfo da parte mediana dos ramos, cinco repetições e 25 estacas enxertadas por parcela. Foram avaliados: a porcentagem de sobrevivência das estacas enxertadas; b porcentagem de estacas enxertadas enraizadas; c número de brotos emitidos por estaca enxertada; d número de folhas emitidas por estaca enxertada; e massa da matéria seca da raiz, caule, folha e planta. Com base nos resultados, pode-se concluir que: a técnica de enxertia de mesa, quando aplicada ao maracujazeiro, mostrou-se viável, com excelente porcentagem de sobrevivência e enraizamento.The passion fruit plant is a typical culture of tropical countries, which are responsible for about 90% of the world production. The vegetative propagation of the passion fruit plant allows the obtainment of uniform orchards, as well as of rootstocks highly productive or resistant to

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

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    Bertrand Sagnia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. METHODS: Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. CONCLUSION: These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  13. Dioscorea alata attenuates renal interstitial cellular fibrosis by regulating Smad- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathways.

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    Shu-Fen Liu

    Full Text Available Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by increased extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in kidneys is driven by regulated expression of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. Yam, or Dioscorea alata (DA is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of clinical diabetes mellitus. However, the fibrosis regulatory effect of DA is unclear. Thus, we examined TGF-β signaling mechanisms against EMT in rat fibroblast cells (NRK-49F. The characterization of DA water-extracts used various methods; after inducing cellular fibrosis in NRK-49F cells by treatment with β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB (10 mM, we used Western blotting to examine the protein expression in the TGF-β-related signal protein type I and type II TGF-β receptors, Smads2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3, pSmad2 and Smad3 (pSmad2/3, Smads4, Smads7, and EMT markers. These markers included E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Bioactive TGF-β and fibronectin levels in the culture media were determined using ELISA. Expressions of fibronectin and Snail transcription factor, an EMT-regulatory transcription factor, were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. DA extract dose-dependently (50-200 µg/mL suppressed β-HB-induced expression of fibronectin in NRK-49F cells concomitantly with the inhibition of Smad2/3, pSmad2/3, and Smad4. By contrast, Smad7 expression was significantly increased. DA extract caused a decrease in α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin and MMP-2 levels, and an increase in E-cadherin expression. We propose that DA extract might act as a novel fibrosis antagonist, which acts partly by down regulating the TGF-β/smad signaling pathway and modulating EMT expression.

  14. Uso de distintos tratamientos de desinfección en el cultivo in vitro de Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño

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    Misterbino Borges García

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo in vitro, como técnica, consiste en cultivar asépticamente una porción aislada de la planta bajo condiciones de ambiente controlado, para que las células expresen su potencial intrínseco e inducido. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de diferentes concentraciones y tiempos de inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio en el establecimiento in vitro de explantes primarios de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. clon caraqueño. Las variantes de desinfección consistieron en la utilización de diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio (1,5; 2 y 2,5% durante distintos tiempos de inmersión (10; 20 y 30 min. A los 7 días se evaluó el porcentaje de contaminación de bacterias y hongos respectivamente, y a los 40 días el número de nudos de novo, la longitud del vástago, el número de hojas, y el porcentaje de explantes establecidos y necrosados. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con análisis de varianza bifactorial y clasificación simple. Se realizó la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para un nivel de significación del 5%. Los resultados obtenidos arrojaron que el tratamiento de desinfección de segmentos uninodales de ñame con hipoclorito de sodio al 1,5% durante un tiempo de inmersión 30 min es el de mayor efectividad para el establecimiento in vitro de explantes primarios del ñame (D. alata L. clon caraqueño con altos porcentajes de supervivencia en condiciones ex vitro. Palabras clave: ñame; cultivo de tejidos vegetales; hipoclorito de sodio; establecimiento in vitro. Abstract The in vitro culture technique consists of aseptically culturing an isolated plant portion in controlled environmental conditions for the cells to express their intrinsic and induced potential. This work was aimed at determining the effect of different sodium hypochlorite concentrations and immersion times on in vitro establishment of yam (Dioscorea alata L. “caraqueño” clone primary

  15. Genomic Resources for Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.: Analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo Sequencing and GBS Libraries.

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    Christopher A Saski

    Full Text Available The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp. is a major food and cash crop in many countries but research efforts have been limited to understand the genetics and generate genomic information for the crop. The availability of a large number of genomic resources including genome-wide molecular markers will accelerate the breeding efforts and application of genomic selection in yams. In the present study, several methods including expressed sequence tags (EST-sequencing, de novo sequencing, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS profiles on two yam (Dioscorea alata L. genotypes (TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310 was performed to generate genomic resources for use in its improvement programs. This includes a comprehensive set of EST-SSRs, genomic SSRs, whole genome SNPs, and reduced representation SNPs. A total of 1,152 EST-SSRs were developed from >40,000 EST-sequences generated from the two genotypes. A set of 388 EST-SSRs were validated as polymorphic showing a polymorphism rate of 34% when tested on two diverse parents targeted for anthracnose disease. In addition, approximately 40X de novo whole genome sequence coverage was generated for each of the two genotypes, and a total of 18,584 and 15,952 genomic SSRs were identified for TDa 95/00328 and TDa 95-310, respectively. A custom made pipeline resulted in the selection of 573 genomic SSRs common across the two genotypes, of which only eight failed, 478 being polymorphic and 62 monomorphic indicating a polymorphic rate of 83.5%. Additionally, 288,505 high quality SNPs were also identified between these two genotypes. Genotyping by sequencing reads on these two genotypes also revealed 36,790 overlapping SNP positions that are distributed throughout the genome. Our efforts in using

  16. A HPTLC densitometric determination of flavonoids from Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. caerulea and comparison with HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cintia A M; Yariwake, Janete H; Lanças, Fernando M; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc

    2004-01-01

    A high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed in order to determine quantitatively the flavonoids in leaves of Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. caerulea and P. incarnata. The content of orientin and isoorientin was determined, and the results were compared with those obtained using a quantitative HPLC-UV method. The latter employed rutin as standard and was developed to analyse flavonoid content from Passiflora leaves for the purpose of ensuring the quality of Passiflora phytomedicines. The results obtained using the two methods indicate that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the flavonoids of the reference Passiflora species studied. The two methods were also employed to analyse commercial samples to illustrate their application in qualitative ('fingerprint') and quantitative determination, demonstrating their feasibility in the quality control of flavonoids from crude Passiflora drugs and phytomedicines. The HPLC conditions used are also suitable for the quantitative analysis of aqueous extracts (Passiflora infusions).

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata) extracts on stimulated neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Serteyn, Didier; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Wauters, Jean-Nöel; Tits, Monique; Yariwake, Janete H; Angenot, Luc; Franck, Thierry

    2011-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from Passiflora edulis and Passiflora alata pulp, and P. edulis rinds, healthy or infected with the passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV), was investigated using the oxidant activities of the neutrophil and the neutrophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), both playing key roles in inflammation. The reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated neutrophils were evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) and the activity of purified MPO was measured by SIEFED (Specific Immunological Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection), a technique for studying the direct interaction of a compound with the enzyme. The rind extracts of P. edulis possessed higher and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on CL response and on the peroxidase activity of MPO than total pulp extracts from both passion fruit species. The quantification of isoorientin in the extracts showed a correlation with their antioxidant activity, suggesting the potential of P. edulis rinds as functional food or as a possible source of natural flavonoids.

  18. 参薯干粉中总还原糖含量的测定%Determination of total reducing saccharide in Dioscorea alata Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谊轩; 黄广民

    2011-01-01

    Using glucose as standard and DNS as color developing reagent, the content of total reducing saccharide in Dioscorea alata Linn was determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of sample extract is 470 nm. The method has the characteristics of good repeatability, high recovery rate and low relative error.%以葡萄糖为标准,以3,5-二硝基水杨酸(DNS)作显色剂,用分光光度法测定参薯干粉中总还原糖的含量。结果表明:在波长470nm处有最大吸收峰,测定重现性好,标准回收率高,相对误差小,效果好。

  19. NaStEP: a proteinase inhibitor essential to self-incompatibility and a positive regulator of HT-B stability in Nicotiana alata pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Durán, Karina; McClure, Bruce; García-Campusano, Florencia; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio; Cisneros, Jesús; Busot, Grethel; Cruz-García, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    In Solanaceae, the self-incompatibility S-RNase and S-locus F-box interactions define self-pollen recognition and rejection in an S-specific manner. This interaction triggers a cascade of events involving other gene products unlinked to the S-locus that are crucial to the self-incompatibility response. To date, two essential pistil-modifier genes, 120K and High Top-Band (HT-B), have been identified in Nicotiana species. However, biochemistry and genetics indicate that additional modifier genes are required. We recently reported a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor, named NaStEP (for Nicotiana alata Stigma-Expressed Protein), that is highly expressed in the stigmas of self-incompatible Nicotiana species. Here, we report the proteinase inhibitor activity of NaStEP. NaStEP is taken up by both compatible and incompatible pollen tubes, but its suppression in Nicotiana spp. transgenic plants disrupts S-specific pollen rejection; therefore, NaStEP is a novel pistil-modifier gene. Furthermore, HT-B levels within the pollen tubes are reduced when NaStEP-suppressed pistils are pollinated with either compatible or incompatible pollen. In wild-type self-incompatible N. alata, in contrast, HT-B degradation occurs preferentially in compatible pollinations. Taken together, these data show that the presence of NaStEP is required for the stability of HT-B inside pollen tubes during the rejection response, but the underlying mechanism is currently unknown.

  20. Effects of different potting growing media for Petunia grandiflora and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto on photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Petunia grandiflora Juss. and Nicotiana alata Link & Otto are two of the most widely spread plants on the market for annual potted ornamental plants. In order to identify the most adequate substrate formula we analyzed the effects of different potting growing media used for P. hybrida grandiflora 'Bravo' and N. alata 'Dinamo' on their photosynthetic capacity, leaf area, and flowering potential. Optimization of growing media formula for petunia and ornamental tobacco was performed by preparing four growing media mixing fallow soil (FS, Biolan peat (BP, acid peat (AP, leaf compost (C, and perlite (P in different proportions. The physiological potential of petunia and ornamental tobacco was investigated by photosynthesis and respiration rate and chlorophyll pigments in leaves, while the vegetative and flowering phenological stages were evaluated by number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant and leaf area/flowers ratio. These measurements were significantly influenced by the different potting growing media used in this study. In the flowering stage, the highest photosynthesis rates (8.612 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 as well as leaf area (1.766 dm² of petunias were obtained on growing media with 60% biolan peat, 30% acid peat and 10% perlite (BP60-AP30-P10. Flowering responses to growing conditions vary greatly among plants and the biggest number of ornamental tobacco flowers (22 flowers plant-1 was registered as an effect of BP60-AP30-P10 media. Growing media with the BP60-AP30-P10 formula seem to be the most adequate growth substrate to develop profitable crops for petunias and ornamental tobacco with high decorative value.

  1. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  2. New Star of garden greening plant: Cassia alata%园林绿化植物新秀--翅荚决明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫辉

    2006-01-01

    @@ 翅荚决明(Cassia alata L.)又名蜡烛花,为豆科多年生常绿灌木.翅荚决明高1.5~3m,羽状复叶长30~50cm,叶柄和叶轴有狭翅,小叶6~12对,倒卵状长圆形或长椭圆形,长8~15cm,总状花序顶生或腋生,花蕾挺直、腊质,花冠黄色,荚果带形长10~20cm、有翅,果宽1.2~1.5cm,果瓣中央有直贯的纸质翅,翅缘有圆钝齿,种子三角形或稍扁.花期7月至翌年1月,果期10月至翌年3月.

  3. Terpenes and fatty acids from Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke; Terpenos e acidos graxos de Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Bittencourt, Thais Chaves; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br; Simone, Carlos Alberto de [Universidade Federal do Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the isolation of the furanocassane-type diterpene, named vinhaticoic acid, along with b-farnesene and spatulenol from fruit shells of D. lacunifera. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The fatty portion was extracted from the fruit kernels, transesterfied and analysed by HRGC/MS. Oleic acid (75.8 +- 4.3%) was the major component. Essential oil extracted from the fruit shells of D. lacunifera was analysed by HRGC/MS and nine sesquiterpenes were identified; beta-farnesene (48.6%) and spatulenol (21.61%) were the major constituents. (author)

  4. Efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares na bioprodução de fenóis totais e no crescimento de Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Riter Netto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos fenólicos encontrados no extrato das folhas de maracujazeiro doce (Passiflora alata Curtis são os principais responsáveis pelos efeitos terapêuticos, incluindo a atividade ansiolítica. O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes espécies de fungo micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e doses de fósforo sobre a bioprodução de fenóis totais, bem como, o crescimento vegetal e os conteúdos de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na massa da matéria seca da parte aérea do maracujazeiro doce. O experimento, fatorial 4x2, foi conduzido em um telado com quatro tratamentos microbiológicos: Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices, inóculo misto (Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita e o controle sem fungo, e duas doses de fósforo: 0 e 50 mg kg-1 de solo. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As plantas foram colhidas 90 dias após a semeadura. Na ausência da adubação fosfatada, o conteúdo de fenóis totais, a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea e o número de folhas foram maiores nos tratamentos inoculados com FMAs, quando comparados ao tratamento sem fungo. Plantas com inóculo misto apresentaram maior altura com ou sem adubação fosfatada. Os tratamentos inoculados com FMAs, tanto na dose 0 quanto na dose 50 mg kg-1 de P incrementaram os conteúdos de N, P e K na parte aérea do maracujazeiro doce, evidenciando a capacidade dos FMAs em promover o melhor estado nutricional das plantas.

  5. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Nele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scapula alata (SA is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT. Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9% had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009, 6.1 (P = 0.016, and 6.1 (P = 0.005, respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036 and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046 among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature.

  6. Efeito ansiolítico e sedativo do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. em ratos - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1379 Anxiolytic and sedative effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. in rats - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v27i2.1379

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Andreatini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investigou o efeito do extrato combinado de Passiflora alata Dryander e Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV em ratos submetidos aos testes do labirinto em cruz elevado (LCE e campo aberto (TCA. Nenhum efeito foi detectado após o tratamento agudo ou repetido por 3 ou 7 dias com EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, gavagem no LCE e TCA. Entretanto, ratos tratados por 15 dias com EPV (20 mg/kg mostraram aumento na porcentagem de entradas e tempo gasto nos braços abertos no LCE, sem alterar a atividade locomotora no TCA, comparado ao controle. Diazepan (droga de referência, i.p., aumentou os mesmos parâmetros analisados no LCE e OFT após o tratamento agudo ou por 15 dias. O tratamento agudo com 300 ou 600 mg/kg do EPV diminuiu significativamente a atividade locomotora no TCA. Estes resultados mostram que EPV produz efeito ansiolítico e sedativo, com ampla margem de segurança para o efeito ansiolíticoThis work investigated the effects of a combined extract of Passiflora alata Dryander and Valeriana officinalis L. (EPV in rats under going elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field test (OFT. No effects were detected after acute or repeated (3 or 7-days treatment with EPV (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, by gavage, on the EPM or the OFT. However, rats treated for 15 day (20 mg/kg with EPV showed increased percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms on the EPM without alter locomotor activity in the OFT compared to control group. Acute or a 15 day administration of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p., increased the same parameters on the EPM and OFT. Acute treatment with 300 or 600 mg/kg of EPV, decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Results suggest anxiolytic and sedative effects for the EPV and reveal a wide dose range for the anxiolytic effect

  7. Définition du profil écologique de l'azobé, Lophira alata, une espèce ligneuse africaine de grande importance : synthèse bibliographique et perspectives pour des recherches futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwolé, AB.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of the ecological profile of Lophira alata (ekki, a major important African timber species: literature review and perspectives for future studies. Over two decades, labors made in order to promote sustainable management of African tropical forests are tackled to the lack of knowledge about this complex ecosystem. Ecological parameters of timber species are no more studied, this complicates long-term sustainable forest management. This literature review related to the ecology and silviculture of ekki, Lophira alata Banks ex C.F.Gaertn. (Ochnaceae, a main African timber species recorded as "vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List, will serve as a study's case. The planned literature review reveals the doubt about its taxonomy, as well as the lack of understanding concerning its reproductive biology, growth conditions, population dynamics parameters, and the spatial distribution of its genetic diversity. The deficiency of knowledge about its ecological needs and the factors which have historically influenced its population dynamics explain why most silvicultural trails provide hazardous and uncertain results. Remedying these gaps in order to improve its ecological characterization and innovative silvicultural trails, would be a significant contribution to the sustainable management of its populations.

  8. Influência de métodos de remoção do arilo na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Passiflora alata Curtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete Aparecida Fernandes Osipi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes métodos de remoção do arilo, na germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis. Sementes extraídas de frutos maduros foram submetidas aos métodos de remoção do arilo: manual com fricção sobre malha de arame; manual com fricção de areia grossa sobre malha de arame; mecânico com liquidificador; biológico com fermentação à temperatura de 24ºC, por cinco dias; químico com imersão em solução de cal virgem a 10%; químico com imersão em solução de ácido clorídrico a 37% (1:2, ambos sob agitação por 30 minutos, e sementes sem a extração do arilo. As sementes foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. A remoção do arilo com friccão em malha de arame apresentou a maior eficiência de germinação em laboratório. Os métodos com fricção de areia em malha de arame, imersão em solução com cal, imersão em solução com ácido clorídrico, fermentação e a não remoção do arilo conferiram melhor desempenho às sementes em condições de viveiro. A remoção do arilo com liquidificador prejudicou a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. As condições de viveiro proporcionaram percentuais de emergência em plântulas, que superaram os resultados obtidos em condições de laboratório.

  9. Anatomía comparada de plantas de Dioscorea alata L. clon Caraqueño cultivadas en tres ambientes de crecimiento in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La conservación in vitro de Dioscorea alata L. clon Caraqueño es fundamental para garantizar la propagación y distribución de material de plantación sano a los productores, y disponer de un banco in vitro de un clon de gran valor agronómico y comercial en la región oriental de Cuba. Con el fin de evaluar las modificaciones anatómicas que se producen en plantas de ñame en tres condiciones de cultivo in vitro: plantas conservadas por métodos de mínimo crecimiento, plantas regeneradas y plantas en fase de multiplicación en el medio MS 75 %, se realizó un análisis de la anatomía foliar y caulinar a partir de cortes transversales de la lámina foliar y del tallo, y cortes longitudinales y transversales de microtubérculos formados durante el proceso de conservación. Las hojas de las plantas conservadas mostraron menor espesor del mesófilo y la epidermis y el área de los haces conductores del tallo también fue menor, debido al proceso de stress durante la conservación in vitro. Sin embargo, durante la recuperación del material conservado a través de la regeneración y la multiplicación in vitro se restablecieron de manera normal estos parámetros. También se evidenció que los microtubérculos formados en la conservación in vitro, poseen parénquima amilífero con abundantes gránulos de almidón, capa delgada de parénquima cortical, y haces conductores poco desarrollados, todo lo cual indica la presencia de actividad meristemática. Palabras clave: caracterización anatómica, conservación in vitro, microtubérculos, ñame, segmentos nodales

  10. Influência do processo de secagem e condição de armazenamento de extratos secos de Bauhinia forficata e Passiflora alata sobre seu perfil de dissolução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.F. SOUZA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, os produtos fitoterápicos são considerados medicamentos, sendo necessário o estabelecimento de estudos que assegurem a manutenção dos requisitos de qualidade durante o processamento e o armazenamento. Testes de dissolução podem ser empregados para se estimar a biodisponibilidade de um fármaco, sendo uma análise rotineira no desenvolvimento e controle de qualidade de medicamentos alopáticos. A determinação do perfil de dissolução de fitoterápicos também pode ser um importante critério para avaliação da sua qualidade lote-a-lote, bem como para os estudos de desenvolvimento e de estabilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a influência dos métodos de secagem e da condição de armazenagem sobre os perfis de dissolução dos flavonoides totais de extratos secos de duas plantas medicinais bastante difundidas no Brasil, a Bauhinia forficata e a Passiflora alata. Os extratos secos foram produzidos pelo processo de secagem em leito de jorro e em spray drying, sendo submetidos a condições de armazenagem aceleradas (temperatura de 40 ± 2ºC e umidade relativa de 75 ± 5%, por um período de 90 dias. Os perfis de dissolução foram obtidos para amostras de extratos secos antes e após o período de armazenamento. O teor de flavonoides totais foi quantificado por espectrofotometria. Os extratos secos de B. forficata e P. alata apresentaram adequada liberação de flavonoides nos ensaios de dissolução. Os extratos secos de Passiflora alata apresentaram completa dissolução dos flavonoides, 92% e 98% dos teores originais após 60 minutos de ensaio, respectivamente para o extrato seco em leito de jorro e em spray drying.

  11. 参薯DaANS基因克隆及表达差异分析%Cloning and Analysis of Differential Expression of DaANS Gene in Dioscorea alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃华; 许云; 吴文嫱; 刘林娅; 黄小龙; 黄东益

    2015-01-01

    通过研究参薯块茎花青素合成途径中DaANS基因的功能以为参薯分子育种打下基础。利用RT-PCR与RACE技术从参薯块茎中扩增得到1320 bp的花青素合成酶cDNA序列,其编码356个氨基酸,命名为DaANS (登录号为KP729182)。基因组序列全长1534 bp,具有一个内含子。使用荧光定量PCR技术对参薯不同组织及其块茎不同发育时期的DaANS基因相对表达量进行测定。结果表明: DaANS基因具有明显的组织特异性和时空性,不同组织中块茎表达量最高,且在块茎生长的前期具有很高的表达量,在8月份到顶峰,随后急剧降低。%The function of DaANS gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway was studied to lay the founda-tion for molecular breeding of Dioscorea alata. In this paper, the cDNA sequence of DaANS gene (1 320 bp) was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques from the tuber of D. alata. The gene was named as DaANS (accession number:KP729182) encoding a protein of 356 amino acids. The full-length of DNA sequence was 1 534 bp, containing one intron. The relative expression of DaANS was determined by real-time quantitative PCR in six different organizations and different developmental stages of tubers. The results showed the expres-sion of DaANS gene had obvious characters of space and time. The expression of tuber was the highest in dif-ferent tissues. And the early stage of tuber growth had a high amount of expression, in August to the peak, and then decreased sharply.

  12. Terpenos e ácidos graxos de Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke Terpenes and fatty acids from Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Magela Vieira Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the isolation of the furanocassane-type diterpene, named vinhaticoic acid, along with beta-farnesene and spatulenol from fruit shells of D. lacunifera. Structural determinations were accomplished by chemical derivatization and spectral analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The fatty portion was extracted from the fruit kernels, transesterfied and analysed by HRGC/MS. Oleic acid (75.8 ± 4.3% was the major component. Essential oil extracted from the fruit shells of D. lacunifera was analysed by HRGC/MS and nine sesquiterpenes were identified; beta-farnesene (48.6% and spatulenol (21.61% were the major constituents.

  13. Can we trust mass spectrometry for determination of arsenic peptides in plants: comparison of LC-ICP-MS and LC-ES-MS/ICP-MS with XANES/EXAFS in analysis of Thunbergia alata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andrew A; Charnock, John M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2008-04-01

    The weakest step in the analytical procedure for speciation analysis is extraction from a biological material into an aqueous solution which undergoes HPLC separation and then simultaneous online detection by elemental and molecular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/ES-MS). This paper describes a study to determine the speciation of arsenic and, in particular, the arsenite phytochelatin complexes in the root from an ornamental garden plant Thunbergia alata exposed to 1 mg As L(-1) as arsenate. The approach of formic acid extraction followed by HPLC-ES-MS/ICP-MS identified different As(III)-PC complexes in the extract of this plant and made their quantification via sulfur (m/z 32) and arsenic (m/z 75) possible. Although sulfur sensitivity could be significantly increased when xenon was used as collision gas in ICP-qMS, or when HR-ICP-MS was used in medium resolution, the As:S ratio gave misleading results in the identification of As(III)-PC complexes due to the relatively low resolution of the chromatography system in relation to the variety of As-peptides in plants. Hence only the parallel use of ES-MS/ICP-MS was able to prove the occurrence of such arsenite phytochelatin complexes. Between 55 and 64% of the arsenic was bound to the sulfur of peptides mainly as As(III)(PC(2))(2), As(III)(PC(3)) and As(III)(PC(4)). XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy) measurement, using the freshly exposed plant root directly, confirmed that most of the arsenic is trivalent and binds to S of peptides (53% As-S) while 38% occurred as arsenite and only 9% unchanged as arsenate. EXAFS data confirmed that As-S and As-O bonds occur in the plants. This study confirms, for the first time, that As-peptides can be extracted by formic acid and chromatographically separated on a reversed-phase column without significant decomposition or de-novo synthesis during the extraction step.

  14. Effect of Purple Yam(Dioscorea alata L.) on Nutritional and Physiological Functions of Growing Rats%紫山药对生长中大鼠营养生理功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋曙辉; 刘庞源; 赵霖; 丛涛; 李珍; 王文琪

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察紫山药(Dioscorea alata L.)对大鼠营养生理功能的影响。[方法]生长期SD大鼠40只随机分为4组,每组10只,饲喂添加了10%山药熟粉的人工半合成饲料,以酪蛋白组作为对照组,3个试验组分别为紫山药组、铁棍山药组和普通怀山药组。各组饲料的能量、蛋白质、脂肪含量均保持一致。采用对喂法喂养60d,观察有关营养生理指标的变化。[结果]紫山药组大鼠体重、食物转化率及脏器指数均与对照组无显著差异。平均血红蛋白显著低于对照组,但血红蛋白含量与对照组无差异;嗜酸性粒细胞低于对照组。紫山药组大鼠低密度脂蛋白(LDL)、总胆固醇(TC)和致动脉硬化指数(AI)低于其他3个组,而抗动脉硬化指数(AAI)最高,但无显著差异。甘油三酯(TG)低于对照组。抗氧化指标中,紫山药组大鼠血清中过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性都高于对照组,丙二醛(MDA)含量低于对照组。肝组织中,紫山药组大鼠总抗氧化能力、CAT、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、SOD活性都高于对照组,而MDA含量低于对照组。[结论]紫山药具有降低大鼠血糖、胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白、甘油三酯、MDA含量,提高GSH-Px、SOD、CAT活性的趋势,具有一定的抗氧化作用。%[Objective] This study was to explore the effect of purple yam on the nutritional and physiological functions of rats.[Method] Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group which were reared with artificial semisynthetic feed added with 10% steamed yam powder.The four groups,the casein(CK) group which was used as the control,the purple yam(PY) group,the Tiegun yam(TY) group and common Huai yam(HY) group,were supplied with feed of equal content of energy,protein and fat.The rats were pair-fed for 56 days to observe changes of relevant nutritional and physiological indices

  15. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  16. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  17. Bleaching of browned water yam (Dioscorea alata) with African oil bean seed lipoxygenase (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokwulu, M N

    2004-01-01

    Purified African oil bean seed lipoxygenase was used to bleach water yam tubers that were browned by exposing their cut surfaces to air. The enzyme solution destroyed the polyphenols extracted from the browned water yams and the polyphenols at the browned yam tubers which resulted in the bleaching of the browned yam tubers to their original white colour. The destruction of the polyphenol extract and the bleaching of the browned yam tubers were found to be dependent on the enzyme concentration of the enzyme.

  18. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for marker development in yam (Dioscorea alata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Asiedu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (Dioscorea spp. worldwide. Availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. However, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. Therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. The current investigation is focused on studying gene expression, by large scale generation of ESTs, from one susceptible (TDa 95-0310 and two resistant yam genotypes (TDa 87-01091, TDa 95-0328 challenged with the fungus. Total RNA was isolated from young leaves of resistant and susceptible genotypes and cDNA libraries were sequenced using Roche 454 technology. Results A total of 44,757 EST sequences were generated from the cDNA libraries of the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Greater than 56% of ESTs were annotated using MapMan Mercator tool and Blast2GO search tools. Gene annotations were used to characterize the transcriptome in yam and also perform a differential gene expression analysis between the resistant and susceptible EST datasets. Mining for SSRs in the ESTs revealed 1702 unique sequences containing SSRs and 1705 SSR markers were designed using those sequences. Conclusion We have developed a comprehensive annotated transcriptome data set in yam to enrich the EST information in public databases. cDNA libraries were constructed from anthracnose fungus challenged leaf tissues for transcriptome characterization, and differential gene expression analysis. Thus, it helped in identifying unique transcripts in each library for disease resistance. These EST resources provide the basis for future microarray development, marker validation, genetic linkage mapping and QTL analysis in Dioscorea species.

  19. Nanošenje električnom iskrom za popravak alata

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tušek; Kosec, L.; Lešnjak, A.; T. Muhič

    2012-01-01

    Nanošenje električnom iskrom postupak je za navarivanje tvrdih metalnih slitina, npr. karbida i stelita, na površinu novih ili starih elemenata strojeva. U tom postupku visoka struja provodi se kroz oscilirajuću elektrodu i supstrat na vrlo kratko vrijeme. U članku opisan je postupak i određeni su debljina nanesenog sloja, kemijski sastav, stupanj miješanja i hrapavost sloja.

  20. Izbor osnovnih Lean alata za razvoj Hrvatskog modela Inovativnog pametnog poduzeća

    OpenAIRE

    Veza, Ivica; Mladineo, Marko; Gjeldum, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja u sklopu projekta Inovativno pametno poduzeće (INSENT) bio je unaprijediti znanstvenu spoznaju o trenutnom stanju hrvatske prerađivačke industrije kroz empirijska istraživanja, na razini poduzeća, o tehnološkim i ne-tehnološkim procesima i organizacijskoj inovaciji. Cilj je bio razumjeti na koji način prerađivačka poduzeća u Hrvatskoj usvajaju nove proizvodne tehnologije, integriraju IC tehnologiju unutar svojih procesa, usvajaju nove organizacijske koncepte u proizvodnji ka...

  1. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial qualities of Boutou Yam (Dioscorea alata varieties

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    Billard C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yam crop is highly susceptible to Anthracnose; various research projects have been carried out into the development of anthracnose-resistant varieties. Boutou yam is one example of a disease-resistant variety; it gives high yields and thus is of high economic interest. The present study aims to optimize growing conditions and the harvesting stage of production in Martinique (F.W.I. Furthermore, the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory qualities of the harvested product are analysed. Results of the study indicate that the optimum harvesting time for Boutou is the ninth month after sowing. Harvesting at this stage gave the highest values for energy, carbohydrates and dry matter. The influence of fertilization on the physicochemical, nutritional and organoleptic qualities of Boutou was also analysed. In addition, new cultivars (of Boutou yam were compared with the five already established cultivars – this comparison led to the conclusion that cultivars AL56 and Boutou are the best cultivars for yam production. These varieties met the expectations and preferences of the local market and had recoverable nutritional characteristics.

  2. Kunda puitmassitehase ehitus võib alata / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    Norra kapitalil põhineval firmal Estonian Cell on kõik load Kundasse haavapuitmassitehase rajamiseks. Ehitus algab 2004. aasta alguses, selle kestuseks on planeeritud poolteist aastat. Lisa: Estonian Cell

  3. Physical characteristics and chemical-nutritional composition of the castanheira-do-gurguéia fruit (Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke Características físicas e composição químico-nutricional do fruto de castanheira-dogurguéia (Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Samara de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The castanheira-do-gurguéia is a native fruit tree with great regional importance, whose almond present pleasant flavor and exploration still limited. The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical and chemical-nutritional characteristics of 23 castanheira-do-gurguéia genotypes from natural occurrence areas of Piauí State southwestern savannah. A sample of 30 to 50 fruits per genotype was collected. The physical characteristics analyzed were: fruit mass, pericarp mass, fruit length, larger fruit thickness, fruit length/larger fruit thickness ratio, smaller fruit thickness, fruit length/smaller fruit thickness ratio, larger pericarp thickness, smaller pericarp thickness, longitudinal diameter of the pericarp cavity, vertical diameter of the pericarp cavity, almond mass, almond length, larger almond thickness, smaller almond thickness and almond length/larger almond thickness ratio. The following chemical-nutritional characteristics of almonds were analyzed: fat, crude protein, crude fiber, ash total carbohydrates, crude energy and minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and genotypes means were compared by Scott-Knott's test at 5%. There were differences among genotypes for all physical and chemical-nutritional characteristics evaluated, except Ca in the almonds. It was verified the presence of great phenotypic variability in the analyzed germplasm. The genotype G-3 is the most promising in terms of almond mass, almond length and larger almond thickness, and the genotypes G-7, G-10, G-13 and G-23 are the most promising in the chemical-nutritional composition.A castanheira-do-gurguéia é uma fruteira nativa com grande importância regional, cuja amêndoa apresenta sabor agradável e exploração ainda limitada. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as características físicas e químico-nutricionais dos frutos de 23 genótipos, provenientes de áreas de ocorrência natural da espécie nos cerrados do Sudoeste piauiense. Foram coletados de 30 a 50 frutos por genótipo. As características físicas analisadas foram: massa do fruto, massa do pericarpo, comprimento do fruto, espessura maior do fruto, relação comprimento do fruto/espessura maior do fruto, espessura menor do fruto, relação comprimento do fruto/espessura menor do fruto, espessura maior do pericarpo, espessura menor do pericarpo, diâmetro longitudinal da cavidade do pericarpo, diâmetro vertical da cavidade do pericarpo, massa da amêndoa, comprimento da amêndoa, espessura maior da amêndoa, espessura menor da amêndoa e relação comprimento da amêndoa/espessura maior da amêndoa. As seguintes características químico-nutricionais da amêndoa foram analisadas: gordura, proteína bruta, fibra bruta, cinzas, carboidratos totais, energia bruta e minerais (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos genótipos foram comparadas pelo teste de agrupamento Scott-Knott a 5%. Houve diferenças entre os genótipos para todas as características físicas e químico-nutricionais avaliadas, com exceção do teor de Ca da amêndoa. Foi verificada a presença de variabilidade fenotípica no germoplasma analisado. O genótipo G-3 é o mais promissor em termos de massa, comprimento e espessura maior da amêndoa e os genótipos G-7, G-10, G-13 e G-23 os mais promissores em conteúdo químico-nutricional.

  4. Production of baruzeiro seedling in different protected environments and substrates Produção de mudas de baruzeiro em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The high seedlings quality is essential for deployment of homogeneous orchards. This study evaluated the baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog seedlings formation on different substrates within protected environments. It was used substrates with100% of cattle manure; 100% of cassava stems; 100% of vermiculite; 50% of cattle manure + 50% of cassava stems; 50% of cattle manure + 50% of vermiculite; 50% of cassava stems + 50% of vermiculite; and + ⅓ of cattle manure + ⅓ of cassava stems + ⅓ of vermiculite. These substrates were tested in protected areas: greenhouse; black shade net of 50% shading; and aluminized thermo-reflective screen of 50% shading. A completely randomized experimental design with five replicates of four plants was adopted. Initially, data were submitted to analysis of individual variance of the substrates, in each environment of cultivation, then performing the evaluation of the residual mean square and the analysis of these environments together for comparison. The best substrate for baruzeiro seedlings was pure vermiculite. The substrates with 100% of manure and the substrate with 33.33% of the mixed studied materials can be used for seedlings formation. The environment with screen can be indicated for the production of baruzeiro seedlings, since it gave vigor to the seedlings.A qualidade da muda é fundamental para implantação de pomares homogêneos. Desta forma, avaliou-se a formação de mudas de baruzeiro (Dipteryx alata Vog, em diferentes substratos, no interior de ambientes protegidos. Foram utilizados substratos com 100% de esterco bovino; 100% de ramas de mandioca; 100% de vermiculita; 50% de esterco bovino + 50% de ramas de mandioca; 50% de esterco bovino + 50% de vermiculita; 50% de ramas de mandioca + 50% de vermiculita e ⅓ de esterco bovino + ⅓ de ramas de mandioca + ⅓ de vermiculita. Estes substratos foram testados em ambientes protegidos: estufa agrícola; telado de tela preta com 50% de sombreamento e o

  5. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  6. Transferencia de Calor y Materia durante la Fritura de Trozos de Ñame (Dioscórea alata Heat and Mass Transfer during the Frying of Slices of Yam (Dioscórea alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alvis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la transferencia de calor y materia durante el freído de trozos de ñame en aceite de soya a 140, 160, 180°C. Los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y materia fueron determinados a partir de las gráficas de las relaciones adimensionales de temperatura y concentración de humedad versus tiempo. Los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y materia se incrementaron al aumentar la temperatura del aceite. Para la variedad de ñame llamada Pico de Botella, la pérdida de humedad durante el freído por inmersión a distintos tiempos disminuyó con el aumento de la temperatura del aceite. Se encontraron valores del coeficiente de difusión de humedad de 1.95, 2.59 y 3.24 x 10-9 m²/s, para las tres temperaturas de freído estudiadas.Heat and mass transfer during frying slices of yam in soybean oil at 140, 160, 180 °C were studied. Heat and mass transfer coefficients were determined from the relation between dimensionless temperature and moisture concentration and time, respectively. The heat and mass transfer coefficients increased as the temperature of the oil increased. For the variety of yam known as Pico de Botella, moisture loss during deep fat frying at different times decreased with increasing temperature of the oil. Values of diffusion coefficient of moisture were 1.95, 2.59 and 3.24 x 10-9 m²/s, for the frying temperatures considered in the study.

  7. Genomic resources for water yam (Dioscorea alata L.): analyses of EST-Sequences, De Novo sequencing and GBS libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reducing cost and rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques coupled with high performance computational approaches have resulted in large-scale discovery of advanced genomic resources such as SSRs, SNPs and InDels in several model and non-model plant species. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) i...

  8. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  9. Growth response of Pterocarpus soyauxii and Lophira alata seedlings to host soil mycorrhizal inocula in relation to land use types.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onguene, N.A.; Ngonkeu, L.E.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency in mycorrhizal inoculum in soils due to land use types (LUT) can be alleviated by quantity and quality inoculum addition. A bioassay was carried out to determine how host soil mycorrhizal inoculum influenced mycorrhizal colonization, carbon allocation and partitioning of seedlings of two

  10. Diversidade genética em castanheira-do-gurgueia (Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke com base em características físicas e químico-nutricionais do fruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Samara de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a divergência genética entre 23 genótipos de castanheira-do-gurgueia, com base em características físicas e químico-nutricionais do fruto. Os frutos foram coletados em áreas de ocorrência natural da espécie no cerrado do sudoeste piauiense. As características físicas analisadas foram: (a fruto - massa média (MMF; comprimento (CF; largura (LF; espessura (EF, e massa média do pericarpo (MMP; e (b castanha - massa média (MMC; comprimento (CC; largura (LC, e espessura (EC. As características químico-nutricionais da castanha analisadas foram: gordura (G; proteína bruta (PB; fibra bruta (FB; cinzas (CZ; carboidratos totais (CT; energia (E, e minerais (P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn. A divergência genética foi estimada utilizando a distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D² como medida de dissimilaridade. Estimou-se, também, a importância relativa das características na divergência genética. Os métodos de agrupamento utilizados foram de Tocher e UPGMA. Os genótipos apresentaram variabilidade para a maioria das características analisadas. Os genótipos G-17 e G-18 são os mais divergentes, e os genótipos G-3 e G-16 são os mais similares. As características que tiveram as maiores contribuições para a divergência entre os genótipos foram MMP, MMF, E, FB, CT e PB. A castanha-do-gurgueia é uma boa fonte de P, K, Mg, PB, FB, CT e E.

  11. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity

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    Angel A. Yanagihara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the medical urgency presented by cubozoan envenomations, ineffective and contradictory first-aid management recommendations persist. A critical barrier to progress has been the lack of readily available and reproducible envenomation assays that (1 recapitulate live-tentacle stings; (2 allow quantitation and imaging of cnidae discharge; (3 allow primary quantitation of venom toxicity; and (4 employ rigorous controls. We report the implementation of an integrated array of three experimental approaches designed to meet the above-stated criteria. Mechanistically overlapping, yet distinct, the three approaches comprised (1 direct application of test solutions on live tentacles (termed tentacle solution assay, or TSA with single image- and video-microscopy; (2 spontaneous stinging assay using freshly excised tentacles overlaid on substrate of live human red blood cells suspended in agarose (tentacle blood agarose assays, or TBAA; and (3 a “skin” covered adaptation of TBAA (tentacle skin blood agarose assay, or TSBAA. We report the use and results of these assays to evaluate the efficacy of topical first-aid approaches to inhibit tentacle firing and venom activity. TSA results included the potent stimulation of massive cnidae discharge by alcohols but only moderate induction by urine, freshwater, and “cola” (carbonated soft drink. Although vinegar, the 40-year field standard of first aid for the removal of adherent tentacles, completely inhibited cnidae firing in TSA and TSBAA ex vivo models, the most striking inhibition of both tentacle firing and subsequent venom-induced hemolysis was observed using newly-developed proprietary formulations (Sting No More™ containing copper gluconate, magnesium sulfate, and urea.

  12. Protocolo para la formación de microtubérculos de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. en sistema de inmersión temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabrera Jova

    2010-08-01

    Con el empleo de 15 min de inmersión y una frecuencia de inmersión cada 6 horas, se alcanzaron los mejores resultados en cuanto al número de microtubérculos formados por planta. Con este tiempo y frecuencia de inmersión los microtubérculos presentaron la mayor masa fresca y seca, así como el mayor diámetro. Además, a las 18 semanas de cultivo se obtuvo el mayor número total de microtubérculos por sistema y el mayor número de microtubérculos aprovechables como material vegetal de propagación. En cuanto al volumen de medio de cultivo por planta, con 60 ml de medio de cultivo por planta in vitro se alcanzó el mayor número de microtubérculos aprovechables, los cuales presentaron el contenido más alto de materia seca. Los microtubérculos obtenidos en este tipo de sistema de inmersión temporal presentaron una masa fresca superior a 2,40 gMF, lo cual podría permitir su uso como material de plantación directo a campo. Palabras clave: microtubérculos, tiempo y frecuencia de inmersión, volumen de medio de cultivo. Abreviaturas: sistema de inmersión temporal (SIT, gramos de masa fresca (gMF, recipiente de inmersión temporal automatizado (RITA.

  13. Selective Activation of Nociceptor TRPV1 Channel and Reversal of Inflammatory Pain in Mice by a Novel Coumarin Derivative Muralatin L from Murraya alata*

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ning-Ning; Lv, Hai-Ning; Wu, Yang; Yang, Shi-Long; Sun, Xiao-Ying; Lai, Ren; Yong JIANG; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Coumarin and its derivatives are fragrant natural compounds isolated from the genus Murraya that are flowering plants widely distributed in East Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Murraya plants have been widely used as medicinal herbs for relief of pain, such as headache, rheumatic pain, toothache, and snake bites. However, little is known about their analgesic components and the molecular mechanism underlying pain relief. Here, we report the bioassay-guided fractionation and identifi...

  14. Herida inciso-punzante y escápula alata: a propósito de un caso Sharp injury and winged scapula: about a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La peligrosidad de las heridas inciso-punzantes viene determinada por su situación y por la existencia de estructuras vitales subyacentes; alcanzando una mayor gravedad, las localizadas en tórax y cuello. Las lesiones cervicales adquieren un peor pronóstico vital cuando se afectan los grandes vasos o la vía aérea, pudiendo quedar secuelas incapacitantes por lesión de los nervios que discurren por la zona. En el siguiente artículo exponemos un caso de herida inciso-punzante laterocervical izquierda, con lesión (neurotmesis del nervio accesorio o espinal (XI par craneal, que determina la aparición de una escápula alada, signo característico de esta lesión.The danger of incised wounds is determined by their position and the underlying vital structures, and the ones localized in the torax are more serius. Cervical lesions get worse vital pronostic when they affect great vessels and the airway. This could result in the disability of the nerves which flow in this area. In the next article, we present one left lateral-cervical incised wound case, with an accesory nerve (spinal accesory nerve or XI C.N. disorder (neurotmesis, which determine the appearance of a winged scapula. The winged scapula is the characteristic sign of this lesion.

  15. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Cristina Teixeira dos Anjos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant and S. heterogama (200 spores/plant inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da severidade dos sintomas e reprodução de M. incognita em solo desinfestado.

  16. Implicações nutricionais e sensoriais da polpa e casca de baru (Dipterix Alata vog. na elaboração de pães Use of peel and pulp of baru in the development of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Santana Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O interesse por novas fontes de nutrientes e a necessidade de preservação das espécies nativas do cerrado por meio de sua valorização motiva maiores esforços em investigar seu potencial para a suplementação de produtos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a viabilidade do uso da casca e polpa do baru no desenvolvimento de pães do tipo fôrma e suas consequentes implicações nutricionais e sensoriais. A partir da formulação de um pão de fôrma integral padrão, substitui-se o farelo de trigo por casca e polpa de baru em quatro proporções (25, 50, 75 e 100%. A análise da composição química da casca e polpa do baru resultou em 21,05% de umidade, 65,01% de carboidratos, 3,30% de lipídios, 4,45% de proteínas, 1,79% de cinzas e 4,39% de fibra bruta. Todas as amostras foram aceitas quanto aos atributos aparência, textura e sabor, foram consideradas com baixo teor de gorduras totais (2,18%, não apresentando diferença significativa entre si quanto ao teor de proteína (13,59% e de umidade (34,54%, e com teor médio de 41,90% de carboidratos e 1,76% de cinzas. Observou-se um acréscimo de até 58,20% no teor de fibra alimentar total com o aumento da proporção da casca e polpa do baru. A pesquisa realizada permite deduzir que a casca e polpa do baru são ingredientes viáveis para aplicação tecnológica em pão de fôrma integral, conferindo melhoria nas características nutricionais e atributos sensoriais.Interest in new sources of nutrients and the need of preserving native species of the savanna, through their valorization, motivates the study of their potential for supplementing products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the peel and pulp of the baru to develop sliced bread and the consequent nutritional and sensory implications. In the process of developing whole wheat sliced bread, oat bran was replaced for baru's peel and pulp using four proportions (25, 50, 75, and 100%. The analysis of the chemical composition of baru's peel and pulp resulted in 21.05% moisture, 65.01% carbohydrates, 3.30% lipids, 4.45% protein, 1.79% ash, and 4.39% crude fiber. All samples were accepted considering the attributes appearance, texture, and flavor. They were considered low in total fat (2.18%, showed no significant difference regarding the content of protein (13.59% and moisture (34.54%. It presented an average content of carbohydrate of 41.90 and 1.76% of ash. There was an increase of up to 58.20% in the total content of the dietary fiber with the increase of the proportion of baru's peel and pulp. The results indicate that the peel and pulp of baru viable ingredients in the technology application to prepare whole wheat sliced bread improving nutritional characteristics and sensory attributes.

  17. Contribución al conocimiento del árbol de cirián (Crescentia alata Kunth.) variabilidad, selección, morfología, citogenética y fitoquímica.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Valverde, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    El cirián es un árbol medicinal con frutos esféricos que contiene iridoides y polifenoles los que confieren propiedades anti-inflamatorias, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas. La presente investigación se realizó en la región de Tierra Caliente, Michoacán, México en la Depresión del Balsas, la cual es uno de los refugios pleistocénicos más extensos de Norteamérica y centro de origen y domesticación del maíz; el árbol de cirián, es una especie emblemática de esta región y probablemente constituyó...

  18. 国际流行花卉系列组合盆栽中的藤本植物冀叶山牵牛%Thunbergia alata Climbing plant Good for Container Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶剑秋

    2006-01-01

    @@ 山牵牛又名黑眼碟,为爵床科、山牵牛属的一年生草本.原产南非及亚洲热带茎细长,缠绕藤本,全株近无毛单叶互生,三角状卵形.花腋生,高脚碟状花冠,花瓣整齐5裂,呈碟状、筒部较大,喉部深褐色;花色为黄、橙、白包、花期夏秋.组合盆栽常作为主体材料或单独以图腾柱的形式应用.

  19. Evaluación en campo de plantas de ñame (Dioscorea alata L. obtenidas de los microtubérculos formados en Sistema de Inmersión Temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cabrera Jova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los microtubérculos en algunas especies de plantas constituyen una importante alternativa como material vegetal de plantación. Se definió como objetivo de trabajo evaluar en campo la respuesta morfoagronómica de las plantas obtenidas de los microtubérculos de ñame formados en Sistema de Inmersión Temporal (SIT. Como variantes experimentales se plantaron tres categorías de microtubérculos, clasificados según su masa fresca (I. de 0,5 a 0,9 g; II. de 1,0 a 2,9 g; III. igual o mayor de 3,0 g, plantas in vitro previamente aclimatadas y corona de tubérculo. Se evaluó el efecto de la masa fresca de los microtubérculos sobre su brote, supervivencia y posterior desarrollo de las plantas derivadas de ellos en campo. Con los microtubérculos de ñame, con una masa fresca igual o superior a 3,0 g, se alcanzó el más alto porcentaje de brotación (91,30% y supervivencia de las plantas (96,50%, así como las mejores respuestas en los caracteres cuantitativos que se evaluaron en campo. Estos resultados confirmaron la importancia de la masa fresca de los microtubérculos para ser empleados como material vegetal de plantación directo en campo. Palabras clave: microtubérculos, plantas in vitro, campo. Abreviaturas: SIT sistema de Inmersión Temporal, gMF gramos de masa fresca Abstract: The microtuber in some plant species are an important alternative crop planting material. Objective was defined as field work to evaluate the response of plants obtained morphoagronomic of yam microtubers formed in Temporary Immersion System. Experimental variants were planted microtubers three categories classified by fresh mass (I. 0.5 to 0.9 g; II. from 1.0 to 2.9 g; III. equal to or greater than 3.0 g , plants previously acclimated in vitro and crown of the tuber. The effect of the fresh weight of microtubers on their sprouting, survival and further development of the plants derived from them in the field. Microtubers were achieved with the yam with a fresh mass less than 3.0 g the highest sprouting percentage (91.30% and plant survival (96.50% and the best responses in quantitative traits were evaluated in the field. These results confirmed the importance of the fresh weight of microtubers for use as plant material in field planting. Key words: Microtubers, in vitro plant, field. Abbreviations: TIS temporary immersion system, gFW grams of fresh weight

  20. Photosynthetic induction responses of two rainforest tree species in relation to light environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Oberbauer, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthetic induction of in situ saplings of two Costa Rican rainforest tree species wre compared in relation to their light environment, using infrared gas analysis and hemispherical photography. The species studied were Dipteryx panamensis, a climax species found in bright microsites, and Cecro

  1. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  2. Biochemical and Immunological Studies on Eight Pollen Types from South Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 65 pollen types were identified from two years atmospheric pollen survey in the environmental conditions of South Assam. Out of them, eight pollen types viz., Acacia auriculiformis, Amaranthus spinosus, Cassia alata, Cleome gynandra, Cocos nucifera, Imperata cylindrica, Ricinus communis and Trewia nudiflora, were selected for biochemical studies on the basis of their dominance in the study sites. Among the sample extract tested, Ricinus communis was found to contain the highest amount of soluble protein, free amino acid and total carbohydrate, per gram of dry weight followed by Imperata cylindrica and Cassia alata. Maximum numbers of protein polypeptide bands were detected in the sample extract of Cassia alata by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method followed by Acacia auriculiformis, Imperata cylindrica and Cocos nucifera. IgE binding protein fractions were maximum in Cassia alata and minimum in Trewia nudiflora.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Housing Privatization Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), red oak (Quercus sp...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), winged elm (Ulmus alata

  4. Sügisest võib saada laevaga Pihkvasse / Priit Rajalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajalo, Priit, 1975-

    2000-01-01

    Tartus eravisiidil viibinud Pihkva linnapea Mihhail Horoneni sõnul võib Tartu ja Pihkva vaheline regulaarne laevaliiklus alata veel sel sügisel, kui Eesti ja Venemaa sõlmivad piiriületuskokkuleppe

  5. A new glyptorthid species (Brachiopoda: Orthida) from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Hints

    2010-01-01

    A new glyptorthid brachiopod species Bassettella alata with surface pits and lamellose frills is described from the Upper Ordovician Haljala and Keila stages of northern Estonia. The new species appears in the Jõhvi Substage of theHaljala Stage (mid-Sandbian) and is somewhat younger than the type species B. ;gracilis appearing in the lower Idavere Substage of the same stage in NW Russia. In the uppermost Keila Stage (lowermost Katian), B. ;alata belongs to a mixed faunal association of the ma...

  6. Preferência alimentar de Dione juno juno (Cramer por genótipos de maracujazeiro e avaliação do uso de extratos aquosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Fernando Mesquita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência alimentar de lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer por genótipos de maracujazeiro, utilizando-se discos foliares, em condições de laboratório, e lagartas de primeiro e de quarto ínstar, em testes com e sem chance de escolha, com os seguintes materiais: Passiflora alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. cincinnata, P. nitida, e os híbridos P. edulis x P. giberti, P. edulis x P. alata e P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa. Usando-se extrato aquoso de folhas (liofilizado recomposto procurou-se determinar a presença de repelente, estimulante ou deterrente nos genótipos P. edulis e P. alata. Avaliou-se também a técnica de uso de extrato impregnado em discos de papel filtro e de ágar, em várias concentrações. Os resultados evidenciaram que P. alata, P. setacea, P. nitida e P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa são resistentes a D. juno juno e que essa resistência é do tipo não-preferência para alimentação; que folhas de P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa apresentam elevado poder de repelência ao inseto; no extrato de P. alata ocorre algum composto com forte ação repelente ou restringente de alimentação; que para a discriminação da preferência para alimentação de lagartas de D. juno juno por genótipos de maracujazeiro, pode ser utilizado ágar impregnado com 0,04 ml de extrato aquoso de folhas.

  7. 鬼箭羽钩藤复方液对心肌肥大大鼠L型钙电流的影响%Effect of compound Evonymus alata and Uncaria rhynchophylla decoction on L-type calcium channels in rats with cardiac hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佐妤; 李海英; 韩晨光; 赵娟; 佟长青

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨鬼箭羽钩藤复方液对高血压性心肌肥大的影响.方法 利用腹主动脉缩窄法建立高血压性心肌肥大模型,利用灌胃法给予中药治疗,采用离体大鼠心脏 Langendorff 灌注法急性分离心肌细胞,利用膜片钳全细胞技术记录L型钙电流,比较正常对照组、高血压模型组及中药治疗组之间的区别.结果 高血压模型组的L型钙电流密度显著高于正常对照组(P<0.05);中药治疗组的L型钙电流密度显著小于高血压模型组(P<0.05),与正常对照组相比无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 鬼箭羽钩藤复方液具有逆转高血压性心肌肥大的作用.

  8. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  9. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  10. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL GEL FOR ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Dixit*, Ganesh Misal, Vijay Gulkari and Kanchan Upadhye

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study, three medicinal plants Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cassia tora Linn. and Cassia alata Linn having significant anti-inflammatory potential were selected to be formulated as polyherbal gels. The gels were prepared using the dried methanolic extract of Cassia tora Linn, Cassia alata Linn and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. Polyherbal gel formulations were evaluated for its pH, appearance and homogeneity, viscosity, spreadability and skin irritation studies. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory activity was done by carrageenan induced rat paw edema and formalin- induced rat paw edema. Individual and polyherbal gel of Cassia alata Linn,Cassia tora Linn. and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers were found to possess anti-inflammatory effect in acute and chronic models. Polyherbal gel also showed synergistic effect as compared to individual gels which can be useful for the treatment of local inflammation.

  11. Growth and Nutrient Use Efficiencies of Yams (Dioscorea spp. Grown in Two Contrasting Soils of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien N'Guessan Diby

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an important management strategy of yams (Dioscorea spp. especially when grown in degraded soils. A field study evaluated the leaf numbers, leaf area indices, crop growth, yields, and nitrogen (N and potassium (K use efficiencies of D. alata and D. rotundata in Côte d'Ivoire when grown in two contrasting soils with and without fertilizer. D. alata had a lower number of leaves per vine, although leaf area indices were higher, and the leaves were retained for a longer period than in D. rotundata. In all situations, the yields of D. alata were significantly higher, and fertilizers promoted growth of shoots, roots, tubers, and, thus, final yields especially in the low fertile savanna soil. The beneficial impact of fertilizer on yields was significantly lower in the fertile forest soils. The nutrient use agronomic efficiencies indicated the impact of both N and K in promoting yields especially under nonfertilized conditions.

  12. Caracterização agromorfológica do maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crochemore Maria Lúcia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo descreve a variação genética de 55 acessos de Passiflora spp., constituídos de P. edulis, P. alata, P. coccinea, P. caerulea, P. foetida, P. giberti, P. macrocarpa, P. macrocarpa x alata, P. serrato digitata, P. suberosa e um acesso Passiflora sp. Vinte e dois descritores morfológicos foram avaliados sobre plantas isoladas em sistema de espaldeira e permitiram estruturar a diversidade encontrada. As relações filogenéticas entre os acessos, avaliadas pela análise de componentes principais e de distâncias genéticas, mostraram existir ampla diversidade entre as espécies estudadas. Algumas espécies mostraram caracteres monomórficos. Importante variabilidade foi observada dentro de P. alata e de P. edulis, e pequenas divergências foram encontradas entre os acessos da forma flavicarpa.

  13. Comportamiento y rendimiento en aserrío de trozas de Terminalia amazonia de 6 años de edad proveniente de la zona sur de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las primeras experencias llevadasa cabo en CostaRica con la reforestación con especies nativas se dieron en la Estación Biológica La Selva por parte de la Organización de los Estudios Tropicales (OET) a partir del año de 1985 en la zona de Sarapiquí, provincia de Heredia. Por parte de la mencionada organización se han establecido ensayos con especies tales como Dipteryx panamensis, Vochysia ferruginea, Vochysia guatemalensis, entre otros grupos de especies de gran interés para el país.

  14. Atividade antibacteriana de plantas úteis e constituintes químicos da raiz de Copernicia prunifera

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane C. C. Ayres; Marcela S. Brandão; Gerardo M. Vieira-Júnior; Menor,Júlio César A. S.; Silva,Hildessandra B.; Soares,Maria José S.; Mariana H. Chaves

    2008-01-01

    Extratos etanólicos de Qualea grandiflora e Copernicia prunifera e extrato hexânico de Dipteryx lacunifera foram avaliados quanto a atividade antibacteriana, utilizando ensaios de difusão a partir de orifício e concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), frente a cepas Gram positivas e Gram-negativas, incluindo espécies multidroga resistentes. O extrato de Q. grandiflora apresentou atividade moderada para as cepas de Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIM = 500 µg/mL) e atividade fraca sobre as demais bac...

  15. Atividade antibacteriana de plantas úteis e constituintes químicos da raiz de Copernicia prunifera Antibacterial activity of useful plants and chemical constituents of the roots of Copernicia prunifera

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane C. C. Ayres; Marcela S. Brandão; Gerardo M. Vieira-Júnior; Menor,Júlio César A. S.; Silva,Hildessandra B.; Soares,Maria José S.; Mariana H. Chaves

    2008-01-01

    Extratos etanólicos de Qualea grandiflora e Copernicia prunifera e extrato hexânico de Dipteryx lacunifera foram avaliados quanto a atividade antibacteriana, utilizando ensaios de difusão a partir de orifício e concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), frente a cepas Gram positivas e Gram-negativas, incluindo espécies multidroga resistentes. O extrato de Q. grandiflora apresentou atividade moderada para as cepas de Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIM = 500 µg/mL) e atividade fraca sobre as demais bac...

  16. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  17. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  18. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 7e-27 ...

  19. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK111344 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111344 002-181-F12 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-15 ...

  20. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 2e-22 ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK103810 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103810 J033147A19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-179 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK061639 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061639 001-036-B01 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 4e-49 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-52 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK107881 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107881 002-134-D06 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 5e-51 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101487 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101487 J033042D19 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK102766 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK102766 J033107E04 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  8. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242601 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242601 J090014G03 At1g55850.1 68414.m06405 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-61 ...

  9. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242585 J090010M20 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-69 ...

  10. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242890 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242890 J090079L19 At1g02730.1 68414.m00226 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 1e-131 ...

  11. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK120054 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120054 J013000L05 At1g55850.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-5 [gi:9622882] from Zea mays 1e-148 ...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK067424 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067424 J013107C16 At1g02730.1 cellulose synthase family protein similar to cellulose... synthase catalytic subunit [gi:13925881] from Nicotiana alata, cellulose synthase-4 [gi:9622880] from Zea mays 0.0 ...

  13. Merivälja tee parandustööd lükkuvad ületulevasse aastasse / Küllike Rooväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooväli, Küllike, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Merivälja tee ja selle jätkuna kulgeva Ranna tee remont saab pealinna teedeehitajate sõnul alata alles 2006. aastal. Tallinna abilinnapea Peep Aaviksoo põhjendas tee remondi edasilükkamist eelkõige sellega, et 90 protsenti seal liiklejaist on Viimsi valla kodanikud, kes linnale makse ei maksa. Kaart: Tihe liiklus Viimsi suunas

  14. SEB analüütik Ruta Arumäe: Eesti valitsus teeb majanduskriisiga võideldes Lätile ja Leedule silmad ette / Ruta Arumäe ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arumäe, Ruta, 1976-

    2009-01-01

    SEB analüütiku hinnangul jätkub majanduse langus järgmise aasta lõpuni, kuid see toimub senisest aeglasemalt; töötus võib kasvada selle aasta lõpuks 14 protsendini. Taastumine saab alata ekspordile suunatud majandusharudest, uus majanduskasv saab alguse välisnõudluse taastumisest

  15. A review of the Oriental leafhopper genera Thampoa Mahmood and Guheswaria Thapa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jiao; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The genus Guheswaria Thapa is recorded for the first time from China; two new species, Thampoa quinquemaculata sp. nov. and Guheswaria brevicula sp. nov. are described; one species, Guheswaria linguplata rec. nov. is newly recorded from China; and one new combination, Thampoa alata (Dworakowska, 1994) comb. nov. (from Guheswaria) is proposed. A checklist and updated keys to species of Thampoa and Guheswaria are provided.

  16. The antibacterial activity of selected plants towards resistant bacteria isolated from clinical specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratiwi Wikaningtyas; Elin Yulinah Sukandar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight plants against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA),extended spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,which are the most prevalent causes of infections in inpatients.Methods:The antibacterial activity was calculated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration using Mueller-Hinton broth in a microdilution method.Results:The best antibacterial activity,calculated as minimum inhibitory concentration values,against MRSA was shown by the Kaempferia pandurata(Roxb)(K.pandurata)extract(256 μg/mL) and the Senna alata(S.alata) extract(512 μg/mL).Phytochemical screening of dried S.alata leaf and its extract showed the presence of flavonoids,alkaloids,saponins,quinones,tannins and sterols,while dried K.pandurata and its extract only showed the presence of flavonoids and sterols/triterpenoids.Conclusions:K.pandurata and S.alata have the potential to be developed as antibacterial agents,especially against MRSA strain,but further in vivo research and discovery of the mode of its action are still needed to shed light on the effects.

  17. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  18. The antibacterial activity of selected plants towards resistant bacteria isolated from clinical specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pratiwi Wikaningtyas; Elin Yulinah Sukandar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, which are the most prevalent causes of in-fections in inpatients. Methods: The antibacterial activity was calculated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration using Mueller–Hinton broth in a microdilution method. Results: The best antibacterial activity, calculated as minimum inhibitory concentration values, against MRSA was shown by the Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb) (K. pandurata) extract (256 mg/mL) and the Senna alata (S. alata) extract (512 mg/mL). Phytochemical screening of dried S. alata leaf and its extract showed the presence of flavonoids, alka-loids, saponins, quinones, tannins and sterols, while dried K. pandurata and its extract only showed the presence of flavonoids and sterols/triterpenoids. Conclusions: K. pandurata and S. alata have the potential to be developed as antibac-terial agents, especially against MRSA strain, but further in vivo research and discovery of the mode of its action are still needed to shed light on the effects.

  19. Stomatal complex types, stomatal density, and the stomatal index in some species of dioscorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahaman A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea alata L. has three stomatal complex types, namely, paracytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 50, 18, and 32, respectively. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent­age frequency value of 100. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. Both D. esculenta and D. rotundata have paracytic stomata, with a percentage frequency of 100. The range of variation of stomatal density is from 10 (lowest value in D. alata and D. dumentorum to 27 (highest value in D. bulbifera. The stomatal index also varies, from 24 in D. alata to 47 in D. cayenensis. The size of stomata in all species is small, varying in length from 0.74 μm in D. alata to 1.79 μm in D. dumentorum. An indented dichotomous key based on stomatal features was constructed to distinguish and identify the species.

  20. Nepenthes ultra (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, M.; Jebb, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nepenthes ultra is described from low altitude, ultramafic coastal scrub in Luzon, Philippines. It is placed in the Nepenthes alata group and is assessed as Endangered using the IUCN 2001 standard. Open cast mining and touristic development are threats to this species.

  1. Ähvardav W / Rannar Vassiljev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vassiljev, Rannar, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti valitsuskoalitsiooni majandusproognoosid on liiga optimistlikud, kuna finantskriis euroalas ja võlgades USA on oluliselt suurendanud nn W-kujulise kriisist taastumise tõenäosust, mis tähendab, et kohe-kohe võib alata uus majanduskriis ka Eestis

  2. Directionally Solidified Eutectic Ceramics for Multifunctional Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    expected to occur locally and globally by the same mechanism and to increase the toughness. Finally, the Al2Ti05 is very difficult to sinter due to...comportamiento plastico de perovsquitas conductoras protonicas de alata temperatura". Boletin d la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio, Vol. 44

  3. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  4. Expressing foreign genes in the pistil: a comparison of S-RNase constructs in different Nicotiana backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfett, J; McClure, B A

    1998-06-01

    Transgenic plant experiments have great potential for extending our understanding of the role of specific genes in controlling pollination. Often, the intent of such experiments is to over-express a gene and test for effects on pollination. We have examined the efficiency of six different S-RNase constructs in Nicotiana species and hybrids. Each construct contained the coding region, intron, and downstream sequences from the Nicotiana alata S(A2)-RNase gene. Among the six expression constructs, two utilized the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter with duplicated enhancer, and four utilized promoters from genes expressed primarily in pistils. The latter included promoters from the tomato Chi2;1 and 9612 genes, a promoter from the N. alata S(A2)-RNase gene, and a promoter from the Brassica SLG-13 gene. Some or all of the constructs were tested in N. tabacum, N. plumbaginifolia, N. plumbaginifolia x SI N. alata S(C10)S(c10) hybrids, N. langsdorffii, and N. langsdorffii x SC N. alata hybrids. Stylar specific RNase activities and S(A2)-RNase transcript levels were determined in transformed plants. Constructs including the tomato Chi2;1 gene promoter or the Brassica SLG-13 promoter provided the highest levels of S(A2)-RNase expression. Transgene expression patterns were tightly regulated, the highest level of expression was observed in post-anthesis styles. Expression levels of the S(A2)-RNase transgenes was dependent on the genetic background of the host. Higher levels of S(A2)-RNase expression were observed in N. plumbaginifolia x SC N. alata hybrids than in N. plumbaginifolia.

  5. Microenxertia interespecífica ex vitro em maracujazeiros Ex vitro interspecific micrografting in passionflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Vicente Souza Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da espécie de Passiflora usada como porta-enxerto no pegamento e desenvolvimento da microenxertia interespecífica ex vitro e caracterizar anatomicamente a região em que ela é realizada. Ápices caulinares de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa foram enxertados em hipocótilo de porta-enxertos de P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis e P. setacea. Foram avaliados o desenvolvimento da microenxertia, a ocorrência de brotações adventícias do porta-enxerto e o percentual de microenxertos com folhas expandidas. Os porta-enxertos foram submetidos à avaliação anatômica e histoquímica. O desenvolvimento dos microenxertos e o número de brotações adventícias foram maiores quando se utilizou porta-enxertos de P. edulis e menores com porta-enxertos de P. setacea e P. alata. Porta-enxertos de P. edulis, P. cincinnata, P. alata e P. setacea proporcionaram, respectivamente, 30,3, 10, 1,6 e 0% de microenxertos com folhas expandidas. As avaliações histológicas evidenciaram maior espessura da região cortical em porta-enxertos de P. edulis, enquanto em P. setacea foi observado menor número de camadas corticais, maior quantidade de fibras floemáticas e de alcaloides, características que influenciaram negativamente o resultado da microenxertia.This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Passiflora species used as rootstocks on the success and development of ex vitro interspecific micrografting, and at anatomically characterizing the region where it is done. Stem apices of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa were grafted onto the hypocotyl of P. alata, P. cincinnata, P. edulis, and P. setacea seedlings. The micrografting development, the occurrence of adventitious shoots in rootstocks and the percentage of micrografts with expanded leaves were evaluated. The rootstocks were subjected to anatomical and histochemical evaluation. Micrograft development and adventitious shoot number were higher when P. edulis

  6. KARAKTERISTIK DAN PROFIL INULIN BEBERAPA JENIS UWI (Dioscorea spp. Characteristic and Inulin Profil of Wild Yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild yams (Dioscorea spp. grow well in Indonesia known as Uwi, is the kind of tubers that grow in the community,but they have not been used optimally. Publicity about the characteristics and types has been limited. The tubers contain inulin, but also there have been no publication related.The purpose of this study was to uncover the characteristics of wild yam and inulin profiles contained in the tubers.The yams were obtained from various regions in East Java, among others Pacet Mojokerto, Karang Ploso and Kawi Mountains in Malang, Nganjuk, and traditional markets in Surabaya.The tubers were characterized for shape and size of tubers, skin color and flesh tubers, average weight and texture of the tuber, moisture content, ash content and levels of inulin, texture and flavor. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and further test Duncan’t Multiple Range Test (DMRT.Based on the characteristics of tubers, there were 10 types of wild yams, namely D1 (Dioscororea alata/ white yam, D2 (Dioscorea pinthaphylla/frog yam, D3 (Dioscorea hispida /Gadung, D4 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam with yellow skin, D5 (Dioscorea alata /purple yam, D6 (Dioscorea esculenta/gembili, D7 (Dioscorea alata/yellow yam, D8 (Dioscorea opposita/white yam with yellow skin, D9 (Dioscorea bulbifera/gembolo and D10 (Dioscorea rotundata/ white yam with brown skin. The highest levels of inulin obtained in Dioscororea esculenta (gembili ie 14.77 % (db. The water content rangedbetween 71.89- 85.07 % (wb, ash content 0.59- 1.83 % and texture between 0.012 to 0.055 (mm/g.dt. Organoleptic score was 2.75 to 4.55 texture and taste is from 3.20 to 5.00. ABSTRAK Uwi merupakan jenis umbi-umbian yang tumbuh di Indonesia, namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal dan belumbanyak publikasi mengenai kharakteristik dan jenis-jenisnya. Uwi mengandung inulin, namun belum banyak publikasi yang mengungkap kadar inulin pada berbagai jenis umbi uwi tersebut.Tujuan dari penelitian ini

  7. A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method using plant extracts as green reagent for the determination of doxycycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamy, Sysay; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2017-01-01

    A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of doxycycline in pharmaceutical preparations using iron(III) contained in extracts from plants. The assay was based on the complex formed between doxycycline and iron(III) characterized by an absorption maximum at 435 nm. The calibration graphs obtained over the doxycycline concentration range 5-250 μg mL- 1 gave correlation coefficients of 0.9979, 0.9987 and 0.9987 with the three green reagents prepared from Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (S. alata), Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) or Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (D. esculentum), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability was Doxycycline contents obtained by this new method and by the reference methods reported in literature were in agreement at 95% confidence level with the paired t-test. The sample throughput was 36 h- 1 for each green reagent.

  8. A new glyptorthid species (Brachiopoda: Orthida from the Upper Ordovician of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Hints

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A new glyptorthid brachiopod species Bassettella alata with surface pits and lamellose frills is described from the Upper Ordovician Haljala and Keila stages of northern Estonia. The new species appears in the Jõhvi Substage of theHaljala Stage (mid-Sandbian and is somewhat younger than the type species B. ;gracilis appearing in the lower Idavere Substage of the same stage in NW Russia. In the uppermost Keila Stage (lowermost Katian, B. ;alata belongs to a mixed faunal association of the marginal facies of the Vasalemma Formation comprising the oldest Ordovician reefs in Estonia. The distribution pattern of brachiopods of the genus Bassettella shows a westward shift in time and changes in shell morphology from subrectangular to subtriangular with alate cardinal extremities.

  9. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Daniel A V; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Meletti, Laura M M; Kampen, Maria H VAN; Polozzi, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).

  10. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  11. Lesiones del nervio torácico largo de Bell. Revisión de conceptos terapéuticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián E. Valbuena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Re­su­men las lesiones del nervio torácico producen parálisis del serrato anterior y originan una deformidad característica (escápula alata, que genera debilidad y alteraciones importantes en la movilidad del hombro. En esta revisión, se analizan conceptos sobre anatomía, etiología, presentación clínica y alternativas terapéuticas. Long­ thoracic ­nerve ­of ­Bell. ­Review­ of­ therapeutic ­management Abstract The long thoracic nerve injuries are manifested by a characteristic deformity called scapula alata, causing weakness, and impaired shoulder mobility. in this review current concepts of the anatomy, etiology, clinical presentation and therapeutic management are analyzed.

  12. Pollen irradiation and possible gene transfer in Nicotiana species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1985-01-01

    Progeny from crosses of Nicotiana langsdorffii with gamma irradiated pollen of Nicotiana alata ‘Crimson Bedder’ showed skewed segregation in the F2 favoring the maternal parent. This is probably not gene transfer in a strict sense, rather just an extreme case of reduced transmission of irradiated...... chromosomes, leading to massive overrepresentation of maternal genes. Gene transfer or mutational loss may explain some anomalous F1 plants. Segregation in the F2 progeny showed the presence of several genes from the irradiated pollen. Crosses of Nicotiana sylvestris, N. plumbaginifolia N. paniculata......, and Petunia parodii with irradiated pollen from N. alata and Petunia hybrida showed no evidence of gene transfer, nor did experiments with irradiated mentor pollen. This indicates that gene transfer with irradiated pollen between non-crossing species or between species giving sterile hybrids is probably...

  13. Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling....

  14. Aphids of Java. Part II: Sinomegoura Takahashi, 1960 (Homoptera: Aphididae), with a new species from Coffea*

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of Sinomegoura. The following three species were collected in Java: Sinomegoura citricola (Van der Goot, 1917), from various woody plants; Sinomegoura symplocois (Van der Goot, 1917), collected by Van der Goot from Symplocos and described by him as Aulacorthum symplocois Van der Goot, 1917; and a new species collected from leaves of Coffea sp., Sinomegoura coffeae spec. nov. Keys are given to the apterae and alatae viviparae, and the species are described.

  15. Agp2p, the Plasma Membrane Transregulator of Polyamine Uptake, Regulates the Antifungal Activities of the Plant Defensin NaD1 and Other Cationic Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bleackley, Mark R.; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Perrine-Walker, Francine; Vasa, Shaily; Burns, Rhiannon L.; van der Weerden, Nicole L.; Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Cationic antifungal peptides (AFPs) act through a variety of mechanisms but share the common feature of interacting with the fungal cell surface. NaD1, a defensin from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a variety of fungi of both hyphal and yeast morphologies. The mechanism of action of NaD1 occurs via three steps: binding to the fungal cell surface, permeabilization of the plasma membrane, and internalization and interaction with intracellular targets to induce fungal ce...

  16. Directionally Solidified Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    34Microestructura y comportamiento plastico de perovsquitas conductoras protonicas de alata temperatura". Boletin d la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y...De Lopez and A. Sayir, "Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature Protonic Conductors Fabricated by Melt Growth," Boletin de la...For High Temperature Environments," NASA TM-2004-213211, Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, August 2004. 36. Cover page of Boletin de la Sociedad

  17. 本是大田寻常花移来凭栏供赏玩——阳台栽培矮生花烟草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤祥

    2009-01-01

    @@ 这是一种田野中常见的草花,没有太多的人关注,但移到盆中栽培.也挺像模像样的.它,就是矮生花烟草.矮生花烟草(Nicotiana alata var.grandiflora nana)为茄科烟草属多年生常绿草本花卉,常作1~2年栽培.

  18. Kofi Annan tahab kõnelusi Kosovo lõppstaatuse üle / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2005-01-01

    Kuni pole selge, milline staatus Kosovot tulevikus ootab, ei ole välisettevõtted huvitatud pikaajaliste investeeringute tegemisest selles piirkonnas. ÜRO eriesindaja Kai Eide raporti kohaselt on Kosovo teinud märkimisväärseid edusamme, kõnelused Kosovo tulevase staatuse üle võiksid alata juba sel aastal. Lisa: Läbirääkijate kolm tingimust

  19. Constituyentes no polares de la corteza de esenbeckia ahita y actividad antimicrobiana

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    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanona aislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina, la amida pellitonina y sitosterol. La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR. UV. RMN 1H y 13C y EM.

  20. MUDWHELKS (GASTROPODA: POTAMIDIDAE FROM MANGROVES OF UJUNG KULON NATIONAL PARK, BANTEN

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    NOVA MUJIONO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of Potamididae snail from the mangrove ecosystem in Ujung Kulon National Park was conducted, regarding to its diversity, shell characters and habitat characters. This study was carried out in 2008 during drought and rainy season. At the eight stations observed, seven species and four genera of Potamididae snail were identified. Compared with previous study, this study added new information from obtaining one genus (Cerithidea of three species (Cerithidea weyersi, C. quadrata and Cerithideopsilla alata

  1. Confirmation of cross-fertilization using molecular markers in ornamental passion flower hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, L D H C S; Belo, G O; Souza, M M; Santos, S F; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Corrêa, R X

    2011-01-11

    Several interspecific Passiflora hybrids are produced in the northern hemisphere for the ornamental plant market. In Brazil, production of passion flower hybrids is limited to the introgression of genes into the main cultivated species, yellow passion fruit, to be used as rootstocks. Confirmation of hybridization in the initial developmental stage is important for breeding perennial and sub-perennial plants, such as passion flowers, reducing time and costs in plant stock maintenance. In order to obtain F₁ hybrids with ornamental potential, four species of Passiflora (P. alata, P. gardneri, P. gibertii, and P. watsoniana) from the Active Germplasm Bank at UESC were hybridized. Flower buds, in pre-anthesis, of the genitors were previously protected, and the female buds were emasculated. To confirm hybridization, the genomic DNA of the genitor species and the supposed hybrids was extracted and RAPD primers were used to obtain molecular markers and select passion flower interspecific hybrids. Eight primers were used to confirm hybrids derived from P. gardneri with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. alata, P. watsoniana with P. gardneri, and P. gardneri with P. gibertii; 75, 50, 45, and 46% of the informative bands, respectively, confirmed the hybrid nature of these plants. The RAPD technique was effective in the early identification of hybrids; this will be useful for development of hybrid Passiflora progeny.

  2. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  3. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  4. Uso de câmara úmida em enxertia convencional de maracujazeiro-amarelo sobre três porta-enxertos Use of humid chamber in conventional grafting of yellow passion fruit on three rootstocks

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    Luiz de Souza Corrêa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A propagação do maracujazeiro através da enxertia poderá ser a solução para o controle de doenças do sistema radicular. Assim, com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência de plantas enxertadas de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims em três porta-enxertos, utilizando-se de câmara úmida, instalou-se este experimento em um viveiro de mudas no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de dezembro de 2005 a abril de 2006. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições e 10 plantas/parcela. Os fatores avaliados foram três porta-enxertos (Passiflora edulis, P. alata e P. gibertiiem dois ambientes (com e sem câmara úmida. Foi utilizada a enxertia convencional pelo método de garfagem tipo fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência e a altura dos enxertos, o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto e do enxerto, o número de folhas e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Verificaram-se melhores resultados com os porta-enxertos P. edulis e P. gibertii, superiores ao P. alata em todas as variáveis estudadas. Os maiores índices de sobrevivência foram observados em P. edulis e P. gibertii, com 100% e 98,8%, respectivamente. Apesar de o P. alata ter-se mostrado inferior, é viável o uso deste material como porta-enxerto para o maracujazeiro-amarelo. O uso da câmara úmida favoreceu o pegamento dos enxertos em P. alata.The grafting of passion fruit might be the solution for the control of diseases of roots. Thus, with the objective of evaluating the development and survival of yellow passion fruit plants grafted on three rootstocks during the nursery phase, one experiment was carried in Adamantina, SP, Brazil, from December 2005 to April 2006. The experimental design was in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 3 x 2, with four replications. The studied factors were three rootstocks (P. edulis, P. alata and P.gibertii in two environment (with

  5. Preferência alimentar de Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae por genótipos de maracujazeiro Feeding preference of Dione juno juno (CRAMER, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae to passion fruit genotypes

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    Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro quanto à atratividade e à não-preferência para alimentação de lagartas de Dione juno juno, em diferentes idades, através de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP de Jaboticabal-SP, sob condições ambientais controladas (T=26=±=1°C=U.=R.= 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 14 horas, utilizando-se dos genótipos Passiflora edulis, P. gibertii, P. alata, Sul Brasil, IAC-275, Flora FB 300, P. serrato-digitata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e P. foetida. Para o teste com chance de escolha, foram utilizadas placas de Petri, onde foram distribuídos, de forma eqüidistante, um disco foliar (3,2 cm de cada genótipo estudado e liberando-se em seguida, no centro da placa, 5 lagartas recém-eclodidas ou uma lagarta com 10 dias de idade por material. No teste sem chance de escolha, foi colocado apenas um disco de cada genótipo por placa de Petri (9 cm de diâmetro, mantendo-se o mesmo padrão de infestação utilizado no teste com chance. As avaliações foram realizadas em duas etapas, sendo que, na primeira, avaliou-se a atratividade, contando o número de lagartas em cada material a 1; 3; 5; 10; 15; 30; 60; 120; 240 minutos e 24 horas após a liberação das mesmas. Na segunda etapa, observou-se o consumo foliar 24 horas após o início do teste. O genótipo menos atrativo às lagartas recém-eclodidas e de 10 dias de idade foi P. alata em testes com e sem chance de escolha. O genótipo P. alata foi o menos consumido em teste com chance de escolha, sendo que, no teste sem chance, P. alata e P. foetida destacaram-se como os menos consumidos para as duas fases larvais.This aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of passion fruit genotypes on the attractiveness and feeding non-preference of D. juno juno larvae, through free-choice and no-choice tests. The experiments were

  6. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP Genetic diversity intra and inter-specific yam (Dioscorea spp. from the colombian caribbean region by AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Javier Rivera-Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alata, D. rotundata, D. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.Knowing the genetic variability of yams, Dioscorea spp., is a good tool to support development and conservation strategies of this plant as genetic resource. The aim of this study was to carried out the molecular characterization of 20 accessions of Dioscorea spp. using the AFLP molecular technique to determine how genetic variation is distributed intra-and inter-specifically. Using multiple correspondence analysis and level of reliability of the genetic groups by resampling, the results showed high genetic variability among the accessions studied

  7. Atividade antibacteriana de plantas úteis e constituintes químicos da raiz de Copernicia prunifera Antibacterial activity of useful plants and chemical constituents of the roots of Copernicia prunifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane C. C. Ayres

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extratos etanólicos de Qualea grandiflora e Copernicia prunifera e extrato hexânico de Dipteryx lacunifera foram avaliados quanto a atividade antibacteriana, utilizando ensaios de difusão a partir de orifício e concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, frente a cepas Gram positivas e Gram-negativas, incluindo espécies multidroga resistentes. O extrato de Q. grandiflora apresentou atividade moderada para as cepas de Staphylococcus epidermidis (CIM = 500 µg/mL e atividade fraca sobre as demais bactérias Gram-positivas testadas e inativo sobre bactérias Gram-negativas. Os resultados obtidos com S. epidermidis apesar de moderados são importantes, uma vez que este microorganismo é o principal causador de bacteremias e sepse associada com dispositivos médicos implantados. gama-Tocoferol e a mistura de sitosterol e estigmasterol foram isolados do extrato etanólico de raiz de C. prunifera e as estruturas destes compostos foram identificadas com base na análise dos dados espectrais de RMN e comparação com a literatura.Ethanol extracts of Qualea grandiflora and Copernicia prunifera and hexane extract of Dipteryx lacunifera were evaluated by diffusion in agar and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including multiresistant drug strains. The extract of Q. grandiflora presented moderate activity for Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC = 500 µg/mL and weak activity against other Gram-positive strains and inactive for Gram-negative species. The results obtained for S. epidermidis despite being moderate are important because this pathogen is often recovered from bacteremia and sepsis from infections of implanted devices. gamma-Tocopherol and the mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of C. prunifera. The structures of these compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopy and comparison with literature data.

  8. Forest soil CO2 fluxes as a function of understory removal and N-fixing species addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifang Li; Shenglei Fu; Hongting Zhao; Hanping Xia

    2011-01-01

    We report on the effects of forest management practices of understory removal and N-fixing species (Cassia alata) addition on soil CO2 fluxes in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation (EUp), Acacia crassicarpa plantation (ACp), 10-species-mixed plantation (Tp), and 30-species-mixed plantation (THp) using the static chamber method in southern China. Four forest management treatments, including (1) understory removal (UR); (2) C. alata addition (CA); (3) understory removal and replacement with C. alata (UR+CA); and (4)control without any disturbances (CK), were applied in the above four forest plantations with three replications for each treatment.The results showed that soil CO2 fluxes rates remained at a high level during the rainy season (from April to September), followed by a rapid decrease after October reaching a minimum in February. Soil CO2 fluxes were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in EUp (132.6 mg/(m2·hr)) and ACp (139.8 mg/(m2·hr)) than in Tp (94.0 mg/(m2·hr)) and THp (102.9 mg/(m2·hr)). Soil CO2 fluxes in UR and CA were significantly higher (P < 0.01) among the four treatments, with values of 105.7, 120.4, 133.6 and 112.2 mg/(m2·hr) for UR+CA,UR, CA and CK, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil temperature (P < 0.01), soil moisture (P < 0.01),NO3--N (P < 0.05), and litterfall (P < 0.01), indicating that all these factors might be important controlling variables for soil CO2 fluxes. This study sheds some light on our understanding of soil CO2 flux dynamics in forest plantations under various management practices.

  9. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae EM MARACUJAZEIROS (Passiflora spp., MÉTODOS DE AMOSTRAGEM E RESISTÊNCIA DE GENÓTIPOS

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    Boiça Júnior Arlindo Leal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por um período de três anos (1991/94, em condições de campo, em Jaboticabal, SP, objetivando-se verificar a época do ano de maior ocorrência de Dione juno juno, avaliar métodos de amostragem e a resistência de genótipos de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. ao seu ataque. Utilizaram-se doze genótipos entre espécies e híbridos. Os levantamentos foram realizados quinzenalmente, anotando-se o número de lagartas, o número total de folhas e o número de folhas atacadas por 0,25 m2 , e também em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de D. juno juno foi maior no inverno, com pico populacional em julho, seguindo-se da primavera e o verão, com pico em dezembro. As amostragens do número de folhas atacadas por D. juno juno/0,25 m2 e porcentagem de folhas atacadas pelas lagartas/0,25 m2 foram mais adequadas para a avaliação da infestação de genótipos de maracujazeiro pela praga; os genótipos P. alata, P. setacea, P. coccinea, P. nitida, P. alata2 x P. macrocarpa não foram atacados pela praga e o P. edulis x P. setacea foi muito pouco atacado, enquanto P. cincinnata, P. edulis, P. edulis x P. alata, P. edulis x P. giberti e P. caerulea foram os mais infestados.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  12. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

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    Xiang-Shun Hu

    Full Text Available The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum, 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris and Triticum turgidum (var. durum hybridization had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in

  13. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Javier Rivera-Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alata, D. rotundata, D. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.

  14. A survey of resistance to Tomato bushy stunt virus in the genus Nicotiana reveals that the hypersensitive response is triggered by one of three different viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Carlos A; Schoelz, James E

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we screened 22 Nicotiana spp. for resistance to the tombusviruses Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Cucumber necrosis virus, and Cymbidium ringspot virus. Eighteen species were resistant, and resistance was manifested in at least two different categories. In all, 13 species responded with a hypersensitive response (HR)-type resistance, whereas another five were resistant but either had no visible response or responded with chlorotic lesions rather than necrotic lesions. Three different TBSV proteins were found to trigger HR in Nicotiana spp. in an agroinfiltration assay. The most common avirulence (avr) determinant was the TBSV coat protein P41, a protein that had not been previously recognized as an avr determinant. A mutational analysis confirmed that the coat protein rather than the viral RNA sequence was responsible for triggering HR, and it triggered HR in six species in the Alatae section. The TBSV P22 movement protein triggered HR in two species in section Undulatae (Nicotiana glutinosa and N. edwardsonii) and one species in section Alatae (N. forgetiana). The TBSV P19 RNA silencing suppressor protein triggered HR in sections Sylvestres (N. sylvestris), Nicotiana (N. tabacum), and Alatae (N. bonariensis). In general, Nicotiana spp. were capable of recognizing only one tombusvirus avirulence determinant, with the exceptions of N. bonariensis and N. forgetiana, which were each able to recognize P41, as well as P19 and P22, respectively. Agroinfiltration failed to detect the TBSV avr determinants responsible for triggering HR in N. arentsii, N. undulata, and N. rustica. This study illustrates the breadth and variety of resistance responses to tombusviruses that exists in the Nicotiana genus.

  15. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  16. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  17. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  18. A new species of Paraphaenodiscus Girault (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae from India parasitizing Coccus sp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Paraphaenodiscus udayveeri Singh sp. nov., has been described and illustrated with automontaged photographs of both male and female. Species parasitized scale insects on the leaves of Pterygota alata which were weaved into nest of red weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Species is compared with P. chrysocomae Prinsloo and P. pedanus Prinsloo & Mynhardt. Key to world species of Paraphaenodiscus except European species is also given. Types are deposited with National Forest Insect Collection, Entomology Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, India (NFIC-FRI.

  19. Remarks, on six species of Heterakid Nematodes parasites of brazilian Tinamid birds with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Vicente

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes representing five species of the genus Heterakis, namely: H. inglisi n. sp., H. alata, H. gallinarum, H. spiculatus and one species of the genus Odontoterakis, O. multidentata, were studied. Heterakis inglisi n. sp. closely resembles H. spiculatus, differing from it by smaller size of spicules, precloacal sucker and terminal spike of the tail in the males. Heterakis arquata and H. brasiliana are only listed, for they were not found during the present study. Odontoterakis multidentata is reported in Brazil for the first time. New host records are estabilished for most of the species. These species are fully illustrated.

  20. Techos verdes y el confort térmico en Angostillo, Veracruz, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Melgarejo, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Se diseñó un prototipo de techo verde con enredaderas tropicales y se evaluó el confort térmico brindado por éste en viviendas de una zona rural tropical. Con base en entrevistas a viveristas de la región centro de Veracruz y un recorrido de campo, se preseleccionaron cinco especies Mandevilla sanderi, Solandra maxima, Passiflora edulis, Thunbergia alata y Cissus verticillata. Se evaluó la adaptabilidad de éstas al ambiente sobre techos modelo en condiciones de campo, midiendo sus tasas de cr...

  1. [Helminth findings in indigenous raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray, 1843)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiess, A; Schuster, R; Nöckler, K; Mix, H

    2001-01-01

    Internal organs of 74 racoon dogs originating from the eastern districts of the Federal Land Brandenburg were subjected to a complete helminthological dissection. In addition, samples of diaphragma muscles from 46 further animals were examined for Trichinella larvae. Altogether 3 trematode- (Alaria alata, Isthmiophora melis, Metorchis bilis), 3 cestode- (Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha) and 7 nematode species (Capillaria aerophila, C. plica, Trichinella spiralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Molineus patens, Crenosoma vulpis, Toxocara canis) could be identified. Thereby, the racoon dog has a comparable helminth spectrum as well known in red foxes. Differences in the frequency of the occurrence of helminths in both hosts can be explained by different food preferences.

  2. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Ireland as hosts for parasites of potential zoonotic and veterinary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A; Hogan, S; Maguire, D; Fitzpatrick, C; Vaughan, L; Wall, D; Hayden, T J; Mulcahy, G

    Intestinal washes, faecal flotations and serological examinations for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were used to assess the prevalence of parasites in carcases of foxes killed on roads or shot in the Dublin area and surrounding counties. The ascarids Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis were prevalent, as was the trematode Alaria alata. Taenia species, eggs of Capillaria species and sporocysts of Sarcocystis species were also found. Only one fox out of 70 examined was seropositive for N. caninum, whereas 24 of 51 were seropositive for T. gondii.

  3. SIGURNOST CMS-A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluža, Marin; Vukelić, Bernard; Rojko, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Za razvoj web-sjedišta danas se često koriste CMS-ovi. Web-sjedišta meta su raznim malicioznim napadačima, stoga je potrebno poznavati razinu sigurnosti web-sjedišta i postaviti maksimalnu moguću razinu sigurnosti. U radu su prikazane osnovne značajke poznatijih CMS-ova u otvorenom pristupu Wordpress, Joomla i Drupal. Objašnjeno je deset najčešćih web-ranjivosti. Izvršeno je testiranje web-ranjivosti pomoću različitih programskih alata. Testirane su osnovne instalacije CMS-ova. Nakon ...

  4. Atratividade e preferência alimentar de Epicauta atomaria (Ger. em algumas espécies de maracujá Attractivity and feeding preference of Epicauta atomaria (Ge. in some passion fruit species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em laboratório, a não-preferência para alimentação de Epicauta atomaria em diferentes espécies de maracuja, em teste com e sem chance de escolha. Verificou-se a melhor densidade de insetos que proporcionam a discriminação quanto aos graus de resistência. Para avaliação, utilizaram P. setacea, P. alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata e P. laurifolia. Para os testes com e sem chance de escolha, a não-preferência para alimentação foi avaliada através da atratividade, onde foi contado o número de insetos atraídos por espécie, em placa de Petri. As espécies P. laurifolia e P. alata foram resistentes a E. atomaria, expressando o tipo de resistência à não-preferência para alimentação. As densidades de E. atomaria que melhor discriminaram as espécies de maracujazeiro, são três e cinco (teste com chance de escolha e dois (teste sem chance de escolha. P. edulis, P. setacea e P. cincinnata são suscetíveis a E. atomaria.The no preference for feeding of Epicauta in different species of passion fruit in free choice and no choice tests was evaluated under laboratory conditions. It was verified the best density of insects that provides the discrimination of resistance degrees. P. setacea, P. alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata and P. laurifólia were evaluated. For the tests with and without possibility of choice, the preference for no feeding was evaluated through the attractiveness, where the number of insects attracted by species in Petri dishes was counted. The species P. laurifolia e P. alata had been resistant to E. atomaria, expressing the type of resistance of no preference for feeding. The densities of E. atomaria that better discriminated the species of passion fruit are three and five (test with and without choice and two (test without possibility of choice P. edulis, P. setacea e P. cincinnata are susceptible to E. atomaria.

  5. Sistemske poslovne konstelacije - novi alat učenja poduzetništva

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Doživljajno učenje uz individualizirani pristup potrebama poduzetnika snažan je i moćan način ovladavanja sposobnostima i vještinama pokretanja i vođenja poduzetničkih pothvata i biznisa. Sistemske poslovne konstelacije danas su jedan od najnaprednijih alata za mapiranje dinamika poduzetničkih i poslovnih situacija. Uz brz, jednostavan i transparentan rad omogućuju dijagnostičko istraživanje postojećih poduzetničkih poslovnih struktura i trenutnih odnosa. Simuliranom provjerom posljedica namj...

  6. Aspectos vegetativos de combinações copa/porta-enxerto em maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro tem-se destacado entre as principais frutíferas do País. Porém, a vida útil vem sendo reduzida principalmente devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular, sendo que a enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças pode solucionar o problema. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho vegetativo das mudas enxertadas de combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa/Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. As sete variedades estudadas foram o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG, UFAC 07; 25; 38; 64 e 70 (Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao caso, com 12 repetições. Os tratamentos foram 35 combinações copa/porta-enxerto constituídas por 5 portas-enxertos combinados com 7 copas. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a altura de plantas, o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas e de entrenós como valores de desenvolvimento das plantas. As combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo para o diâmetro e o número de entrenós foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, UFAC 07 sobre P. serrato-digitata e P. quadrangularis, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis. Já para a altura de plantas e o número de folhas, as combinações de melhor desenvolvimento vegetativo foram FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. edulis e P. alata, bem como FB 100 e FB 200 sobre P. serrato-digitata, UFAC 38 sobre P. alata

  7. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  8. Estudo da massa específica básica e da variação dimensional da madeira de três espécies de eucalipto para a indústria moveleira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Doubek Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wood from reforested species by the furniture industry is a recent trend. Thus, the present study determined the specific gravity and shrinkage of wood of 18-year-old Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus urophylla, for use as components in solid wood furniture making. The tests to evaluate the specific gravity and shrinkage of wood in the radial and axial variation of the eucalyptus trees were performed according to NBR 7190/96. The results of the analysis of wood from eucalypt species were subjected to the Homogeneity Test, ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson correlation and compared to the performance of sucupira wood (Bowdichia nitida and cumaru wood (Dipteryx odorata, often used in the furniture industry. The following results were found: Eucalyptus grandis had a lower value of shrinkage, being more suitable for furniture components that require high dimensional stability, as well as parts of larger surface. The wood of this species showed a rate of dimensional variation compatible with the native species used in the furniture industry. The radial variation of the wood was also verified, and a high correlation between specific gravity and shrinkage was found. Longitudinally, the base of the trunk of the eucalyptus trees was shown to be the region of greatest dimensional stability.

  9. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  10. AMAZON RAINFOREST COSMETICS: CHEMICAL APPROACH FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Funasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  11. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  12. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

  13. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  14. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Angel Anne; Wilcox, Christie L

    2017-03-15

    Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis). Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More(®) products). Seawater rinsing, considered a "no-harm" alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  15. Determinação espectrométrica dos flavonóides das folhas de Maytenus (Celastraceae e de Passiflora (Passifloraceae e comparação com método CLAE-UV Spectrometric determination of flavonoids from Maytenus (Celastraceae and Passiflora (Passifloraceae leaves and comparison with an HPLC-UV method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de A. O. Chabariberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma modificação dos procedimentos descritos nas Farmacopéias Francesa e Européia para a análise de flavonoides de Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae, por espectrometria UV-Visível e propõe a sua aplicação na determinação dos flavonoides totais das folhas da espinheira-santa (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. e Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae e do maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims. e Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. Os resultados obtidos por espectrometria no UV-Visível foram comparados aos obtidos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV, encontrando-se resultados estatisticamente similares entre os métodos espectrométrico modificado da Farmacopéia Francesa e CLAE-UV.This paper reports on a modification of the spectrometric procedures originally described in the French and European Pharmacopoeia for the analysis of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae flavonoids, proposing its application in the determination of total flavonoids from "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae and "maracujá" leaves (Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. A comparison was made of the results obtained by the spectrometric procedure with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV, which demonstrated complete compatibility between the modified French Pharmacopoeia (spectrometric and HPLC-UV methods.

  16. [Lipids from fossil plants and their relation to modern plants. Example s of Cenomanian flora from Anjou and Bohemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, T N; Derenne, S; Largeau, C; Pons, D; Broutin, J; Mariotti, A; Bocherens, H

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analyses of lipids from fossil plants and from their extant counterparts were undertaken in order to test the taxonomic significance of lipids in palaeobotany. The comparison between lipids from a fossil Ginkgoaceae, Eretmophyllum andegavense, and its extant counterpart, Ginkgo biloba, revealed the presence of original molecules, dimethoxyalkylcoumarins, in lipids from both plants. Such compounds confirm, on chemical grounds the relationship between these extant and fossil Ginkgoaceaes. Moreover, differences in n-alkane distribution between E. andegavense and E. obtusum which are very similar morphologically, confirm that these fossil plants do not belong to the same species. Furthermore, comparative analyses of a fossil Cheirolepidiaceae, Frenelopsis alata, and its extant counterpart, the Cupressaceae Tetraclinis articulata, revealed some similarities between these two species although they do not belong to the same family. Otherwise, comparative analyses of fungi-infected and uninfected samples of F. alata demonstrated that these micro-organisms can significantly affect the chemical composition of fossil plant lipids. In conclusion, even if chemical analyses alone are not sufficient to determine the genus or species of a given fossil plant, they can precise the taxonomy of some specimens that have been previously studied by palaeobotanists.

  17. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction. PMID:26938216

  18. Almidón de reserva en especies neotropicales de Marattia (Marattiaceae-Pteridófitas

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    Lavalle, María del Carmen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains found within the parenchymatous tissues of the rhizomes of seven Neotropical species of Marattia Sw. (M. alata Sw.,M. cicutifolia Kaulf., M. excavata Underw., M. interposita Christ, M. laevis Sm., M. laxa Kunze and M. weinmanniifolia Liebm. were studied here for the first time. Qualitative optical methods, a microscope provided with polarized light, and scanning electron microscopy have been used. Statistical tests have been applied to the results. Some morphological traits, such as shape, outline, size, and position of hilum are diagnostic at the specific level.Se lleva a cabo un estudio morfológico del almidón, presente en los tejidos parenquimáticos de rizomas de siete especies neotropicalesde Marattia Sw. (M. alata Sw., M. cicutifolia Kaulf., M. excavata Underw., M. interposita Christ, M. laevis Sm., M. laxa Kunze y M. weinmanniifolia Liebm.. Se utilizó microscopio óptico, de campo claro y de luz polarizada, y electrónico de barrido. Se realizó además un análisis estadístico de los datos. La forma, el contorno y el tamaño de los granos así como la posición del hilio resultaron ser diagnósticos en el nivel específico.

  19. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Villamarín

    Full Text Available Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata, a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  20. Pegamento da enxertia em diferentes combinações de variedades e espécies utilizadas como copa e como porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro Grafting sucess in different combinationsof species and varieties used as scion and the rootstock of passion fruit plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor de maracujá. Mas, apesar da posição de destaque, a vida útil do maracujazeiro vem sendo reduzida, principalmente, devido aos danos causados por doenças do sistema radicular. A enxertia com espécies nativas e resistentes a doenças apresenta-se como alternativa de produção. Com isso, objetivou-se avaliar o pegamento da enxertia nas combinações de variedades-copa e espécies de porta-enxertos de maracujazeiro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em viveiro telado (50% de sombreamento, na Embrapa Acre, em Rio Branco-AC, entre setembro e dezembro de 2007. A variedade-copa utilizada para todos os tratamentos foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 100' e 'FB 200' do viveiro Flora Brasil (Araguari-MG e outras 5 variedades regionais (UFAC-Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco-AC, e os porta-enxertos foram Passiflora edulis Sims (maracujazeiro-amarelo (acesso Cuiabá-MT, P. alata, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. quadrangularis (acesso Guiratinga-MT, P. serrato-digitata (acesso IAC-Campinas-SP. As sementes foram previamente embebidas em água destilada por cerca de 24 h e posteriormente semeadas em tubetes plásticos (25x5cm com substrato Plantmax@. O método de enxertia utilizado foi o de fenda cheia no topo hipocotiledonar, tendo os porta-enxertos as seguintes características: três folhas verdadeiras e altura de plântula variável (6 a 8cm, 30 a 90 dias após a semeadura. Decapitaram-se as plântulas na altura dos cotilédones com lâmina de aço, as quais foram mergulhadas em água sanitária a 70%, a cada enxertia realizada. Os enxertos foram obtidos de plântula inteira, com cerca de 10 cm de comprimento, fazendo-se a limpeza das folhas. As combinações de melhor desempenho em relação ao pegamento da enxertia foram UFAC 07 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 38 sobre P. edulis (maracujazeiro-amarelo, P. edulis (maracujazeiro-roxo e P. alata, UFAC 64 sobre P. serrato-digitata, com 100% de pegamento

  1. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  2. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, I; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Monrad, J; Kapel, C M O

    2006-06-30

    An epidemiological study of helminths in 1040 red foxes collected from various localities in Denmark during 1997-2002, revealed 21 helminth species at autopsy, including nine nematode species: Capillaria plica (prevalence 80.5%), Capillaria aerophila (74.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (17.4%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (48.6% from Northern Zealand (endemic area)), Toxocara canis (59.4%), Toxascaris leonina (0.6%), Uncinaria stenocephala (68.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (0.6%), and Trichuris vulpis (0.5%); seven cestodes: Mesocestoides sp. (35.6%), a number of Taeniid species (Taenia pisiformis, T. hydatigena, T. taeniaeformis, T. crassiceps, and unidentified Taenia spp.) (22.8%), and Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%); four trematodes: Alaria alata (15.4%), Cryptocotyle lingua (23.8%), Pseudamphystomum truncatum (3.6% from Northern Zealand), and Echinochasmus perfoliatus (2.4% from Northern Zealand); one acanthocephalan: Polymorphus sp. (1.2%). Significant difference in prevalence was found for T. canis and A. vasorum according to host sex, and for T. canis, U. stenocephala, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia spp., A. alata, A. vasorum, and Capillaria spp. according to age groups (adult, young or cub). Prevalence and average worm intensity for each helminth species varied considerably according to geographical locality, season, and year. Aggregated distribution was found for several helminth species. The two species E. multilocularis and E. perfoliatus are first records for Denmark.

  3. The dynamics of ant mosaics in tropical rainforests characterized using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Leponce, Maurice; Corbara, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Compin, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    Ants, the most abundant taxa among canopy-dwelling animals in tropical rainforests, are mostly represented by territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAs) whose territories are distributed in a mosaic pattern (arboreal ant mosaics). Large TDA colonies regulate insect herbivores, with implications for forestry and agronomy. What generates these mosaics in vegetal formations, which are dynamic, still needs to be better understood. So, from empirical research based on 3 Cameroonian tree species (Lophira alata, Ochnaceae; Anthocleista vogelii, Gentianaceae; and Barteria fistulosa, Passifloraceae), we used the Self-Organizing Map (SOM, neural network) to illustrate the succession of TDAs as their host trees grow and age. The SOM separated the trees by species and by size for L. alata, which can reach 60 m in height and live several centuries. An ontogenic succession of TDAs from sapling to mature trees is shown, and some ecological traits are highlighted for certain TDAs. Also, because the SOM permits the analysis of data with many zeroes with no effect of outliers on the overall scatterplot distributions, we obtained ecological information on rare species. Finally, the SOM permitted us to show that functional groups cannot be selected at the genus level as congeneric species can have very different ecological niches, something particularly true for Crematogaster spp., which include a species specifically associated with B. fistulosa, nondominant species and TDAs. Therefore, the SOM permitted the complex relationships between TDAs and their growing host trees to be analyzed, while also providing new information on the ecological traits of the ant species involved.

  4. Temporal Uncoupling between Energy Acquisition and Allocation to Reproduction in a Herbivorous-Detritivorous Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarín, Francisco; Magnusson, William E; Jardine, Timothy D; Valdez, Dominic; Woods, Ryan; Bunn, Stuart E

    2016-01-01

    Although considerable knowledge has been gathered regarding the role of fish in cycling and translocation of nutrients across ecosystem boundaries, little information is available on how the energy obtained from different ecosystems is temporally allocated in fish bodies. Although in theory, limitations on energy budgets promote the existence of a trade-off between energy allocated to reproduction and somatic growth, this trade-off has rarely been found under natural conditions. Combining information on RNA:DNA ratios and carbon and nitrogen stable-isotope analyses we were able to achieve novel insights into the reproductive allocation of diamond mullet (Liza alata), a catadromous, widely distributed herbivorous-detritivorous fish. Although diamond mullet were in better condition during the wet season, most reproductive allocation occurred during the dry season when resources are limited and fish have poorer body condition. We found a strong trade-off between reproductive and somatic investment. Values of δ13C from reproductive and somatic tissues were correlated, probably because δ13C in food resources between dry and wet seasons do not differ markedly. On the other hand, data for δ15N showed that gonads are more correlated to muscle, a slow turnover tissue, suggesting long term synthesis of reproductive tissues. In combination, these lines of evidence suggest that L. alata is a capital breeder which shows temporal uncoupling of resource ingestion, energy storage and later allocation to reproduction.

  5. IMPACT OF GLYPHOSATE ON MICROBIAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOI L PLANTED WITH TWO SPECIES OF PASSION FRUIT

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    ERIKA VALENTE DE MEDEIROS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is one of best known agrochemicals and i s used to prevent the spread of weeds. However, little is known about the impact of this c hemical on non-target organisms such as the soil mi crobial community. Therefore, the objective of this study w as to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the micr oorgan- ism population and the microbial attributes of soil s cultivated with yellow and sweet passion fruits. The experi- mental design used was complete randomized blocks i n a 3 x 2 factorial scheme with the times of soil s ample collection (0, 5 and 47 days after herbicide applic ation- DAH and the two species of passion fruit ye llow ( Passiflorae dulis f. flavicarpa O. Deg. and sweet ( Passiflora alata Dryand as the factors,with three replica- tions. No impact of the glyphosate herbicide was fo undon the bacterial communities of soil. However, a mild and transitory impact was observedon the fungal pop ulations, encouraging these populationsat 47 DHA. G ly- phosate changed the carbon microbial biomass and so il microbial attributes, except for total organic c arbon. Multivariate, principal component analysis revealed that the total bacteria, endospore-forming bacteri a, total fungi, carbon microbial biomass and metabolic quoti ent attributes of soil are the most sensitive facto rs for pre- dicting the impact of glyphosate on biological indi cators of soil planted with two species of passion fruit yellow ( P. edulis f. Flavicarpa and sweet ( P. alata .

  6. A Systems Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the Aubrey Reservoir Project on Elm Fork of the Trinity River in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    viridis 5 3 1 Morus rubra 13 1 Ulmus americana 2 2 Maclura pomifera 2 Cercis canadensis 6 Acer negundo 1 1 Carya illinoensis 1 Ulmus alata 9 Ulmus rubra... Carya illinoensis 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 Ulmus alata 0.4 0.4 13.6 0 0.0 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.3 0.4 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 q .4 228 Y I Table 17. The species of trees found...viridis 0.3 1.0 13.6 7.2 0.8 1.1 Cercis canadensis 0.1 0.3 9.1 4.4 0.5 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.1 0.3 4.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 Carya illinoensis 0.2 4.6 7.5 0.9 0.2 229

  7. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

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    Josseara Beraldo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumentoPassiflora edulis Sims, vegetal species employed in the Brazilian traditional medicine and broadly cultivated across its territory, has its leaves and stems often used as an adulterant for commercial samples of the crude drug Passiflora alata Curtis, officially known in Brazil as "maracujá". Morphoanatomic data from leaves and stems in P. edulis were described and documented. Amongst these characteristics, the shape of the foliar blade, the shape of the midrib in transverse section, the number and the location of the extrafloral nectaries and the indumentum are all emphasized.

  8. Maracujá: um alimento funcional? Passion fruit: a functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica sobre as espécies brasileiras de Passiflora (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg., P. alata Curtis e P. edulis fo. edulis. A maioria dos artigos da literatura focaliza somente as folhas de Passiflora, enquanto que esta revisão contém informações sobre a polpa, cascas e sementes dos frutos do maracujá, com destaque para a composição química, estudos nutricionais e farmacológicos. O enfoque nos frutos do maracujá fundamenta-se no amplo consumo do suco de maracujá (fresco ou industrializado no Brasil e também nas investigações em andamento para avaliar o seu potencial uso como alimento funcional.This paper consists of a bibliographic review of the most relevant edible Brazilian Passiflora species (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg., P. alata Curtis and P. edulis fo. edulis. Most of the reports in the literature focus solely on Passiflora leaves, whereas this review contains information about passion fruit pulp, rind and seeds, highlightening chemical composition, nutritional and pharmacological studies. The emphasis on the "maracujá" fruit is due to the extensive consumption of passion fruit juice (fresh or processed in Brazil and on ongoing investigations into its potential as a functional food.

  9. The tuber extract and flour of Dioscorea alatanormalize the blood lipid profile of rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Umbi Dioscorea alata (DA memiliki potensi untuk mencegah kondisi hiperlipidemia karena mengandung senyawa bioaktif antosianin, serat pangan, dan diosgenin yang bermanfaat dalam menormalkan kadar lipida darah. Pada penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh pemberian ekstrak air dan tepung umbi DA dalam menormalkan profil lipida darah kelinci yang diberi ransum tinggi kolesterol.Metode: Ekstrak dan tepung umbi DA diberikan kepada kelinci percobaan selama 60 hari dengan disain penelitian rancangan acak lengkap. Perlakuan ransum sebagai berikut: 1 Ransum basal sebagai kontrol negatif (K0, 2 Ransum basal + kolesterol 0.5% sebagai kontrol positif (K1, 3 Ransum basal+kolesterol 0.5% + ekstrak DA 1.8 g/100 g (KE1, 4 Ransum basal+kolesterol 0.5%+ekstrak DA 3.6 g/100 g (KE2, 5 Ransum basal mengandung 15% tepung DA + kolesterol 0.5% (KT1 dan 6 Ransum basal mengandung 30% tepung DA + kolesterol 0.5% (KT2. Kadar total kolesterol, LDL, HDL kolesterol dan trigliserida pada serum dianalisa pada awal, hari ke 28, hari ke 56 dan pada akhir penelitian. Hasil: Pemberian ransum tinggi kolesterol sebanyak 1% meningkatkan kadar kolesterol darah sebesar 16 kali dibandingkan kontrol. Pemberian 15% dan 30% tepung DA ransum tinggi kolesterol dapat mempertahakankan profil lipida darah kelinci ke arah normal, khususnya pada substitusi 30% tepung DA. Akan tetapi, ekstrak air tepung DA tidak dapat mempertahankan kadar lipida normal kelinci yang diberi ransum tinggi kolesterol. Kesimpulan:Tepung DA memiliki efek anti-hiperlipidemia. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:23-9Kata kunci:ekstrak, tepung, Dioscorea alata, hiperlipidemiaAbstractBackground: Dioscorea alata(DA tuber has potential to prevent the condition of hyperlipidemia due to the bioactive compound, such as anthocyanins, diosgenin, and dietary fiber that beneficial in normalizing blood lipid profiles. In this research, the effect of water extract and flour of DA tuber administration was examined on

  10. Diversidad genética intra e inter-específica de ñame (Dioscorea spp. de la región Caribe de Colombia mediante marcadores AFLP

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    Alvarez Soto Andres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la variabilidad genética del ñame, Dioscorea spp., permite apoyar estrategias de mejoramiento y conservación de este recurso fitogenético. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización molecular de 20 accesiones de Dioscorea spp. mediante la técnica molecular de AFLP para determinar cómo se distribuye la variabilidad genética de manera intra e inter-específica. Los datos fueron analizados mediante los métodos de agrupación de correspondencia múltiple y análisis de similaridad de Dice, estableciendo los niveles de confiabilidad de los grupos genéticos mediante remuestreos. En términos de diversidad interespecífica, los valores promedios de similitud variaron entre 41.81% entre D. alata L. y D. rotundata Poir., y 33.51% entre D. trifida L.f. y D. esculenta (Lour. Burkill, lo que sugiere alta diversidad genética entre las accesiones estudiadas, que formaron cuatro grupos genéticos: D. alataD. rotundataD. esculenta y D. trifida, confirmando correspondencia entre la caracterización morfológica, clasificación botánica y la caracterización molecular. En términos de diversidad intraespecífica para la especie D. alata, el análisis también reveló una composición heterogénea en la región Caribe colombiana. Estos estudios ayudarán a definir una estrategia adecuada para fines de conservación y apoyar los esfuerzos futuros en los programas de mejoramiento genético.

  11. Chloroplastid pigment contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Amazonian tropical three species Concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e fluorescência da clorofila a em espécies arbóreas tropicais da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ribeiro de Morais

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants react to changes in light and hydrological conditions in terms of quantity and composition of chloroplastidic pigments, which affects the photosynthetic properties and consequently the accumulation of plant biomass. Thus, the chloroplastidic pigment concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence of three Amazonian species (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata were investigated in sun and shade leaves form the tree crown collected during two distinct periods of precipitation (dry and rainy seasons. Pigment contents were determined by spectrophotometry and fluorescence variables were determined using a portable fluorometer. The results demonstrated that the species showed high concentrations of Chl a, Chl b e Chl total during the wet season in relation to the dry season, especially in shade leaves. A higher concentration of carotenoids was found in B. excelsa, when compared with leaves of C. guianensis and D. odorata. In leaves of B. excelsa and D. odorata no significant difference was found in relation to the photochemistry of photosystem II (Fv/Fm between the wet and dry seasons. In conclusion, the three species react differently to variations in the light and precipitation conditions regarding light capture, aspects that might be considered in the management of forest plantations.As plantas respondem a mudanças nas condições de luz e na disponibilidade hídrica em termos da quantidade e composição dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos, o que afeta as propriedades fotossintéticas e, conseqüentemente, o acúmulo de biomassa das espécies. Assim, a concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e a fluorescência da clorofila a de três espécies arbóreas (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata da Amazônia foi investigada em folhas sombreadas e não-sombreadas da copa das árvores e em dois períodos distintos de precipitação (chuvoso e seco. As concentrações de pigmentos foram determinadas por

  12. Biodiversidad florística del Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Araujo Abanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue la clasificación taxonómica y descripciones botánicas de 36 especies (23 familias y 33 géneros, árboles, arbustos, lianas y hierbas en el Jardín Botánico y Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Ucayali. De las 36 especies, 6 son ornamentales: Sanchezia tigrina, Crinum augustum, Sansevieria trifasciata, Dracaena fragans, Costus guanaiensis y Vitex cymosa; Rhynchosia phaseoloides cuyas semillas son cotizadas como artesanal; 7 podrían tener uso ornamental: Tabernaemontana heteropylla, Sparattosperma leucanthum, Cayaponia ophthalmica, Gurania eriantha, Gurania spinulosa, Stigmaphyllon florosum y Capirona decorticans; 3 son medicinales: Euphorbia umbellata (tratamiento del cáncer y otros males, Uncaria guianensis (refuerza el sistema inmunológico y Pilocarpus peruvianus contiene Pilocarpina de uso oftalmológico; Pourouma guianensis tiene fuerte olor a mentol; 3 con frutos alimenticios Tamarindus indica, Bunchosia armeniaca y Physalis angulata, conteniendo este último alto contenido en pro vitamina A; 10 son maderables: Dipteryx odorata, Vitex cymosa, Tectona grandis, Ocotea bofo, Perebea xanthochyma, Virola pavonis, Calycophyllum spruceanum, Capirona decorticans, Guazuma ulmifolia y Bambusa arundinacea; Pueraria phaseoloides usado como forraje, en el Jardín Botánico está como maleza al igual que Davilla nítida y Urena lobata, que podría servir como ornamental, su corteza tiene propiedades similares al yute verdadero; Cecropia membranácea, C. concolor, C. sciadophylla y Gouania lupuloides que pueden servir como alimento de la fauna silvestre.

  13. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  14. [Seed germination and seedling survival and growth in swamps dominated by palms Raphia tae- digera (Arecaceae) in Tortuguero plains, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In the marshes dominated by palms, seeds face anaerobic substrates and long flooding periods. Some tree species are capable of growing both in flooded swamps and in areas with lower influence of the flood. I studied the potential settlement of various tree species in different macrohabitats in the Tortuguero floodplain using three experiments: (1) Manicaria saccifera and Raphia taedigera seed germination in palm-swamps and forests of slopes; (2) germination of R. taedigera seeds along a microtopographic gradient; and (3) seed germination and seedling height growth of six woody species (Dipteryx oleifera, Pterocarpus officinalis, Prioria copaifera, Pentaclethra macroloba, Carapa guianensis and Crudia acuminata) and two palms (R. taedigera and Manicaria saccifera) under different forest and swamp habitats. In the first experiment, I found that the palms germinated much earlier in the slope forest than in the palm-swamp. In the second experiment, in drier plots (less effect of flooding) germination began earlier than in the more humid plots. In the third experiment, woody species germinated faster than the studied palms, and some species do not tolerate flooded areas (marshes and swamps), so they cannot germinate or survive in them. Other woody species were removed from the slope forest, probably due to seed predators. Based on the presence or absence of these species in the environment of study were divided into: (1) obliged swamp species (R. taedigera and M saccifera), (2) swamp intolerant (D. oleifera), and (3) facultative wetland species (P officinalis, P copaifera, P macroloba, C. guianensis). Crudia acuminata does not seem to follow any of these categories.

  15. [Predation, removal and seed dispersal in a wetland dominated by palms (Arecaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero floodplains, Costa Rica, a significant number of trees such as Carapa guianensis, Pentaclethra mnacroloba and the palm Manicaria saccifera have floating seeds adapted to hydrocory, while others, such as the almendro Dipteryx oleifera and the raffia palm Raphia taedigera have heavy seeds that do not float. These species have differential distributions, and while C. guianensis, P macroloba and D. oleifera also grow on slopes away from the flood, the palms M saccifera and R. taedigera hardly occur outside the swamps, where they stand as the dominant species. To understand the differences in the micro-distribution of these tree species in waterlogged environments and differences in their seed adaptations, I did a series of experiments to compare the loss and germination of their seeds in the slope forest and in palm swamps in the region. Overall, seeds in the forest slope have higher removal rates than those in the M. saccifera and R. taedigera swamps. This last one exhibits the lowest seed loss of all three habitats. Also, differences in seed predation/removal were noticed between the two species of palms studied. Thus, seeds of M saccifera disappeared rapidly, regardless of density aggregation and location in the swamp. Removal rates in R. taedigera seeds were low in the raffia dominated swamp, where apparently, seed losses are slightly higher in the mounds of palm clumps than in the swamp floor. These observations suggest that both: flooding and microtopography determine, directly or indirectly, the fate of tree species within these wetlands. Restrictions on seed dispersal and the slow germination confine R. taedigera marshes and flooded places, whereas flooding and predators mediate in the distribution of the other tree species.

  16. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests.

  17. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  18. Relative importance of photosynthetic physiology and biomass allocation for tree seedling growth across a broad light gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rebecca

    2004-02-01

    Studies of tree seedling physiology and growth under field conditions provide information on the mechanisms underlying inter- and intraspecific differences in growth and survival at a critical period during forest regeneration. I compared photosynthetic physiology, growth and biomass allocation in seedlings of three shade-tolerant tree species, Virola koschynii Warb., Dipteryx panamensis (Pittier) Record & Mell and Brosimum alicastrum Swartz., growing across a light gradient created by a forest-pasture edge (0.5 to 67% diffuse transmittance (%T)). Most growth and physiological traits showed nonlinear responses to light availability, with the greatest changes occurring between 0.5 and 20 %T. Specific leaf area (SLA) and nitrogen per unit leaf mass (N mass) decreased, maximum assimilation per unit leaf area (A area) and area-based leaf N concentration (N area) increased, and maximum assimilation per unit leaf mass (A mass) did not change with increasing irradiance. Plastic responses in SLA were important determinants of leaf N and A area across the gradient. Species differed in magnitude and plasticity of growth; B. alicastrum had the lowest relative growth rates (RGR) and low plasticity. Its final biomass varied only 10-fold across the light gradient. In contrast, the final biomass of D. panamensis and V. koschynii varied by 100- and 50-fold, respectively, and both had higher RGR than B. alicastrum. As light availability increased, all species decreased biomass allocation to leaf tissue (mass and area) and showed a trade-off between allocation to leaf area at a given plant mass (LAR) and net gain in mass per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). This trade-off largely reflected declines in SLA with increasing light. Finally, A area was correlated with NAR and both were major determinants of intraspecific variation in RGR. These data indicate the importance of plasticity in photosynthetic physiology and allocation for variation in tree seedling growth among

  19. Distinction of the C-glycosylflavone isomer pairs orientin/isoorientin and vitexin/isovitexin using HPLC-MS exact mass measurement and in-source CID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cíntia A M; Yariwake, Janete H; McCullagh, Michael

    2005-01-01

    HPLC-MS using collision induced dissociation (CID) has been utilised for the identification of the C-glycosylflavone isomer pairs orientin/isoorientin and vitexin/isovitexin. HPLC-CID/MS analyses produced pseudo-MS/MS spectra that allowed the identification of the flavone C-glycosides. The efficient differentiation of isomers was performed by comparing the CID-MS/MS spectra (including exact mass measurements) of particular fragments from the C-glycoside unit. In order to illustrate some possibilities of these MS techniques, they were applied to the comparative analyses of extracts of Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. caerulea (Passifloraceae) that are employed as phytomedicines in Brazil and South America.

  20. Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

    2011-07-01

    A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given.

  1. Helminth parasites of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes L.) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F H

    1984-01-01

    To study the helminth fauna of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in The Netherlands, material was collected from 139 foxes. The following parasites were found. Cestodes: Taenia spp. 53.3%, Hymenolepis spp. 1.5%; Trematodes: Alaria alata 10.9%, Cryptocotyle lingua 3.6%, Euparyphium melis 1.5%, Apophallus donicus 0.7%; Nematodes: Toxocara canis 73.7%, Uncinaria stenocephala 59.9%, Capillaria aerophila 46.8%, C. plica 23.5%, Molineus patens 5.1%, Crenosoma vulpis 4.5%, Strongyloides spp. 0.7%. The tapeworms Mesocestoides spp. and Echinococcus spp. were not seen. No relationship was observed between worm burden and sex, time of year or place of origin.

  2. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal.

  3. Curvature-driven bubbles or droplets on the spiral surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin; Hou, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Directional motion of droplets or bubbles can often be observed in nature and our daily life, and this phenomenon holds great potential in many engineering areas. The study shows that droplets or bubbles can be driven to migrate perpetually on some special substrates, such as the Archimedean spiral, the logarithmic spiral and a cantilever sheet in large deflection. It is found that a bubble approaches or deviates from the position with highest curvature of the substrate, when it is on the concave or convex side. This fact is helpful to explain the repelling water capability of Nepenthes alata. Based on the force and energy analysis, the mechanism of the bubble migration is well addressed. These findings pave a new way to accurately manipulate droplet or bubble movement, which bring inspirations to the design of microfluidic and water harvesting devices, as well as oil displacement and ore filtration.

  4. Nest plant selection of the Andaman Crake Rallina canning, Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ezhilarasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the nesting preference of Andaman Crake, a rare and endemic bird of the Andaman Island, on 151 plants belonging to 21 species and 12 families during the year 2004-2005, at Pathilevel, North Andaman. A total of 155 nests was recorded. Four plant species contributed 72.12%of the nest trees, the rest 27.88%. The Andaman Crake preferred five species, namely Tetrameles nudiflora (E = 0.84, Pterocarpus dalbergioides (E = 0.63, Terminalia bialata (E = 0.53, Pterygota alata (E = 0.83, and Celtis timorensis (E = 0.68, of which the first two were most preferred. It is possible that the Andaman Crake may prefer the architectural disposition of the trees with large buttresses to locate their nests.

  5. [Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes.

  6. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  7. Sewage impact on the composition and distribution of Polychaeta associated to intertidal mussel beds of the Mar del Plata rocky shore, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The polychaete composition and distribution within mussel beds were studied in order to assess organic pollution due to domestic sewage in a rocky shore of Mar del Plata (Argentina during 1997. Four stations and a control site were randomly sampled around the local effluent. Quantitative data on polychaetes, as well as sediment accumulated among mussels and its organic carbon content were measured. Polychaete distribution patterns are related to the organic matter gradient, being Capitella cf. capitata, Neanthes succinea (Frey & Leuckart, 1847 and Boccardia polybranchia (Haswell, 1885 the dominant indicator species close to the effluent. At medial distances, the cirratulids Caulleriella alata (Southern, 1914 and Cirratulus cirratus (Müller, 1776 are very important in abundance. The syllids Syllis prolixa Ehlers, 1901 and S. gracilis Grube, 1840 are distributed along the study area, but dominate at the medial stations and at the control site. The orbiniid Protoariciella uncinata Hartmann-Schröder, 1962 is subdominant at the control station.

  8. Concentration of heavy metals in sweet passion fruit plants in two soils treated with sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nazário da Silva Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in plants of sweet fruit in two different soil types treated with sewage sludge. The experiment was performed in randomized block design with six replication of 25 seeds and treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial distribution with the factors being three sewage sludge level (without sewage sludge, with sewage sludge (5 t ha-1, with sewage sludge corrected to 60% saturation of bases (5 t ha-1, two different soil types (Red-Yellow Latosol and Red Argisol. At 28 days was evaluated the germination and 60 days after emergence were determined the concentrations of Zinc, Chromium and Copper. The results indicated that application of sewage sludge in soils provided no toxicity or contamination of plants by the metals.Key-words: Passiflora alata Dryander, biossolids, phytotoxicity.

  9. Aspectos biológicos de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae em genótipos de maracujazeiro Biological aspects of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae on passion fruit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de genótipos de maracujazeiro no desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae. O experimento foi conduzido em laboratório, sob condições ambientais controladas (temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, U. R. de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram alimentadas com folhas de genótipos de maracujazeiro: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. ('Sul Brasil', P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. flavicarpa ('Maguary FB-100' e P. foetida L. Para cada genótipo estudado, utilizaram-se 50 lagartas, provenientes de ovos coletados no campo. Essas lagartas foram mantidas em ramos de maracijazeiro, no interior de tubos de PVC até a pupação. Observações e reposição do alimento (ramos, diárias, foram realizadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso das lagartas, peso das pupas e longevidade do adulto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância, e quando observadas diferenças, as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os genótipos P. alata, P. serrato-digitata e P. foetida não são adequados ao desenvolvimento de D. juno juno, impossibilitando a sobrevivência das lagartas, o que mostra o alto grau de antibiose desses materiais. Entre os demais, P. edulis, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, Maguary FB-100 e Sul Brasil foram mais adequados.It was studied the effect of passion fruit genotypes on Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae development. The experiment was carried out in a laboratory, under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Newly-hatched larvae were fed with leaves from different passion fruit genotypes: Passiflora edulis Sims., P. alata Dryand., P. serrato-digitata L., P

  10. Chemical composition of various Ephedra species

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    Saida Ibragic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal significance of Ephedra is based on the sympathomimetic properties of ephedrine (E alkaloids. Pharmacological effects depend on the phytocomposition of individual Ephedra species. The aim of this study was to measure the total alkaloids content (TAC, total phenolics content (TPC, and total flavonoids content (TFC and determine their relationship in dry herb of Ephedra major, Ephedra distachya subsp. helvetica, Ephedra monosperma, Ephedra fragilis, Ephedra foeminea, Ephedra alata, Ephedra altissima and Ephedra foliata. Nowadays, medicinal use of Ephedrae herba is limited, but the abuse of its psychostimulants is rising. In this study, TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using spectrophotometric methods. For the first time, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV was used for separation and quantification of E-type alkaloids of various Ephedra species. The highest TPC and TFC were found in E. alata (53.3 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, 2.8 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight, respectively. The total content of E and pseudoephedrine determined by UPLC-UV varied between 20.8 mg/g dry weight (E. distachya subsp. helvetica and 34.7 mg/g dry weight (E. monosperma. The variable content and ratio between secondary metabolites determined in different Ephedra species reflects their metabolic activities. Utilization of UPLC-UV unveiled that this technique is sensitive, selective, and useful for separation and quantification of different alkaloids in complex biological matrixes. The limit of detection was 5 ng. Application of UPLC-UV can be recommended in quick analyses of E-type alkaloids in forensic medicine and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations. 

  11. Static winging of the scapula caused by osteochondroma in adults: a case series

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    Orth Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although palsy of the long thoracic nerve is the classical pathogenesis of winging scapula, it may also be caused by osteochondroma. This rare etiopathology has previously been described in pediatric patients, but it is seldom observed in adults. Case presentation We describe three cases of static scapular winging with pain on movement. Case 1 is a Caucasian woman aged 35 years with a wing-like prominence of the medial margin of her right scapula due to an osteochondroma originating from the ventral omoplate. Histopathological evaluation after surgical resection confirmed the diagnosis. The postoperative course was unremarkable without signs of recurrence on examination at 2 years. Case 2 is a Caucasian woman aged 39 years with painful scapula alata and neuralgic pain projected along the left ribcage caused by an osteochondroma of the left scapula with contact to the 2nd and 3rd rib. Following surgical resection, the neuropathic pain continued, demanding neurolysis of the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerve after 8 months. The patient was free of symptoms 2 years after neurolysis. Case 3 is a Caucasian woman aged 48 years with scapular winging due to a large exostosis of the left ventral scapular surface with a broad cartilaginous cap and a large pseudobursa. Following exclusion of malignancy by an incisional biopsy, exostosis and pseudobursa were resected. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative course without signs of recurrence 1 year postoperatively. Based on these cases, we developed an algorithm for the diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of scapula alata due to osteochondroma. Conclusions Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of this uncommon condition in the differential diagnosis of winged scapula not only in children, but also in adult patients.

  12. Florescimento e produção de maracujazeiro-amarelo obtido por enxertia hipocotiledonar em Jaboticabal-SP e Araguari-MG

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    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no ripado e na área de Fruticultura do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal-SP, e em área de pequeno produtor fornecedor da Maguari (Kraft Foods do Brasil em Araguari-MG, tendo por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado por enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre seis espécies de Passifloraceas. Foram utilizados sete tratamentos, sendo seis tratamentos com as espécies: P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea, P. alata, P. gibertii, P. coccinea, P. cincinnata e um tratamento com pé-franco de P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Para todos os tratamentos, a variedade-copa utilizada foi o maracujazeiro-amarelo 'FB 200'. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A parcela foi constituída de uma linha de quatro plantas (20m lineares. A condução foi realizada conforme os tratos culturais recomendados para a cultura. As características avaliadas foram florescimento, produção, número e peso médio de frutos. Em Jaboticabal-SP, o pé-franco apresentou melhor desenvolvimento e maior produção que as plantas enxertadas. Em Araguari-MG, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. caerulea e pé-franco apresentaram melhor produção. Não houve diferença significativa no número de frutos, e o P. alata diminuiu, em relação aos outros porta-enxertos, o peso dos frutos.

  13. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

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    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  14. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

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    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  15. Porta-enxertos e fixadores de enxerto para enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro azedo

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    Carlos Henrique Barbosa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Avaliou-se a enxertia hipocotiledonar de maracujazeiro azedo em porta-enxertos de Passiflora alata, P. edulis, P. cincinnata e P. gibertii utilizando-se, como fixadores para envolvimento da região da enxertia, fita adesiva tipo crepe, grampo metálico de cabelo e grampo de enxertia a mola. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 (porta-enxerto x fixador, com 12 tratamentos, três repetições e oito plantas na parcela. Utilizou-se a enxertia hipocotiledonar pelo método de garfagem de topo em fenda cheia. Avaliaram-se diâmetro de caule, altura de planta e número de folhas do porta-enxerto no momento da enxertia, percentagem de sobrevivência da enxertia, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e altura do enxerto aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. A sobrevivência do enxerto de maracujazeiro azedo foi elevada, em geral, sendo equivalente para todos os porta-enxertos avaliados, demonstrando a eficiência da técnica. O uso dos fixadores de enxertia resultou em elevada percentagem de sobrevivência dos enxertos sem se verificarem diferenças entre os fixadores. Aos 90 dias após a enxertia, o maracujazeiro azedo, enxertado em P. alata apresentou menor crescimento em relação àqueles enxertados em P. edulis e P. gibertii.

  16. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  17. Molecular linkage mapping and marker-trait associations with NlRPT, a downy mildew resistance gene in Nicotiana langsdorffii

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    Shouan eZhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana langsdorffii is one of two species of Nicotiana known to express an incompatible interaction with the oomycete Peronospora tabacina, the causal agent of tobacco blue mold disease. We previously showed that incompatibility is due to the hypersensitive response (HR, and plants expressing the HR are resistant to P. tabacina at all stages of growth. Resistance is due to a single dominant gene in N. langsdorffii accession S-4-4 that we have named NlRPT. In further characterizing this unique host-pathogen interaction, NlRPT has been placed on a preliminary genetic map of the N. langsdorffii genome. Allelic scores for five classes of DNA markers were determined for 90 progeny of a modified backcross involving two N. langsdorffii inbred lines and the related species N. forgetiana. All markers had an expected segregation ratio of 1:1, and were scored in a common format. The map was constructed with JoinMap 3.0, and loci showing excessive transmission distortion were removed. The linkage map consists of 266 molecular marker loci defined by 217 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs, 26 simple-sequence repeats (SSR, 10 conserved orthologous sequence (COS markers, nine inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers, and four target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP markers arranged in 12 linkage groups with a combined length of 1062 cM. NlRPT is located on linkage group 3, flanked by four AFLP markers and one SSR. Regions of skewed segregation were detected on LGs 1, 5 and 9. Markers developed for N. langsdorffii are potentially useful genetic tools for other species in Nicotiana section Alatae, as well as in N. benthamiana. We also investigated whether AFLPs could be used to infer genetic relationships within N. langsdorffii and related species from section Alatae. A phenetic analysis of the AFLP data showed that there are two main lineages within N. langsdorffii, and that both contain populations expressing dominant resistance to P

  18. Optimización de la conservación in vitro de germoplasma de Dioscorea spp por crecimiento mínimo

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    Lucía Candelaria Díaz Narváez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: “Optimización de la conservación in vitro de ñame”Título en ingles: Optimization of  in vitro conservation of Dioscorea spp germplasm by minimal growth.Título corto en ingles:  “Optimization of in vitro conservation of yam”Resumen:  El ñame Criollo (Dioscorea alata y el ñame Espino (Dioscorea rotundata se constituyen como las dos especies mayormente cultivadas en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Por esta razón en la Universidad de Sucre se han implementado técnicas para lograr su conservación mediante la propagación in vitro, sin embargo esta metodología conserva las accesiones por un periodo no mayor a los 4 meses, provocando continuos subcultivos, aumento de costos y mano de obra. Por ello la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo establecer medios de cultivo óptimos para la conservación in vitro por crecimiento mínimo de diferentes accesiones (D. alata y D. rotundata pertenecientes al banco de germoplasma de la Universidad de Sucre, durante un periodo de 8 meses. Esto mediante la modificación del medio de cultivo base MS; con los siguientes osmolitos: sacarosa, manitol y sorbitol. Se avaluaron 8 tratamientos (T en los siguientes porcentajes T1 (control(3:0:0, T2 (0:1,5:0, T3 (0:0:2, T4 (0:1,5:2, T5 (0:0:1 y T6 (0:0:3, T7 (0:1,5:1 y T8 (0:1,5:3. Cada 30 días se evaluó: supervivencia (%, hojas expandidas (%, longitud del tallo y raíz, número de nudos y raíces, oxidación (%, senescencia foliar (% y callo (%. Los resultados mostraron que las especies D. alata y D. rotundata, se conservan de forma óptima, en la combinación T4 (0:1,5:2, donde se evidencia un alto porcentaje de supervivencia, un mínimo porcentaje de senescencia foliar y un desarrollo restringido en el resto de variables. Garantizando así la disponibilidad y el desarrollo normal de las accesiones en un periodo superior a 4 meses.Palabras clave: ñame, manitol, sorbitol, sacarosa.Abstract: Dioscorea alata   cv.

  19. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  20. Produção de cará em função de fontes orgânicas de adubação Yam production in function of organic sources of manuring

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    Edson Talarico Rodrigues

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a resposta do cará (Dioscorea alataL., clone Mimoso, a fontes e doses de adubos orgânicos, em um Latossolo Roxo distroférrico, textura argilosa pesada, situado em Dourados-MS. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 4 x 3, formados por quatro níveis de adubação orgânica (0, 1, 2 e 3.,em relação às três fontes (composto orgânico, composto enriquecido e cama de frangos. Os níveis 0, 1, 2 e 3 corresponderam a 0, 3, 6 e 9 t.ha-1 de matéria seca para o composto orgânico e a cama de frangos e a 0, 2, 4 e 6 t.ha-1 de composto enriquecido. Pelos resultados da análise estatística, verificou-se que os adubos não aumentaram a produtividade de rizomas, que variou entre 17 e 25 t.ha-1, porque o solo da área experimental apresentava níveis de fertilidade satisfatórios para as necessidades nutricionais do cará. Contudo, esses adubos aumentaram a produção de rizomas entre 150 e 600 g, que são bem cotados para a comercialização.In this work was evaluated the response of yam (Dioscorea alataL., Mimoso clone, to sources and dosis of organic manures. The sowing was established in 1998, november, on a dark clay texture distroferric Eutrustox soil, planted with vegetables in last years. It was utilized a ramdomized block experimental design with three replications. The treatments were arranged in fatorial scheme, formed by four organic manuring levels (0, 1, 2 and 3, in relation to three sources (organic compost, enriched compost and bed of chicken manure. The Levels 0, 1, 2 and 3 were corresponded to 0, 3, 6 and 9 t.ha-1 in dry matter, of organic compost and bed of chicken manure and to 0, 2, 4 and 6 t.ha-1 of enriched compost. The results indicated that manures don't elevated the rizomes yield, which varied from 17 to 25 t.ha-1, due to the experimental area presented satisfatory levels of fertility to the

  1. Plantas medicinais comercializadas por raizeiros no Centro de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul Medicinal plants from herb sellers operating in downtown Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    G.P. Nunes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das plantas medicinais mais solicitadas a raizeiros do centro da cidade de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, ou por eles indicadas. Esse levantamento foi efetuado em duas épocas distintas: 1992 e 2002. A compilação dos dados revelou que 27 espécies foram citadas em 1992 e 32 em 2002. As seis espécies mais freqüentemente consumidas (Maytenus cf. macrodonta, "cancorosa"; Baccharis trimera, "carqueja"; Achyrocline alata, "jateí-kaá"; Stryphnodendron adstringens, "barbatimão"; Cochlospermum regium, "algodãozinho", e Echinodorus macrophyllus, "chapéu-de-couro" foram adquiridas para identificação e avaliação preliminar da sua qualidade. Nas duas épocas, a qualidade das plantas medicinais apresentava itens que reprovavam seu consumo. Em ambos os levantamentos, observou-se uma constância das espécies mais utilizadas e uma coerência satisfatória com os dados disponíveis sobre os hábitos da automedicação da população do município. Os motivos e sintomas mais freqüentes para a aquisição de plantas medicinais foram os relacionados ao uso analgésico, sistemas genitourinário, respiratório e osteomuscular, dispepsia/má digestão e tecido conjuntivo.A survey of the medicinal plants requested from and/or indicated by herb sellers operating in the central area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, was performed at two different times - 1992 and 2002. The first survey revealed 27 species being used; the second one, 32 species. The species most often consumed (Maytenus cf. macrodonta, ‘cancorosa’; Baccharis trimera, ‘carqueja’; Achyrocline alata, ‘jateí-kaá’; Stryphnodendron adstringens, ‘barbatimão’; Cochlospermum regium, ‘algodãozinho’, and Echinodorus macrophyllus, ‘chapéu-de-couro’ were acquired for identification and evaluation of their quality. On both occasions, the quality of the samples was negatively affected by features that made them inappropriate for

  2. 我国海域常见有毒水母的分类检索%Taxonomy Key of the Venomous Jellyfishes in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 张学雷; 宋洪军; 庞敏

    2013-01-01

    综合现有资料编制了我国海域常见的19种有毒水母种类的分类检索表.我国常见有毒水母分属于3纲8目14科17属,包括水螅水母类3种、管水母类2种、立方水母类2种、钵水母类12种,其中钵水母纲旗口水母目和根口水母目种类较多(各5种),其它目每目含1~2科且每科仅1属1种.对我国现有的水母分类体系中部分与国际通用体系不统一之处进行了厘正,如:火水母拉丁文种名应由Tamoya alata Uchida,1929厘正为Tamoya gargantua Haeckel,1880,建议将灯罩水母[Linuche draco (Haeckel,1880)]命名厘正为爪罩水母[Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz,1788)]等.%A taxonomy key for 19 species of common venomous jellyfishes in China sea was constructed based on the morphologic characteristics of different classes,orders,families,genera and species.There were 3 hydromedusa,2 siphonophore,2 cubomedusae and 12 scyphomedusae.More species belonged to the orders Semaeostomeae (5 species) and Rhizostomeae (5 species) of class Scyphozoa,and fewer (1 or 2 species) per the other orders.Some inconsistency of jellyfish taxonomy being used in China was detected and clarified,e.g.the abandoned name of Tamoya alata (Uchida,1829) should be replaced with Tamoya gargantua (Haeckel,1880),and the name of Linuchedraco (Haeckel,1880) was suggested to be replaced with the currently accepted name Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz,1788) following WoRMS (World Register of Marine Species).

  3. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

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    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  4. Niche of Tree Layer Dominant Population of Two Community Types in Xingdoushan Nature Reserve%星斗山自然保护区两种群落类型乔木层优势种的生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斯; 艾训儒; 姚兰; 林勇; 黄伟

    2016-01-01

    用双向指示种分析法(TWINSPAN)将星斗山自然保护区常绿落叶阔叶混交林划分为两个群落类型,即亮叶水青冈+多脉青冈-翅柃(Fagus lucida+Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya alata)群落(群落Ⅰ)和川陕鹅耳枥+交让木+包槲柯-翅柃(Carpinus fargesiana+Daphniphyllum macropodum+Lithocarpus cleistocarpus-Eurya alata)群落(群落Ⅱ),以重要值(Ⅳ)为资源位,分析群落乔木层优势种的生态位宽度和生态位重叠.结果显示:群落Ⅰ中交让木(Daphniphyllum macropodum)与川陕鹅耳枥(Carpinus fargesiana)之间的生态位重叠值较大,为了更好的适应群落内部环境和利用种间资源,它们在垂直结构上发生了分化;齿缘吊钟花(Enkianthus serrulatus)与长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)之间的生态位重叠值为0.898,由于在乔木层中占据同一个层次,为了争夺群落间共有的营养和空间资源发生了激烈的竞争;群落Ⅱ中交让木与亮叶桦(Betula luminifera)之间的生态位重叠值最大,它们在垂直结构上发生了分化;交让木与多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)之间的生态位重叠较大,它们在乔木层中占据同一个层次,竞争较激烈.

  5. Características físicas e químicas de frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado em três porta-enxertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de frutas frescas do maracujá-amarelo valoriza a qualidade interna e externa dos frutos. Assim, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do porta-enxerto e do tipo de enxertia na qualidade dos frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de abril de 2006 a junho de 2007, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1 tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram: P. edulis (maracujá-amarelo, P. alata (maracujá-doce e P. gibertii (maracujá-giberti, em dois tipos de enxertia: hipocotiledonar e convencional por garfagem tipo fenda cheia e um tratamento adicional, sem enxertia. Utilizou-se como copa o maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Avaliaram-se o comprimento, o diâmetro, a massa fresca e a classificação dos frutos no período de novembro de 2006 a abril de 2007, a massa e a espessura da casca dos frutos, o rendimento do suco, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT e o ratio (SST/ATT dos frutos no mês de dezembro de 2006. O diâmetro e a massa fresca de frutos obtidos de plantas enxertadas sobre P. gibertii foram inferiores em relação aos de plantas pé-franco e aos de plantas enxertadas sobre P. alata. Os maiores comprimentos de frutos foram encontrados em plantas não enxertadas. Os porta-enxertos utilizados não influenciaram no teor de SST, na ATT e no ratio. O método de enxertia não interfere no diâmetro, no comprimento, na massa fresca dos frutos, na massa e na espessura da casca, no rendimento do suco e no teor de SST.

  6. 国产决明属生理生化特性与系统分类的关系%Relationship between Biochemistry Characteristics and System Classification of Cassia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡静; 何家庆; 汪学敏; 舒畅; 吴玲

    2011-01-01

    以国产决明属(Cassia)4种植物为实验材料,采用愈创木酚法和聚丙烯酰胺垂直板凝胶电泳对其抗逆指标和过氧化物酶(POD)同工酶进行测定,分析其系统树与传统决明属系统分类之间的差异.结果表明:发芽1天的过氧化物酶活性和3天的MDA含量差异显著,可作为探讨其亲缘关系的指标之一.发现POD同工酶带12条,4种决明没有共同拥有的条带,决明属植物的特征性酶带主要分布在b区和a区.与传统分类不同,抗逆指标和同工酶分析结果都表明,槐叶决明(Cassia sophera)与豆茶决明(C.nomame)亲缘关系最近,翅荚决明(C.alata)次之,决明(C.tora)与其他种亲缘关系最远,属于另一支.%In order to draw a phylogenetic tree of 4 species of Cassia in China, the study used guaiacol method and polyacrylamide vertical slab gel electrophoresis to test the resistance indicators and peroxidase isozyme, and analyzed the differences between the result and traditional systematics. Peroxidase activity of 1 day, MDA of 3 days significantly differed among species, so it can be used as one of the indicators to explore their genetic relationship. 12 POD enzyme bands were found, characteristic enzyme bands were mainly in b-zone and a-zone. Differed from traditional systematics, both resistance indicators and POD zymogram revealed that Cassia sophera was closer to C. nomame than C. alata in systematics, while C. tora belonged to another branch.

  7. Precisiones histológicas y bioquímicas acerca de los ejemplares de Frenelopsis procedentes de Torrelaguna (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Ramis, C.

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Different morphological features of the Frenelopsis from a Torrelaguna bassin (Madrid, Spain are described and compared with F. alata and F. oligostomata , studied by other authors. The Frenelopsis rests present, in the studied deposit, a remarkable polymorphism with respect 10 the dimensions of the leaves, but all the specimens studied are greatiy related to F. oligostomata . The chemical study of the organic constituents of the cutic1es shows a heterogeneous composition, being the major constituents an alkali-insoluble cutinized residue and a likehumic acid polyphenolic extractable fraction, Cuticles contains a certain proportion of a highly alterated lignin-like polymer, and minimal amounts of fulvic acids, nitrogenated compounds, free hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. KEY WORDS: Hystology, Biochemistry, Frenelopsis, Upper cretaceous, Palaeobotany, Humic substances.

    Son descritos diferentes aspectos morfológicos de los Frenelopsis del yacimiento de Torrelaguna, comparándose sus características con las descritas por otros autores para las especies F. alata y F. oligostomata . Los restos de Frenelopsis presentan, en el yacimiento estudiado, un notable polimorfismo respecto a las dimensiones del fronde; pero todos los ejemplares descritos poseen características muy similares a las de F. oligostomata . El estudio químico de los constituyentes orgánicos de las cutículas muestra una composición compleja, siendo los componentes mayoritarios un residuo cutinizado insoluble en álcalis y una fracción polifenólica extraíble de características similares a los ácidos húmicos. Los restos presentan una cierta proporción de polímeros similares a la lignina, aunque muy alterada, así como pequeñas cantidades de ácidos fúlvicos, compuestos nitrogenados, hidrocarburos libres y carbohidratos.

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  9. Effect of the acetylation process on native starches of yam (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Salcedo Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, it is necessary to produce native and modified starches for the use of amylaceous raw materials of major socioeconomic importance. In this study, the effects of the acetylation process on structural, morphological and functional properties of native starches yam, Dioscorea spp. (D. alata and D. rotundata were evaluated. Chemical modification by esterification with acetic anhydride was performed at different reaction times, and morphological and structural changes were assessed using the following techniques: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acetylation produced slight changes in the granule morphology, and a decreased degree of crystallinity (DC associated with a slight increase in the amylose content was observed. The introduction of acetyl groups into the starch structure caused a decrease in the gelatinization temperature and an increased retro gradation tendency. The acetylated starches had low degrees of substitution (DS<0.2, meaning they can be used in the food industry, considering that they showed greater stability, greater water absorption capacity and better solubility than native starches.

  10. Comparative study of Passiflora taxa leaves: II. A chromatographic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Wosch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Popularly known as passion fruit, some species of the genus Passiflora are widely used in folk medicines, such as sedatives and tranquilizers in many countries. Although these plants are employed for the same purposes, research with different species of Passiflora has indicated their heterogeneous chemical compositions. Since different chemical compositions can result in varying degrees of therapeutic efficiency, quality control based on the chemical constituents of each species is essential. To that end, the aim of this study was to compare pharmacognostically species of Passiflora in order to establish a chromatographic profile for the quality control of drugs in herbal medicines containing passion fruit. The study was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (i.e., ten species and two forms of P. edulis – P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea, and P. setacea – from different locations and obtaining their chromatographic profiles via thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both methods used the flavonoid C-glycosides isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin as reference compounds and could ultimately establish specific profiles for each species. The chromatographic analyses discussed here can be used to assist in determining the quality and authenticity of herbal drugs derived from Passiflora species.

  11. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion. PMID:28367985

  12. 基因测序技术在中药质量研究中的应用(Ⅱ)——山药基原的DNA测序鉴别%Application of gene technology in quality control of Chinese materia medica Ⅱ.Identification of Chinese Rhizoma Dioscoreae by DNA sequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍; 何报作; 曹晖

    2001-01-01

    目的分析正品山药Dioscorea polystachya Turcz.与地方习用品广山药D.persimilis Prain et Burkill、土山药D.japaonica Thunb.和方山药D.alata L.的核基因组18S rRNA基因序列,为山药基原鉴别及品质评价提供分子依据.方法采用PCR直接测序技术测定山药及其地方习用品的18S rRNA基因核苷酸序列并作序列同源性分析.结果山药、广山药和土山药的18S rRNA序列长度均为1 810 bp,而方山药为1 807 bp.根据排序比较,广山药与正品山药的18S rRNA序列完全相同,而与土山药和方山药的序列同源性分别为99.89%和97.51%.结论 DNA测序技术可成为山药基原鉴定准确而有效的分子方法.

  13. Heterologous primer transferability and access to microsatellite loci polymorphism in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (Passiflora setacea DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Almeida Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primer pairs that access microsatellite loci, initially constructed through the genome of Passiflora edulis Sims flavicarpa and P. alata, were tested concerning their ability to access microsatellite loci in ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree (P. setacea individuals. Seven out of the thirty one primer pairs tested were able to access DNA polymorphism in the genome of this wild Passiflora species, by evaluating six natural populations, located in a transition area between the biomes Caatinga and Cerrado, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The number of alleles/loci was small, oscillating from 1 to 4. The average heterozygosity observed per locus in all populations ranged from 0.13 to 0.40. There was transference of heterologous microsatellite primer pairs from the Passiflora genus to ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree, constituting a new set of primers that access random co-dominant locus in this species, useful for conservationist purposes and pre-improvement of ‘somnus’ passion fruit tree.

  14. Benign monomelic amyotrophy in a 7-year-old girl with proximal upper limb involvement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Oznur; Alemdaroğlu, Ipek; Karaduman, Ayşe; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) is a benign motor neuron disease characterized by neurogenic amyotrophy, which usually affects one of the upper or lower extremities. Progression is slow and symptoms are clinically stable. Symptoms are seen in the second or third decades of life. In this study, we present a seven-year-old girl who was diagnosed and directed to the Physiotherapy Department at the age of 5 years and had unilateral proximal upper limb involvement. Family history of the case was recorded. Neurologic evaluation was performed. Range of joint motion, muscle shortness and strength, posture, extremity lengths, gait, timed performance, arm function, and motor and mental maturation were assessed. The physiotherapy program was designed progressively as strengthening and resistive exercises. Motor and mental developmental milestones were normal. There was no limitation in active or passive motion of all joints. She had more flexible joints, scapula alata, asymmetry between shoulder levels, and weakness on proximal muscles of the right upper extremity. In the follow-up assessment at eight months, there was no asymmetry between shoulder levels and scapular symmetry began to improve. Female gender and involvement restricted to one proximal upper limb are rare in the literature. This patient demonstrates the positive effects of physical therapy with early diagnosis of MMA. The rapid recovery of muscle weakness shows the importance of strengthening and resistive exercises applied to specific muscles in the treatment.

  15. Conservação de maracujá-doce pelo uso de cera e choque a frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Alessandra Pereira da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do choque a frio e da cera, na conservação pós-colheita do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander, verificando as principais alterações físicas e químicas durante o armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, foram desinfetados com hipoclorito de sódio e em seguida, submetidos aos tratamentos: testemunha; cera Sta fresh (1:2; choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas + cera Sta fresh (1:2; choque frio (-2°C por 2 horas. Os frutos foram avaliados a cada 6 dias quanto a perda de peso, textura, rendimento de suco, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável. Após 30 dias a 9°C e 85-90% UR, pode-se concluir que o tratamento mais adequado à conservação do maracujá-doce foi o que utilizou a cera Sta Fresh. Os tratamentos com choque a frio e com choque a frio + cera não foram eficientes para manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita do maracujá-doce.

  16. Species diversity and regeneration of old-growth seasonally dry Shorea robusta forests following gap formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indra Prasad Sapkota; Mulualem Tigabu; Per Christer Odén

    2009-01-01

    Diversity and regeneration of woody species were investigated in two ecological niches viz. gap and intact vegetation in old-growth seasonally dry Shorea robusta (Gaertn. f.) forests in Nepal. We also related varieties of diversity measures and regeneration attributes to gap characteristics. Stem density of tree and shrub components is higher in the gap than in the intact vegetation. Seedling densities of S. robusta and Terminalia alata (B. Heyne ex Roth.) are higher in the gap than in the intact vegetation, while contrary result is observed for T. bellirica (Gaertn. ex Roxb.) and Syzigium cumini (L. Skeels) in term of seedling density. The complement of Simpson index, Evenness index, and species-individual ratio in the seedling layer are lower in the gap than the intact vegetation. Gap size can explain species richness and species establishment rate. Gaps created by multiple tree falls in different years have higher seedling density of S. robusta than gaps created by single and/or multiple tree falls in the same year. In conclusion, gaps maintain species diversity by increasing seedling density, and favor regeneration of Sal forests. In addition to gap size, other gap attributes also affect species diversity and regeneration.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites in red foxes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimaa, Leidi; Moks, Epp; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-09-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed canid in the world and an important source of multiple zoonotic pathogens capable of causing life-threatening diseases, such as rabies and alveolar echinococcosis. Informing general public of potential risks related to foxes is becoming more important since the fox densities have increased in many countries and the species is colonizing urban areas in Europe and around the world with increasing pace, bringing zoonotic pathogens to the immediate neighbourhood of humans and their companion animals. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite fauna of red foxes in Estonia. We found in Estonian foxes a total of 17 endoparasite taxa, including ten zoonotic species. All the analysed individuals were infected and the average parasite species richness was 6·37. However, the infection rates varied to a very large extent for different parasite species, ranging from 0·9 to 91·5%. Of zoonotic species, the highest infection rate was observed for Alaria alata (90·7%), Eucoleus aerophilus (87·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (84·3%). The prevalence of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, a causative agent for alveolar echinococcosis, was also relatively high (31·5%), presenting a potential risk to human health.

  19. Diosgenin: Recent Highlights on Pharmacology and Analytical Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, occurs abundantly in plants such as Dioscorea alata, Smilax China, and Trigonella foenum graecum. This bioactive phytochemical not only is used as an important starting material for the preparation of several steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, but has revealed also high potential and interest in the treatment of various types of disorders such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation, and several types of infections. Due to its pharmacological and industrial importance, several extraction and analytical procedures have been developed and applied over the years to isolate, detect, and quantify diosgenin, not only in its natural sources and pharmaceutical compositions, but also in animal matrices for pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological studies. Within these, HPLC technique coupled to different detectors is the most commonly analytical procedure described for this compound. However, other alternative methods were also published. Thus, the present review aims to provide collective information on the most recent pharmacological data on diosgenin and on the most relevant analytical techniques used to isolate, detect, and quantify this compound as well.

  20. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  1. Larvicidal activity of metabolites from the endophytic Podospora sp. against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasyoh, Josphat C; Dittrich, Birger; Schueffler, Anja; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-01

    In a screening for natural products with mosquito larvicidal activities, the endophytic fungus Podospora sp. isolated from the plant Laggera alata (Asteraceae) was conspicuous. Two xanthones, sterigmatocystin (1) and secosterigmatocystin (2), and an anthraquinone derivative (3) 13-hydroxyversicolorin B were isolated after fermentation on M(2) medium. These compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and X-ray analysis and examined against third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. The results demonstrated that compound 1 was the most potent one with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 13.3 and 73.5 ppm, respectively. Over 95% mortality was observed at a concentration 100 ppm after 24 h. These results compared farvorably with the commercial larvicide pylarvex® that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. Compound 3 was less potent and had an LC(50) of 294.5 ppm and over 95% mortality was achieved at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. Secosterigmatocystin (2) revealed relatively weak activity and therefore LC values were not determined.

  2. SINOPSIS Y NOVEDADES TAXONÓMICAS DE PEPEROMIA (PIPERACEAE EN LA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Zanotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis del género Peperomia para la Argentina donde se incluyen 35 taxones, se excluyen 10 taxones (P. alata, P. blanda, P. boliviensis, P. effusa, P. hilariana, P. hispidula var. hispidula,P. rhombea, P. rusbyi, P. serpens y P. silvarum, se establecen nueve sinónimos nuevos (P. misionense bajo P. arifolia; P. comarapana f. pubescens bajo P. comarapana; P. mandonii, P. mandonii var. excelsis, P. umbelliformis, P. non-hispidula bajo P. crystallina; P. lilloi y P. sanpedritoi bajo P. santaelisae y P. subpubistachya bajo P. urocarpa, y se citan cuatro nuevas especies para la flora argentina (P. crystallina, P. diaphanoides, P. increscens y P. trineuroides. Se realizan 20 lectotipificaciones y una neotipificación. El tratamiento de cada entidad incluye la sinonimia, la iconografía, nombres vulgares, distribución y hábitat, observaciones y material representativo examinado. Se aporta también una clave para la identificación de los taxones e ilustraciones.

  3. Screening of cassava and yam cultivars for resistance to anthracnose using toxic metabolites of colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, N A

    2001-01-01

    Collectotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis and C. gloeosporioides, causal agents of cassava (Manihot spp.) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) anthracnose diseases, respectively, produce toxic metabolites in culture that fluoresce at 254 nm and 366 nm, producing bands with Rf of 0.65 and 7.0, respectively. Symptoms induced on yam and cassava by the extracted metabolites were similar to those induced by the pathogens. Twenty-four clones of tropical D. rotundata (TDr), D. alata (TDa), D. esculenta (TDe), and D. cavenensis (TDc) were screened by applying toxic metabolites of C. gloeosporioides to their leaves and stems. Only TDr131, TDe179 and TDc750 were resistant. Other clones were susceptible to varying degrees. Nineteen of the 45 clones of M. esculenta were resistant to varying degrees of toxic metabolites of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. Results from in vitro screening of' cassava and yam clones using toxic metabolites compared favourably with field screening based on natural epidemics. Using toxic metabolites appears to be a more effective technique for screening for disease resistance than conventional inoculation with plant pathogens.

  4. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness.

  5. Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages along the Pondicherrye Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pitchai SAMPATHKUMAR; Mookapillai GOPINATH; Sekar JAYASUDHA; Amalanathan AROKIYASUNDRAM; Thiruvarasan LENIN; Thangavelu BALASUBRAMANIAN; Srinivasan BALAKRISHNAN; Krishnamoorthy KAMALAKANNAN; Rethinavelu SANKAR; Lakshmanan RAMKUMAR; Subramani RAMESH; Neelamegam KABILAN; Thambusamy SURESHKUMAR; Chellam THENMOZHI

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages were determined along the Pondicherry, Parangipettai and Nagapattinam coastal waters, southeast coast of India. All the hydrographical parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients like nitrate, nitrite, inorganic phosphate and reactive silicate, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton assemblages were studied for a period of five months (May, August, September 2010, March and November 2011). Over 121 species of phytoplankton represented by 93 species of diatoms, 16 species of dinoflagellates, 9 species of blue-green algae, 2 species of greens and 1 species of silicoflagellate were recorded. High phytoplankton species diversity was found in March 2011 when salinity and nitrate concentrations were low and reactive silicate and inorganic phosphates were moderate. Species diversity was low during May 2010 when increased sea surface temperature, salinity and low nutrients availability were observed. Coscinodiscus centralis, Diatoma vulgaris and Proboscia alata were dominant, especially Coscinodiscus sp. distributed in all stations whereas Skeletonema costatum, Odontella sinensis and Ditylum brightwellii were abundant in August and September 2010. From principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, it is evident that variables like sea surface temperature and dissolved oxygen are the most important factors influencing the seasonal pattern of phytoplankton population.

  6. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2007-11-01

    Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45 kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The amino acid sequences of mature CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 (436 and 445 residues, respectively) share significant homology with three known proteins: CqTX-A from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, CrTXs from Carybdea rastoni and CaTX-A from Carybdea alata, all of which are lethal, haemolytic box jellyfish toxins. Multiple sequence alignment of the five jellyfish proteins has identified several short, but highly conserved regions of amino acids that coincide with a predicted transmembrane spanning region, referred to as TSR1, which may be involved in a pore-forming mechanism of action. Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variations of macro- and megabenthic community characteristics in two sections of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xinzheng; Ma, Lin; Dong, Dong; Kou, Qi; Sui, Jixing; Gan, Zhibin; Wang, Hongfa

    2016-10-01

    In spring and summer 2011, the macro- and megabenthic fauna in two sections of the East China Sea were investigated using an Agassiz net trawl to detect the seasonal and spatial variations of benthic community characteristics and the relation to environmental variables. The total number of species increased slightly from spring (131 species) to summer (133) whereas the percentage of Mollusca decreased significantly. The index of relative importance (IRI) indicated that the top five important species changed completely from spring to summer. Species number, abundance and biomass in summer were significantly higher than in spring, but no significant difference was observed among areas (coastal, transitional and oceanic areas, divided basically from inshore to offshore). Species richness (d), diversity (H') and evenness (J') showed no significant seasonal or spatial variations. Cluster analysis and nMDS ordination identified three benthic communities from inshore to offshore, corresponding to the three areas. Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated the overall significant difference in community structure between seasons and among areas. K-dominance curves revealed the high intrinsic diversity in the offshore area. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the coastal community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in spring, but negatively in summer; oceanic community was positively correlated to total nitrogen and total organic carbon in both seasons. Species such as Coelorhynchus multispinulosus, Neobythites sivicola, Lepidotrigla alata, Solenocera melantho, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Oratosquilla gonypetes and Spiropagurus spiriger occurred exclusively in the offshore oceanic area and their presence may reflect the influence of the offshore Kuroshio Current.

  8. Web application security analysis using the Kali Linux operating system / Анализ безопасности веб-приложений оперционной системой Kali Linux / Analiza bezbednosti web aplikacija operativnim sistemom Kali Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M. Babincev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kali Linux operating system is described as well as its purpose and possibilities. There are listed groups of tools that Kali Linux has together with the methods of their functioning, as well as a possibility to install and use tools that are not an integral part of Kali. The final part shows a practical testing of web applications using the tools from the Kali Linux operating system. The paper thus shows a part of the possibilities of this operating system in analysing web applications security, which presents the goal of this work. / В статье дается описание операционной системы Kali Linux, включая цели и возможности ее использования. Приведен список инструментов системы Kali Linux, способ работы ее конкретных инструментов, а также возможность установки и использования инструментов, которые не являются частью операционной системы Kali Linux. В заключительной части статьи, наглядно представлено тестирование веб-приложений с применением инструментов операционной системы Linux Кали. Таким образом, представлена часть возможностей Кали Linux операционной системы, применяемой для анализа безопасности веб-приложений, что являлось целью данной работы. / U radu je opisan operativni sistem Kali Linux , njegove namene i mogućnosti. Navedene su grupe alata kojima Kali Linux raspolaže, način rada određenih alata koje ovaj sistem sadrži, kao i mogućnost instalacije i korišćenja alata koji nisu njegov sastavni deo. U završnom delu rada praktično je

  9. Food plants and life histories of sawflies of the families Argidae and Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera in Costa Rica, a supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Food plants and information on life history are presented for six species of Argidae and four species of Tenthredinidae in Costa Rica. The Argidae include cocoons of Atomacera josefernandezi Smith, sp. n., found on Hampea appendiculata (Donn. Sm. Standl. (Malvaceae and likely feeding on its leaves before pupation, and larvae of Eriglenum tristum Smith feeding on Machaerium seemanii Benth. Ex Seem. (Fabaceae, Ptenos leucopodus (Cameron feeding on Inga oerstediana Benth. and I. vera Willd. (Fabaceae, Ptilia peleterii (Gray feeding on Cnestidium rufescens (Connaraceae, and Scobina lepida (Klug and S. notaticollis (Konow feeding on Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae. The Tenthredinidae include larvae of Dochmioglene crassa (Cameron feeding on the fern Lomariopsis vestita E. Fourn. (Lomariopsidaceeae, Dochmiogleme Smith03 feeding on Blechnum occidentale L. (Blechnaceae, Waldheimia laeta (Cameron feeding on Cissus alata Jacq. (Vitaceae, and Waldheimia lucianocapellii Smith, sp. n., feeding on Davilla nitida (Vahl Kubitzki (Dilleniaceae. Waldheimia lucianocapellii is described from specimens from both Panama and Costa Rica. Selandria crassa Cameron, 1883 is a comb. n. in Dochmioglene.

  10. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material.

  11. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  12. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  13. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  14. Diosgenin: Recent Highlights on Pharmacology and Analytical Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, occurs abundantly in plants such as Dioscorea alata, Smilax China, and Trigonella foenum graecum. This bioactive phytochemical not only is used as an important starting material for the preparation of several steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, but has revealed also high potential and interest in the treatment of various types of disorders such as cancer, hypercholesterolemia, inflammation, and several types of infections. Due to its pharmacological and industrial importance, several extraction and analytical procedures have been developed and applied over the years to isolate, detect, and quantify diosgenin, not only in its natural sources and pharmaceutical compositions, but also in animal matrices for pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological studies. Within these, HPLC technique coupled to different detectors is the most commonly analytical procedure described for this compound. However, other alternative methods were also published. Thus, the present review aims to provide collective information on the most recent pharmacological data on diosgenin and on the most relevant analytical techniques used to isolate, detect, and quantify this compound as well.

  15. EFEITOS DA ESPESSURA DAS FATIAS E PRÉ-COZIMENTO NA QUALIDADE DE SALGADINHOS FRITOS (CHIPS DE TUBEROSAS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. ROGÉRIO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O consumo de alimentos fritos e pré-fritos tem aumentado nos últimos anos. As culturas de mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, taro (Colocasia esculenta e inhame (Dioscorea alata apresentam potencial significativo de crescimento como matérias-primas industriais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos da espessura das fatias e pré-cozimento na qualidade de salgadinhos fritos dessas tuberosas tropicais. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a espessura das fatias é um fator determinante sobre a absorção de gordura e aceitação do produto em todas as tuberosas analisadas, sendo que com a espessura de dois milímetros ocorreu uma menor absorção de gordura para todas as tuberosas. O pré-cozimento das fatias interfere no rendimento do processo. O processamento das tuberosas levou á alterações de cor nos produtos finais.

  16. The influence of conventional heating and microwave irradiation on the resolution of (RS)-sec-butylamine catalyzed by free or immobilized lipases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilissao, Cristiane; Nascimento, Maria da Graca, E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis,SC (Brazil); Carvalho, Patricia de Oliveira [Curso de Farmacia, Universidade Sao Francisco, Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The lipases CAL-B, PSL, PSL-C, PSL-D, and A. niger lipase, free or immobilized in starch (obtained from two types of yam, known in Brazil as 'cara' (Discorea alata L.) and 'inhame' (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) or gelatin films, were used in the acylation of (RS)-sec-butylamine with different acyl donors in various organic solvents applying conventional heating (CH) or microwave (MW) irradiation. In the case of free A. niger lipase, the conversion degrees were three times higher using MW irradiation when compared to conventional heating at 35 deg C. Using free A. niger lipase, the (R)-amide was obtained with a conversion degree of 21%, resulting in ee{sub p}> 99% and E-value (enantioselectivity value) > 200, in 1 min of reaction under MW irradiation. When the A. niger lipase was immobilized in yam starch films, the (R)-amide was obtained in moderate conversions of 8-25% after 3 or 5 min of reaction under MW irradiation, but with higher selectivity (eep > 99% and E > 200) in comparison with the free form (conversion degree of 45%, eep 81% and E value of 18). (author)

  17. 黑河沿江地域及俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克市犬寄生蠕虫区系调查%Investigation of parasitic helminth fauna in dog at Heihe river valley and Bulageweishensike city, Russian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋成玉

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了黑河沿江地域(爱辉区、孙吴县、逊克县)及俄罗斯布拉戈维中斯克市寄生蠕虫调查结果,共剖检44只犬,经鉴定,寄生蠕虫的感染率为100%,分别属于3纲、9科、10属,其中吸虫4种为华枝睾吸虫(Clonorchis sinensis ) .日本棘隙吸虫(Echinochasmus japonicus ) .横川后殖吸虫(Metagonimus yokogawai ) .有翼翼形吸虫(Alaria alata ) ;绦虫3种为泡状带绦虫(Taenia hydatigena ) .线中殖孔绦虫(Mesocestoides lineatus ) ,犬复孔绦虫(Dipylidium caninum ) ;线虫3种为犬弓首蛔虫( Toxocara canis ) .犬钩口线虫(Ancylostoma caninum ) .旋毛形线虫( Trichinella spiralis ) .其中以犬弓首蛔虫感染率最高为68.18%,华枝睾吸虫27.27%,线中殖孔绦虫22.72%,旋毛形线虫13.64%.

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  19. STUDY ON COMPARISON OF TWO ESSENTIAL OILS IN GENUS LAGGERA%两种臭灵丹精油成分的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛小燕; 安银岭; 王文峰

    1999-01-01

    从六棱菊臭灵丹和臭灵丹两种鲜叶中分别提取的精油分析表明,其成分和含量不同.六棱菊中有较高含量的4-甲基[3、1、0]双环己烷(16.82 %),1-辛烯3-醇(2.32 %)桉叶油素(1.85 %),[3、7、11]-三甲基-[1、6、10]-十二三烯-3-醇(3.04 %),还有较低量的[1,4]-二甲氧基-[2、3、5、6]-四甲基苯(35.60 %),α-石竹烯(2.73 %).%The essential oil from leaf of Laggera pterodonta shows differences withthe essential oil from Laggera alata with higher contents of bicyclo [3,1,0]hexane,4-methylene(16.82 %),1-octen-3-ol(2.32 %),eucalyptol(1.85%),1,6,10,-dodecatrien-3-ol-3,7,11-methyl(3.04 %),and with lower contents ofbenzene,1,4-dimethoxy-2,3,5,6-methyl(35.60 %),α-caryophyllene(2.73 %).

  20. Produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo por enxertia hipocotiledonar sobre sete espécies de passifloras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Costa Nogueira Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. é a principal Passifloraceae cultivada no Brasil, e seu cultivo tem encontrado algumas dificuldades, principalmente no que concerne à longevidade dos pomares, a qual tem sido reduzida devido à incidência de doenças e nematoides que atacam o seu sistema radicular. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estabelecer tecnologias para a produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, através da enxertia hipocotiledonar, sobre sete porta-enxertos. Os porta-enxertos utilizados foram: P. edulis f. flavicarpa; P. caerulea; P. alata; P. gibertii; P. coccinea; P. cincinnata e P. setacea. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 36 repetições para cada porta-enxerto. As características avaliadas foram: percentual de sobrevivência dos enxertos, altura das plantas, número de folhas, diâmetro do porta-enxerto. A metodologia de enxertia hipocotiledonar testada foi bem-sucedida para a maioria das espécies testadas. Destacaram-se os porta-enxertos: P. caerulea; P. gibertii; P. cincinnata e P. flavicarpa, tanto pelo alto índice de pegamento como pela precocidade na obtenção da muda.

  1. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  2. Phytoplankton Assemblage of Yangtze River Estuary and the Adjacent East China Sea in Summer, 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Qingshan; SUN Jun; SHEN Zhiliang; SONG Shuqun; WANG Min

    2006-01-01

    A cruise was conducted from late August to early September 2004 with the intention of obtaining an interdisciplinary understanding of the Yangtze River Estuary including the biological, chemical and physical subjects. Water sample analysis indicated that total phytoplankton species richness was 137. Of them 81 were found in Bacillariophyta and 48 in Pyrrophyta, accounting for 59.1% and 35.0% respectively. The average cell abundance of surface water samples was 8.8 ×104 cells L-1, with the maximum, 102.9 × 104 cells L- 1, encountered in the area (31.75°N, 122.33°E) and the minimum, 0.2× 104 cells L-1, in (30.75°N, 122.17°E). The dominant species at most stations were Skeletonema costatum and Proboscia alata f. gracillima with the dominance of 0.35 and 0.27. Vertical distribution analysis indicated that obvious stratification of cell abundance and dominant species was found in the representative stations of 5, 18 and 33. Shannon-Wiener index and evenness of phytoplankton assemblage presented negative correlation with the cell abundance, with the optimum appearing in (30.75°N, 122.67°E). According to the PCA analysis of the environmental variables, elevated nutrients of nitrate, silicate and phosphate through river discharge were mainly responsible for the phytoplankton bloom in this area.

  3. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  4. Intrafloral differentiation of stamens in heterantherous fowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Lei GU; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Flowers that have heteromorphic stamens (heterantherous flowers) have intrigued many researchers ever since the phenomenon was discovered in the 19th century. The morphological differentiation in androecia has been suggested as a reflection of "labor division" in pollination in which one type of stamens attracts pollina-tors and satisfies their demand for pollen as food and the other satisfies the plant's need for safe gamete dispersal. The extent and patterns of stamen differentiation differ notably among taxa with heterantherous flowers. Seven species with heteromorphic stamens in three genera were sampled from Leguminosae and Melastomataceae, and the morphological difference of androecia, pollen content, pollen histochemistry and viability, pollen micro-morphology, as well as the main pollinators were examined and compared. Pollen number differs significantly between stamen sets of the same flower in most species investigated, and a correlation of pollen number and anther size was substantiated. Higher pollen viabilities were found in the long (pollinating) stamens of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. and S. bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Dimorphic pollen exine ornamentation is reported here for the first time in Fordiophytonfaberi Stapf. The height of stigma and anther tips of the long stamens in natural conditions was proved to be highly correlated, supporting the hypothesis that they contact similar areas of the pollinator's body.

  5. [Role of the digestive microflora and of the crystalline structure of starch in digestion and dietary efficiency in the chicken. Study of tropical tubers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewa, H; Charlet-Lery, G; Szylit, O

    1979-01-01

    The influence of microflora in the utilization of starches, the X ray pattern which was of A or B type, was studied by balances and carcasses analysis with growing axenic or holoxenic chickens, put in isolators. Five tropical tubers were used : Manihot utilissima and Dioscorea dumetorum of A-type, Dioscorea cayenensis and alata and Canna edulis of B-type. They were introduced in isoenergetic (4,460 Kcal/g D.M.) and isoproteic (18 p. 100) diets. The A-type starches are entirely digested (95 p. 100) and the B-type are poorly digested (40-60 p. 100). The first ones induced a better growth than the second. The influence of digestive microflora changes with the two types of tubers used. With A-type starches the microflora lowered the feed intake, the growth and the energy and protein efficiency respectively--25 and--10 p. 100. When the diet included tubers with B-type starches, the low digestibility of starch and the low metabolisable energy in the diets induced poor growth and retentions. The results are discussed in relation with the starch breakdown into glucose, lactic acid and volatile fatty acids.

  6. Plants of restricted use indicated by three cultures in Brazil (Caboclo-river dweller, Indian and Quilombola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eliana

    2007-05-04

    A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).

  7. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  8. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-10-17

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum).

  9. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  10. Enraizamento de estacas de espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. no inverno e no verão Cutting rooting of passion fruit plant species (Passiflora spp. in the winter and in the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro está entre as principais frutíferas cultivadas no País, mas apresenta limitações no cultivo, ocasionando baixa produtividade, que pode ser superada através do uso da estaquia, clonando as melhores matrizes de alta produtividade. Com isso, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas no inverno e no verão, utilizando as espécies comerciais (P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener e P. alata Dryander e os porta-enxertos (P. giberti N.E.Brown, P. nitida H.B.K. e P. setacea D.C.. Este experimento foi realizado no período de julho de 2001 a março de 2002, em câmara de nebulização intermitente, sob condições de telado (50% de sombreamento. As estacas foram coletadas de plantas adultas oriundas do Banco de Germoplasma Ativo (BAG do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP (FCAV/UNESP e de pomares comerciais, em julho de 2001 e em janeiro de 2002. A estaquia foi feita com a coleta da parte intermediária de ramos em estádio de crescimento vegetativo, no inverno e no verão. As estacas herbáceas tinham aproximadamente 15cm de comprimento, três nós e duas meias - folhas. As estacas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 500; 1.000 e 2.000mg.L-1, por cinco segundos, e plantadas em bandejas plásticas (40x30x10cm com vermiculita de textura média, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. Houve influência do AIB e da época do ano no enraizamento, variando de acordo com a espécie. Sendo assim, P. giberti obteve o melhor desempenho em relação às demais espécies, com 73% de enraizamento no verão. A percentagem de enraizamento foi melhor para P. alata (58% e para P. nitida (40% no inverno e sem AIB. P. edulis f. flavicarpa enraizou apenas 23% no inverno, e P. setacea não enraizou. O número e o comprimento de raízes foram maiores no inverno. A sobrevivência de plantas n

  11. Application of bubble separation for quantitative analysis of choline in Dioscorea (yam) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Chung; Chen, Shiau-Huei; Huang, Pau-Yau; Li, Yun-Ju

    2005-04-06

    A modified assay based on the AACC official method 86-45 (AACC, 2000) for the determination of choline in three cereals and three varieties of Dioscorea (yam) tubers was developed. When tested in wheat, rice, and oat flour, choline estimated by the modified method was 34.0-45.3% higher than that of the original AACC method. In a system with higher contents of starch and mucilage, such as Dioscorea (yam) tubers, extra procedures in sample preparation needed to be carried out to separate starch and mucilage. The choline contents of the following Dioscorea (yam) tubers using the original AACC method and the present modified AACC method through coupling an additional bubble separation procedure, respectively, were (mean +/- SD, mg/g solid) Keelung yam (D. pseudojaponicaY.) 0.92 +/- 0.09 and 2.21 +/- 0.12, Yangmingshan yam (D. alata L.) 0.77 +/- 0.09 and 1.78 +/- 0.28, and Ming-Chien yam (D. purpurea) 0.44 +/- 0.09 and 1.35 +/- 0.19. Choline was 231-306% higher than when the original AACC method was used. Dioscorea (yam) tubers were much higher in choline content than they were in cereals. Bubble separation is an appropriate procedure in the practice for the maximum assay of choline in yams. It is accurate, rapid, easy to handle, and especially good for recovering choline from a starch and polysaccharide-protein-containing system.

  12. Survey on helminths in the small intestine of wild foxes in Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Zhihong; Duo, Hong; Fu, Yong; Peng, Mao; Shen, Xiuying; Tsukada, Hideharu; Irie, Takao; Nasu, Tetsuo; Horii, Yoichiro; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2013-10-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of Tibetan sand foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inhabiting in Qinghai, China, was evaluated by conducting necropsy of hunted foxes and fecal egg examination of field-collected feces. In northeast and south Qinghai, 36 foxes were necropsied, and the species of foxes and the parasites detected were identified by the DNA barcoding. In 27 red foxes and 9 Tibetan sand foxes examined, Mesocestoides litteratus (total prevalence: 64%), Toxascaris leonina (50%), Taenia pisiformis (8%) and Taenia crassiceps (8%) were found in both species of foxes. Echinococcus shiquicus (8%) and Taenia multiceps (6%) were found only in Tibetan sand foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis (3%) and Alaria alata (8%) were found only in red foxes. In the fecal egg examination of the rectal feces, 100% of taeniid cestodes, 73% of Toxascaris and 27% of Mesocestoides worm-positive samples showed egg-positive, indicating that coprological survey for parasite eggs could only provide partial information of intestinal parasite fauna. For field-collected feces, molecular identification of feces origins and fecal egg examination were performed. In 15 Tibetan sand fox and 30 red fox feces, we found E. multilocularis eggs in one feces of Tibetan sand fox. The present study indicated that the upper intestinal helminth fauna of the two fox species in Qinghai does not differ significantly and both species would play an important role in the maintenance of taeniid cestodes.

  13. Decline of Indigenous Crop Diversity in Colonial and Postcolonial Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global influence of the wealthiest countries drives trends in crop diversity in the developing countries. In many countries, European colonization resulted in cultural disintegration and erosion of indigenous knowledge that made citizens lose interest in their own cultural heritage and adopt imperial know-how. During the same time, native biodiversity that was once maintained by the tradition it shaped declined. Alien crops prospered and finally dominated landscapes. In this paper, I looked at the apparent decline of indigenous crop diversity in Rwanda in the light of the “cultural disturbance” that occurred in the shadow of the European colonization. An integrated research methodology that combined desk-based, socioeconomic, and vegetation surveys was used. Indigenous crops now on the fringe of extinction and, thus, requiring immediate attention from conservation policy makers and managers were identified. These include Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. “inkoli” (Leguminosae, Coleus dysentericus Bak. “impombo” (Labiatae, Dioscorea alata Linn. “ibikoro” (Araceae, a sweet cultivar of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl. “bunure” (Cucurbitaceae, white cultivar of Sorghum bicolor (Linn. Moench “nyiragikori” (Gramineae, Amaranthus graecizans Linn. “inyabutongo” (Amaranthaceae, Eleusine coracana (Linn. Gaertn. “uburo” (Gramineae, and traditional cultivars of Zea mays Linn. “nyakagori” (Gramineae and Solanum tuberosum Linn. “kandore” (Solanaceae.

  14. Irradiation effects on the active substances of Passiflora spp; Efeito da irradiacao nos principios ativos de Passiflora spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Rela, Paulo Rela; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Freitas, Paulo C. D.; Bacchi, Elfriede M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: lenach@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    Plants are used as medicines and foods since the old times, acting and influencing significantly in the men/vegetal relation. Nowadays it is increasing the interest for phytotherapic pharmaceuticals and natural active principles, as alkalis, flavonoids, essential oils, tanning barks and others. The concern with the microbe contamination of the vegetable raw material is object of studies as well as the development of appropriate techniques for the reduction of these microorganisms. Thus being, the irradiation process is recognized as safe for an enormous variety of products and applications. It is effective in the reduction of the growth of pathogenic organisms and in the increase of the useful life of the nourishing products, for example. With intention to observe the possible modifications in the chemical constituent of vegetal dyes of maracock (Passiflora edulis and P. alata) caused by the gamma radiation in the doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy. After the extraction of the dust of the vegetal drug for the percolating process, the dye was submitted to the irradiation at a Gamma Cell source of {sup 60}Co and using its technique of chromatography in thin layer and the reading of the absorption in specter UV was possible to observe that they had not substantial alterations in the chromatographic profiles and specters UV of the solutions submitted to the different doses.

  15. Activity profiles for marine sponge-associated bacteria obtained by 16S rRNA vs 16S rRNA gene comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Taylor, Michael W; Schmitt, Susanne

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in marine sponges is becoming increasingly well described, yet relatively little is known about the activities of these symbionts. Given the seemingly favourable environment provided to microbes by their sponge hosts, as indicated by the extraordinarily high abundance of sponge symbionts, we hypothesized that the majority of sponge-associated bacteria are active in situ. To test this hypothesis we compared, for the first time in sponges, 16S rRNA gene- vs 16S rRNA-derived bacterial community profiles to gain insights into symbiont composition and activity, respectively. Clone libraries revealed a highly diverse bacterial community in Ancorina alata, and a much lower diversity in Polymastia sp., which were identified by electron microscopy as a high- and a low-microbial abundance sponge, respectively. Substantial overlap between DNA and RNA libraries was evident at both phylum and phylotype levels, indicating in situ activity for a large fraction of sponge-associated bacteria. This active fraction included uncultivated, sponge-specific lineages within, for example, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes. This study shows the potential of RNA vs DNA comparisons based on the 16S rRNA gene to provide insights into the activity of sponge-associated microorganisms.

  16. Herdabilidade e ganho genético em caracteres do fruto do maracujazeiro-doce Heritability and genetic gain in fruit of sweet passion fruit characteres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricelma Simiano Jung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O maracujazeiro-doce, Passiflora alata Curtis, é uma planta frutífera que vem despertando interesse econômico principalmente para o consumo in natura. Contudo, precisam ser superados alguns entraves tecnológicos em relação ao seu cultivo, tais como a ausência de cultivares que apresentem frutos com alto rendimento de polpa, resistência mecânica e elevado teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve por objetivo estimar a herdabilidade (h² e o ganho genético esperado com a seleção, para os caracteres peso do fruto, peso da polpa, espessura da casca, sólidos solúveis totais e rendimento de polpa em maracujazeiro-doce, por meio da avaliação de 36 cruzamentos envolvendo seis genitores femininos e seis masculinos. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram uma ampla variação na magnitude dos valores da h² entre os cruzamentos e a predominância de efeitos gênicos de aditividade no controle genético dos caracteres. Assim, é necessário levar em consideração o grande efeito do fator cruzamento na estimativa da h², bem como a realização da seleção direta na maioria das progênies avaliadas em razão de que os efeitos aditivos predominaram no controle da maioria dos caracteres estudados.The sweet passion fruit, Passiflora alata Curtis, is a fruit tree that has been gaining economic importance because their fruits can be consumed in natura due to its unique flavor. However, some technologic obstacles need to be overcome in order to allow plantation in large scale, such as the absence of cultivars producing fruits with high pulp output, mechanic resistance in its skin, and high levels of soluble solids. In this context, this work was carried out to estimate the inheritability (h² and the genetic gain as expected selection response for the traits: weigh of the fruit, weight of the pulp, thickness of the skin, Brix degree and pulp output. To achieve the goals, it was used F1 progenies from 36 crosses involving

  17. Análise de crescimento em amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. submetido à matocompetição Analysis of peanut growth under a weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mauro Barbosa

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram verificados os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle e convivência de plantas daninhas (0; 14; 28; 42; 56; 70; 84 e 98 dias na cultura do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. em Moji-Guaçu (SP. As principais espécies invasoras da área experimental foram: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L., Borreria alata DC., Richardia scabra L., Rhynchelytrum repens (Nees Stapf. et Hubb. e Diodia teres Walt. De maneira geral, durante quase todo o ciclo, a espécie de maior importância relativa foi A. australe, sendo suplantada por outras espécies apenas na colheita, quando já estava encerrando seu ciclo de desenvolvimento. O período inicial de controle das plantas daninhas, além de reduzir a densidade da comunidade infestante, diminuiu sua riqueza em espécies e alterou a importância relativa das populações. A matocompetição resultou na redução do crescimento do amendoinzeiro, principalmente a partir de 42 dias de convivência, afetando a altura das plantas, a área foliar, o índice de área foliar e o acúmulo epígeo de matéria seca. Não foram afetados os números de ramos e de folíolos por planta, nem a qualidade dos grãos e o vigor das sementes do amendoim. A produção de frutos foi reduzida ao redor de 31,5% em decorrência da interferência das plantas daninhas. O período total de prevenção da interferência na produção foi de 14 dias e o período anterior à interferência foi de 70 dias.Effects of different periods (0-14-28-42-56-70-84 and 98 days of weed control in peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were studied in Moji-Guaçu region (State of São Paulo. The main weed species in the experimental area were: Acanthospermum australe (Loef. O. Kuntz, Waltheria indica L.; Borreria alata D.C.; Richardia scabra L.; Rhynchelytrum repens (Ness Stapf. et Hubb and Diodia teres Walt. During the whole peanut life cycle, except at harvest time, the most important weed species was A. australe. The

  18. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  19. Stability of arsenic peptides in plant extracts: off-line versus on-line parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometric detection for liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The instability of metal and metalloid complexes during analytical processes has always been an issue of an uncertainty regarding their speciation in plant extracts. Two different speciation protocols were compared regarding the analysis of arsenic phytochelatin (As(III)PC) complexes in fresh plant material. As the final step for separation/detection both methods used RP-HPLC simultaneously coupled to ICP-MS and ES-MS. However, one method was the often used off-line approach using two-dimensional separation, i.e. a pre-cleaning step using size-exclusion chromatography with subsequent fraction collection and freeze-drying prior to the analysis using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS and/or ES-MS. This approach revealed that less than 2% of the total arsenic was bound to peptides such as phytochelatins in the root extract of an arsenate exposed Thunbergia alata, whereas the direct on-line method showed that 83% of arsenic was bound to peptides, mainly as As(III)PC(3) and (GS)As(III)PC(2). Key analytical factors were identified which destabilise the As(III)PCs. The low pH of the mobile phase (0.1% formic acid) using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS/ES-MS stabilises the arsenic peptide complexes in the plant extract as well as the free peptide concentration, as shown by the kinetic disintegration study of the model compound As(III)(GS)(3) at pH 2.2 and 3.8. But only short half-lives of only a few hours were determined for the arsenic glutathione complex. Although As(III)PC(3) showed a ten times higher half-life (23 h) in a plant extract, the pre-cleaning step with subsequent fractionation in a mobile phase of pH 5.6 contributes to the destabilisation of the arsenic peptides in the off-line method. Furthermore, it was found that during a freeze-drying process more than 90% of an As(III)PC(3) complex and smaller free peptides such as PC(2) and PC(3) can be lost. Although the two-dimensional off-line method has been used successfully for other metal complexes, it is concluded here that the fractionation and

  20. Avaliação da ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em cinco espécies de maracujazeiro, utilizando dois métodos de amostragem Evaluation of seasonal stinkbug occurrence in five passion fruit species using two sampling methods

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    ANTONIO CESAR CAETANO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. através de dois métodos de amostragem: número de percevejos por 0,5 m² e em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar de maracujazeiro pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, entre setembro de 1997 e setembro de 1998. Foram utilizadas cinco espécies de maracujazeiro: P. alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti e P. laurifolia. Após as avaliações semanais pôde-se concluir que as espécies de percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra, L. zonatus, Holhymenia histrio e Anisoscelis foliacea marginella foram as mais abundantes em maracujazeiro. L. gonagra, H. histrio e A. foliacea marginella apresentaram maiores populações entre o final de dezembro e início de maio e L. zonatus ocorreu em maior população entre o final de março e o de julho. O método de 0,5 m² foi o mais adequado para avaliação de percevejos. P. laurifolia foi mais atrativo para L. gonagra, P. edulis f. flavicarpa mais atrativo para L. zonatus e P. giberti para A. foliacea marginella e H. histrio.Stinkbug population dynamics has been studying in passion fruit (Passiflora spp. under field conditions in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. Two sampling methods have been utilized: a countings of the number of insects occurring in a 0.5 m² wooden frame; b countings of the number of insects present in 1.5 linear meter, aside of a tutoring system. Five passion fruit species (Passiflora alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti and P. laurifolia have been checked as to insect occurrence throughout a year. Weekly, insect samples have been collected in 5 randomly choosen sites in the orchard, for each evolution method.The most frequent stinkbug species, considering all the passion fruit species, have been the following: Leptoglossus gonagra, L

  1. Crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes em função da calagem Growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings as a function of liming

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    Elda Bonilha Assis Fonseca

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as respostas em crescimento do maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Dryand. propagado por sementes, quando cultivado sob diferentes níveis de saturação por bases em solos representativos das regiões produtoras de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (2 x 4 + 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos envolveram dois solos (LATOSSOLO VERMELHO AMARELO distrófico - LVAd e LATOSSOLO VERMELHO distrófico - LVd, quatro níveis de saturação por bases (40, 60, 80 e 100% mais dois tratamentos adicionais (LVAd sem calagem e LVd sem calagem. Aos 150 dias, determinaram-se o comprimento das hastes, número de folhas por haste, pesos de matéria seca de parte aérea e de raízes e relação raiz/parte aérea. Concluiu-se que, até 150 dias, o maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes apresentou maior crescimento vegetativo quando cultivado no LVd, em comparação ao LVAd, com ou sem calagem, e tolerou solos com baixos níveis de saturação por bases; o aumento do nível de saturação por bases no LVd reduziu o crescimento vegetativo do maracujazeiro-doce propagado por sementes, enquanto no LVAd, não influenciou o crescimento vegetativo.ABSTRACT - The objective for this work was to evaluate the growth of sweet passion fruit seedlings (Passiflora alata Dryand. under different base saturation levels in representative soils of Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried in the greenhouse of the Agriculture Department of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The statistical design used was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (2 x 4 + 2, with four repetitions. The treatments involved two soil classes (Distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol - LVAd and Distrophic Red Latosol - LVd, four base saturation levels (40, 60, 80 and 100% and two more additional treatments

  2. 决明查尔酮合成酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a Chalone Synthase Gene of Cassia tora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖海; 周嘉裕

    2008-01-01

    以决明(Cassia tora)为实验材料,利用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从决明嫩叶中克隆出查尔酮合成酶(Chal-one synthase,CHS)基因,其cDNA全长为1 459 bp,编码一个由390个氨基酸残基组成的多肽.氨基酸序列分析表明,决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中含有44.61%的中性疏水氨基酸,29.74%的中性亲水氨基酸,12.56%的酸性氨基酸和13.O8%的碱性氨基酸.决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中具有CHS家族酶系的氨基酸保守残基,包括结合底物CoA的结合残基及催化聚酮合成的催化残基,表明其可能参与聚酮化合物的合成.决明与其它植物CHS的氨基酸序列的进化分析表明,其与同为豆科决明属的翼叶决明(Cassia alata)的同源性较近,并且CHS家族可以分为CHS亚家族与非CHS亚家族.将得到的序列提交GenBank,登录号为EU430077.%Using Cassia tara as material,a cDNA encoding chalone synthase (CHS) was cloned from tender leaves of Cassia tara by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CHS from Cassia tara had 1 459 bp with an open reading frame encoding 390 amino acids of protein. There were 44.61% of neutral hydrophobic residues,29.74% of neutral hydrophilic residues,12.56% of acid residues,and 13.08% of alkaline residues in the CHS amino acid sequence. It was suggested that the CHS from Cassia tara might be involved with the biosynthesis of polyketide since it maintained the same functional regions involved with CoA binding site and catalytic residues conserved in the CHS-superfamily enzymes. Furthermore, phylogenic analysis on the amino acid sequence of CHS from Cassia tara with other plants showed that Cassia tara was closely related to Cassia alata,and CHS-superfamily enzymes. They could be grouped into CHS-subfamily and non CHS-subfamily. The accession number of CHS from Cassia tara in GenBank was EU430077.

  3. Identificación del agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, México

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    Ernesto Hernández Mendieta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification of the white rot agent in Morelos, MexicoTítulo corto: Agente causal de la pudrición blanca en Morelos, MéxicoResumen: Cepas aisladas de Trametes versicolor (L.:Fr. Pilát causando pudrición blanca en especies arbóreas de amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cirián o cuatecomate (Crescentia alata, guayaba (Psidium guajava y sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana en los municipios de Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla, Tepalcingo, Tlaltizapán, Tlaquiltenango y Zacatepec de Hidalgo en el estado de Morelos, México se desarrollaron en medio de cultivo agua-agar enriquecido con 2,4-D amina en concentraciones de 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 y 5000 ppm, con el objetivo de conocer su desarrollo en esta sal. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en un intervalo de 50 a 1000 ppm con un óptimo de 500 a 1000 ppm.L, las concentraciones de 2000 a 5000 ppm inhiben el desarrollo del hongo. Se confirma que las cepas aisladas de T. versicolor pueden emplearse como herramienta potencial de biorremediación de aguas contaminadas por ácido 2,4-D que es empleado como herbicida para el control de malezas de hoja ancha en cultivos de maíz, arroz, caña de azúcar y sorgo en la región de estudio.Palabras clave: Trametes versicolor, identificación, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacetico, 2,4-D.Abstract: Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr Pilát was identified causing white rot of hardwood tree species of amate amarillo (Ficus petiolaris, cuatecomate or cirián (Crescentia alata, guayava (Psidium guajava and sauce colorado (Salix humboltiana in municipalities of Ayala, Cuautla, Cuernavaca, Jojutla Tepalcingo Tlaltizapan, Tlaquiltenango and Zacatepec de Hidalgo in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Collected strains were grown in water-agar culture medium with 2,4-D amine at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm with the aim of know their growth in this salt. The best results were found

  4. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

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    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  5. Breeding and Application of a New Yam Cultivar “Minghuai No.1”%淮山药新品种“明淮1号”的选育及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芝华; 华树妹; 李丽红; 雷伏贵; 贺佩珍; 曹奕鸯; 莫智龙

    2016-01-01

    “明淮1号”是从福建当地品种上杭扫把薯的自然变异群体中通过单株选择和无性繁殖培育而成的粮菜兼用型山药新品种。该品种属于晚熟淮山药品种,为紫肉扁块状参薯,在连续两年的区域试验和生产试验中比对照“上杭扫把薯”增产显著,具有产量高、耐贫瘠、抗逆性强、适应性广和适合机械化栽培等特点,具有较高的开发应用前景。%“Minghuai No.1” was a new cultivar with double dual-purpose of staple food and vegetable yam, through which selection individual plant and asexual reproduction from a group of natural variation population of local broom yam in Shanghang city, Fujian province. The cultivar is a late maturity yam variety with purple lfeshed and lfat block, which belong to the speices ofDioscorea alata L.. In the two years of regional and production trials, the new cultivar had higher yield, poorer tolerance, stronger resistance, wider adaptability and better suitable for mechanical cultivation than the control. According to these, the new cultivar “Minghuai No.1” had a high development and application prospects.

  6. Desenvolvimento de maracujazeiro-amarelo enxertado sobre maracujazeiro-doce em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio

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    Mauricio Dominguez Nasser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos de plantio no desenvolvimento do maracujazeiro-amarelo (Passiflora edulis Sims enxertado sobre o maracujazeiro-doce (Passiflora alata Curtis em área com histórico de morte prematura de plantas. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Adamantina-SP, no período de abril de 2008 a junho de 2009, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de diferentes espaçamentos na linha de plantio: T1-1,0 m (3.125 plantas/ha; T2-1,5 m (2.083 plantas/ha; T3- 2,0 m (1.563 plantas/ha; T4-3,0 m (1.042 plantas/ha; T5- 4,0 m (781 plantas/ha, e T6- 5,0 m (625 plantas/ha. O espaçamento nas entrelinhas foi de 3,2 m de largura em todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o diâmetro do caule do porta-enxerto, o diâmetro do caule do enxerto, o comprimento de entrenó, o comprimento dos ramos secundários e o número de ramos terciários. O adensamento de plantas não favoreceu o desenvolvimento de plantas enxertadas.

  7. Surveillance of multidrug resistance of 6 uropathogens in a teaching hospital and in vitro control by 25 ethnomedicinal plants used by an aborigine of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shakti Rath; Debasmita Dubey; Mahesh C Sahu; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial potencies of 25 plants with reports on ethnomedicinal uses for infectious ailments by the aborigine Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, Odisha state, India for urinary tract infections. Methods: Over a period of 6 months, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of 6 uropathogenic bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples in a teaching hospital; their antibiograms were ascertained. Concentrated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of plants were used for monitoring their antimicrobial potencies, by the agar-well diffusion method. Phytochemical analyses of plant parts were done. Results: All isolated bacterial strains were resistant to 15 antibiotics of 6 groups including β-lactams. From a surveillance of bacterial isolates, it was evident that the distribution of MDR strains of each was more in hospital acquired isolates than the community acquired ones. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and Withaniasomnifera Several plants were moderately effective during in vitro control of the pathogens. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba), Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Oroxylum indicum (O. indicum) were totally ineffective in the control of isolated MDR uropathogen. A. indica, T. arjuna and T. alata contained the full range of phytochemicals (alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids), which could be attributed to the significant anti-uropathogenic activities. Conclusion: Plants, A. indica, A. marmelos, Cassiafistula (W. somnifera) were highly effective against MDR isolates of all these pathogens. (C. fistula), T. arjuna, Salvadora persica (S. persica), W. somnifera and Vitex

  8. New microsome-associated HT-family proteins from Nicotiana respond to pollination and define an HT/NOD-24 protein family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsuhiko Kondo; Bruce McClure

    2008-01-01

    HT-family proteins have been identified in Nicotiana, Solanum,and Petunia.HT-B-type proteins are implicated in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility,but the functions of other family members are unknown.Screening for cDNA sequences with an expression pattern similar to HT-B in Nicotiana alata revealed a new group of small HT-family proteins.designated HT-M.HT-M proteins resemble HT-B in several respects:their pistil-specific expression pattern iS indistinguish-able from HT-B,they pellet with a microsome fraction,and their abundance decreases after pollination.Unlike HT-B,there iS no S-specificity to this response,and RNAi experiments show that HT-M proteins are not necessary for self-incompatibility.Identification of a third group of pistil-specific HT-family proteins helps better define the characteristics of the family and allowed identification of putative new family members.By searching the databases with only the most conserved HT-family sequence elements,the signal sequence and cysteine motifs,we identified nodulin-24-1ike proteins and several small glycine-rich proteins as putative HT-family members.Like HT-M and HT-B,nodulin-24 iS membrane associated.We propose that the conserved features in HT-family proteins are important for targeting or modification and refer to the broader family that includes both HT-and nodulin-24-like proteins as the HT/NOD-24-family.

  9. Alterações nas características físicas do maracujá-doce submetido à imersão em solução de cloreto de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Alessandra Pereira da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da imersão em solução de cloreto de cálcio nas características físicas do maracujá-doce (Passiflora alata Dryander, durante seu armazenamento. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio pré-climatérico, após desinfecção com o fungicida thiabendazol (1g/l foram imersos, por duas horas, nas seguintes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio: testemunha (0% de CaCl2, 1% de CaCl2, 2% de CaCl2, 3% de CaCl2 e 4% de CaCl2. Após os tratamentos, todos os frutos foram armazenados sob condições de refrigeração (9°C e 85-90% UR, durante 30 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados a cada 6 dias quanto à perda de massa fresca, coloração e rendimento de polpa. Ao final do período estudado pode-se verificar que a concentração de 1% de CaCl2 foi a que melhor retardou a evolução da cor da casca. Não ocorreu influência das doses aplicadas na perda de massa fresca e no rendimento de polpa dos frutos. A concentração de 4% de CaCl2 foi excessiva para o maracujá-doce, pois contribuiu para a perda de massa fresca e para o amadurecimento dos frutos.

  10. Homology of head sclerites in Burgess Shale euarthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Javier

    2015-06-15

    The Cambrian fossil record of euarthropods (extant arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods) has played a major role in understanding the origins of these successful animals and indicates that early ancestors underwent an evolutionary transition from soft-bodied taxa (lobopodians) to more familiar sclerotized forms with jointed appendages [1-3]. Recent advances in paleoneurology and developmental biology show that this major transformation is reflected by substantial changes in the head region of early euarthropods, as informed by the segmental affinity of the cephalic appendages [1, 4-6]. However, data on the implications of this reorganization for non-appendicular exoskeletal structures are lacking, given the difficulty of inferring the precise segmental affinities of these features. Here, I report neurological remains associated with the stalked eyes and "anterior sclerite" in the (middle Cambrian) Burgess Shale euarthropods Helmetia expansa and Odaraia alata and provide evidence that these features are associated with nerve traces originating from the anterior brain region, the protocerebrum. The position of the protocerebral ganglia in exceptionally preserved Cambrian euarthropods indicates the homology of the anterior sclerite in extinct groups (e.g., fuxianhuiids, bivalved forms, artiopodans [7, 8]) and allows new comparisons with the dorsal cephalic plate of radiodontans, large nektonic predators whose anterior segmental organization bears fundamental similarities to that of Paleozoic lobopodians [1, 6, 9, 10]. These observations allow reconstruction of the segmental architecture of the head region in the earliest sclerotized euarthropods and demonstrate the deep homology between exoskeletal features in an evolutionary continuum of taxa with distinct types of body organization.

  11. The frequency of blood-born viral infections in a population of multitransfused Brazilian patients Freqüência de infecções virais transmitidas por transfusões em uma população de pacientes brasileiros multitransfundidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas T. Covas

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of viral markers for hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 was evaluated in 32 Brazilian ß-thalassemia multitransfused patients. Additionaly the serum concentrations of ferritin and alanine aspartate transaminase (ALAT were determined. The results show a high prevalence of markers of infection by HBV (25.0% and HCV (46.8% and a low prevalence of markers for HIV-1 and HTLV-1. No correlations were demonstrated between the presence of the hepatitis markers and the number of units transfused or the serum concentrations of ferritin and ALAT.A freqüência de marcadores virais para hepatite B (HBV, C (HCV, vírus da imunodeficiência humana-1 (HIV-1 e vírus linfotrópico-T humano (HTLV-1 foi avaliada em 32 pacientes brasileiros multitransfundidos, portadores de ß-talassemia. Adicionalmente determinou-se a concentração sérica de transaminase alani-na aspártica (ALAT e de ferritina. Os resultados mostraram alta prevalência de marcadores para HBV (25,0% e HCV (46,8% e baixa prevalência de marcadores para HIV-1 e HTLV-1. Não se demonstrou correlação entre a presença de marcadores para hepatite e o número de unidades transfundidas ou com as concentrações séricas de ferritina e ALAT.

  12. Agp2p, the plasma membrane transregulator of polyamine uptake, regulates the antifungal activities of the plant defensin NaD1 and other cationic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleackley, Mark R; Wiltshire, Jennifer L; Perrine-Walker, Francine; Vasa, Shaily; Burns, Rhiannon L; van der Weerden, Nicole L; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2014-05-01

    Cationic antifungal peptides (AFPs) act through a variety of mechanisms but share the common feature of interacting with the fungal cell surface. NaD1, a defensin from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a variety of fungi of both hyphal and yeast morphologies. The mechanism of action of NaD1 occurs via three steps: binding to the fungal cell surface, permeabilization of the plasma membrane, and internalization and interaction with intracellular targets to induce fungal cell death. The targets at each of these three stages have yet to be defined. In this study, the screening of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection led to the identification of Agp2p as a regulator of the potency of NaD1. Agp2p is a plasma membrane protein that regulates the transport of polyamines and other molecules, many of which carry a positive charge. Cells lacking the agp2 gene were more resistant to NaD1, and this resistance was accompanied by a decreased uptake of defensin. Agp2p senses and regulates the uptake of the polyamine spermidine, and competitive inhibition of the antifungal activity of NaD1 by spermidine was observed in both S. cerevisiae and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The resistance of agp2Δ cells to other cationic antifungal peptides and decreased binding of the cationic protein cytochrome c to agp2Δ cells compared to that of wild-type cells have led to a proposed mechanism of resistance whereby the deletion of agp2 leads to an increase in positively charged molecules at the cell surface that repels cationic antifungal peptides.

  13. Enzymatic, expression and structural divergences among carboxyl O-methyltransferases after gene duplication and speciation in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippauf, Frank; Michalsky, Elke; Huang, Ruiqi; Preissner, Robert; Barkman, Todd J; Piechulla, Birgit

    2010-02-01

    Methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate have important roles in a variety of processes including pollinator attraction and plant defence. These compounds are synthesized by salicylic acid, benzoic acid and benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferases (SAMT, BAMT and BSMT) which are members of the SABATH gene family. Both SAMT and BSMT were isolated from Nicotiana suaveolens, Nicotiana alata, and Nicotiana sylvestris allowing us to discern levels of enzyme divergence resulting from gene duplication in addition to species divergence. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Nicotiana SAMTs and BSMTs evolved in separate clades and the latter can be differentiated into the BSMT1 and the newly established BSMT2 branch. Although SAMT and BSMT orthologs showed minimal change coincident with species divergences, substantial evolutionary change of enzyme activity and expression patterns occurred following gene duplication. After duplication, the BSMT enzymes evolved higher preference for benzoic acid (BA) than salicylic acid (SA) whereas SAMTs maintained ancestral enzymatic preference for SA over BA. Expression patterns are largely complementary in that BSMT transcripts primarily accumulate in flowers, leaves and stems whereas SAMT is expressed mostly in roots. A novel enzyme, nicotinic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (NAMT), which displays a high degree of activity with nicotinic acid was discovered to have evolved in N. gossei from an ancestral BSMT. Furthermore a SAM-dependent synthesis of methyl anthranilate via BSMT2 is reported and contrasts with alternative biosynthetic routes previously proposed. While BSMT in flowers is clearly involved in methyl benzoate synthesis to attract pollinators, its function in other organs and tissues remains obscure.

  14. Comparing regional modeling (CHIMERE) and satellite observations of aerosols (PARASOL): Methodology and case study over Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromatas, Stavros

    2010-05-01

    S. Stromatas (1), S. Turquety (1), H. Chepfer (1), L. Menut (1), B. Bessagnet (2), JC Pere (2), D. Tanré (3) . (1) Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS/IPSL, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France, (2) INERIS, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Parc technologique ALATA, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte, FRANCE, (3) Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique/CNRS Univ. des Sciences et Tech. de Lille, 59650 - Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. Atmospheric suspended particles (aerosols) have significant radiative and environmental impacts, affecting human health, visibility and climate. Therefore, they are regulated by air quality standards worldwide, and monitored by regional observation networks. Satellite observations vastly improve the horizontal and temporal coverage, providing daily distributions. Aerosols are currently estimated using aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals, a quantitative measure of the extinction of solar radiation by aerosol scattering and absorption between the point of observation and the top of the atmosphere. Even though remarkable progresses in aerosol modeling by chemistry-transport models (CTM) and measurement experiments have been made in recent years, there is still a significant divergence between the modeled and observed results. However, AOD retrievals from satellites remains a highly challenging task mostly because it depends on a variety of different parameters such as cloud contamination, surface reflectance contributions and a priori assumptions on aerosol types, each one of them incorporating its own difficulties. Therefore, comparisons between CTM and observations are often difficult to interpret. In this presentation, we will discuss comparisons between regional modeling (CHIMERE CTM) over Mexico and satellite observations obtained by the POLDER instrument embarked on PARASOL micro-satellite. After a comparison of the model AOD with the retrieved L2 AOD, we will present an alternative

  15. A novel proteinaceous cytotoxin from the northern Scyphozoa Cyanea capillata (L.) with structural homology to cubozoan haemolysins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Stephan; Helmholz, Heike; Ruhnau, Christiane; Prange, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that jellyfish are producers of complex mixtures of proteinaceous toxins for prey capture and defence. Nevertheless, studies on boreal scyphozoans concerning venom composition and toxic effects are rare. Here the isolation of a novel cytotoxic protein from the fishing tentacle venom of Cyanea capillata (L. 1758) using bioactivity-guided, multidimensional liquid chromatography is described. The crude venom was purified utilising preparative size-exclusion, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography. The cytotoxicity of resulting chromatographic fractions has been proven by a dye-uptake assay with the human hepatocyte cell line HepG2. The final purification step yielded, among other fractions, a fraction containing a single protein (named CcTX-1) with a molecular weight of its main isoform of 31.17 kDa The purification process leads to an increased cytotoxic activity per protein equivalents and the finally isolated CcTX-1 caused a nearly total loss of cell viability at a protein concentration of 1.3 μg mL⁻¹ corresponding to 0.4 μg/10⁵ cells. De novo sequencing of CcTX-1 was conducted after enzymatic digestion and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF/ToF MS/MS). The obtained sequence data provide an approximate 85% description of the amino acid sequence. This sequence information partially matched that of two known haemolytic proteins of two cubozoan species: CaTX-1 from Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 and CrTX-1 from Carybdea rastonii Haacke, 1886.

  16. Regeneração pós-fogo em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa, MG

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    Sebastião Martins Venâncio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a vegetação colonizadora seis meses após perturbação por fogo, em uma á rea do Campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa (20o 45’ S, 42o 51’ W , MG. A á rea total de floresta secundá ria atingida por incê ndio foi de 12 hectares, apresentando níveis diferenciados de destruição da vegetação. O estudo concentrou-se no trecho onde o efeito do fogo foi mais drá stico, com a destruição total da cobertura vegetal. Dentro da á rea de estudo, foram comparadas duas toposseqüê ncias de relevo: côncavo (ravina e convexo (crista. Em cada toposseqüê ncia, foram instaladas dezoito parcelas contíguas de 5x5 m, totalizando 36 parcelas, nas quais foram identificadas todas as plantas vasculares. No total, foram amostradas 75 espécies, pertencentes a 26 famílias. As famílias mais ricas em espécies foram: Asteraceae (14, Poaceae (10, Malvaceae (7 e Fabaceae (6. Na toposseq üê ncia crista as espécies com maior valor de cobertura foram: Sida carpinifolia seguida de Melinis minutiflora, Diodia alata e Eupatorium laevigatum, e na ravina: Melinis minutiflora, Eupatorium laevigatum, Sida carpinifolia e Sidastrum paniculatum. Todas as parcelas apresentaram mais de 90% da á rea coberta por vegetação herbá cea e subarbustiva, destacando a importâ ncia dessa vegetação inicial na proteção do solo contra processos erosivos em relevos acidentados.

  17. Development of analytical methods for the determination of tenuazonic acid analogues in food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asam, Stefan; Lichtenegger, Martina; Muzik, Kornelija; Liu, Yang; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2013-05-10

    Analogues of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TA, biosynthesized by the fungus from the amino acid isoleucine) derived from valine (ValTA), leucine (LeuTA), alanine (AlaTA) and phenylalanine (PheTA) were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Concentrations of stock solutions were determined by quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR). Two analytical methods based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and MS detection were developed, one with derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and one without derivatization. Limits of detection (LODs) were between 1-3 μg/kg (with derivatization) and 50-80 μg/kg (without derivatization). Respective limits of quantitation (LOQs) were about three times higher. Beside TA, the analogues LeuTA (about 4% of TA content) and ValTA (about 10% of TA content) were found in highly contaminated sorghum infant cereals and sorghum grains. Other analogues were not detected. Quantification of LeuTA and ValTA was performed using [(13)C6,(15)N]-TA as internal standard and matrix matched calibration. Recovery was between 95±11% and 102±10% for both compounds. Precision (relative standard deviation of triplicate sorghum cereal analyses three times during 3 weeks) was 7% for TA (912±60 μg/kg), 17% for LeuTA (43±8 μg/kg) and 19% for ValTA (118±22 μg/kg). These results indicate that several TA-like compounds, which are not yet characterized in aspects of their toxic properties, were detected in sorghum based infant food highly contaminated with TA, already.

  18. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  19. 江苏省维管植物分布新记录(三)%New records of vascular plants in Jiangsu Province ( Ⅲ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶康; 刘启新; 邓懋彬; 褚晓芳

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: According to plant investigation result in Yixing and Liyang of Jiangsu Province, ten species, one subspecies and one variety belonging to eleven genera of ten families are reported as new records in Jiangsu Province, viz. Machilus pauhoi Kanehira, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata subsp. viridis (A. C. Smith) R. M. K. Saunders, Broussonetia kaempferi Sieb. var. australis Suzuki, Laportea cuspidate (Wedd.) Friis, Oreocnide frutescens (Thunb.) Miq., Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana (A. Camus) Y. S. Hsu et H. W. Jen, Achyranthes longifolia (Makino) Makino, Eurya alata Kobuski, Hyperwum seniavinii Maxim., Viola palrinii DC. ex Ging., V. violacea Makino and Vaccinium trichocladum Merr. et Met. And Oreocnide Miq. is a new record genus in Jiangsu Province. Some of them are simply analyzed on resources, flora and distribution.%结合《江苏植物志》(增订版)的修订,作者对江苏境内植物做了补充调查并发现了一些江苏省分布新记录.续前文[1-2],本文报道了分布于宜溧山地的部分江苏新记录属和新记录种,共计有10种1亚种1变种,隶属10个科11个属,其中有新记录属1个.另外,从植物资源利用、植物区系及分布范围等方面对部分种类进行了简要分析.凭证标本均保存于江苏省·中国科学院植物研究所标本馆(NAS).

  20. Living (stained) benthic foraminifera from the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa): Exploring ecology of deep-sea unicellular meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, C.; Garnier, E.; Brandily, C.; Dennielou, B.; Bichon, S.; Gayet, N.; Eugene, T.; Rovere, M.; Grémare, A.; Deflandre, B.

    2016-09-01

    Live (Rose-Bengal stained) deep-sea foraminiferal faunas have been studied at four stations between 530 and 3200-m depth in the Mozambique Channel (eastern Africa) to understand how complex environmental conditions (e.g., organic matter, oxygenation) control their ecological structure (i.e., diversity, density, and microhabitats). Two upper-slope stations, located at 530- and 780-m depth off Madagascar, are bathed by well-oxygenated bottom waters. They are characterized by fine sediments enriched in highly degraded organic matter (low amino-acid bio-availability and reduced chlorophyllic freshness). Mineralization of organic compounds results in relatively moderate oxygen penetration depth (i.e., 15 and 30 mm) in sediment. Interestingly, foraminiferal species richness (S) is exceptionally high at both sites. The highest densities are observed in the 780-m deep station, where peculiar sedimentary facies of organic matter are recorded (OC >2.0% DW). Redox conditions and sedimentary organic matter control the composition and the vertical distribution (i.e. microhabitat) of benthic faunas at both upper-slope sites. Bolivina alata, Bulimina marginata, Haplophragmoides bradyi and Nouria compressa are relevant bio-indicators of enhanced burial of organic matter prevailing at the 780-m deep station (i.e., eutrophic conditions), whereas Uvigerina hispida and Uvigerina semiornata are dominant at the 530-m deep station (i.e., relatively mesotrophic conditions). Two other stations are located on well-ventilated terraces from the deep-sea canyons of Tsiribihina and Zambezi (>3000-m depth). They are characterized by carbonate ooze, which is depleted in degraded organic matter and, where oxygen penetration depth is relatively deep (i.e.,>80 mm). Because of food scarcity, S and densities are relatively low, and agglutinated and organic-walled taxa dominate foraminiferal faunas. Hospitella fulva, a foraminiferal species belonging to Allogromiida, occupies very deep infaunal

  1. ВЛИЯНИЕ СЕЗОННОСТИ НА ИНКУБИРОВАНИЕ ЯИЦ ТРЕМАТОД

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ПОСТЕВОЙ А.Н.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Сезонность не влияет на инкубирование яиц трематод Alaria alata, Fasciola hepatica и выход мирацидиев в лабораторных условиях. Из яиц возбудителя фасциолеза отмечена вылупляемость мирацидиев несколько выше в весенний период года (0,24% по сравнению с остальными сезонами. Незначительно высокий выход мирацидиев из яиц алярий отмечен в зимний период (5,3%.

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate fertilization on initial growth of six arboreal species of cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Alves Pereira Lacerda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the benefit of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, for the initial growth of some native arboreal species of the Cerrado biome, namely gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana, baru (Dipterix alata, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril, ingá (Inga laurina, caroba (Jacaranda cuspidifolia and chichá (Sterculia striata, in unsterilized soil with low (0.02 mg L‑1 and high (0.2 mg L‑1 concentrations of P in the soil solution. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, using 1.5 kg vases, for up to 120 days. The experimental design for each arboreal species was completely randomized, with ten replicates in a 2x2 factorial design (inoculated and noninoculated seedlings, and two levels of phosphorus (P in the soil solution. Arboreal plants of the Cerrado biome showed increased mycorrhizal colonization from inoculation with Glomus clarum, except chichá, as this species showed a high indigenous colonization, not differing from the colonization promoted by inoculated fungi. Inoculation promoted increased growth in baru, gabiroba, ingá, caroba and chichá, increasing shoot dry matter (MSPA and root dry matter (MSR. In caroba, this effect was synergistic with application of P to the soil. Baru and jatobá showed increased dry matter with application of P to the soil only. The mycotrophy (mycorrhizal dependence of species and their response to inoculation and to phosphorus are discussed. In order to produce quality seedlings of caroba, gabiroba, chichá and ingá, combining inoculation with Glomus clarum and phosphate fertilization of the soil is recommended, while for jatobá and baru only the application of P to the soil is recommended.

  3. Specific Dioscorea Phytoextracts Enhance Potency of TCL-Loaded DC-Based Cancer Vaccines

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    Wei-Ting Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea tuber phytoextracts can confer immunomodulatory activities ex vivo and improve regeneration of bone marrow cells in vivo. In present study, we evaluated specific Dioscorea phytoextracts for use ex vivo as a bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell- (DC- based vaccine adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. Fractionated Dioscorea extracts (DsII were assayed for their effect on maturation and functions of DC ex vivo and antimelanoma activity of DC-based vaccine in vivo. The phytoextract from 50–75% ethanol-precipitated fraction of Dioscorea alata var. purpurea Tainung no. 5 tuber, designated as DsII-TN5, showed a strong augmentation of tumor cell lysate- (TCL- loaded DC-mediated activation of T-cell proliferation. DsII-TN5 stimulated the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and IL-1β in TCL-loaded DCs and downregulated the expression of TGF-β1. DC vaccines prepared by a specific schema (TCL (2 h + LPS (22 h showed the strongest antitumor activity. DsII-TN5 as a DC vaccine adjuvant showed strong antimelanoma activity and reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC population in tested mice. DsII-TN5 can also activate DCs to enhance Th1- and Th17-related cytokine expressions. Biochemical analysis showed that DsII-TN5 consists mainly of polysaccharides containing a high level (53% of mannose residues. We suggest that DsII-TN5 may have potential for future application as a potent, cost-effective adjuvant for DC-based cancer vaccines.

  4. Integrated comparative metabolite profiling via MS and NMR techniques for Senna drug quality control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Porzel, Andrea; Mahrous, Engy A; El-Massry, Mo'men M; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2015-03-01

    Senna alexandrina Mill (Cassia acutifolia and Cassia angustifolia) are used for the laxative medicine Senna. Leaves and pods from two geographically different sources were distinguished from each other via proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously quantify and identify 107 metabolites including 21 anthraquinones, 24 bianthrones (including sennosides), 5 acetophenones, 25 C/O-flavonoid conjugates, 5 xanthones, 3 naphthalenes, 2 further phenolics, and 9 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. For sample classification based on tissue type (leaf and pod), both UPLC-MS and NMR were found to be more effective in separation than on geographical origin. Results reveal that the amounts of the major classes of bioactives in Senna, i.e., flavonoids and sennosides, varied significantly among organs. Leaves contained more flavonoids and ω-3 fatty acids but fewer benzophenone derivatives than pods. In contrast, pods were more enriched in bianthrones (sennosides). PCA analysis was found to be equally effective in predicting the origin of the commercial Senna preparation using NMR and/or UPLC-MS datasets. Furthermore, a selection of six so far uninvestigated Senna species were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Results revealed that the Senna alata leaf in terms of secondary metabolite composition is the most closely related species to S. alexandrina Mill, showing the highest levels of the anthraquinone "rhein" and flavonoid conjugates. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing both UPLC-MS and NMR to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences among Senna species.

  5. Flower-bud formation in explants of photoperiodic and day-neutral Nicotiana biotypes and its bearing on the regulation of flower formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeevan, M.S.; Lang, A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1993-05-15

    The capacity to form flower buds in thin-layer explants was studied in Nicotiana of several species, cultivars, and lines of differing in their response to photoperiod. This capacity was found in all biotypes examined and could extend into sepals and corolla. It varied depending on genotype, source tissue and its developmental state, and composition of the culture medium, particularly the levels of glucose, auxin, and cytokinin. It was greatest in the two day-neutral plants examined, Samsun tobacco and Nicotiana rustica, where it extended from the inflorescence region down the vegetative stem, in a basipetally decreasing gradient; it was least in the two qualitative photoperiodic plants studied, the long-day plant Nicotiana silvestris and the short-day plant Maryland Mammoth tobacco, the quantitative long-day plant Nicotiana alata and the quantitative short-day plant Nicotiana otophora line 38-G-81, where it was limited to the pedicels (and, in some cases, the sepals). Regardless of the photoperiodic response of the source plants, the response was the same in explants cultured under long and short days. The capacity to form flow buds in explants is present in all Nicotiana biotypes studied supports the idea that it is regulated by the same mechanism(s), regardless of the plant's photoperiodic character. However, flower formation in the explants is not identical with de novo flower formation in a hitherto vegetative plant: it is rather the expression of a floral state already established in the plant, although it can vary widely in extent and spatial distribution. Culture conditions that permit flower-bud formation in an explant are conditions that maintain the floral state and encourage its expression; conditions under which no flower buds are formed reduce this state and/or prevent its expression. 14 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  7. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 3. Sections Hyalis and Morphixia

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    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A revised classification is presented for Ixia L., a southern African genus restricted to the winter rainfall zone of the western part of the subcontinent, in which the four sections Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, Hyalis (Baker Diels, Ixia, and Morphixia (Ker Gawl. Pax are recognized and diagnosed. The circumscription of sect. Hyalis is emended to include both short- and long-tubed species, mostly with four or more leaves with the uppermost not sharply differentiated from the lower. This contrast with sect. Morphixia, also with short- and long-tubed species, in which the entirely sheathing uppermost leaf (rarely upper two leaves is distinct from the lower two or rarely three leaves, which have well-developed blades. We revise these two sections, recognizing 18 species in sect. Hyalis, including the two new species, I. linderi and I. recondita, and recognizing 31 species in sect. Morphixia, including the 11 new species, I. alata, I. cedarmontana, I. dolichosiphon, I. ecklonii, I. linearifolia, I. monticola (previously included in I. latifolia var. angustifolia, I. pavonia, I. parva and I. ramulosa (raised from varietal rank as var. parviflora and var. ramulosa respectively of I. latifolia, I. saundersiana and I. stenophylla (previously I. fucata var. filifolia. We also provide a new name, I. mollis for the illegitimate homonym I. flaccida. Lastly, we transfer I. purpureorosea from sect. Ixia to sect. Hyalis. We recognize eight informal series, three in sect. Hyalis and five in sect. Morphixia. With these changes and additions the genus Ixia now comprises 78 species.

  8. Vascular Epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye: A Comparative Study, Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia

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    Zeleke Assefa Getaneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes comprise about 10% of the world’s total flora. However, the survival of these important elements of the global vegetation is recognized to be increasingly threatened, and surveys made to study them remain far from being complete. This study has focused on investigating the vascular epiphytes (true epiphytes, hemiepiphytes, and accidental epiphytes in Doshke and Kurpaye forests of Gamo Gofa zone, southwest Ethiopia. A total of 40 (20 in each 25 m × 25 m quadrats were established along four line transects for vegetation data collection. A total of 35 species of vascular epiphytes were recorded in the two sites (22 and 14 species from Doshke and Kurpaye, resp.. Drynaria volkensii was the only species to be recorded from the two sites. Doshke and Kurpaye forests also varied in the number of phorophytes (17 and 10 phorophytes species, resp.. The richest epiphyte family of Doshke is Orchidaceae (5 species and that of Kurpaye is Polypodiaceae (3 species while Orchidaceae dominate the combined flora being represented by 7 species. In terms of vertical distribution, most species were located at the canopy area. Most vascular epiphytes showed no preference for host trees except for a few species which exhibited higher occurrence rates on the host plant species Syzygium guineense, Schrebera alata, and Acacia tortilis. Vascular epiphyte abundance and species richness were both significantly positively correlated with host tree size. Vascular epiphytes of the studied forests are under a serious pressure, mainly due to anthropogenic activities, and this may lead to their local extinction.

  9. Functional and Pasting Properties of Lesser Known Nigerian Yams as a Function of Blanching Time and Particle Size

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    P.A. Okorie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of blanching time and particle size on functional and pasting characteristics of some lesser known Nigerian yams were investigated. Two varieties of lesser known yam Ighu and Ona belonging to Dioscorea dometorum species and two varieties of commonly used yams ozibo and okwanankata belonging to the D. rotunda and D. alata sp., respectively. The yams were processed by peeling, cubing, and blanching at 100ºC for 5 or 10 min, drying at 50ºC and subsequently milled to flours and fractionated to 40, 60, or 80 mesh sizes. Another batch of the tubers were processed similarly, but they were not subjected to a blanching treatment. Swelling capacity, water absorption capacities, bulk density, solubility and pasting characteristics were evaluated. The result showed that the lesser known yam Ighu exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05 hot and cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities than the common yam varieties. Hot and Cold paste viscosities, solubility, water absorption and swelling capacities of flour generally increased as particle size decreased in all the test samples. While the bulk density was not affected by the blanching treatment, it decreased with decrease in particle size. The yam starches generally showed weak stability,but starch of the lesser known variety Ona suffered the least share thinning . Rate of retrogradation was found to be high in all the yam varieties but more pronounced in the lesser known yams Ighu and Ona. Ighu starch which exhibited the highest cold and hot paste viscosity showed the highest setback and index of gelatinization values. Industrial and culinary applications of the test yam varieties were suggested.

  10. The plant defensin NaD1 induces tumor cell death via a non-apoptotic, membranolytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy A; Poon, Ivan Kh; Hulett, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Cationic anti-microbial peptides (CAPs) have an important role in host innate defense against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Many CAPs including defensins also exhibit selective cytotoxic activity towards mammalian cells via both apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes, and are being investigated as potential anticancer agents. The anti-fungal plant defensin from ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata Defensin 1 (NaD1), was recently shown to induce necrotic-like cell death in a number of tumor cell types within 30 min of treatment, at a concentration of 10 μM. NaD1-mediated cell killing within these experimental parameters has been shown to occur via binding to the plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in target cells to facilitate membrane destabilization and subsequent lysis. Whether NaD1 is also capable of inducing apoptosis in tumor cells has not been reported previously. In this study, treatment of MM170 (melanoma) and Jurkat T (leukemia) cells with subacute (CAPs that have been shown to induce apoptosis through caspase activation, dying cells were not sensitive to a pancaspase inhibitor nor did they display caspase activity or DNA fragmentation over the 24 h treatment time. Furthermore, over the 24 h period, cells exhibited necrotic phenotypes and succumbed to membrane permeabilization. These results indicate that the cytotoxic mechanism of NaD1 at subacute concentrations is membranolytic rather than apoptotic and is also likely to be mediated through a PIP2-targeting cell lytic pathway.

  11. Plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros no município de Jataí, estado de Goiás

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    L.F. SOUZA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho objetivou pesquisar as plantas medicinais referenciadas por raizeiros do município de Jataí-GO, evidenciando o Valor de Uso Reportado (VUR e a conexão com os níveis filogenéticos atuais. Com cerca de 200 anos de história, Jataí localiza-se no Planalto Central do Brasil, Sudoeste de Goiás (17°52’53’’S e 51°42’52’’W, tendo atualmente, como principal fonte de renda o agronegócio. Para a seleção dos raizeiros e coleta dos dados aplicou-se o método bola de neve e a técnica de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Determinou-se a etnoespécie, parte usada, uso, modo de preparo, sintomas / doenças relacionando aos sistemas corporais. Foram reportadas 515 referências etnobotânicas para 112 etnoespécies principalmente dos clados Fabídeas, Lamídeas, e Campanulídeas. Sobressaíram as etnoespécies Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphilliticus, Sangra-dágua (C. urucurana, Pau-terra-de-folha-larga (Qualea grandiflora, Erva-de-Santa Maria (Chenopodium album, Amaro-leite (Operculina alata, Algodãozinho-do-campo (Cochlospermum regium, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale e Jaborandi (Piper aduncum, com VUR maior que 10. Os sistemas corporais mais importantes com relação ao número de etnoespécies relatadas foram respiratório, digestivo, circulatório e tegumentar. As etnoespécies mais versáteis em uso nos sistemas corporais foram Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii, Pé-de-perdiz (Croton antisyphiliticus, Cavalinha (Equisetum hiemale, Alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis e Fruta-de-lobo (Solanum paniculatum. A prática da medicina tradicional em Jataí evidencia a conexão entre a escolha de plantas e os níveis filogenéticos derivados. Algumas destas etnoespécies estão na listagem de plantas medicinais que o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil escolheu para a realização de monografias, fato que fortalece o valor do conhecimento do uso da flora nas práticas da medicina tradicional.

  12. Effects of "Chinese yam" on hepato-nephrotoxicity of acetaminophen in rats%山药保护对乙酰氨基酚诱导的大鼠肝肾损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世沧; 蔡金川; 陈荣洲; 林昭庚; 林俊清; 胡淼淋; 卢训

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of yam in Taiwan, which is a commonly used Chinese medicine, on hepato-nephrotoxicity in rars. METHODS: Crude water extract of yam ( Dioscorea alata L), was used to treat rats with an acute toxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP)challenge. RESULTS: The pharmacological and biochemical studies showed the extract of yam had the effect of kidney secureness and liver fortification (P<0.01). The pathologic sections showed good improvements in renal tubular degranulation changes,necrosis and disintegration. The extract of yam also possessed a good protection against the inflammation of central vein and necrosis of liver tissue. CONCLUSION: The liver and kidneys are originated from the same source. Pathologically, deficiency of the life essence in the kidney may lead to the blood deficiency in the liver. The results showed that the yam could prevent the damages of the liver and kidneys, thus preserving their functions. This could be the reason why the yam was commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, as seen in Liuwei Dihuang Wan be used in the case of deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin.%目的:研究台湾产的常用中药-山药对肝肾毒性的作用.方法:以对乙酰氨基酚诱导大鼠急性损伤方式进行山药水提取物之疗效评估.结果:山药显示突出的保肝护肾效果(P<0.01).病理组织学上发现山药对肾小管脱颗粒、坏死、崩溃伤等有良好的保护作用,并且对肝中央静脉发炎及实质组织坏死都有显著保护作用.结论:山药能同时对肝及肾细胞有益,而达保肝护肾效果.这是山药常常被使用如"六味地黄丸"之中的用于肝肾阴虚的机制.

  13. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its

  14. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

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    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  15. Pravci razvoja automatizacije informacionog sistema održavanja u vojsci Srbije i Crne Gore / Automatizacion development directions of maintenance information system in the military forces of Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Veselinović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Postojeći informacioni sistem održavanja u Vojsci je, uz određene modifikacije, zadržan još iz perioda posle Drugog svetskog rata. Bilo je nekoliko pokušaja da se izvrši automatizacija, ali su svi pokušaji propali, bilo zbog pogrešnog pristupa ili pogrešnog izbora programskih alata. Reforme u Vojsci imaju značajan uticaj na organizaciju sistema održavanja, ali je uticaj na informacioni sistem održavanja neznatan. Prvi korak u automatizaciji predstavlja detaljna analiza procesa i tokova podataka čiju obradu treba automatizovati. Da bi automatizacija bila uspešna, analiza i deskripcija procesa i tokova podataka treba da bude rađena u nekom od suvremenih paketa za izradu informacionih sistema. Model informacionog sistema održavanja, opisan sa 19 potprocesa, nudi jedan od mogućih načina za automatizaciju, stoje i potvrđeno kroz program "Automatizovani informacioni sistem održavanja - trupni nivo". Ukoliko sistem odbrane naše zemlje teži međunarodnim integracijama, mora imati kompatibilne informacione sisteme, koji se mogu projektovati, kupiti ili ih mogu nametnuti međunarodne organizacije. / Available maintenance information system in the military forces is, with some modification, retained from the period after the World War П. There were several attempts of automatization of maintenance information systems, but all the attempts failed, whether because of the wrong approach or the wrong choice of program tools. A reform in military forces has got an important influence on organization of maintenance system, but the influence on the maintenance information system is minor. The first step in automatization is detailed analysis of processes and the dataflow that should be automated. For successful automatization, the analysis and process description ND dataflow should be made in some of the modern systems for information systems production. The model of maintenance information system, described with 19 sub-processes, offers

  16. ПАРАЗИТОЗЫ ДОМАШНИХ ХИЩНИКОВ ГОРОДСКИХ ПОПУЛЯЦИЙ ИВАНОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Абалихин, Борис; Егоров, Сергей; Соколов, Евгений; Баландина, Валентина; Егоров, Дмитрий; Крючкова, Елена

    2014-01-01

    В работе определен видовой состав эктои эндопаразитозов квартирных, бродячих и тех домашних плотоядных, которые никогда не покидали пределов квартиры в городах Ивановской области. В результате исследований установлена зараженность собак и кошек паразитами классов Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Piroplasmea, Conoidasida, Insecta. Квартирные собаки заражены 13-ю видами паразитов: из Trematoda обнаружили Alaria alata; из Cestoda Dipylidium caninum и Diphyllobothrium latum; Nematoda представлены To...

  17. SEASONAL CHANGES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN 12 TREE SPECIES INTRODUCED ONTO OIL SHALE WASTE%油页岩废渣地12种木本植物光合作用的季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 吴彤; 孔国辉; 陈志东; 张进忠

    2006-01-01

    研究了引种在油页岩工业废渣地12种木本植物冬、夏季光合作用特征,根据此评价引种植物的光合作用效率,测定的主要参数包括净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(Gs).结果表明:1)冬、夏季各项测定指标差异很大,Pn、Tr、Gs均是夏季高于冬季,而且,夏季平均Pn、Tr和Gs值要比冬季均值分别高60.9%、77.7%和85.7%,但水分利用效率(WUE)却是冬季高于夏季26.8%~77.2%.2)Pn日变化节律冬、夏季有异,夏季较多的种出现"双峰型",而冬季较多出现"单峰型".但也有例外,樟树(Cinnamomum camphora)冬、夏季均出现"单峰";油榄仁(Terminalia bellirica)、红胶木(Tristania conferta)和柚木(Tectona grandis)冬、夏季均出现"双峰";海南蒲桃(Syzy-gtum cumini)则冬季为"双峰",夏季为"单峰".3)若某一植物种在冬、夏季都表现出有较高的Pn日均值,相对于另一种植物其中有一季有较高的Pn,说明前者更适应当地环境生长.据此,以冬、夏季Pn日均值的平均值高低排序,评价参试植物在当地自然光照条件下的光合作用效率高低,树种的排序为:大叶相思(Acacia auriculiformis)、油榄仁、铁刀木(Cassia siamea)、云南石梓(Gmelina arborea)、柚木、红胶木、樟树、海南红豆(Ormosia pinnata)、铁冬青(Ilexrotunda)、海南蒲桃、双翼豆(Peltophorum ptetocarpum)和海南翅萍婆(Pterygota alata).

  18. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  19. Varietal Dynamics and Yam Agro-Diversity Demonstrate Complex Trajectories Intersecting Farmers’ Strategies, Networks, and Disease Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Laurent; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Alleyne, Angela; Barthe, Emilie; Bussière, François; Guyader, Sébastien; Pavis, Claudie; Pétro, Dalila

    2016-01-01

    Loss of varietal diversity is a worldwide challenge to crop species at risk for genetic erosion, while the loss of biological resources may hinder future breeding objectives. Loss of varieties has been mostly investigated in traditional agricultural systems where variety numbers are dramatically high, or for most economically important crop species for which comparison between pre-intensive and modern agriculture was possible. Varietal dynamics, i.e., turnover, or gains and losses of varieties by farmers, is nevertheless more rarely studied and while we currently have good estimates of genetic or varietal diversity for most crop species, we have less information as to how on farm agro-diversity changes and what cause its dynamics. We therefore investigated varietal dynamics in the agricultural yam system in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. We interviewed producers about varieties they cultivated in the past compared to their current varieties, in addition to characterizing yam cropping characteristics and both farm level and producers socio-economic features. We then used regression tree analyses to investigate the components of yam agro-diversity, varietal dynamics and impact of anthracnose on varieties. Our data demonstrated that no dramatic loss of varieties occurred within the last decades. Cultivation changes mostly affected widespread cultivars while frequency of uncommon varieties stayed relatively stable. Varietal dynamics nevertheless followed sub-regional patterns, and socio-economic influences such as producer age or farm crop diversity. Recurrent anthracnose epidemics since the 1970s did not alter varietal dynamics strongly, but sometimes translated into transition from Dioscorea alata to less susceptible species or into a decrease of yam cultivation. Factors affecting changes in agro-diversity were not relating to agronomy in our study, and surprisingly there were different processes delineating short term from long term varietal dynamics

  20. Biologia de Imaturos e Adultos de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae Alimentados com Lagartas de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, criadas em Diferentes Genótipos de Maracujazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angelini

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. The development of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed with Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae larvae reared on leaves of the passion fruit genotypes Passiflora edulis Sims., Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (Seleção de Jaboticabal, P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Sul Brasil and P. edulis f. flavicarpa (cv. Maguary FB-100, P. alata, P. serrato-digitata and P. foetida. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions (temperature: 26 ± 1°C, RH = 60 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. Second instar nymphs of the predator were kept in plastic cups (4.5 cm high and 7.5 cm wide groups of five. Ten-day-old (approx. 2 cm D. juno juno larvae reared on leaves of different passion fruit genotypes were provided daily to P. nigrispinus. The experiment was carried out with 10 replications, totalizing 50 nymphs per treatment. Daily evaluations were performed to measure the duration and viability of each instar, the body mass of nymphs (24 hours after each ecdysis and adults, and the duration and viability of the nymph phase and adult longevity under starvation. Results show the influence of passion fruit genotypes at the third trophic level, since larvae reared with P. edulis f. flavicarpa (Seleção de Jaboticabal have shown to be more adequate for predator development. The results of this experiment show the influence of passion fruit genotypes on the third trophic level. The genotype P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Sul Brasil has a less appropriate to the predator, suggesting a negative way the association between host plant resistance and use of biological control. Already P. edulis and genotypes P. edulis f. flavicarpa Jaboticabal Selection can be used along with the predator because these cultivars did not affect the third trophic level. P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Maguary FB-100, considered ill-suited to the development of larvae of D. juno juno, affected the predator, resulting in a negative

  1. The function of ecological regulation to aphids in the wheat intercropping field%麦田间作对麦长管蚜的生态调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解海翠; 陈巨莲; 程登发; 周海波; 孙京瑞; 刘勇; Frederic Francis

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study tried to evaluate the ecological regulation of intercropping to Macrosiphum miscanthi populations. [Method] Wheat intercropping with mung bean or pea were designed by row ratio of 8:2 (wheat: mung bean or pea) in the field experiments to investigate the quantity and dynamic changes of M. Miscanthi population with time. Selective preference of M. Miscanthi to the volatiles of wheat, mung bean, pea and their different combination were analyzed by Y-tube in laboratory tests. [Result] The curve of aphid's population dynamics with time was not affected by intercropping, while compared with the monoculture, the quantity of aphids, to some extent, was decreased in intercropping fields. In the laboratory, the odour of host were significantly selected by M. Miscanthi apterae and alatae, and the mixture odour of wheat with mung bean or with pea had no appeal to the aphids. [Conclusion]The odour of non-hosts could cover the odour of hosts, which interfered the aphid's host location, suggesting that intercropping significantly reduced the quantity of aphids populations.%[目的]探讨麦田间作对麦长管蚜种群的生态调控作用.[方法]田间调查小麦单作田、小麦与绿豆、小麦与豌豆以8:2行距间作田麦长管蚜种群数量及其时间动态变化;室内利用“Y”型嗅觉仪测定麦长管蚜对小麦、小麦与绿豆、小麦与豌豆不同组合气味的选择性.[结果]麦田间作不能影响麦蚜种群随时间动态变化曲线,但能在一定程度上降低麦长管蚜无翅蚜和有翅蚜的数量.室内麦长管蚜无翅蚜和有翅蚜显著选择寄主植物的气味.当小麦与绿豆或小麦与豌豆组合时对麦长管蚜没有吸引作用.[结论]非寄主植物的气味对寄主植物气味起掩盖作用,干扰蚜虫的寄主定位,这可能是间作低于单作蚜量的原因之一.

  2. Influência da época de produção e dos estádios de maturação nos maracujás doce e ácido nas condições de cerrado Influence of harvest season and maturation stage on fragant granadille and acid passion fruit in cerrado conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURILO CARLOS MUNIZ VERAS

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade dos frutos do maracujazeiro doce e ácido nas condições de cerrado de Brasília, DF, por meio de características físico-químicas, de acordo com a época de produção e do estádio de maturação dos frutos. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2x2, com cinco repetições e três subamostras dentro de cada repetição. Foram feitas avaliações de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais açúcares totais, açúcares redutores e açúcares não-redutores. O maracujá-ácido apresentou atributos de qualidade para consumo in natura e para a indústria nas duas épocas e nos dois estádios de maturação, enquanto o maracujá-doce apresentou maior teor de açúcares no período mais frio. A antecipação da colheita de frutos em até quatro dias no maracujá-doce, e em até oito dias no maracujá-ácido não comprometem a qualidade, o que possibilita maior prazo para a comercialização e menores riscos de perdas dos frutos.This work has the objective to evaluate fruit of fragrant granadille (Passiflora alata Dryand. and acid passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. in climatic conditions of Brasília, DF, Brazil, according to the harvest season and maturation stage. A completely randomized design with treatments in a 2x2x2 factorial scheme referring to species, season and maturation stage, with five replications and three samples in each replication was used. Physical-chemical evaluations were conducted on soluble solids contents, total titrable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducer sugars. The acid passion fruit showed desirable atributes of market quality to be consumed as fresh fruit and for processing, in both harvest seasons and maturation stages tested. Fragrant granadille presented more sugars at cold season. Anticipation of harvest might be done up to four days, for fragant granadille, and up to eight days before

  3. The parasite community of Phycis blennoides (Brünnich, 1768) from the Balearic Sea in relation to diet, biochemical markers, histopathology and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallarés, Sara; Moyà-Alcover, Catalina M.; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montserrat; Castañeda, Carlota; Carrassón, Maite

    2016-12-01

    The greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides is a benthopelagic fish distributed in the Mediterranean and NE Atlantic. The main goal of this study is to describe the complete parasite community of this species, which is at present unknown. A total of 188 specimens of P. blennoides were captured in the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 550-1250 m depth during the four seasons of 2007, in summer of 2010 and in summer and autumn of 2011 at five distinct localities off the mainland slope off Catalonia coasts and off the insular slope off the Balearic Islands. Environmental and fish biological, parasitological, dietary, enzymatic and histological data were obtained and the relationships among them tested. A total of 20 different parasites were recovered, of which 11 constitute new host records. The most important parasites were the monogenean Diclidophora phycidis, the digeneans Bathycreadium brayi and Lepidapedon spp., the nematodes Capillaria gracilis, Collarinema collaris, Cucullanus sp. and Hysterothylacium aduncum, and the copepod Clavella alata. Overall, the parasite community of P. blennoides was characterized by high abundance, richness and diversity. Significant differences in the structure of the parasite community were detected between samples from 1000 m depth and between samples from off the mainland and insular slopes. Significant seasonal and/or geographical differences were found for some specific parasites. Abundance of the nematode C. collaris was associated to high levels of turbidity and O2 concentrations near the bottom. Abundances of H. aduncum, D. phycidis, B. brayi and Lepidapedon spp. were linked to high near-bottom temperature and salinity. Dietary analyses evidenced the role as potential intermediate hosts in parasite transmission by some prey (e.g. the teleost Gaidropsarus biscayensis for the cestode Grillotia cf. erinaceus and the nematodes Anisakis spp. or the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica for the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus sp

  4. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  5. Composição químico-bromatológica e degradabilidade In Situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da casca do fruto de três variedades de maracujá (Passiflora spp Chemical composition and In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of three varieties passion fruit (Passiflora spp shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Villela Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e as degradabilidades potenciais e efetivas da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do resíduo (casca das variedades de maracujá amarela (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener, roxa (Passiflora edulis Sims e doce (Passiflora alata e da mistura das variedades amarela e roxa. Calcularam-se, também, o consumo de MS e as concentrações de amônia, ácidos graxos voláteis e pH no líquido ruminal e a taxa de passagem das fases líquida e sólida da digesta no rúmen de bovinos. Os resíduos (casca in natura apresentaram grande quantidade de água, enquanto a variedade roxa apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca (17,01% e o amarelo, o menor (10,78%. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 9,82% na MS, para a variedade amarela, a 7,53%, para a doce. O teor de fósforo foi 0,13% na MS para a variedade doce, chegando a 0,09, para a roxo, e 0,08%, para a amarelo. Os teores de cálcio, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as variedades. Às 48 horas de incubação no rúmen, a degradabilidade atingiu ponto máximo para o teor de MS, PB e FDN. Houve interação de tempo e variedade na degradabilidade de MS, PB e FDN. As degradabilidades de PB e FDN foram influenciadas pelas variedades. A DE da FDN foi maior para a mistura (45,85% e menor para a doce (34,61%. O consumo médio de MS foi de 16,90 kg/animal, equivalente a 3,27% do peso vivo ou 156,11 g/kg0,75, quando se utilizou farelo de casca (resíduo com 90% de MS. As concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis mantiveram-se na faixa de 7,76 a 10,87 mmoles/100 mL. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,03 a 6,75 e o N-amoniacal, de 4,93 a 9,86 mg/100 mL.Chemical composition and the potential and effective degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of passion fruit residue (shelves were studied in the varieties yellow (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener

  6. Structure,Evolution and Expression of a Full-Length cDNA Sequence of SuSy Gene from Yam%山药SuSy基因全长cDNA序列的结构、进化和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周生茂; 曹家树; 王玲平; 向殉; 韦本辉; 李杨瑞; 方锋学; 李文嘉

    2009-01-01

    [目的]阐明山药蔗糖合成酶(SuSy,EC 2.4.1.13)基因家族的成员及其功能.[方法]利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从大薯(Dioscorea alata)地下块茎中分离到1个SuSy基因(DaSuSy1)全长cDNA序列,并用DANSTAR和Clastal W等软件分析该序列的结构特征和分子进化,采用RT-PCR和Northern杂交对该基因的时空表达进行分析.[结果]DaSuSy1全长cDNA序列大小为2 673 bp,其中最大开放阅读框(ORF)、5'端和3'端的非翻译区分别含有2 445 bp、7 bp和221 bp,而且3'端的非翻译区含1个24 nt的Poly(A+)尾;最大ORF可编码814个氨基酸,分子量为92.76 kD,等电点为6.42,含有蔗糖合成酶和葡糖基转移酶两个保守功能域及两个磷酸化位点,即N端的Ser10和C端的SNLDRRET781 RR(Ser774~Thr781).该基因在全长cDNA序列、编码区cDNA序列及其编码氨基酸序列的水平上与GenBank中所选已知物种SuSy基因相应序列的同源性分别达45.3%~71.3%、45.8%~74.8%和50%~84.7%,与禾本科植物SuSy基因家族中一些成员亲缘关系最近.DaSuSy1在非光合器官中表达,其中地下块茎表达最为强烈,而且从块茎形成初前期开始表达一直增强至盛中期,此后逐渐减弱.[结论]DaSuSy1是山药SuSy基因家族成员,归为单子叶植物SuSy基因的组别,仅在非光合器官中表达编码负责蔗糖-淀粉转化功能的SuSy同工型.

  7. Las ericáceas de la vertiente pacífica de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Julio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el tratamiento taxonómico de la familia Ericaceae para la vertiente pacífica del departamento de Nariño, Colombia. El área de estudio abarca toda la llanura del pacífico y la vertiente pacífica de la cordillera de los Andes, hasta los 2.000 m de altitud, de dicho departamento. Los registros de las especies se obtuvieron mediante trabajo de campo, revisión de literatura y el estudio de las colecciones depositadas en los  herbarios CAUP, COL, HUA, PSO, QCA y QCNE. En el tratamiento taxonómico se incluyen descripciones morfológicas para la familia Ericaceae y para cada uno de los géneros y especies, acompañadas de comentarios sobre su distribución geográfica y altitudinal, y en algunos casos, de comentarios taxonómicos. También se incluye una clave sinóptica y una clave dicotómica para determinar especies, un glosario de los términos botánicos utilizados y un listado de los especímenes citados. Se encontraron 53 especies, agrupadas en 11 géneros, de las cuales una es una especie nueva de Vaccinium para la ciencia, tres son nuevos registros para Colombia (Cavendishia awa, Psammisia chionantha y P. oreogenes, antes registradas solo para el norte del Ecuador, y 15 son nuevos registros para el departamento de Nariño (Anthopterus oliganthus, Cavendishia awa, C. palustris, Diogenesia floribunda,  Disterigma humboldtii, D. pseudokillipiella, Psammisia chionantha, P. dolichopoda, P. oreogenes, P. ulbrichiana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, S. dissimile, S. distichum, Themistoclesia alata y Thibaudia archeri. Los géneros con más especies fueron Cavendishia (15, Psammisia (10, Disterigma (6 y Sphyrospermum (7, seguidos por Thibaudia con cuatro especies, Anthopterus y Macleania con tres especies, Diogenesia con dos especies y Satyria, Themistoclesia y Vaccinium con una especie. Por otra parte, nueve especies tienen distribución geográfica muy restringida, de las cuales tres solo han sido registradas para el área de estudio

  8. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

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    M. Macedo

    2004-01-01

    material and rising on the use of these vegetables was done with the local population. The identified material is deposited in the Reference Collection of Medicinal Plants in UFMT Central Herbarium. It were registered 36 species used in the diseases treatment as infections, hurt and ulcers, erysipelas, labial herpes and warts. Highlight species as: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alata (l. Roxb., come in another. These vegetables are frequently used in baths and teas form. The used vegetable organ was to the leaves followed by the peel and of the stem, fruits, oil, root, the whole plant, sap and seeds. The advance of the agriculture in this state is an constant preoccupation of the botanists and communities who along decades use those medicinal potential.

  9. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  10. Surface structure biomimetic design and performance testing of slippery trapping plate used for controlling agricultural insect%致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构仿生构建与性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新; 黄风山; 周强

    2015-01-01

    致灾农业昆虫光电诱导滑移捕集技术中,致使昆虫产生良好滑移行为的捕集滑板是获取该技术高效应用的关键.红瓶猪笼草(Nepenthes alata)叶笼滑移区依靠特殊形貌对昆虫附着系统表现出显著滑移功能,为致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板的研制提供了仿生原型.采用扫描电子显微镜(scanning electron microscope, SEM)与三维白光形貌干涉仪(scanning white light interferometer, SWLI)对滑移区表面微形貌进行观测分析并获取三维结构参数,据此构建了致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板表面结构的仿生模型;采用激光微纳加工技术和高压静电吸附技术实现捕集滑板的仿生制备.为验证仿生制备致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板功效,测试了蝗虫(Locusta migratoria manilensis)在捕集滑板和仿生原型的附着力,结果分别为(402.9±26.1)mN和(361.9±25.5)mN,相近的附着力预示研制的致灾农业昆虫捕集滑板具有与仿生原型类似的性能.%The technology of photoelectric inducing-trapping can kill agricultural insect (locust, ant, etc.) and protect the agricultural production from being destroyed effectively, and avoid the environment pollution caused by spraying pesticide. The key factor of this technology is to develop a kind of slippery trapping plate which can restrict insects' excellent attachment ability generated by rigid claw and adhesive pad. To obtain structural information for biomimetic developing the slippery trapping plate, surface morphology of bionic prototype (slippery zone ofNepenthes alata pitcher) was detailedly examined in August and September of 2013. Several sections (1 cm2) were cut from the slippery surface and rinsed in distilled water before being air-dried, then mounted on aluminum blocks and sputter coated, and observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fresh sample (2 cm2) was cut from slippery surface and glued to an aluminum block, and examined with a scanning white-light interferometer

  11. Community Species Structure Characteristics of Four Types of Keteleeria cyclolepis Natural Forests in Fujian Province%福建江南油杉4种天然林群落物种结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国生

    2011-01-01

    Community species structure characteristics of four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests in Fu-jian Province, I. E. , K. Cyclolepis forest, K. Cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest, Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanop-sis gilva forest, and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest, were investigated and analyzed by means of typical square sampling method. The results showed that there were two sublayers in the arbor tree layer in all of the four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests, while K. Cyclolepis mainly occupied the upper part of the arbor tree layer, growing with 16 companion tree species. There were 10 tree species from the community building families of the broadleaved subtropical evergreen forests including Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae among the companion tree species, accounting for 62. 5% of the total. There were 26 species in the shrub layer of different types of the natural forests, among which 9 shrub species were from the families of Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae, accounting for 34. 6% of the total. There were 7 species respectively in the herb layer and the inter-layer of the vegetation. There were not much differences in the species composition in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests, but the dominant species in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests were quite different. The dominant species in shrub layer and herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis forest were Itea chinensis and Woodwardia japonica respectively. Asidosasa notata and Rhododendron henryi were the co-dominant species in shrub layer, whereas Dicranopteris dichotoma was the dominant species in the herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanopsis gilva forest type. Rhododendron ovatum and Eurya alata were the co-dominant species in the shrub layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest types

  12. 闽粤近岸夏季上升流区浮游植物群落组成及其影响因素%Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨; 林茂; 林更铭; 项鹏

    2011-01-01

    environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified. among which. diatom was predominant. followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion. but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma . Thalassionema nitzschioides . P.seudonitzschia pungens . Skeletonema costatum , Thalassionema frauenfeldii , Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus , and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59×102 ind·L-1. In vertical profile. the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water. and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles. the cell abundance had no definite patterns. but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area. being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections ( B,C, D,E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO43- concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no correlation with the dissolved inorganic nitrogen ( DIN ) concentration.Thereby, to study the eco-physiological responses of phytoplankton species to nutrient stress would be helpful to reveal the formation mechanism of algal bloom in upwelling region.

  13. Passionflower supplementation in diets of Japanese qualis at rearing and laying periods Efeitos da utilização de passiflora em rações de codornas japonesas nas fases de recria e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Della Torre da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the inclusion of passionflower (Passiflora alata in diets on performance, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L, corticosterone plasma levels (CPL and immune response of quails. The study was carried out using 192 birds, distributed in randomized blocks with 4 diets (0, 125, 250 and 375 and 0, 250, 500 and 750 mg of passionflower/kg of feed for the rearing and laying period, respectively, 8 replicates and 6 birds per experimental unit. The rearing period began when birds were 28 days of age and it lasted for 15 days. In this phase, it was evaluated daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and corticosterone plasma levels. Laying phase started when birds were 43 days of age and it finished when they were 140 days of age; it was compesed of six 14-day cycles in which it evaluated feed intake, feed conversion, egg production and quality, viability, tonic immobility time, intensity of injuries, behavior, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, corticosterone plasma levels and immune response. In the rearing period, the use of passionflower in the diet of quails influenced the behavioral parameters, and the birds became calmer, mainly at the dosage of 375 mg/kg of ration. However, in the laying period, passionflower was efficient in reducing stress in the quails, and the most promising results are observed when higher dosages of the phytotherapic were applied. Nevertheless, the dose of 750 mg/kg of feeeding reduces egg production, though it does not influence quality of eggs neither immune response of the quails.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de passiflora na ração sobre o desempenho, o comportamento, a relação heterófilo/linfócito, a concentração plasmática de corticosterona e a imunidade de codornas. Foram utilizadas 192 aves, distribuídas em blocos casualizados com 4

  14. Yearly changes of phytoplankton in the ecological monitoring zone of Daya Bay%大亚湾生态监控区的浮游植物年际变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨; 林茂; 林更铭; 王春光; 项鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on a great deal of monitoring data and information obtained from National Oceanic Administration, the Third Institute of Oceanography and other authorities, the yearly changes and spatial variation of phytoplankton community in the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay were studied. To assess the current status and further trend, the phytoplankton composition, abundance, dominant species, diversity and harmful algae bloom events from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed. Results showed that the main principal phytoplankton ecotypes were changed from warm-water species to eurythermy species. The species and abundance were yearly degressive. The distribution of phytoplankton abundance kept a trend of higher in the west coast and lower in the east and southeast coast, and higher alongshore and lower offshore. It is presented that the rich nutrients and warm water discharge affected the phytoplankton abundance. In the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay the dominant species were mostly dia- tom with seasonal and yearly diversity and variability. Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillima was the predominant species in spring and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissma was the predominant species in summer. Pyrrophyta started to be the ascendancy at the end of spring. The diversity of phytoplankton community was yearly decreased and the evenness of phytoplankton community was yearly increased. The unconventionality of phytoplankton multiplication led to lower diversity, species imbalance, monotony of community. Harmful algae bloom occurred frequently in spring and summer, and its frequency and classes were increased year by year. All of these indicated that the ecosystem of the Ecological Monitoring Zone of Daya Bay was vulnerable and undergoing a rapid deterioration.%依据国家海洋局、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所等权威机构2004~2007年所获的数据和资料,对大亚湾生态监控区近4a长时间尺度的浮游植物群落年际变化进行分析,

  15. Forenzika elektronske pošte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available U najopštijem smislu digitalna forenzika može se definisati kao skup metoda za prikupljanje, analizu i prezentaciju digitalnih dokaza koji se mogu pronaći na računarima, serverima, u računarskim mrežama, bazama podataka, mobilnim uređajima i svim drugim elektronskim uređajima na kojima se čuvaju podaci. U ovom radu su opisane metode prikupljanja digitalnih dokaza u elektronskoj pošti i njihova analiza. Uvod Elektronska pošta se kao dokazni materijal pojavljuje u velikom broju kako građanskih tako i kriminalnih forenzičkih istraga. Elektronska pošta i elektronska pošta zasnovana na internet serverima  širi se veoma brzo, pa lako i brzo završi i na računaru korisnika kome nije namenjena. Prvu elektronsku poruku poslao je Ray Tomilson 1971. godine, a deset godina kasnije u kombinaciji sa personalnim računarima i internetom prerasta u globalni način komuniciranja i personalnog i poslovnog. Takođe se koristi i u svrhu zabave, načina razmene podataka, ali predstavlja i nezamenjiv izvor digitalnih dokaza, kada dodje do računarskog incidenta. Analiza elektronske pošte Svaka elektronska poruka sastoji se od dva dela: zaglavlja i teksta poruke. Iz zaglavlja je moguće saznati izvorišnu i odredišnu adresu, pošiljaoca i namenjenog primaoca, a telo poruke sadrži tekst poruke. Ekstenzije dokumenata elektronske pošte U slučajevima kada je potrebno otkriti samo dokumente potrebne za pregled elektronskih poruka, ili kopirati pojedinačni dokument sačuvan unutar elektronske pošte, moguće je koristiti sistem na istraživanom računaru ili specijalizovani softver kao što je Outlook Extract Pro ili Outlook Export. Mnogo ispravniji, sigurniji i jednostavniji način je korišćenje forenzičkih alata kao što su EnCase ili FTK, sa ugrađenim pregledačima koji omogućavaju pregled i snimanje sadržaja baze podataka kao i njihovo kopiranje na druge medije za dalju analizu. Forenzički alati automatizuju proces skidanja i kopiranja

  16. Osvrt na projektovanje glavnog rotora helikoptera / Review of the design of the helicopter rotor / Oбзор проектирования главного ротора вертолета

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor P. Petrović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazano projektovanje glavnog rotora helikoptera uz pomoć patentne dokumentacije, kao veoma korisnog alata za dolaženje do konkretnih ideja i konstrukcija, kako bi se na najekonomičniji način pronašlo kvalitetno rešenje za određeni tehnički problem koji je prisutan u postupku konstruisanja. Veliki broj tehničkih informacija prvo se pojavljuje u patentnim dokumentima, a oko dve trećine ovih informacija ne može se naći ni na kojem drugom mestu. Prikazana je struktura patentnih dokumenata sa težištem na delovima koji se odnose na tehničke informacije sa detaljnim objašnjenjem mogućnosti primene patentne dokumentacije u toku projektovanja glavnog rotora helikoptera. Na konkretnom primeru projektovanja rotora helikoptera prikazan je postupak i načini pretraživanja patentne dokumentacije. Korišćena je Espacenet baza patentne dokumentacije, kao najobuhvatnija i najčešće korišćena baza koja sadrži preko osamdeset miliona različitih patentnih dokumenata o pronalascima i tehničkim unapređenjima iz celog sveta. Težišni deo rada odnosi se na prikaz postupka pretraživanja patentne dokumentacije radi dolaženja do rešenja tehničkog problema konstrukcije glavnog rotora helikoptera, koji se odnosi na obezbeđivanje potrebnog zabacivanja i bržeg odziva promene smeštajnog ugla (koraka lopatice krutog rotora helikoptera. / This article - paper presents the design of the main rotor of the helicopter supported by the patent documents, as a very useful tool (instrument to reach the specific ideas and design in order to find the most economical way for the quality solution for a certain technical problem present in the process of design (construction. A large amount of technical information first appears in patent documents and about two thirds of this information cannot be found on any other site. The structure of patent documents is presented with an emphasis on the elements that relate to technical information with

  17. Karakterizacija vakuum plazma naprskane kobalt-nikal-hrom-aluminijum-itrijum prevlake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo R. Mrdak

    2013-12-01

    korozije. U vakuum komori nalazi se: obrtni sto, planetarni sistem sa 48 alata, šestoosni robot i veštačka ruka. Sistem manipulacije  projektovan je tako da istovremeno rotiraju alat i substrati oko svoje ose. Ovako složeno kretanje omogućava ravnomerno čišćenje transferovanim lukom i ravnomerno deponovanje praha po celoj površini substrata. U ovom istraživanju su urađene tri grupe uzoraka sa tri odstojanja depozicije praha 270, 295 i 320 mm. Prevlake su formirane sa debljinama od 0,15 do 0,20 mm. Ostali parametri bili su konstantni. Prevlaka najboljih strukturnih i mehaničkih karakteristika je testirana na oksidaciju u peći za termičku obradu  bez  zaštitne atmosfere na 11000C u trajanju od 240 sati. Rezultati i diskusija Vrednosti mikrotvrdoće slojeva su u direktnoj vezi sa odstojanjem depozicije praha. Najveću vrednost mikrotvrdoće od 615 HV0.3 su imali slojevi sa najmanjim udelom pora koji su deponovani na  supstratu sa najmanjim plazma sprej odstojanjem  od 270mm. Slojevi prevlake deponovani sa najvećim odstojanjem od 320 mm imaju najnižu vrednost mikrotvrdoće od  490HV0.3. Veliko odstojanje supstrata je uticalo na pothlađenje i smanjenje brzine istopljenih čestica praha. Poređenjem vrednosti zatezne čvrstoće spoja, ustanovljeno je da su se za sva tri plazma sprej odstojanja dobile dobre vrednosti čvrstoće spoja. Čvrstoća spoja prevlaka je bitno zavisila od plazma sprej odstojanja. Niža vrednost zatezne čvrstoće spoja od 52MPa, prevlake deponovane sa najvećim plazma sprej odstojanjem od 320mm uticala je na manji stepen stapanja čestica praha u odnosu na druga dva deponovana sloja. Najveću vrednost čvrstoće spoja od 78MPa su imali slojevi, koji su deponovani sa najmanjim plazma sprej odstojanjem. Ti slojevi su se pokazali najgušćim. Ispitivanje zatezne čvrstoće spoja je pokazalo da se za sve deponovane prevlake mehanizam razaranja odvijao na interfejsu između substrata i prevlake. Pošto je udeo pora i neistopljenih